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7.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20200054, 2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1114765

RESUMO

RESUMEN OBJETIVO Analizar la influencia de cambios socio-políticos, educativos y feministas de España en el mantenimiento de lactancia materna. MÉTODO Revisión histórico-descriptiva de documentación en bases de datos, Boletines Oficiales del Estado, del Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo y Bienestar Social. RESULTADOS La lactancia materna es un fenómeno complejo influenciado por factores demográficos, biológicos, sociales y psicológicos. Ha cambiado a lo largo de la historia y, evolucionado con los movimientos feministas. La incorporación de la mujer al mercado laboral (s.XIX), produjo una modificación en el rol familiar y pareja. La sociedad del siglo XXI reclama a los poderes públicos la conciliación personal y laboral para la crianza de sus hijos. CONCLUSIONES E IMPLICACIÓN PARA LA PRÁCTICA Han sido múltiples los factores y procesos evolutivos para la situación socio-cultural de la mujer en la lactancia materna. Actualmente sigue siendo complicado compaginar gestación y crianza con el empleo, las redes formales e informales permiten avances en políticas sanitarias.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a influência das mudanças sócio-políticas, educativas e feministas em Espanha na manutenção do aleitamento materno. MÉTODO Revisão histórico-descritiva da documentação em bases de dados, Boletins Oficiais do Estado, do Ministério da Saúde e do Consumo e da Previdência Social. RESULTADOS O aleitamento materno é um fenómeno complexo influenciado por factores demográficos, biológicos, sociais e psicológicos. Ela mudou ao longo da história e evoluiu com os movimentos feministas. A incorporação das mulheres ao mercado de trabalho (século XIX), produziu uma modificação no papel da família e do casal. A sociedade do século XXI exige do poder público a conciliação pessoal e laboral para a educação dos seus filhos. CONCLUSÕES E IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA Tem havido múltiplos factores e processos evolutivos para a situação sociocultural das mulheres em aleitamento materno. Hoje em dia, ainda é complicado combinar gravidez e educação com emprego, e as redes formais e informais permitem avanços nas políticas de saúde.


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of socio-political, educational and feminist changes in Spain on the maintenance of breastfeeding. METHOD Historical-descriptive review of documentation in databases, Official State Bulletins, of the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs and Social Welfare. RESULTS Breastfeeding is a complex phenomenon influenced by demographic, biological, social and psychological factors. It has changed throughout history and evolved with the feminist movements. The incorporation of women to the labor market (19th century), produced a modification in the family and couple role. The society of the 21st century demands from the public authorities the personal and labor conciliation for the upbringing of their children. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE There have been multiple factors and evolutionary processes for the socio-cultural situation of women in breastfeeding. Nowadays, it is still complicated to combine pregnancy and upbringing with employment, and formal and informal networks allow advances in health policies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Aleitamento Materno , Feminismo/história , Espanha/etnologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/história , Poder Familiar , Igualdade de Gênero
8.
Cuad. bioét ; 31(103): 293-308, sept.-dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200022

RESUMO

La cuestión del género fue un componente importante en la revolución de mayo del 68. No obstante, lo que originariamente se planteó como una lucha por la igualdad y la defensa de las legítimas prerrogativas de las mujeres, evolucionó hacia un movimiento, el postfeminismo de género, que dejó de lado los intereses y necesidades reales de éstas, persiguiendo otros objetivos, incluso contradictorios. El presente trabajo intenta justificar la anterior afirmación, partiendo de algunas de las principales corrientes de pensamiento que estuvieron en la base de la revolución


Gender was an important component in the May '68 revolution. However, what was originally pro-posed as an effort for equality and the defense of the legitimate prerogatives of women, evolved into a movement, gender post-feminism, which it set aside their real interests and needs, pursuing other, even contradictory, goals. This article tries to justify the previous statement, starting from some of the main currents of thought what were at the base of the revolution


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História do Século XX , Feminismo/história , Direitos da Mulher/história , Equidade de Gênero , Sexualidade , Liberdade , França , Sociedade Civil , Fatores Sociológicos
9.
New Bioeth ; 26(4): 328-350, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196403

