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Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 31: e2024023, 2024.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775524


This text analyzes female participation in Brazilian eugenics and medical discourse on the roles and social functions of the sexes during the first half of the twentieth century. In examining the production of two women, Ítala Silva de Oliveira and Eunice Penna Kehl, we maintain that certain women were effectively engaged in the eugenics movement and worked to bring women closer to eugenics. This analysis makes it possible to explore a pedagogical dimension of eugenics and of the popularization of this movement by attempting to form a hygienist and eugenist consciousness among women.

O texto analisa a participação feminina na eugenia brasileira e os discursos médicos acerca dos papéis e funções sociais dos sexos na primeira metade do século XX. A partir da análise da produção de duas mulheres, Ítala Silva de Oliveira e Eunice Penna Kehl, o objetivo principal é argumentar que determinadas mulheres se engajaram efetivamente no movimento eugênico, trabalhando em prol da aproximação feminina com a eugenia. Tal análise permite explorar uma dimensão pedagógica e de popularização da eugenia por meio da tentativa de formação de uma consciência higiênica e eugênica nas mulheres.

Eugenia (Ciência) , Eugenia (Ciência)/história , Brasil , História do Século XX , Feminino , Humanos , Direitos da Mulher/história , Criança
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 63, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730477


BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is high among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, empowering women enables them to confront and mitigate IPV. In this study, we examined the association between the survey-based women's empowerment index (SWPER) and IPV in SSA. METHODS: We used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 19 countries conducted from 2015 to 2021. Our study was restricted to a weighted sample of 82,203 women of reproductive age who were married or cohabiting. We used spatial maps to show the proportions of women who experienced past-year IPV. A five-modelled multilevel binary logistic regression analysis was adopted to examine the association between SWPER and IPV. The results were presented using the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: With physical and emotional violence, the country with the highest prevalence was Sierra Leone, with a prevalence of 39.00% and 38.97% respectively. Rwanda (10.34%), Zambia (11.09%), Malawi (15.00%), Uganda (16.88%), and Burundi (20.32%) were the hotspot countries for sexual violence. Angola (34.54%), Uganda (41.55%), Liberia (47.94%), and Sierra Leone (59.98%) were the hotspot countries for IPV. A high SWPER score in attitudes to violence significantly decreased the odds of IPV [AOR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.66, 0.75]. Also, women with medium score in decision-making were less likely to experience IPV compared to those with lower scores [AOR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.83, 0.95]. However, higher odds of experiencing IPV was found among women with medium score in autonomy compared to those with low scores [AOR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.14]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown that the three dimensions of SWPER significantly predict IPV among women. Consequently, it is crucial that sub-Saharan African countries implement various initiatives, such as IPV advocacy programs and economic livelihood empowerment initiatives. These initiatives should not only aim to improve women's attitudes to domestic violence but also to enhance their social independence, autonomy, and decision-making capacity.

Empoderamento , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Direitos da Mulher
Front Public Health ; 12: 1359756, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694978


Background: Sexual and reproductive health rights (SRHRs) are integral elements of the rights of everyone to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, but they are the most underdeveloped and least understood sphere of rights, especially in Africa, including the country of Ethiopia. The implementation of women's SRHRs is essential for achieving gender equality and promoting women's rights. Husbands' knowledge and involvement play a significant role in improving women's practice of their SRHRs. However, there is limited information/data about the level of husbands' knowledge and involvement in Northwest Ethiopia, including Bahir Dar City. Therefore, this study aimed to assess husbands' knowledge, involvement, and factors influencing their involvement in women's SRHRs. Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from March 20 to April 5, 2023, in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia, among 391 husbands. Multi-stage sampling and simple random sampling technique were applied to select kebeles and study participants, respectively. Participants were interviewed face-to-face using structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was applied to identify associated factors, and a p-value of <0.05 was a cutoff point to declare statistical significance. Results: In this study, 50.6% (198/391) of the husbands had good knowledge about their wives' SRHRs and 44.2% (173/391) (95% CI, 39.3-49.1%) of the husbands were involved when their wives practiced their SRHRs. Access training/education about sexual health [AOR = 5.99; 95% CI (2.7-13.2)], husbands' advance educational level [AOR = 8.81; 95% CI (2.04-38)], good knowledge about SRHRs [AOR = 7.94; 95% CI (4.3-14.4)], low monthly income (<4,600 birr) [AOR = 9.25; 95% CI (4.2-20.5)], and had open discussion with family members and friends about SRHRs [AOR = 1.92; 95% CI (1.01-3.6)] were found to have significant association with husbands' involvement. Conclusion: Husbands' level of knowledge on SRHRs of women and their involvement remain low. Therefore, responsible concerned bodies need to work on the strategies that help to improve men involvement and knowledge, and tackle the above-mentioned factors influencing their involvement.

Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cônjuges , Humanos , Etiópia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Cônjuges/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Adulto Jovem , Saúde Sexual , Direitos da Mulher
Salud Colect ; 20: e4601, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753982


The purpose of this research is to identify predominant problematizations in Colombian feminist Instagram accounts regarding gender-based violence during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Employing a qualitative approach, a digital ethnography based on the principles of netnography was conducted as an alternative to detail the social worlds constructed from online groups. Fifty pieces of content from @lainsumisa and twenty pieces of content from @feministasenconstrucción, published between March 2020 and March 2021, were selected based on observations made within the online fieldwork framework. These were analyzed using discourse analysis techniques. The findings discuss the following emerging categories: unpaid household work, romanticized harassment, fatphobia, and the violation of Black and racialized women's rights. In this context, cyberactivism is presented as an opportunity for the emergence of collectives and support networks for women advocating for gender equality and their rights, towards questioning patriarchal ideas that jeopardize their well-being.

El propósito de esta investigación es identificar las problematizaciones predominantes en cuentas feministas colombianas de Instagram, sobre las violencias basadas en género durante el primer año de la pandemia de covid-19. Desde un enfoque cualitativo, se realizó una etnografía digital basada en los preceptos de la netnografía, como alternativa para detallar los mundos sociales construidos a partir de los grupos en línea. A partir de las observaciones realizadas en el marco del trabajo de campo en línea se seleccionaron 50 contenidos de @lainsumisa y 20 contenidos de @feministasenconstrucción, publicados entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021, los cuales se analizaron mediante técnicas de análisis del discurso. Entre los hallazgos se discuten las siguientes categorías emergentes: el trabajo no remunerado en el hogar, el acoso romantizado, la gordofobia y la vulneración a las mujeres negras y racializadas. Al respecto, se plantea el ciberactivismo como una oportunidad para el surgimiento de colectivos y redes de apoyo para las mujeres que luchan por la equidad de género y por sus derechos, hacia el cuestionamiento de ideas patriarcales que atentan contra su bienestar.

COVID-19 , Violência de Gênero , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Colômbia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Direitos da Mulher , Pandemias , Feminismo , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Masculino , Antropologia Cultural
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e09202023, 2024 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747771


This review aims to disclose the gaps and needs for acknowledging the rights to experience motherhood of women with disabilities. To do so, we map how much is known about these women's experience with motherhood, shedding light on their sexual and reproductive rights. The present work followed the scoping review by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). This research is structured by elaborating the question, identifying the relevant studies, selecting the studies, extracting the data, sorting, summarizing, and creating reports based on the results. Results: we found 1050 articles, of which 53 were selected for the analysis. considering the different themes, we generated three axes: (1) infantilization, dehumanization, and discredit in the experience of motherhood; (2) obstetric ableism - an expression of violence in obstetrics; (3) reproductive justice - politicize motherhood and care. The study showed the urgent need to regard women with disabilities as people having the right to make sexual and reproductive health choices. Health professionals need permanent education to acknowledge and guarantee such a need as interweaving relationships to reach decision-making and autonomy.

Nesta revisão, buscamos identificar lacunas e necessidades para o reconhecimento do direito das mulheres com deficiência ao exercício da maternidade. Objetivamos mapear o conhecimento referente às experiências com a maternidade dessas mulheres, ressaltando a produção de conhecimento relacionada aos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos. Realizamos uma revisão de escopo conforme o Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). A pesquisa se sustentou na: formulação da questão; identificação dos estudos relevantes; seleção dos estudos; extração de dados; separação, sumarização e relatório dos resultados. Resultados: identificamos 1.050 artigos e selecionamos 53 para análise. A separação dos temas convergentes gerou três eixos: (1) infantilização, desumanização e descrédito na experiência da maternidade; (2) capacitismo obstétrico: uma expressão da violência obstétrica; (3) justiça reprodutiva: politizar a maternidade e o cuidado. Concluímos pela urgência de considerar as mulheres com deficiência com direitos de escolhas nas questões referentes à sua saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Os profissionais de saúde precisam de educação permanente para reconhecer e garantir as necessidades como relações de interdependência para decisões e autonomia.

