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1.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 52(1): 107-119, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838246

RESUMO

Advances in gene sequence technology and data analysis have enabled the detection and taxonomic identification of microorganisms in vivo based on their unique RNA or DNA sequences. Standard culture techniques can only detect those organisms that readily grow on artificial media in vitro. Culture-independent technology has been used to provide a more accurate assessment of the richness (total number of species) and diversity (relative abundance of each species) of microorganisms present in a prescribed location. The microbiome has been defined as the genes and genomes of all microbial inhabitants within a defined environment. Microorganisms within a microbiome interact with each other as well as with the host. A microbiome is dynamic and may change over time as conditions within the defined environment become altered. In oral health, neither gingivitis nor periodontitis is present, and the host and microbiome coexist symbiotically without evoking an inflammatory response. The circumstances that cause a shift from immune tolerance to a proinflammatory response remain unknown, and a unified, all-encompassing hypothesis to explain how and why periodontal disease develops has yet to be described. The purpose of this review is to clarify the current understanding of the role played by the oral microbiome in dogs and cats, describe how the microbiome changes in periodontal disease, and offer guidance on the utility of systemic antimicrobial agents in the treatment of periodontitis in companion animals.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Microbiota , Doenças Periodontais , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Disbiose/veterinária , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/veterinária
2.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 53-65, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228203

RESUMO

Over the last few decades, allergic diseases have been steadily increasing worldwide, a phenomenon that is not yet completely understood. Recent evidence, however, suggests that alterations in the microbiome may be a contributing factor. The microbiome refers to all microorganisms in a habitat including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Using modern sequencing technologies, we are now capable of detecting and analyzing the human microbiome in more detail than ever before. Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that a complex intestinal microbiome supports the development of the immune system during childhood, thus providing protection from allergic diseases, including food allergy. The microbiome becomes an important part of human physiology and forms dynamic relationships with our various barrier systems. For example, bacterial dysbiosis is a hallmark of atopic eczema and correlates with disease progression. Similarly, the lung and nasopharyngeal microbiome is altered in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. While these results are interesting, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear and need to be investigated with functional studies. This review gives a short overview of the terminology and methods used in microbiome research before highlighting results concerning the lung, skin, and intestinal microbiome in allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Microbiota , Rinite Alérgica , Disbiose , Humanos
3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118381, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673156

RESUMO

Colon microenvironment and microbiota dysbiosis are closely related to various human metabolic diseases. In this study, a total of 72 healthy female mice were exposed to fluoride (F) (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L F-) in drinking water for 70 days. The effect of F on intestinal barrier and the diversity and composition in colon microbiota have been evaluated. Meanwhile, the relationship among F-induced colon microbiota alterations and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) expression and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) level also been assessed. The results suggested that F decreased the goblet cells number and glycoprotein expression in colon. And further high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing result demonstrated that F exposure induced the diversity and community composition of colonic microbiota significantly changes. Linear Discriminant Analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis identified 11 predominantly characteristic taxa which may be the biomarker in response to F exposure. F-induced intestinal microbiota perturbations lead to the significantly decreased SCFAs levels in colon. Immunofluorescence results showed that F increased the protein expression of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 (P < 0.01) and disturbed the expression of interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) and IL-22R (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In addition, the increased expression of IL-17A and IL-22 cooperatively enhanced the mRNA expression of AMPs which response to F-induced microbiota perturbations. Collectively, destroyed microenvironment and disturbed AMPs are the primary reason of microbiota dysbiosis in colon after F exposure. Colonic homoeostasis imbalance would be helpful for finding the source of F-induced chronic systemic diseases.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Colo , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Fluoretos , Camundongos , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150368, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543792