RESUMO

United States law recognizes adult reproductive liberty and many states view surrogacy services through that lens. During the COVID-19 pandemic in March, 2020, New York State enacted the Child-Parent Surrogacy Act (CPSA) into law, after feminists and their allies had caused its defeat in 2019. Just before approval of the CPSA, a group of legislators introduced the Alternative Surrogacy Bill (ASB). This article is a case study that examines how the CPSA and not the ASB became law, examining surrogate rights, the best interests of the child, and the ethical issues related to adult donor-conceived and surrogacy born children's rights to information about their ancestry.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos , Legislação Médica/ética , Técnicas Reprodutivas/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle Social Formal , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso à Informação , Adulto , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança , Comércio/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dissidências e Disputas , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias/ética , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Técnicas Reprodutivas/economia , Técnicas Reprodutivas/ética , Direitos da Mulher
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The underrepresentation of women in academic medicine at senior level and in leadership positions is well documented. Biomedical Research Centres (BRC), partnerships between leading National Health Service (NHS) organisations and universities, conduct world class translational research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) in the UK. Since 2011 BRCs are required to demonstrate significant progress in gender equity (GE) to be eligible to apply for funding. However, the evidence base for monitoring GE specifically in BRC settings is underdeveloped. This is the first survey tool designed to rank and identify new GE markers specific to the NIHR BRCs. METHODS: An online survey distributed to senior leadership, clinical and non-clinical researchers, trainees, administrative and other professionals affiliated to the NIHR Oxford BRC (N = 683). Participants ranked 13 markers of GE on a five point Likert scale by importance. Data were summarised using frequencies and descriptive statistics. Interrelationships between markers and underlying latent dimensions (factors) were determined by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. RESULTS: The response rate was 36% (243 respondents). Respondents were more frequently female (55%, n = 133), aged 41-50 years (33%, n = 81), investigators (33%, n = 81) affiliated to the BRC for 2-7 years (39.5%, n = 96). Overall participants ranked 'BRC senior leadership roles' and 'organisational policies on gender equity', to be the most important markers of GE. 58% (n = 141) and 57% (n = 139) respectively. Female participants ranked 'organisational policies' (64.7%, n = 86/133) and 'recruitment and retention' (60.9%, n = 81/133) most highly, whereas male participants ranked 'leadership development' (52.1%, n = 50/96) and 'BRC senior leadership roles' (50%, n = 48/96) as most important. Factor analyses identified two distinct latent dimensions: "organisational markers" and "individual markers" of GE in BRCs. CONCLUSIONS: A two-factor model of markers of achievement for GE with "organisational" and "individual" dimensions was identified. Implementation and sustainability of gender equity requires commitment at senior leadership and organisational policy level.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Sexismo , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino/organização & administração , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido , Direitos da Mulher/organização & administração , Direitos da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239012, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112856

RESUMO

Emerging evidence demonstrates that female-authored publications are not well represented in course readings in some fields, resulting in a syllabi gender gap. Lack of representation may decrease student awareness of opportunities in professional fields and disadvantage the career success of female academics. We contribute to the evidence on the syllabi gender gap by: 1) quantifying the extent to which female authors are represented in assigned course readings; 2) examining representation of female authors by gender of instructor and discipline; and 3) comparing female representation in syllabi with the workforce and with representation as authors of peer-reviewed journal articles. From a list of courses offered in 2018-2019 at Washington University in St. Louis, we selected a stratified random sample of course syllabi from four disciplines (humanities; social science; science, technology, engineering, and mathematics; and other). We coded the gender of course instructors and course reading authors using the genderize application programming interface. We examined representation of female authors at the reading, course, and discipline level using descriptive statistics and data visualization. The final sample included 2435 readings from 129 unique courses. The mean percentage of female authors per reading was 34.1%; 822 (33.8%) of readings were female-led (i.e., a female first or sole author). Female authorship varied by discipline, with the highest percentage of female-led readings in social science (40%). Female instructors assigned a higher percentage of readings with female first authors and readings with higher percentages of females on authorship teams. The representation of female authors on syllabi was lower than representation of females as authors in the peer-reviewed literature or in workforce. Adding to evidence of the syllabi gender gap, we found that female authors were underrepresented as sole and first authors and as members of authorship teams. Since assigned readings promote academic scholarship and influence workforce diversity, we recommend several strategies to diversify the syllabi through increasing awareness of the gap and improving access to female-authored publications.


