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1.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 25(4): 271-279, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584090

RESUMO

Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) can be induced by various kinds of diseases, including chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis, and post-pancreatectomy. The main pathogenetic mechanism of PEI involves the decline of trypsin synthesis, disorder of pancreatic fluid flow, and imbalance of secretion feedback. Animal studies have shown that PEI could induce gut bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis, with the abundance of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium increasing the most, which could be partially reversed by pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Clinical studies have also confirmed the association between PEI and the dysbiosis of gut microbiota. Pancreatic exocrine secretions and changes in duodenal pH as well as bile salt malabsorption brought about by PEI may affect and shape the abundance and composition of gut microbiota. In turn, the gut microbiota may impact the pancreatic exocrine acinus through potential bidirectional crosstalk. Going forward, more and higher-quality studies are needed that focus on the mechanism underlying the impact of PEI on the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pancreatite , Humanos , Doença Aguda , Disbiose , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(5): 205, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573383

RESUMO

Honeybees are vital for global crop pollination, making indispensable contributions to agricultural productivity. However, these vital insects are currently facing escalating colony losses on a global scale, primarily attributed to parasitic and pathogenic attacks. The prevalent response to combat these infections may involve the use of antibiotics. Nevertheless, the application of antibiotics raises concerns regarding potential adverse effects such as antibiotic resistance and imbalances in the gut microbiota of bees. In response to these challenges, this study reviews the utilization of a probiotic-supplemented pollen substitute diet to promote honeybee gut health, enhance immunity, and overall well-being. We systematically explore various probiotic strains and their impacts on critical parameters, including survival rate, colony strength, honey and royal jelly production, and the immune response of bees. By doing so, we emphasize the significance of maintaining a balanced gut microbial community in honeybees. The review also scrutinizes the factors influencing the gut microbial communities of bees, elucidates the consequences of dysbiosis, and evaluates the potential of probiotics to mitigate these challenges. Additionally, it delineates different delivery mechanisms for probiotic supplementation and elucidates their positive effects on diverse health parameters of honeybees. Given the alarming decline in honeybee populations and the consequential threat to global food security, this study provides valuable insights into sustainable practices aimed at supporting honeybee populations and enhancing agricultural productivity.