Pessoas com Deficiência , Mães , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Humanos , Feminino , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Direitos da Mulher , Saúde Reprodutiva , Tomada de Decisões
Nat Med ; 30(3): 660-669, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454127


The human right to health is universal and non-exclusionary, supporting health in full, and for all. Despite advances in health systems globally, 3.6 billion people lack access to essential health services. Women and girls are disadvantaged when it comes to benefiting from quality health services, owing to social norms, unequal power in relationships, lack of consideration beyond their reproductive roles and poverty. Self-care interventions, including medicines and diagnostics, which offer an additional option to facility-based care, can improve the autonomy and agency of women in managing their own health. However, tackling challenges such as stigma is essential to avoid scenarios in which self-care interventions provide more choice for those who already benefit from access to quality healthcare, and leave behind those with the greatest need. This Perspective explores the opportunities that self-care interventions offer to advance the health and well-being of women with an approach grounded in human rights, gender equality and equity.

Autocuidado , Saúde da Mulher , Humanos , Feminino , Pobreza , Direitos da Mulher
Matern Child Health J ; 28(6): 1092-1102, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461476


INTRODUCTION: Rwanda stands out in East Africa with the lowest infant mortality ratio at 29 per 1000 live births. It also leads in gender equality on the African continent, ranking sixth globally according to the 2022 Global Gender Gap Report. This makes Rwanda an ideal case for studying the link between women's empowerment and infant mortality. METHOD: This study aims to assess the impact of women's empowerment on infant mortality using data obtained from the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2005, 2010, and 2015. A three-category women's empowerment index was created using the principal component analysis method. The statistical analysis employed in this study is multivariate binary logistic regression.   RESULTS: Results demonstrate a significant impact of women's empowerment on reducing infant mortality, considering regional and residential inequalities, bio-demographic factors, and healthcare variables. CONCLUSION: The findings contribute to existing literature and highlight the importance of empowering women to improve maternal and child health outcomes. Such empowerment not only enhances health but also supports sustainable development and social progress. Policymakers, healthcare providers, and organizations should prioritize investing in women's empowerment to achieve maternal and child health goals, as empowered women play a pivotal role in driving positive change for a healthier and more equitable society.

Empoderamento , Mortalidade Infantil , Humanos , Ruanda , Feminino , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Lactente , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Adolescente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Direitos da Mulher
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 16, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308322


BACKGROUND: Women in Mozambique are often disempowered when it comes to making decisions concerning their lives, including their bodies and reproductive options. This study aimed to explore the views of women in Mozambique about key elements of empowerment for reproductive decisions and the meanings they attach to these elements. METHODS: Qualitative in-depth interviews were undertaken with 64 women of reproductive age (18-49 years) in two provinces in Mozambique. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Data collection took place between February and March 2020 in Maputo city and Province, and during August 2020 in Nampula Province. A thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: Women described crucial elements of how power is exerted for reproductive choices. These choices include the ability to plan the number and timing of pregnancies and the ability either to negotiate with sexual partners by voicing choice and influencing decisions, or to exercise their right to make decisions independently. They considered that women with empowerment had characteristics such as independence, active participation and being free. These characteristics are recognized key enablers for the process of women's empowerment. CONCLUSIONS: This study's findings contribute to an expanded conceptualization and operationalization of women's sexual and reproductive empowerment by unveiling key elements that need to be considered in future research and approaches to women's empowerment. Furthermore, it gave women the central role and voice in the research of empowerment's conceptualization and measurement where women's views and meanings are seldom considered.

Women who are empowered seem to make better health decisions for themselves. Nevertheless, women's views about and understanding of empowerment are seldom considered in the study of empowerment and its definitions. In this study we explore how women in Mozambique view, understand and experience empowerment, i.e., gaining power and control in the household, and specifically around decision-making processes concerning their reproductive lives. A total of 64 adult women were interviewed in rural and urban areas within two provinces of Mozambique. Through the data analysis, we identified key characteristics of the empowerment process that Mozambican women perceived to be of relevance in their context. Women who have power were perceived as financially and socially independent, free to choose their own pathway, and be active participants in the household decision-making process. In reproductive decisions, women show power through the ability to negotiate with their partner, or by making sole decisions and by planning the number of pregnancies and the size of the family. The elements identified provide important information for improving the definition and the measurement of empowerment in Mozambique, as well as for the support of women in their pathways to empowerment within this context.

