Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.546
Filtrar
1.
Clin Perinatol ; 48(4): 725-744, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774206

RESUMO

Nasal or noninvaisve intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) refers to well-established noninvasive respiratory support strategies combining a continuous distending pressure with intermittent pressure increases. Uncertainty remains regarding the benefits provided by the various devices and techniques used to generate NIPPV. Our included meta-analyses of trials comparing NIPPV with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preterm infants demonstrate that both primary and postextubation NIPPV are superior to CPAP to prevent respiratory failure leading to additional ventilatory support. This short-term benefit is associated with a reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but not with mortality. Benefits are greatest when ventilator-generated, synchronized NIPPV is used.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia
2.
Clin Perinatol ; 48(4): 895-906, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774216

RESUMO

For the newborns needing respiratory support at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, regardless of the type of ventilation used, it is critical to take into account the mechanics properties of both airways and lungs affected by severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD). Ventilator strategies, settings, and weaning must change dramatically after sBPD is established, but to date there is almost no high-quality evidence base supporting a specific approach to guide the optimal ventilator management and weaning in patients with sBPD. Weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation, management of the immediately postextubation period, and weaning from noninvasive ventilation in patients with sBPD are the topics covered in this chapter.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Ventilação não Invasiva , Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Respiração Artificial , Desmame do Respirador , Ventiladores Mecânicos
3.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(10): 994-1001, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To construct risk prediction models for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants on postnatal days 3, 7, and 14. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 414 preterm infants, with a gestational age of <32 weeks and a birth weight (BW) of <1 500 g, who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from July 2019 to April 2021. According to the diagnostic criteria for BPD revised in 2018, they were divided into a BPD group with 98 infants and a non-BPD group with 316 infants. The two groups were compared in terms of general status, laboratory examination results, treatment, and complications. The logistic regression model was used to identify the variables associated with BPD. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive value of models. RESULTS: The logistic regression analysis showed that BW, asphyxia, grade III-IV respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), acute chorioamnionitis, interstitial pneumonia, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), and respiratory support mode were the main risk factors for BPD (P<0.05). The prediction models on postnatal days 7 and 14 were established as logit (P7) =-2.049-0.004×BW (g) +0.686×asphyxia (no=0, yes=1) +1.842×grade III-IV RDS (no=0, yes=1) +0.906×acute chorioamnionitis (no=0, yes=1) +0.506×interstitial pneumonia (no=0, yes=1) +0.116×FiO2 (%) +0.816×respiratory support mode (no=0, nasal tube=1, nasal continuous positive airway pressure=2, conventional mechanical ventilation=3, high-frequency mechanical ventilation=4) and logit (P14) =-1.200-0.004×BW (g) +0.723×asphyxia+2.081×grade III-IV RDS+0.799×acute chorioamnionitis+0.601×interstitial pneumonia+0.074×FiO2 (%) +0.800×respiratory support mode, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.876 and 0.880, respectively, which was significantly larger than the AUC of the prediction model on postnatal day 3 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: BW, asphyxia, grade III-IV RDS, acute chorioamnionitis, interstitial pneumonia, FiO2, and respiratory support mode are the main risk factors for BPD and can be used to construct risk prediction models. The prediction models on postnatal days 7 and 14 can effectively predict BPD.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 35(4): E58-E68, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726657