RESUMO

Glyphosate (GLY), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can result in gut microbiota dysbiosis intimately involving various diseases. The latest research has shown an association between gut microbiota alteration and defective spermatogenesis. Here, we aimed to investigate whether GLY-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis contributed to male reproductive toxicity. Data showed that GLY-exposed rats exhibited male reproductive dysfunction, evidenced by impaired testis architectural structure, reduced sperm motility, together with increased sperm malformation ratio. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis indicated that GLY exposure altered the composition of gut commensal microbiota, of which the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla was significantly changed. Unexpectedly, the increased abundance of Prevotella_1 and Bacteroides genera was negatively correlated with sperm quality. Mechanistically, the pathological changes in GLY-exposed testis were accompanied by the increased interleukin (IL)-17A production, probably due to gut microbes-derived Th17 cell migration. Furthermore, activation of IL-17A signaling triggered testicular oxidative damage. Taken together, these findings uncover an underlying mechanistic scenario that gut microbiota dysbiosis-driven local IL-17A production is one reason responsible for male reproductive toxicity induced by GLY, which provides new insights into the male reproductive toxicity of GLY in mammals.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos , Motilidade Espermática
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 765965, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721437

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulted in an unprecedented global crisis. Although primarily a respiratory illness, dysregulated immune responses may lead to multi-organ dysfunction. Prior data showed that the resident microbial communities of gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts act as modulators of local and systemic inflammatory activity (the gut-lung axis). Evolving evidence now signals an alteration in the gut microbiome, brought upon either by cytokines from the infected respiratory tract or from direct infection of the gut, or both. Dysbiosis leads to a "leaky gut". The intestinal permeability then allows access to bacterial products and toxins into the circulatory system and further exacerbates the systemic inflammatory response. In this review, we discuss the available data related to the role of the gut microbiome in the development and progression of COVID-19. We provide mechanistic insights into early data with a focus on immunological crosstalk and the microbiome's potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Inflamação
6.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021292, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaginal microbiota of women admitted to the hospital for premature labour and to compare the flora of those who responded to the tocolytic treatment with the flora of those who did not respond to the treatment and delivered prematurely Materials: the hospital records of 245 women admitted to the division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of 'Guglielmo da Saliceto' Hospital in Piacenza for premature labour, between 24 completed weeks and 36 weeks plus 6 days of pregnancy, were reviewed and the results of vaginal swabs collected on admission were evaluated. RESULTS: a vaginal dysbiosis, with reduction or absence of lactobacilli and presence of pathogenic microbial species, was found in all women admitted to the hospital for premature labour. Among them, 200 women (81,63%) responded to the tocolytic treatment while 45 women (18,36%) did not respond  and delivered before 37 completed weeks. The four microbial species most prevalent  in the vaginal flora were :Ureaplasma urealyticum, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans and Gardnerella vaginalis. When the characteristics of the vaginal flora of the two groups were compared, a more severe dysbiosis, with absence of lactobacilli and evidence of more than one pathogenic  species, was found in 18% of women who responded to the tocolysis and in 71,4% of women who did not respond. The difference was statistically significant (p< 0,05, two-tailed test). CONCLUSIONS: vaginal dysbiosis was diagnosed in all women admitted to the hospital for premature labour . A more severe dysbiosis, with complete absence of lactobacilli and presence of two or more pathogenic microbial species, was  in the majority of women who showed no response to the tocolytic treatment compared to women with minor degrees of alteration of the vaginal flora.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro , Disbiose , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Vagina
7.
Clin Exp Metastasis ; 38(6): 495-510, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748126