Tomada de Decisões , Reprodução , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique , Empoderamento , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Direitos da Mulher
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296910, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381720


BACKGROUND: With the evolution of China's social structure and values, there has been a shift in attitudes towards marriage and fertility, with an increasing number of women holding diverse perspectives on these matters. In order to better comprehend the fundamental reasons behind these attitude changes and to provide a basis for targeted policymaking, this study employs natural language processing techniques to analyze the discourse of Chinese women. METHODS: The study focused on analyzing 3,200 comments from Weibo, concentrating on six prominent topics linked to women's marriage and fertility. These topics were treated as research cases. The research employed natural language processing techniques, such as sentiment orientation analysis, Word2Vec, and TextRank. RESULTS: Firstly, the overall sentiment orientation of Chinese women toward marriage and fertility was largely pessimistic. Secondly, the factors contributing to this negative sentiment were categorized into four dimensions: social policies and rights protection, concerns related to parenting, values and beliefs associated with marriage and fertility, and family and societal culture. CONCLUSION: Based on these outcomes, the study proposed a range of mechanisms and pathways to enhance women's sentiment orientation towards marriage and fertility. These mechanisms encompass safeguarding women and children's rights, promoting parenting education, providing positive guidance on social media, and cultivating a diverse and inclusive social and cultural environment. The objective is to offer precise and comprehensive reference points for the formulation of policies that align more effectively with practical needs.

Casamento , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Direitos da Mulher , Fertilidade , Atitude , China
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 164 Suppl 1: 12-20, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360032


The Maputo Protocol, adopted over 20 years ago, is a promising regional treaty for advancing gender equity and sexual and reproductive health and rights. This instrument has driven progress in women's health and rights across Africa, with much remaining to achieve to realize its full potential for women and girls, including access to safe abortion. The present paper shares the strategies and lessons from the Democratic Republic of Congo's (DRC) reform centered on the domestication of the Protocol, specifically applying its commitments on abortion decriminalization and access. With a vision of addressing maternal mortality and rectifying the impacts of widespread sexual violence against women during war, abortion as a human right and health imperative was at the heart of the DRC's reform. Governmental commitment, broad coalition building, evidence generation, and an intersectional advocacy agenda were critical to overcoming opposition, stigma, and other challenges. This paper shares key learnings from the DRC's complex yet collaborative reform strategies and its processes. The strategy prioritized domestication of the Protocol for numerous reforms, including paving the path to legal abortion on the broad grounds of rape or incest, and saving women's health and/or life. With a commitment to maximizing quality, access, task sharing, and equity, progressive national comprehensive abortion guidelines were created alongside an implementation roadmap for accountability. The DRC's experience leveraging the Maputo Protocol's obligations to advance abortion rights and access offers valuable insights for consideration globally.

Aborto Induzido , Direitos da Mulher , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , República Democrática do Congo , Domesticação , Direitos Humanos , Aborto Legal
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0295239, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363759


The World Health Organization (WHO) is committed to empowering countries by implementing a gender, equity, and human rights approach in the health sector. The objective of this gender and inclusion analysis is to assess potential gender disparities of health sector management in the Kyrgyz Republic. The employed mixed-method approach takes advantage of data triangulation. Besides information from the literature and policy documents available at the international and national levels, the analysis includes interviews and data from the self-assessment of health services managers in the Kyrgyz Republic. A convenience sample of 75 health managers was taken and after up to three reminders a commendable response rate of 80% was achieved which resulted the final sample size of N = 60. A factor analysis using quartimax orthogonal rotation was applied to investigate the correlation between Teaching Qualification, Digitalization, Training Usefulness, Computer Workplace, and Gender Equality. In 2021, the Kyrgyz Republic adopted a new Constitution, which provides a sound legal framework to support gender equality and promote women's empowerment. However, according to a survey, only 42.9% of the respondents felt that equal rights and opportunities were integrated into their job descriptions. Similarly, only 40.7% believed that their institutions' written documents reflected a commitment to equal rights and opportunities for both genders. Two factors were identified as influencing gender equality: (1) personal and (2) technical aspects. Regarding personal aspects, gender equality, teaching qualification, and training usefulness were found to be significant. Regarding technical aspects, the computer workplace was related. In recent years, the Kyrgyz Republic has been developing a culture of gender equality. Political will is essential to promote and make organizational change possible. It is important to create a written mid-term policy that affirms a commitment to gender equality in organizational behavior, structures, staff, and management board compositions. Healthcare institutions need to prepare strategic and operational plans that incorporate gender equality principles.