RESUMO

There is a lack of knowledge on the intersection between prematurity, small for gestational age, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the outcomes of preterm infants who were small for gestational age born to women with HDP. Searches were conducted with no date restriction through the final search date of May 13, 2020, in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature Plus with Full Text (EBSCOhost), and Embase (Elsevier). A total of 6 studies were eligible for this review. The adjusted odds of mortality and necrotizing enterocolitis were significantly lower in the pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)/HDP group than in the non-PIH/HDP group. There was no significant difference in the odds of respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and intraventricular hemorrhage between PIH/HDP and non-PIH/HDP groups. There was no significant difference between PIH/HDP and non-PIH/HDP groups in cystic periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity, late-onset sepsis, patent ductus arteriosus, length of hospital stays, duration of supplemental oxygen use, duration of mechanical ventilation, and continuous airway pressure. The studies included in this systematic review demonstrated that PIH/HDP is associated with lower infant mortality and necrotizing enterocolitis.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Doenças do Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez
6.
J Med Econ ; 24(1): 1290-1298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm (EP) infants have high rates of respiratory morbidity and correspondingly high healthcare resource utilization. OBJECTIVES: Data from the PHARMO Perinatal Research Network were analyzed to quantify the burden of EP birth in the Netherlands. METHODS: A retrospective analysis included infants <28 weeks gestational age with a birth record in the Perinatal Registry (1999-2015) and data in the PHARMO Database Network. Outcomes of interest included select comorbidities, hospital readmissions, and costs of hospitalization and medication up to 1- and 2-years corrected age. Outcomes were stratified by birth period (1999-2005, 2000-2009, 2010-2015) and by diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and chronic lung disease (CLD). RESULTS: The cohort included 168 EP infants (37 born 1999-2005, 51 born 2006-2009, 80 born 2010-2015). Median (Q1-Q3) birth weights decreased by birth period from 970 (840-1,035) g in 1999-2005 to 853 (695-983) g in 2010-2015. Overall, BPD and CLD were reported during the birth hospitalization in 40% and 29% of infants, respectively; rates of BPD increased and rates of CLD decreased by birth period. Eighty-four percent of EP infants had an additional comorbidity. Mean (standard deviation) costs of birth hospitalization were €110,600 (€73,000) for 1999-2005, €119,350 (€60,650) for 2006-2009, and €138,800 (€130,100) for 2010-2015. Birth hospitalization and total costs for up to 1- and 2-years corrected age were higher for infants with BPD and/or CLD than for those without either complication. CONCLUSION: Healthcare resource utilization and costs for EP infants, especially for those with respiratory morbidities, increased between 1999 and 2015. Future cost-effectiveness analyses are essential to determine the economic impact of this change and underscore the need for new therapeutic interventions to decrease clinical sequelae in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Nascimento Prematuro , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Morbidade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD001243, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cohort studies have suggested that nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) starting in the immediate postnatal period before the onset of respiratory disease (prophylactic CPAP) may be beneficial in reducing the need for intubation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV), and in preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), in preterm or low birth weight infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine if prophylactic nasal CPAP (started within the first 15 minutes) or very early nasal CPAP regardless of respiratory status (started within the first hour of life), reduces the use of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia without any adverse effects in preterm infants. SEARCH METHODS: A comprehensive search was run on 6 November 2020 in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL via CRS Web) and MEDLINE via Ovid. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in preterm infants (under 37 weeks of gestation). We included trials if they compared prophylactic nasal CPAP (started within the first 15 minutes) or very early nasal CPAP (started within the first hour of life) in infants with minimal signs of respiratory distress with 'supportive care', such as supplemental oxygen therapy, standard nasal cannula, or mechanical ventilation. We excluded studies where prophylactic CPAP was compared with CPAP along with co-interventions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal, including independent study selection, assessment of trial quality, and extraction of data by two review authors. MAIN RESULTS: We included eight trials (seven from the previous version of the review and one new study), recruiting 3201 babies, in the meta-analysis. Four trials, involving 765 babies, compared CPAP with supportive care, and three trials (2364 babies) compared CPAP with mechanical ventilation. One trial (72 babies) compared prophylactic CPAP with very early CPAP. Apart from a lack of blinding of the intervention, we judged seven studies to have a low risk of bias. However, one study had a high risk of selection bias. Prophylactic or very early CPAP compared to supportive care There may be a reduction in failed treatment (risk ratio (RR) 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 0.74; risk difference (RD) -0.16, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.02; 4 studies, 765 infants; very low certainty evidence). CPAP possibly reduces BPD at 36 weeks (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.14; 3 studies, 683 infants, moderate certainty evidence); there may be little or no difference in death (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.93; 4 studies, 765 infants; moderate certainty evidence). Prophylactic CPAP may reduce the composite outcome of death or BPD (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.19; 1 study, 256 infants; low certainty evidence). There may be no difference in pulmonary air leak (pneumothorax) (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.16; 3 studies, 568 infants; low certainty evidence), or intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) Grade 3 or 4 (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.39 to 2.37; 2 studies, 486 infants; moderate certainty evidence). Neurodevelopmental impairment was not reported in any of the studies. Prophylactic or very early CPAP compared to mechanical ventilation There was probably a reduction in the incidence of BPD at 36 weeks (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.8 to 0.99; RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.00; 3 studies, 2150 infants; moderate certainty evidence); and death or BPD (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.97; RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.01; 3 studies, 2358 infants; moderate certainty evidence). There was also probably a reduction in the need for mechanical ventilation (failed treatment) (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.54; RD -0.50, 95% CI -0.54 to -0.45; 2 studies, 1042 infants; moderate certainty evidence). There was probably a reduction in the incidence of death (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.03; 3 studies, 2358 infants; moderate certainty evidence); pulmonary air leak (pneumothorax) (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.69; 3 studies, 2357 infants; low certainty evidence); and IVH Grade 3 or 4 (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.39; 3 studies, 2301 infants; moderate certainty evidence). One study in this comparison reported that there was probably little or no difference between the groups in the incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.32; 976 infants; moderate certainty evidence). Prophylactic CPAP compared with very early CPAP There was one study in this comparison. We are very uncertain whether there is any difference in the incidence of BPD (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.27; very low certainty evidence). The combined outcome of death and BPD was not reported, and failed treatment was reported but without data. There may have been little to no effect on death (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.29 to1.94; 1 study, 72 infants; very low certainty evidence). Intraventricular haemorrhage Grade 3 or 4 and neurodevelopmental outcomes were not reported in this study. Pulmonary air leak (pneumothorax) was reported in this study, but there were no events in either group. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: For preterm and very preterm infants, there is insufficient evidence to evaluate prophylactic CPAP compared to oxygen therapy and other supportive care. When compared to mechanical ventilation, prophylactic nasal CPAP in very preterm infants reduces the incidence of BPD, the combined outcome of death and BPD, and mechanical ventilation. There is probably no difference in neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months of age. When prophylactic CPAP is compared to early CPAP, we are very uncertain about whether there is any difference between prophylactic and very early CPAP. There is no information about the effect of prophylactic or very early CPAP in late preterm infants. There is one study awaiting classification.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente
11.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(5): L960-L969, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643102