Assuntos
Autoria , Currículo , Sexismo , Universidades , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Missouri , Editoração , Direitos da Mulher , Recursos Humanos
14.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 812-828, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880400

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed an underlying pandemic of neglect affecting women's reproductive rights, particularly in the provision of abortion services and maternity care. The systemic neglect in the Australian context has resulted in a rise in demand for the services provided by privately practising midwives (PPMs) that is not matched by systemic support for, nor recognition of, women choosing to birth at home. As a result, PPMs are unable to meet the rise in demand, which in itself reflects decades of limited State support for the choice to birth at home and opposition by incumbent stakeholders in the provision of maternity care to healthy women with low-risk pregnancies. We discuss the historical backdrop to these currently erupting issues, along with the real reasons for the opposition to PPMs in Australia. Finally, we offer solutions to this ongoing issue.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Parto Domiciliar , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Tocologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Austrália , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Direitos da Mulher
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238495, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881931

RESUMO

SETTING: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional surgical modification of the female genitalia comprising all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural or nontherapeutic reasons. It can be harmful and violates girls' and women's human rights. FGM is a worldwide problem but mainly practiced in Africa. FGM is still widely practiced in Ethiopia despite being made a criminal offence in 2004. OBJECTIVE: Using data from three Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys (EDHS) conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2016 the objective was to assess changes in prevalence of FGM and associated factors among women of reproductive age and their daughters. METHODS: EDHS datasets for the three surveys included data on FGM prevalence and socio-demographic factors. After weighting, the data were analysed using frequencies, proportions and the chi square test for trend. Categorical variables associated with FGM in 2016 were compared using OpenEpi and presented as prevalence ratios (Pr) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Levels of significance were set at 5% (P<0.05). RESULTS: There was overall decline in FGM prevalence (from 79.9% to 74.3% to 65.2%, P<0.001), especially in younger women aged 15-19 years, and in the proportion of women who believed that the practice should continue (from 59.7% to 28.3% to 17.5%, P<0.001). There was also a decreasing trend of FGM in the daughters of the mothers who were interviewed, with prevalence significantly lower in mothers who had not themselves undergone FGM. Most (88.3%) women with FGM had the surgery as a child with the procedure mainly performed by a traditional circumciser (87.3%). Factors associated with higher FGM prevalence and lack of progress over the sixteen years included living in certain regions, especially Somali where FGM prevalence remained consistently >95%, lack of school education, coming from rural areas and living in less wealthy households. CONCLUSION: Although progress has been slow, the prevalence of FGM in Ethiopia has declined over time. Recommendations to quicken the trajectory of decline targeting integrated interventions to high prevalence areas focusing on mothers, fathers, youngsters, religious leaders and schools and ensuring that all girls receive some form of education.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina/ética , Circuncisão Feminina/estatística & dados numéricos , Circuncisão Feminina/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/cirurgia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Direitos Humanos/tendências , Humanos , Mães , Núcleo Familiar , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Direitos da Mulher/tendências
17.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(10): 799-802, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819829

RESUMO

This article summarizes discussions at a Gender Equity Workshop run during the Molecular Approaches to Malaria Conference in February 2020. Barriers to career progression in science for women and minority groups, along with suggestions to overcome ongoing roadblocks, are discussed. The emerging challenges that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is bringing to this sector are also considered.