Assuntos
Criação de Abelhas , Probióticos , Abelhas , Animais , Agricultura , Antibacterianos , Disbiose
3.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 112, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum women often experience stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and vaginal microbial dysbiosis, which seriously affect women's physical and mental health. Understanding the relationship between SUI and vaginal microbiota composition may help to prevent vaginal diseases, but research on the potential association between these conditions is limited. RESULTS: This study employed 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the association between SUI and vaginal dysbiosis. In terms of the vaginal microbiota, both species richness and evenness were significantly higher in the SUI group. Additionally, the results of NMDS and species composition indicated that there were differences in the composition of the vaginal microbiota between the two groups. Specifically, compared to postpartum women without SUI (Non-SUI), the relative abundance of bacteria associated with bacterial dysbiosis, such as Streptococcus, Prevotella, Dialister, and Veillonella, showed an increase, while the relative abundance of Lactobacillus decreased in SUI patients. Furthermore, the vaginal microbial co-occurrence network of SUI patients displayed higher connectivity, complexity, and clustering. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the role of Lactobacillus in maintaining vaginal microbial homeostasis. It found a correlation between SUI and vaginal microbiota, indicating an increased risk of vaginal dysbiosis. The findings could enhance our understanding of the relationship between SUI and vaginal dysbiosis in postpartum women, providing valuable insights for preventing bacterial vaginal diseases and improving women's health.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse , Doenças Vaginais , Feminino , Humanos , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/etiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vagina/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Lactobacillus/genética , Bactérias/genética , Doenças Vaginais/complicações
4.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 114, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea poses a major threat to bovine calves leading to mortality and economic losses. Among the causes of calf diarrhea, bovine rotavirus is a major etiological agent and may result in dysbiosis of gut microbiota. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of probiotic Limosilactobacillus fermentum (Accession No.OR504458) on the microbial composition of rotavirus-infected calves using 16S metagenomic analysis technique. Screening of rotavirus infection in calves below one month of age was done through clinical signs and Reverse Transcriptase PCR. The healthy calves (n = 10) were taken as control while the infected calves (n = 10) before treatment was designated as diarrheal group were treated with Probiotic for 5 days. All the calves were screened for the presence of rotavirus infection on each day and fecal scoring was done to assess the fecal consistency. Infected calves after treatment were designated as recovered group. Fecal samples from healthy, recovered and diarrheal (infected calves before sampling) were processed for DNA extraction while four samples from each group were processed for 16S metagenomic analysis using Illumina sequencing technique and analyzed via QIIME 2. RESULTS: The results show that Firmicutes were more abundant in the healthy and recovered group than in the diarrheal group. At the same time Proteobacteria was higher in abundance in the diarrheal group. Order Oscillospirales dominated healthy and recovered calves and Enterobacterials dominated the diarrheal group. Alpha diversity indices show that diversity indices based on richness were higher in the healthy group and lower in the diarrheal group while a mixed pattern of clustering between diarrheal and recovered groups samples in PCA plots based on beta diversity indices was observed. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that probiotic Limosilactobacillus Fermentum N-30 ameliorate the dysbiosis caused by rotavirus diarrhea and may be used to prevent diarrhea in pre-weaned calves after further exploration.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Limosilactobacillus fermentum , Probióticos , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Animais , Bovinos , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Disbiose , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300869, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous recent studies have found a strong correlation between intestinal flora and the occurrence of hypertension. However, it remains unclear whether fecal microbiota transfer might affect the blood pressure of the host. This study aimed to quantify both associations. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang database, Weipu, Embase, and SinoMed to retrieve relevant studies. The final search was completed on August 22, 2022. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias assessment. All data were analyzed using RevMan 5.4. RESULTS: A total of 5 articles were selected for final inclusion. All studies were assessed as having a high risk of bias according to the SYRCLE risk of bias tool. The meta-analysis results showed that transplantation of fecal bacteria from the hypertensive model can significantly improve the host's systolic pressure (MD = 18.37, 95%CI: 9.74~26.99, P<0.001), and diastolic pressure (MD = 17.65, 95%CI: 12.37~22.93, P<0.001). Subgroup analyses revealed that the increase in systolic pressure in the hypertension model subgroup (MD = 29.56, 95%CI = 23.55-35.58, P<0.001) was more pronounced than that in the normotensive model subgroup (MD = 12.48, 95%CI = 3.51-21.45, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests a relationship between gut microbiota dysbiosis and increased blood pressure, where transplantation of fecal bacteria from the hypertensive model can cause a significant increase in systolic pressure and diastolic pressure in animal models.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Hipertensão , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/terapia , Fezes , Disbiose
6.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 105, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561662

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by an elevated level of blood glucose due to the absence of insulin secretion, ineffectiveness, or lack of uptake of secreted insulin in the body. The improperly diagnosed and poorly managed DM can cause severe damage to organs in the body like the nerves, eyes, heart, and kidneys. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of Clostridium butyricum (probiotic) with magnesium supplementation to evaluate the effect on gut microbial dysbiosis and blood glucose levels. In the laboratory, 6-8 weeks old 24 male albino rats weighing 200-250 g were given free access to water and food. Diabetes was induced using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) in overnight fasted rats. Diabetic rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6, 6 replicates in each group). Metformin (100 mg/kg/day) with a standard basal diet was provided to control group (G0), Clostridium butyricum (1.5 × 105 CFU/day) with standard basal diet was provided to treatment group (G1), magnesium (500 mg/kg/day) was provided to group (G2). Clostridium butyricum (1.5 × 105 CFU/day) and magnesium (300 mg/kg/day) in combination with a standard basal diet was provided to group (G3). Blood Glucose, Magnesium blood test and microbial assay were done. Random blood glucose levels were monitored twice a week for 21 days and were represented as mean of each week. The results conclude that Clostridium butyricum (1.5 × 105 CFU) is very effective in balancing random blood glucose levels from 206.6 ± 67.7 to 85.1 ± 3.8 (p = 0.006) compared to other groups (p > 0.005). The results of stool analysis showed that Clostridium butyricum as probiotic restores microbial dysbiosis as evident by the 105 CFU Clostridium butyricum load in G1, which was higher than G0, G2 and G3 which were 103 and 104 CFU respectively. The findings of this study conclude that Clostridium butyricum supplementation improved blood glucose levels and intestinal bacterial load in type II diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Clostridium butyricum , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Probióticos , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Clostridium butyricum/fisiologia , Glicemia , Magnésio , Disbiose , Probióticos/farmacologia
7.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 10(1): 39, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589501