RESUMO

Prematurity remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Research to prevent preterm birth and improve treatments for preterm infants involves both intramural and extramural research, not just at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, but across many institutes and centers at the National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Pneumonia , Nascimento Prematuro , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD001146, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a major problem for infants born extremely preterm. Persistent inflammation in the lungs is important in its pathogenesis. Systemic corticosteroids have been used to prevent or treat BPD because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative benefits and adverse effects of systemic postnatal corticosteroids commenced within the first six days after birth for preterm infants at risk of developing BPD. SEARCH METHODS: We ran an updated search of the following databases on 25 September 2020: CENTRAL via CRS Web and MEDLINE via OVID. We also searched clinical trials databases and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We did not include cluster randomised trials, cross-over trials, or quasi-RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA: For this review, we selected RCTs examining systemic (intravenous or oral) postnatal corticosteroid treatment started within the first six days after birth (early) in high-risk preterm infants. We included studies that evaluated the use of dexamethasone, as well as studies that assessed hydrocortisone, even when the latter was used primarily for management of hypotension, rather than for treatment of lung problems. We did not include trials of inhaled corticosteroids. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods. We extracted and analysed data regarding clinical outcomes that included mortality, BPD, mortality or BPD, failure to extubate, complications during the primary hospitalisation, and long-term health and neurodevelopmental outcomes. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Use of the GRADE approach revealed that the certainty of evidence was high for the major outcomes considered, except for BPD at 36 weeks for all studies combined, which was downgraded one level to moderate because of evidence of publication bias. We included 32 RCTs (4395 infants). The overall risk of bias of included studies was low; all were RCTs, and most trials used rigorous methods. Early systemic corticosteroids overall have little or no effect on mortality to the latest reported age (risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 1.06; 31 studies, 4373 infants; high-certainty evidence), but hydrocortisone alone reduces mortality (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.99; 11 studies, 1433 infants; high-certainty evidence). Early systemic corticosteroids overall probably reduce BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.88; 26 studies, 4167 infants; moderate-certainty evidence), as does dexamethasone (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.82; 17 studies, 2791 infants; high-certainty evidence), but hydrocortisone has little to no effect (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.06; 9 studies, 1376 infants; high-certainty evidence). Early systemic corticosteroids overall reduce the combined outcome of mortality or BPD at 36 weeks' PMA (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.94; 26 studies, 4167 infants; high-certainty evidence), as do both dexamethasone (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.95; 17 studies, 2791 infants; high-certainty evidence) and hydrocortisone (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.99; 9 studies, 1376 infants; high-certainty evidence). Early systemic corticosteroids overall increase gastrointestinal perforation (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.49; 16 studies, 3040 infants; high-certainty evidence), as do both dexamethasone (RR 1.73, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.51; 9 studies, 1936 infants; high-certainty evidence) and hydrocortisone (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.21 to 3.47; 7 studies, 1104 infants; high-certainty evidence). Early systemic corticosteroids overall increase cerebral palsy (RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.92; 13 studies, 1973 infants; high-certainty evidence), as does dexamethasone (RR 1.77, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.58; 7 studies, 921 infants; high-certainty evidence) but not hydrocortisone (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.66; 6 studies, 1052 infants; high-certainty evidence). Early systemic corticosteroids overall have little to no effect on the combined outcome of mortality or cerebral palsy (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.16; 13 studies, 1973 infants; high-certainty evidence), nor does hydrocortisone (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05; 6 studies, 1052 infants; high-certainty evidence). However, early dexamethasone probably increases the combined outcome of mortality or cerebral palsy (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.37; 7 studies, 921 infants; high-certainty evidence), In sensitivity analyses by primary intention for treatment with hydrocortisone (lung problems versus hypotension), there was little evidence of differences in effects on major outcomes of mortality, BPD, or combined mortality or BPD, by indication for the drug. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Early systemic postnatal corticosteroid treatment (started during the first six days after birth) prevents BPD and the combined outcome of mortality or BPD. However, it increases risks of gastrointestinal perforation, cerebral palsy, and the combined outcome of mortality or cerebral palsy. Most beneficial and harmful effects are related to early treatment with dexamethasone, rather than to early treatment with hydrocortisone, but early hydrocortisone may prevent mortality, whereas early dexamethasone does not. Longer-term follow-up into late childhood is vital for assessment of important outcomes that cannot be assessed in early childhood, such as effects of early corticosteroid treatment on higher-order neurological functions, including cognitive function, executive function, academic performance, behaviour, mental health, motor function, and lung function. Further RCTs of early corticosteroids, particularly of hydrocortisone, should include longer-term survival free of neurodevelopmental disability as the primary outcome.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639034