Liderança , Direitos da Mulher , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Quirguistão , Direitos Humanos , Políticas
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 14, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321449


BACKGROUND: While most countries that allow abortion on women's request also grant physicians a right to conscientious objection (CO), this has proven to constitute a potential barrier to abortion access. Conscientious objection is regarded as an understudied phenomenon the effects of which have not yet been examined in Germany. Based on expert interviews, this study aims to exemplarily reconstruct the processes of abortion in a mid-sized city in Germany, and to identify potential effects of conscientious objection. METHODS: Five semi-structured interviews with experts from all instances involved have been conducted in April 2020. The experts gave an insight into the medical care structures with regard to abortion procedures, the application and manifestations of conscientious objection in medical practice, and its impact on the care of pregnant women. A content analysis of the transcribed interviews was performed. RESULTS: Both the procedural processes and the effects of conscientious objection are reported to differ significantly between early abortions performed before the 12th week of pregnancy and late abortions performed at the second and third trimester. Conscientious objection shows structural consequences as it is experienced to further reduce the number of possible providers, especially for early abortions. On the individual level of the doctor-patient relationship, the experts confirmed the neutrality and patient-orientation of the vast majority of doctors. Still, it is especially late abortions that seem to be vulnerable to barriers imposed by conscientious objection in individual medical encounters. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that conscientious objection possibly imposes barriers to both early and late abortion provision and especially in the last procedural steps, which from an ethical point of view is especially problematic. To oblige hospitals to partake in abortion provision in Germany has the potential to prevent negative impacts of conscientious objection on women's rights on an individual as well as on a structural level.

Aborto Induzido , Recusa em Tratar , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Direitos da Mulher , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Consciência
Lancet ; 403(10422): 137, 2024 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218606
Health Care Anal ; 32(1): 15-32, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37479907


As COVID-19 keeps impacting the world, its impact is felt differently by people of different sexes and genders. International guidelines and research on gender inequalities and women's rights during the pandemic have been published. However, data from Taiwan is lacking. This study aims to fill the gap to increase our knowledge regarding this issue and provide policy recommendations. This study is part of a more extensive project in response to the fourth state report concerning the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in Taiwan in 2022. We have drawn on the guidelines and documents published by the United Nations human rights bodies, conducted interviews with advocacy and professional practitioners, and hosted a study group comprising students and teachers from the National Taiwan University College of Public Health to supplement the interview data. The data were analyzed thematically. The results include five themes: (1) particular health risks to carers (primarily women); (2) COVID-related measures' impact on women's health and health behaviors; (3) highly gendered psychological maladjustment; (4) increase in gender-based violence and domestic violence; and (5) mental health inequities and intersectionality. The study has global implications for societies of similar sociopolitical contexts and developmental statuses. To truly live up to the standard of CEDAW and other international human rights principles, we ask that central and local government be more aware of these lived experiences and adjust their policies accordingly, accounting for gender sensitivity.

Direitos Humanos , Pandemias , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Direitos da Mulher , Desigualdades de Saúde
Int J Psychol ; 59(2): 257-266, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37696777


Our world faces potentially catastrophic climate change that can damage human health in multiple ways. The impact of climate change is uneven, disproportionately affecting the lives and livelihoods of women and girls. This conceptual article compiles evidence for a model that argues that climate change has more detrimental consequences for women than men because of women's precarity (unequal power) and corporal (physical) vulnerability. Climate change challenges the human rights of women and girls, triggering displacement, interrupted education, food and water scarcity, economic instability, mental and physical health challenges, reproductive injustice, gender-based violence, exploitation and human trafficking. Women are effective and essential change agents; their empowerment can directly contravene or mitigate climate change and also break the links between climate change and its negative consequences for women and girls. Gender-sensitive responses to the effects of climate change are imperative. Women's empowerment will further human rights and achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

Mudança Climática , Direitos da Mulher , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Direitos Humanos , Escolaridade