RESUMO

Dysbiosis of the human oral microbiota has been reported to be associated with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) while the host-microbiota interactions with respect to the potential impact of pathogenic bacteria on host genomic and epigenomic abnormalities remain poorly studied. In this study, the mucosal bacterial community, host genome-wide transcriptome and DNA CpG methylation were simultaneously profiled in tumors and their adjacent normal tissues of OSCC patients. Significant enrichment in the relative abundance of seven bacteria species (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema medium, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Gemella morbillorum, Catonella morbi, Peptoanaerobacter yurli and Peptococcus simiae) were observed in OSCC tumor microenvironment. These tumor-enriched bacteria formed 254 positive correlations with 206 up-regulated host genes, mainly involving signaling pathways related to cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Integrative analysis of bacteria-transcriptome and bacteria-methylation correlations identified at least 20 dysregulated host genes with inverted CpG methylation in their promoter regions associated with enrichment of bacterial pathogens, implying a potential of pathogenic bacteria to regulate gene expression, in part, through epigenetic alterations. An in vitro model further confirmed that Fusobacterium nucleatum might contribute to cellular invasion via crosstalk with E-cadherin/ß-catenin signaling, TNFα/NF-κB pathway and extracellular matrix remodeling by up-regulating SNAI2 gene, a key transcription factor of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our work using multi-omics approaches explored complex host-microbiota interactions and provided important insights into genetic and functional basis in OSCC tumorigenesis, which may serve as a precursor for hypothesis-driven study to better understand the causational relationship of pathogenic bacteria in this deadly cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Microbiota , Neoplasias Bucais , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Epigenômica , Disbiose , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Bactérias , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Epigênese Genética , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1347676, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590519

RESUMO

The gut-lung axis is critical during viral respiratory infections such as influenza. Gut dysbiosis during infection translates into a massive drop of microbially produced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Among them, butyrate is important during influenza suggesting that microbiome-based therapeutics targeting butyrate might hold promises. The butyrate-producing bacterium Faecalibacterium duncaniae (formerly referred to as F. prausnitzii) is an emerging probiotic with several health-promoting characteristics. To investigate the potential effects of F. duncaniae on influenza outcomes, mice were gavaged with live F. duncaniae (A2-165 or I-4574 strains) five days before infection. Supplementation of F. duncaniae was associated with less severe disease, a lower pulmonary viral load, and lower levels of lung inflammation. F. duncaniae supplementation impacted on gut dysbiosis induced by infection, as assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Interestingly, F. duncaniae administration was associated with a recovery in levels of SCFAs (including butyrate) in infected animals. The live form of F. duncaniae was more potent that the pasteurized form in improving influenza outcomes. Lastly, F. duncaniae partially protected against secondary (systemic) bacterial infection. We conclude that F. duncaniae might serve as a novel next generation probiotic against acute viral respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Probióticos , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Disbiose/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Butiratos , Faecalibacterium/genética
9.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 35(3): e14095, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451070

RESUMO

There are ample data to suggest that early-life dysbiosis of both the gut and/or airway microbiome can predispose a child to develop along a trajectory toward asthma. Although individual studies show clear associations between dysbiosis and asthma development, it is less clear what (collection of) bacterial species is mechanistically responsible for the observed effects. This is partly due to issues related to the asthma diagnosis and the broad spectrum of anatomical sites, sample techniques, and analysis protocols that are used in different studies. Moreover, there is limited attention for potential differences in the genetics of individuals that would affect the outcome of the interaction between the environment and that individual. Despite these challenges, the first bacterial components were identified that are able to affect the transcriptional state of human cells, ergo the immune system. Such molecules could in the future be the basis for intervention studies that are now (necessarily) restricted to a limited number of bacterial species. For this transition, it might be prudent to develop an ex vivo human model of a local mucosal immune system to better and safer explore the impact of such molecules. With this approach, we might move beyond association toward understanding of causality.