RESUMO

Colorectal carcinoma is the third most common cancer in developed countries and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Interest in the influence of the intestinal microbiota on CRC emerged rapidly in the past few years, and the close presence of microbiota to the tumour mass creates a unique microenvironment in CRC. The gastrointestinal microbiota secrete factors that can contribute to CRC metastasis by influencing, for example, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Although the role of EMT in metastasis is well-studied, mechanisms by which gastrointestinal microbiota contribute to the progression of CRC remain poorly understood. In this review, we will explore bacterial factors that contribute to the migration and invasion of colorectal carcinoma and the mechanisms involved. Bacteria involved in the induction of metastasis in primary CRC include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Enterococcus faecalis, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Examples of prominent bacterial factors secreted by these bacteria include Fusobacterium adhesin A and Bacteroides fragilis Toxin. Most of these factors induce EMT-like properties in carcinoma cells and, as such, contribute to disease progression by affecting cell-cell adhesion, breakdown of the extracellular matrix and reorganisation of the cytoskeleton. It is of utmost importance to elucidate how bacterial factors promote CRC recurrence and metastasis to increase patient survival. So far, mainly animal models have been used to demonstrate this interplay between the host and microbiota. More human-based models are needed to study the mechanisms that promote migration and invasion and mimic the progression and recurrence of CRC.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Carcinoma/microbiologia , Movimento Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Carcinoma/secundário , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Disbiose , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais
8.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 446, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a critical role of intestinal dysbacteriosis in surgical site infections and anastomotic leakage after abdominal surgery. However, a direct correlation between pre-existing dysbacteriosis and postoperative infectious complications has not yet been established clinically. METHODS: A total of 353 consecutive patients who underwent colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery were enrolled. Gram-stained faecal smears were tested at admission and the first defecation after surgery. Intestinal dysbacteriosis was graded into three groups: normal or slightly decreased intestinal microflora (grade 1), moderate dysbacteriosis (grade 2), and severe dysbacteriosis (grade 3). Clinical outcomes were postoperative infections and anastomotic leakage within 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: At the preoperative assessment, 268 (75.9%) patients had normal or slightly decreased intestinal microflora, 58 (16.4%) patients had moderate dysbacteriosis, and 27 (7.6%) patients had severe dysbacteriosis. The patients with preoperative dysbacteriosis had a higher rate of early postoperative diarrhoea (grade 2: OR = 4.53, 95% CI 2.28-9.00, grade 3: OR = 4.52, 95% CI 1.81-11.31), total complications (grade 3 40.7% vs. grade 2 25.9% vs. grade 1 12.7%, P < 0.001), and anastomotic leakage (grade 3 11.1% vs. grade 2 5.2% vs. grade 1 1.5%, P = 0.002). An interaction effect among preoperative dysbacteriosis and early postoperative diarrhoea on total complications was observed in rectal cancer patients (P for interaction = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: An imbalance of the intestinal microbiome exists in a considerable proportion of CRC patients before surgery. Preoperative dysbacteriosis is associated with higher rates of early postoperative diarrhoea, which further correlates with infectious complications and anastomotic leakage. However, the contribution of preoperative dysbacteriosis to the occurrence of anastomotic leakage needs to be clarified in further studies. Trial registration ChiCTR, ChiCTR1800018755. Registered 8 October 2018-Retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/ChiCTR1800018755 .


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Neoplasias Retais , Fístula Anastomótica/epidemiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Disbiose/complicações , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2138-2146, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To study the epidemiological situation of ascariasis among women with pathology of the reproductive system on the basis of a literature database (PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, PLoS, Hindawi) and to present our experience with ascariasis and pathology of reproductive system. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We investigated parasitic invasions in 174 women reproductive losses and 186 patients with primary infertility. RESULTS: Results: The results performed in women with infertility and reproductive losses have proved the role of parasitic infection in the emergence of disorders of hormonal homeostasis, endothelial-lymphocytic dysfunction, severe vaginal and intestinal dysbiosis and, as a consequence, reproduction of conditionally pathogenic flora, etiopathogenetic risk factors for the development of various forms of women's reproductive health pathology. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: More global attention to the diagnosis and treatment of parasitic infections in the examination of women with infertility and reproductive losses is warranted. The influence of ascariasis as a source of autoinfection of the gastrointestinal tract, allowed us to consider the presence of this invasion a risk factor for the development of chronic inflammatory process of the lower genital tract.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Infertilidade , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Disbiose , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde da Mulher
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 717636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760714