Assuntos
Mobilidade Ocupacional , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ciência , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (35): 35-57, maio-ago. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139635

RESUMO

Resumen Este artículo presenta un estudio sobre el primer símbolo transnacional del movimiento por el derecho al aborto en el Cono Sur: la "mano que vota" a favor del aborto legal. El emblema surge en Uruguay a comienzos de la década del 2000. Alrededor de 2010, el símbolo viró al color verde y fue adoptado por la Campaña Nacional por el Derecho al Aborto Legal, Seguro y Gratuito en Argentina. A partir de 2015, la mano que vota también acompañó el proceso que llevó a la legalización del aborto en tres causales en Chile. El análisis focaliza sobre rol de los símbolos y de los afectos en el activismo por el derecho al aborto. La mano que vota fue central para la construcción de identidad colectiva y sintonía política del movimiento. También este emblema logró imantar esperanzas asociadas con la democracia y un profundo sentido de la obstinación política. Los resultados se basan en el trabajo con diversos archivos y en conversaciones con informantes clave de Argentina, Chile y Uruguay.


Resumo Este artigo apresenta um estudo sobre o primeiro símbolo transnacional do movimento pelo direito ao aborto no Cone Sul: a "mão que vota" a favor do aborto legal. O emblema surgiu no Uruguai no início dos anos 2000. Por volta de 2010, o símbolo ficou verde e foi adotado pela Campanha Nacional pelo Direito ao Aborto Legal, Seguro e Gratuito na Argentina. A partir de 2015, a mão que vota também acompanhou o processo que levou à legalização do aborto em três casos no Chile. A análise enfoca o papel dos símbolos e emoções no ativismo pelo direito ao aborto. A mão que vota foi fundamental para a construção da identidade coletiva e sintonia política do movimento. Este emblema também conseguiu magnetizar esperanças associadas à democracia e um profundo senso de obstinação política. Os resultados são baseados em investigação em vários arquivos e conversas com informantes-chave da Argentina, Chile e Uruguai.


Abstract This article presents a study on the first transnational symbol of the movement for abortion rights in Latin America's Southern Cone: the "voting hand" for legal abortion. The emblem emerged in Uruguay at the beginning of the 2000s. Around 2010, the symbol turned green and was adopted by the National Campaign for the Right to Legal, Safe and Free Abortion in Argentina. As of 2015, the voting hand also accompanied the process that led to the legalization of abortion on three cases in Chile. The analysis focuses on the role of symbols and affects in the activism for abortion rights. The voting hand was central for the construction of a collective identity and political sintony in the movement. This emblem also magnetized hopes associated with democracy and a deep sense of political willfulness. Results are based in documentary research in various archives and in conversations with key informants from Argentina, Chile and Uruguay.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Identificação Social , Direitos da Mulher , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminismo , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Ativismo Político , Política , Mudança Social , América do Sul , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Democracia , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Direitos Humanos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235825, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687506

RESUMO

Although women's empowerment has gained attention over the last two decades, our understanding of the associations between different dimensions of women's empowerment and different children's health outcomes is limited. This study aims to measure the extent of women's empowerment and to examine its associations with the children's health status in Ethiopia. Data were obtained from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). The sample is restricted to a sub-sample of 10,641 women from 15 to 49 years old and their children under the age of five years. We used children's height-for-age and weight-for-height Z-scores and pneumonia and anemia experience as indicators of children's health outcome. Women's empowerment is measured by five indices reflecting their participation in decision-making, attitudes towards wife-beating by husband, barriers to health care access, asset ownership, and socio-economic variables. These indicators of empowerment were constructed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model was employed to examine the relationship between women's empowerment and latent child health outcomes, after controlling for relevant covariates. Results suggests that enhancing women's empowerment in the household in terms of their socio-economic status (i.e., increasing women's access to education, information, media, and promoting saving) was associated with less likelihood of the children's being stunted or wasted (p<0.05). Higher women's empowerment in terms of household decision-making power were also associated with better children's health status measured by the children's experience of pneumonia and anemia (p<0.05). All aspects of women's empowerment are not related with children's health indicators. Women's empowerment dimensions related with child health have a varying degree of association with the different children's health indicators. Gender-specific policies focusing on increasing women's access to education, media, information, and promoting saving and their participation in the household decision making are some of the strategies for improving their children's health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Nível de Saúde , Direitos da Mulher , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
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