Assuntos
Asma , Microbiota , Criança , Humanos , Disbiose
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38464560

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disorder with a complex etiology involving genetic and environmental factors. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been implicated in COPD. Mendelian Randomization (MR) provides a tool to investigate causal links using genetic variants as instrumental variables. This study aims to employ MR analysis to explore the causal relationship between gut microbiota, lung function, and COPD. Methods: We utilized genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from MiBioGen, UK Biobank and FinnGen, which were related to gut microbial taxa, lung function parameters including forced vital capacity in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and percentage of predicted FEV1 (FEV1%pred), as well as GWAS data for COPD. MR analysis was conducted to assess the causal effects of gut microbiota on lung function and the risk of COPD. Sensitivity analysis was utilized to examine the stability of the causal relationships. Multiple testing and reverse analysis were employed to evaluate the robustness of these relationships. Results: Using the IVW method, 64 causal correlations were identified. Through conducting sensitivity analysis, multiple testing, and reverse analysis, we identified 14 robust and stable causal relationships. The bacterial taxa that showed a positive association with lung function included Desulfovibrionaceae, Erysipelotrichales, Desulfovibrionales, Clostridiales, Clostridia, Deltaproteobacteria and Erysipelotrichia, while Selenomonadales and Negativicutes showed a negative association with lung function. The abundance of Holdemanella were positively correlated with the risk of COPD, while FamilyXIII exhibited a negative correlation with the risk of COPD. Conclusion: Several microbial taxa were discovered to have a positive causal correlation with lung function, offering potential insights into the development of probiotics. The presence of microbial taxa negatively correlated with lung function and positively correlated with COPD emphasized the potential impact of gut microbiota dysbiosis on respiratory health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Disbiose , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Pulmão
11.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 54, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut bacteria are beneficial to the host, many of which must be passed on to host offspring. During metamorphosis, the midgut of holometabolous insects undergoes histolysis and remodeling, and thus risks losing gut bacteria. Strategies employed by holometabolous insects to minimize this risk are obscure. How gut bacteria affect host insects after entering the hemocoel and causing opportunistic infections remains largely elusive. RESULTS: We used holometabolous Helicoverpa armigera as a model and found low Lactobacillus load, high level of a C-type lectin (CTL) gene CD209 antigen-like protein 2 (CD209) and its downstream lysozyme 1 (Lys1) in the midgut of the wandering stage. CD209 or Lys1 depletion increased the load of midgut Lactobacillus, which further translocate to the hemocoel. In particular, CD209 or Lys1 depletion, injection of Lactobacillus plantarum, or translocation of midgut L. plantarum into the hemocoel suppressed 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling and delayed pupariation. Injection of L. plantarum decreased triacylglycerol and cholesterol storage, which may result in insufficient energy and 20E available for pupariation. Further, Lysine-type peptidoglycan, the major component of gram-positive bacterial cell wall, contributed to delayed pupariation and decreased levels of triacylglycerols, cholesterols, and 20E, in both H. armigera and Drosophila melanogaster. CONCLUSIONS: A mechanism by which (Lactobacillus-induced) opportunistic infections delay insect metamorphosis was found, namely by disturbing the homeostasis of lipid metabolism and reducing 20E production. Moreover, the immune function of CTL - Lys was characterized for insect metamorphosis by maintaining gut homeostasis and limiting the opportunistic infections.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lisina , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster , Disbiose , Bactérias , Imunidade
12.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474715

RESUMO

Gut dysbiosis refers to an imbalance in gut microbiota composition and function. Opuntia ficus-indica extract has been shown to modulate gut microbiota by improving SCFA production in vivo and gastrointestinal discomfort (GD) in humans. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of OdiliaTM on gastrointestinal health by changing the microbial diversity of species involved in inflammation, immunity, oxidation, and the brain-gut-muscle axis. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted in 80 adults with gut dysbiosis. The intervention consisted of a 300 mg daily intake of OdiliaTM (n = 40) or maltodextrin as a placebo (n = 40), administered for 8 weeks. Intervention effect was evaluated using 16S metagenomics and GIQLI/GSAS scores at baseline, at 4 and 8 weeks. Eight weeks of OdiliaTM supplementation positively modulates gut microbiota composition with a significant reduction in the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (p = 0.0012). Relative abundances of beneficial bacteria (Bacteroides and Clostridium_XIVa) were significantly increased (p < 0.001), in contrast to a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory bacteria (p < 0.001). Accordingly, GIQLI and GSAS scores revealed successful improvement in GD. OdiliaTM may represent an effective and well-tolerated treatment in subjects with gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Opuntia , Prebióticos , Adulto , Humanos , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Bactérias , Método Duplo-Cego
13.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474719