RESUMO

The acute radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII) has raised much concerns and is influenced by non-cytocidal radiation effects including the perturbations in gut microbiota. Although a number of studies have reported alteration in gut microbiota following radiation, little is known about its dynamic variation in the progression of acute RIII. In this study, mouse model were treated with total body irradiation (TBI) of 0, 4, 8 and 12 Gy, and the intestinal tissues and fecal samples were collected at 6 h, 3.5 d and 7 d post radiation. We found that the intestinal injuries were manifested in a radiation dose-dependent manner. Results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the diversity of gut microbiota was not significantly affected at the prodromal stage of acute RIII, after 6 h of radiation. At the critical stage of acute RIII, after 3.5 d of radiation, the composition of gut microbiota was correlated with the radiation dose. The Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the relative abundances of phylum Proteobacteria, genera Escherichia-Shigella and Eubacterium xylanophilum_group, and species Lactobacillus murinus exhibited linear correlations with radiation dose. At the recovery stage of acute RIII, after 7 d of radiation, the diversity of gut microbiota decreased as a whole, among which the relative abundance of phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroides increased, while that of phylum Tenericutes and genus Roseburia decreased. The intra-gastric administration of compound probiotics for 14 days improved the survival duration of mice exposed to 9 Gy TBI, alleviated the intestinal epithelial injury and partially restored the diversity of gut microbiota. Our findings suggest that acute RIII is accompanied by the dysbiosis of gut microbiota, including its decreased diversity, reduced abundance of beneficial bacteria and increased abundance of pathogens. The gut microbiota cannot be used as sensitive biomarkers at the prodromal stage in acute RIII, but are potential biomarkers at the critical stage of acute RIII. The dysbiosis is persistent until the recovery stage of acute RIII, and interventions are needed to restore it. The administration of probiotics is an effective strategy to protect against acute RIII and subsequent dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animais , Disbiose , Eubacterium , Fezes , Lactobacillus , Camundongos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 572752, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790583

RESUMO

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are complex behavioral changes manifesting early in childhood, which impacts how an individual perceives and socializes with others. The study aims to assess the disparities in gut microbiota (GM) amongst healthy controls and children with ASD. Methods: The study was performed on 25 children with ASD and 20 healthy children. Autistic symptoms were diagnosed and assessed with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders and the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were assessed with a GI Severity Index (GSI) questionnaire. The fecal bacteria composition was investigated by the high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The alpha diversity was estimated using the Shannon, Chao, and ACE indexes. The unweighted UniFrac analysis and the PCA plots were used to represent the beta diversity. LDA and LEfSe were used to assess the effect sizes of each abundant differential taxon. Results: Children with high GSI scores had much higher ATEC Total scores than those with lower GSI-scores. GI symptoms were strongly associated with symptoms of ASD. There was no difference in Chao, ACE, and Shannon indexes between ASD patients and healthy controls. Both groups showed a significant microbiota structure clustering in the plotted PCAs and significant differences in its composition at the family, order, genus, and phyla levels. There were also noteworthy overall relative differences in Actinobacteria and Firmicutes between both groups. Conclusions: This study shows the relationship between the clinical manifestations of Autistic symptoms and GI symptoms. ASD patients have dysbiosis of gut microbiota, which may be related to the onset of ASD. These findings may be beneficial for developing ASD symptoms by changing gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Criança , Disbiose , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(6): 966-974, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841763

RESUMO

Objective: To identify the differences in the composition of gut microbiota of patients with post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) in comparison with the normal cognition healthy controls (HC), and to study the potential association between gut microbiota and cognition function. Methods: A total of 24 patients were recruited for the PSCI group, which was matched with 23 healthy subjects with no history of cardiovascular disease recruited over the same period for the control group. Fecal samples were collected for both groups, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were used to evaluate cognitive functions. The abundance, diversity and group difference of gut bacterial communities were determined with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the correlations between differences in bacterial species of the gut microbiota and cognitive function scores were examined with redundancy analysis (RDA)/canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Results: There was no significant difference in the general data or the alpha diversity of gut microbiota between the two groups ( P>0.05). Inter-group comparison of microbial species composition revealed differences at the phylum and species levels, mainly represented as reduction in the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and the relative enrichment of Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of Intestinibacter bartlettii, uncultured bacterium Tyzzerella_3, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans of phylum Firmicutes in the PSCI patients were significantly reduced in comparison to that of the HC (LDA score>2), and these bacteria were positively correlated with MMSE and MoCA scores. In addition, the Ruminococcus gnavus and Faecalimonas umbilicata of phylum Firmicutes and uncultured bacterium Prevotellaceae_NK3 B31 group of phylum Bacteroidetes were significantly enriched in comparison with those of the HC (LDA score>2), and these bacteria were negatively correlated with MMSE and MoCA scores. There were also correlations among these bacteria. Conclusion: In this study, we observed compositional differences between the gut microbiota of PSCI patients and those of HC, and revealed that the differences were correlated, to some degree, to the cognitive functions, which will provide new perspectives for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of PSCI.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Clostridiales , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disbiose , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
13.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(11): 3789-3800, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841784

RESUMO

Lung microbiota and gut microbiota are closely related to lung cancer. Studies have shown that the dysbiosis, i.e., the significantly altered composition and structure of gut and lung microbiota, usually occurs in patients with lung cancer. With the introduction of "Gut-Lung Axis", an increasing attention has been paid to the close relationship between the lung and gut microbiota in human body. A deeper insight into this relationship would facilitate understanding the mechanisms behind the carcinogenesis and development of lung cancer. This article summarizes the composition of lung and gut microbiota in patients with lung cancer and the possible interaction mechanisms, highlighting the importance of the immune system in the Gut-Lung Axis. The effects of lung and gut microbiota on the clinical treatment of lung cancer were summarized, based on which the authors propose that the lung and gut microbiota can be used as novel targets for early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinogênese , Disbiose , Humanos , Pulmão
14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(11): 3820-3827, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841787

RESUMO

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a disease caused by vaginal microbiota dysbiosis. The conventional antibiotic treatment can aggravate microbial dysbiosis, alter the acid environment of the vagina and lead to drug resistance, thus shows low cure rate and high recurrence rate. This poses significant physiological and psychological burden to the BV patients. Vaginal microbiota transplantation (VMT) is a novel live biotherapeutic approach. It directly engrafts the whole vaginal microbiota from healthy women to the vaginal tract of patients to rapidly reconstruct the vaginal microbiota environment and restore the vaginal health. This article summarizes the development, present challenges, and future directions of using VMT, with the aim to explore new strategies for treatment of BV and promote the clinical use of VMT.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Vaginose Bacteriana , Disbiose/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Vagina , Vaginose Bacteriana/terapia
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 663068, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604102