RESUMO

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a highly fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive wasting and paralysis of voluntary muscle. Despite extensive research, the etiology of ALS remains elusive, and effective treatment options are limited. However, recent evidence implicates gut dysbiosis and gut-brain axis (GBA) dysfunction in ALS pathogenesis. Alterations to the composition and diversity of microbial communities within the gut flora have been consistently observed in ALS patients. These changes are often correlated with disease progression and patient outcome, suggesting that GBA modulation may have therapeutic potential. Indeed, targeting the gut microbiota has been shown to be neuroprotective in several animal models, alleviating motor symptoms and mitigating disease progression. However, the translation of these findings to human patients is challenging due to the complexity of ALS pathology and the varying diversity of gut microbiota. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature on ALS-related gut dysbiosis, focusing on the implications of GBA dysfunction. It delineates three main mechanisms by which dysbiosis contributes to ALS pathology: compromised intestinal barrier integrity, metabolic dysfunction, and immune dysregulation. It also examines preclinical evidence on the therapeutic potential of gut-microbiota-modulating agents (categorized as prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics) in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Humanos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Disbiose/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença
14.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474745

RESUMO

The desynchronization of physiological and behavioral mechanisms influences the gut microbiota and eating behavior in mammals, as shown in both rodents and humans, leading to the development of pathologies such as Type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Recent studies propose resynchronization as a key input controlling metabolic cycles and contributing to reducing the risk of suffering some chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, or metabolic syndrome. In this analytical review, we present an overview of how desynchronization and its implications for the gut microbiome make people vulnerable to intestinal dysbiosis and consequent chronic diseases. In particular, we explore the eubiosis-dysbiosis phenomenon and, finally, propose some topics aimed at addressing chronotherapy as a key strategy in the prevention of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome Metabólica , Animais , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Obesidade , Doença Crônica , Mamíferos
15.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474799

RESUMO

In patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD), substantial unfavourable alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition, i.e., dysbiosis, have been noted. The main causes of such dysbiosis among others are insufficient dietary fibre content in the diet, fluid restrictions, medications used, and physical activity limitation. One clinically important consequence of dysbiosis in CKD patients is high risk of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). In observational studies, it was found that CDI is more frequent in CKD patients than in the general population. This appears to be related to high hospitalization rate and more often antibiotic therapy use, leading up to the occurrence of dysbiosis. Therefore, the use of probiotics in CKD patients may avert changes in the intestinal microbiota, which is the major risk factor of CDI. The aim of this review paper is to summarize the actual knowledge concerning the use of probiotics in CDI prevention in CKD patients in the context of CDI prevention in the general population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium , Probióticos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
16.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474808

RESUMO

Dysbiosis of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract can induce the development of gynaecological tumours, particularly in postmenopausal women, by causing DNA damage and alterations in metabolite metabolism. Dysbiosis also complicates cancer treatment by influencing the body's immune response and disrupting the sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs. Therefore, it is crucial to maintain homeostasis in the gut microbiota through the effective use of food components that affect its structure. Recent studies have shown that polyphenols, which are likely to be the most important secondary metabolites produced by plants, exhibit prebiotic properties. They affect the structure of the gut microbiota and the synthesis of metabolites. In this review, we summarise the current state of knowledge, focusing on the impact of polyphenols on the development of gynaecological tumours, particularly endometrial cancer, and emphasising that polyphenol consumption leads to beneficial modifications in the structure of the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos , Feminino , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/complicações , Disbiose/complicações , Prebióticos
17.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474875

RESUMO

The type and composition of food strongly affect the variation and enrichment of the gut microbiota. The gut-microbiota-spleen axis has been developed, incorporating the spleen's function and maturation. However, how short-chain fatty-acid-producing gut microbiota can be considered to recover spleen function, particularly in spleens damaged by changed gut microbiota, is unknown in geese. Therefore, the gut microbial composition of the caecal chyme of geese was assessed by 16S rRNA microbial genes, and a Tax4Fun analysis identified the enrichment of KEGG orthologues involved in lipopolysaccharide production. The concentrations of LPS, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant/oxidant enzymes, and immunoglobulins were measured from serum samples and spleen tissues using ELISA kits. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was employed to detect the Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1-Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Keap1-Nrf2), B cell and T cell targeting markers, and anti-inflammatory/inflammatory cytokines from the spleen tissues of geese. The SCFAs were determined from the caecal chyme of geese by using gas chromatography. In this study, ryegrass-enriched gut microbiota such as Eggerthellaceae, Oscillospiraceae, Rikenellaceae, and Lachnospiraceae attenuated commercial diet-induced gut microbial alterations and spleen dysfunctions in geese. Ryegrass significantly improved the SCFAs (acetic, butyric, propionic, isovaleric, and valeric acids), AMPK pathway-activated Nrf2 redox signaling cascades, B cells (B220, CD19, and IgD), and T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, and IL-2, with an exception of IL-17 and TGF-ß) to activate anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM) in geese. In conclusion, ryegrass-improved reprogramming of the gut microbiota restored the spleen functions by attenuating LPS-induced oxidative stress and systemic inflammation through the gut-microbiota-spleen axis in geese.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lolium , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Lipopolissacarídeos , Baço , Disbiose , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Dieta , Citocinas , Anti-Inflamatórios , Imunoglobulinas
18.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 60: 266-280, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479921

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by neuroinflammation and gradual cognitive decline. Recent research has revealed that the gut microbiota (GM) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, the mechanism by which GM and microbial metabolites alter brain function is not clearly understood. GM dysbiosis increases the permeability of the intestine, alters the blood-brain barrier permeability, and elevates proinflammatory mediators causing neurodegeneration. This review article introduced us to the composition and functions of GM along with its repercussions of dysbiosis in relation to AD. We also discussed the importance of the gut-brain axis and its role in communication. Later we focused on the mechanism behind gut dysbiosis and the progression of AD including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and changes in neurotransmitter levels. Furthermore, we highlighted recent developments in AD management, such as microbiota-based therapy, dietary interventions like prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation. Finally, we concluded with challenges and future directions in AD research based on GM.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Disbiose , Instinto , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473861

RESUMO

Acute ammonia exposure has detrimental effects on shrimp, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully explored. In the present study, we investigated the impact of acute ammonia exposure on the gut microbiota of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its association with shrimp mortality. Exposure to a lethal concentration of ammonia for 48 h resulted in increased mortality in L. vannamei, with severe damage to the hepatopancreas. Ammonia exposure led to a significant decrease in gut microbial diversity, along with the loss of beneficial bacterial taxa and the proliferation of pathogenic Vibrio strains. A phenotypic analysis revealed a transition from the dominance of aerobic to facultative anaerobic strains due to ammonia exposure. A functional analysis revealed that ammonia exposure led to an enrichment of genes related to biofilm formation, host colonization, and virulence pathogenicity. A species-level analysis and experiments suggest the key role of a Vibrio harveyi strain in causing shrimp disease and specificity under distinct environments. These findings provide new information on the mechanism of shrimp disease under environmental changes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Penaeidae , Animais , Amônia , Disbiose , Penaeidae/genética , Hepatopâncreas
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473999

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests a link between atopic dermatitis (AD) and gastrointestinal disorders, particularly in relation to gut microbial dysbiosis. This study explored the potential exacerbation of AD by gut inflammation and microbial imbalances using an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) mouse model. Chronic gut inflammation was induced in the model by intrarectal injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), followed by a 4-week development period. We noted significant upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in the colon and evident gut microbial dysbiosis in the IBS mice. Additionally, these mice exhibited impaired gut barrier function, increased permeability, and elevated systemic inflammation markers such as IL-6 and LPS. A subsequent MC903 challenge on the right cheek lasting for 7 days revealed more severe AD symptoms in IBS mice compared to controls. Further, fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) from IBS mice resulted in aggravated AD symptoms, a result similarly observed with FMT from an IBS patient. Notably, an increased abundance of Alistipes in the feces of IBS mice correlated with heightened systemic and localized inflammation in both the gut and skin. These findings collectively indicate that chronic gut inflammation and microbial dysbiosis in IBS are critical factors exacerbating AD, highlighting the integral relationship between gut and skin health.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fezes , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Inflamação
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