RESUMO

Exploring microbial community compositions in humans with healthy versus diseased states is crucial to understand the microbe-host interplay associated with the disease progression. Although the relationship between oral cancer and microbiome was previously established, it remained controversial, and yet the ecological characteristics and their responses to oral carcinogenesis have not been well studied. Here, using the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing along with the in silico function analysis by PICRUSt2 (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States 2), we systematically characterized the compositions and the ecological drivers of saliva microbiome in the cohorts of orally healthy, non-recurrent oral verrucous hyperplasia (a pre-cancer lesion), and oral verrucous hyperplasia-associated oral cancer at taxonomic and function levels, and compared them with the re-analysis of publicly available datasets. Diversity analyses showed that microbiome dysbiosis in saliva was significantly linked to oral health status. As oral health deteriorated, the number of core species declined, and metabolic pathways predicted by PICRUSt2 were dysregulated. Partitioned beta-diversity revealed an extremely high species turnover but low function turnover. Functional beta-diversity in saliva microbiome shifted from turnover to nestedness during oral carcinogenesis, which was not observed at taxonomic levels. Correspondingly, the quantitative analysis of stochasticity ratios showed that drivers of microbial composition and functional gene content of saliva microbiomes were primarily governed by the stochastic processes, yet the driver of functional gene content shifted toward deterministic processes as oral cancer developed. Re-analysis of publicly accessible datasets supported not only the distinctive family taxa of Veillonellaceae and Actinomycetaceae present in normal cohorts but also that Flavobacteriaceae and Peptostreptococcaceae as well as the dysregulated metabolic pathways of nucleotides, amino acids, fatty acids, and cell structure were related to oral cancer. Using predicted functional profiles to elucidate the correlations to the oral health status shows superior performance than using taxonomic data among different studies. These findings advance our understanding of the oral ecosystem in relation to oral carcinogenesis and provide a new direction to the development of microbiome-based tools to study the interplay of the oral microbiome, metabolites, and host health.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Carcinogênese , Disbiose , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 277, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. n) is an important opportunistic pathogen causing oral and gastrointestinal disease. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. p) is a next-generation probiotic and could serve as a biomarker of gut eubiosis/dysbiosis to some extent. Alterations in the human oral and gut microbiomes are associated with viral respiratory infection. The aim of this study was to characterise the oral and fecal bacterial biomarker (i.e., F. n and F. p) in COVID-19 patients by qPCR and investigate the pharyngeal microbiome of COVID-19 patients through metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS). RESULTS: Pharyngeal F. n was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients, and it was higher in male than female patients. Increased abundance of pharyngeal F. n was associated with a higher risk of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (adjusted OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.06 ~ 1.65, P < 0.05). A classifier to distinguish COVID-19 patients from the healthy controls based on the pharyngeal F. n was constructed and achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.843 (95% CI = 0.688 ~ 0.940, P < 0.001). However, the level of fecal F. n and fecal F. p remained unaltered between groups. Besides, mNGS showed that the pharyngeal swabs of COVID-19 patients were dominated by opportunistic pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Pharyngeal but not fecal F. n was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients, clinicians should pay careful attention to potential coinfection. Pharyngeal F. n may serve as a promising candidate indicator for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Infecções por Fusobacterium/microbiologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum/genética , Faringe/microbiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/virologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Disbiose , Feminino , Infecções por Fusobacterium/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe/virologia , Fatores Sexuais
17.
J Int Med Res ; 49(10): 3000605211053276, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704483

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious non-communicable disease that poses a significant burden on healthcare and society. It is essential to devise new strategies to better treat patients with CKD. Research has illustrated that gut dysbiosis, describing an abnormal intestinal ecology, is closely associated with CKD. In this narrative review, we summarized the evidence of their mutual relationship and discussed the potential treatment options to correct gut dysbiosis in patients with CKD. Gut dysbiosis significantly increases the risk of CKD, especially in the older population. Gut dysbiosis also plays a role in CKD complications, such as hypertension, cardiovascular events, and cognitive dysfunction. The relationship between gut dysbiosis and CKD is bidirectional, and CKD itself can lead to changes in gut microecology. The usual therapies for CKD can also increase the incidence of gut dysbiosis. Meanwhile, probiotics and antibiotics are generally used to correct gut dysbiosis. Further studies are required to elaborate the association between gut dysbiosis and CKD, and more treatment options should be explored to prevent CKD in patients with gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão , Probióticos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Disbiose , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
18.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 203, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbiome-metabolome studies of the human gut have been gaining popularity in recent years, mostly due to accumulating evidence of the interplay between gut microbes, metabolites, and host health. Statistical and machine learning-based methods have been widely applied to analyze such paired microbiome-metabolome data, in the hope of identifying metabolites that are governed by the composition of the microbiome. Such metabolites can be likely modulated by microbiome-based interventions, offering a route for promoting gut metabolic health. Yet, to date, it remains unclear whether findings of microbially associated metabolites in any single study carry over to other studies or cohorts, and how robust and universal are microbiome-metabolites links. RESULTS: In this study, we addressed this challenge by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis to identify human gut metabolites that can be predicted based on the composition of the gut microbiome across multiple studies. We term such metabolites "robustly well-predicted". To this end, we processed data from 1733 samples from 10 independent human gut microbiome-metabolome studies, focusing initially on healthy subjects, and implemented a machine learning pipeline to predict metabolite levels in each dataset based on the composition of the microbiome. Comparing the predictability of each metabolite across datasets, we found 97 robustly well-predicted metabolites. These include metabolites involved in important microbial pathways such as bile acid transformations and polyamines metabolism. Importantly, however, other metabolites exhibited large variation in predictability across datasets, suggesting a cohort- or study-specific relationship between the microbiome and the metabolite. Comparing taxonomic contributors to different models, we found that some robustly well-predicted metabolites were predicted by markedly different sets of taxa across datasets, suggesting that some microbially associated metabolites may be governed by different members of the microbiome in different cohorts. We finally examined whether models trained on a control group of a given study successfully predicted the metabolite's level in the disease group of the same study, identifying several metabolites where the model was not transferable, indicating a shift in microbial metabolism in disease-associated dysbiosis. CONCLUSIONS: Combined, our findings provide a better understanding of the link between the microbiome and metabolites and allow researchers to put identified microbially associated metabolites within the context of other studies. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 7880448, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651049

RESUMO

COVID-19-associated neuropsychiatric complications are soaring. There is an urgent need to understand the link between COVID-19 and neuropsychiatric disorders. To that end, this article addresses the premise that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in gut dysbiosis and an altered microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis that in turn contributes to the neuropsychiatric ramifications of COVID-19. Altered MGB axis activity has been implicated independently as a risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. A review of the changes in gut microbiota composition in individual psychiatric and neurological disorders and gut microbiota in COVID-19 patients revealed a shared "microbial signature" characterized by a lower microbial diversity and richness and a decrease in health-promoting anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria accompanied by an increase in opportunistic proinflammatory pathogens. Notably, there was a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria. SCFAs are key bioactive microbial metabolites with anti-inflammatory functions and have been recognized as a critical signaling pathway in the MGB axis. SCFA deficiency is associated with brain inflammation, considered a cardinal feature of neuropsychiatric disorders. The link between SARS-CoV-2 infection, gut dysbiosis, and altered MGB axis is further supported by COVID-19-associated gastrointestinal symptoms, a high number of SARS-CoV-2 receptors, angiotensin-cleaving enzyme-2 (ACE-2) in the gut, and viral presence in the fecal matter. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the receptor results in ACE-2 deficiency that leads to decreased transport of vital dietary components, gut dysbiosis, proinflammatory gut status, increased permeability of the gut-blood barrier (GBB), and systemic inflammation. More clinical research is needed to substantiate further the linkages described above and evaluate the potential significance of gut microbiota as a diagnostic tool. Meanwhile, it is prudent to propose changes in dietary recommendations in favor of a high fiber diet or supplementation with SCFAs or probiotics to prevent or alleviate the neuropsychiatric ramifications of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/microbiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Dieta , Disbiose , Fezes/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Probióticos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 729756, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660342

RESUMO

Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute enterovirus-induced disease. Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been identified as a factor that plays an important role in enteral virus infection, but the gut microbiota profile in hand, foot and mouth disease has rarely been studied in a large population. Methods: A total of 749 children (HFMD: n = 262, healthy control: n = 487) aged 2 to 7 years were recruited from hospitals and communities in the period from May to July, 2017. Clinical and demographical information was collected by trained personnel, and fecal samples were collected and processed for 16S ribosomal RNA(rRNA) gene sequencing. Results: We observed a significant alteration in the microbiota profile of children with HFMD compared with that of control children. Patients with enteroviruses A71(EV71) positive had more dysbiotic gut microbiota than those with coxsackievirus A16 (CAV16) positive. We found that Prevotella and Streptococcus were enriched in children with HFMD, whereas beneficial bacteria, including Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium, were depleted. Children with synbiotics supplements had lower risk of HFMD and we observed that the gut microbiota of HFMD patients who were administered synbiotics exhibited potential resistance to the dysbiosis detected in HFMD. Conclusions: This study suggested that the gut microbiota of patients with hand, foot and mouth disease exhibits dysbiosis and that synbiotics supplements potentially helps maintain the homeostasis of the gut flora.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A , Enterovirus , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Simbióticos , Criança , China , Disbiose , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente
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