RESUMO

Oxygen toxicity continues to be one of the inevitable injuries to the immature lung. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is the initial step leading to lung injury and, subsequently, the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Today, BPD remains the most important disease burden following preterm delivery and results in life-long restrictions in lung function and further important health sequelae. Despite the tremendous progress in the pathomechanistic understanding derived from preclinical models, the clinical needs for preventive or curative therapies remain unmet. This review summarizes the clinical progress on guiding oxygen delivery to the preterm infant and elaborates future directions of research that need to take into account both hyperoxia and hypoxia as ROS sources and BPD drivers. Many strategies have been tested within clinical trials based on the mechanistic understanding of ROS actions, but most have failed to prove efficacy. The majority of these studies were tested in an era before the latest modes of non-invasive respiratory support and surfactant application were introduced or were not appropriately powered. A comprehensive re-evaluation of enzymatic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory therapies to prevent ROS injury is therefore indispensable. Strategies will only succeed if they are applied in a timely and vigorous manner and with the appropriate outcome measures.


Assuntos
Hiperóxia/complicações , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Oxigênio/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Saúde Global , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
14.
BMJ ; 375: n1974, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670756

RESUMO

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in infants and is associated with increased mortality, respiratory morbidity, neurodevelopmental impairment, and increased healthcare costs. In parallel with advances made in the field of neonatal intensive care, the phenotype of BPD has evolved from a fibrocystic disease affecting late preterm infants to one of impaired parenchymal development and dysregulated vascular growth predominantly affecting infants born before 29 weeks' gestational age. BPD has been shown to have significant lifelong consequences. Adults with BPD have been found to have abnormal lung function tests, reduced exercise tolerance, and may be at increased risk for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Evidence shows that BPD occurs secondary to genetic-environmental interactions in an immature lung. In this review, we evaluate the various clinical definitions, imaging modalities, and biomarker data that are helpful in making an early diagnosis of BPD. In addition, we evaluate recent evidence about the prevention and treatment of BPD. We discuss the invasive and non-invasive ventilation strategies and pharmacological agents used in the early, evolving, and established phases of BPD.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/diagnóstico , Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Terapia Combinada , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro
15.
J Bras Pneumol ; 47(5): e20210125, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics of preterm infants with different severities of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and disclose the high-risk factors of exacerbating BPD. METHODS: Collection of clinical data of 91 preterm infants admitted to the NICU and diagnosed with BPD, categorized in groups according to the disease severity: 41 mild cases,, 24 moderate cases, and 26 severe cases. Comparison and analysis of perinatal risk factors, treatment, complications and prognosis of the infants with different severity degrees. RESULTS: The severe group had a higher proportion of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) higher than the moderate group (P < 0.05), and a higher ratio of pneumonia and mechanical ventilation (MV) ≥ seven days than the mild group (P < 0.05). The severe group also presented higher reintubation incidence than both the mild and moderate groups (P < 0.05). The groups presented different (P < 0.05) incidence rates of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) . Ridit analysis suggested that the premature infants (PIs) with hsPDA, multiple microbial pulmonary infections, or Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia had more severe illness. CONCLUSION: CHD, hsPDA, MV ≥ seven days, reintubation, pneumonia, especially multiple microbial pulmonary infections, and Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia are correlated with the severity of BPD and can be used as BPD progression predictor.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.) , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257571, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the prognostic value of early echocardiographic indices of right ventricular function and vasoactive peptides for prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in very preterm infants. METHODS: Prospective study involving 294 very preterm infants (median [IQR] gestational age 28.4 [26.4-30.4] weeks, birth weight 1065 [800-1380] g), of whom 57 developed BPD (oxygen supplementation at 36 weeks postmenstrual age) and 10 died. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), right ventricular index of myocardial performance (RIMP), plasma concentrations of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET1) were measured on day 7 of life. RESULTS: RIMP was significantly increased (median [IQR] 0.3 [0.23-0.38] vs 0.22 [0.15-0.29]), TAPSE decreased (median [IQR] 5.0 [5.0-6.0] vs 6.0 [5.4-7.0] mm), MR-proANP increased (median [IQR] 784 [540-936] vs 353 [247-625] pmol/L), and CT-proET1 increased (median [IQR] 249 [190-345] vs 199 [158-284] pmol/L) in infants who developed BPD or died, as compared to controls. All variables showed significant but weak correlations with each other (rS -0.182 to 0.359) and predicted BPD/death with similar accuracy (areas under receiver operator characteristic curves 0.62 to 0.77). Multiple regression revealed only RIMP and birth weight as independent predictors of BPD or death. CONCLUSIONS: Vasoactive peptide concentrations and echocardiographic assessment employing standardized measures, notably RIMP, on day 7 of life are useful to identify preterm infants at increased risk for BPD or death.


Assuntos
Fator Natriurético Atrial/sangue , Displasia Broncopulmonar/diagnóstico , Endotelina-1/sangue , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Displasia Broncopulmonar/mortalidade , Displasia Broncopulmonar/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Regulação para Cima
17.
Neonatology ; 118(5): 586-592, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515188

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Less-invasive surfactant administration (LISA) is a method of surfactant delivery to preterm infants for treating respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which can reduce the composite risk of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the time on mechanical ventilation. METHODS: A systematic literature search of studies published up to April 2021 on minimally invasive catheter surfactant delivery in preterm infants with RDS was conducted. Based on these studies, with parental feedback sought via an online questionnaire, 9 UK-based specialists in neonatal respiratory disease developed their consensus for implementing LISA. Recommendations were developed following a modified, iterative Delphi process using a questionnaire employing a 9-point Likert scale and an a priori level of agreement/disagreement. RESULTS: Successful implementation of LISA can be achieved by training the multidisciplinary team and following locally agreed guidance. From the time of the decision to administer surfactant, LISA should take <30 min. The comfort of the baby and requirements to maintain non-invasive respiratory support are important. While many infants can be managed without requiring additional sedation/analgesia, fentanyl along with atropine may be considered. Parents should be provided with sufficient information about medication side effects and involved in treatment discussions. CONCLUSION: LISA has the potential to improve outcomes for preterm infants with RDS and can be introduced as a safe and effective part of UK-based neonatal care with appropriate training.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Surfactantes Pulmonares , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Displasia Broncopulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Tensoativos
18.
Respir Care ; 66(10): 1618-1629, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552015

RESUMO

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease most commonly seen in preterm infants of low birthweight who required postnatal respiratory support. Although overall incidence rates have not changed, recent advancements in medical care have resulted in lower mortality rates, and those affected are beginning to live longer. As a result, the long-term repercussions of BPD are becoming more apparent. Whereas BPD has been thought of as a disease of just the lungs, resulting in abnormalities such as increased susceptibility to pulmonary infections, impaired exercise tolerance, and pulmonary hypertension, the enduring complications of BPD have been found to extend much further. This includes an increased risk for cerebral palsy and developmental delays, lower intelligence quotient (IQ) scores, impaired executive functioning, behavioral challenges, delays in expressive and receptive language development, and an increased risk of growth failure. In addition, the deficits of BPD have been found to influence much more than just physical health; BPD survivors have been noted to have higher rates of health care use, starting with the initial hospitalization and continuing with therapy and specialist follow-up, as well as impairments in quality of life, both physical and psychological, that continue into adulthood. The long-term consequences of BPD may best be addressed through future research, including better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to BPD, further comparisons between newborns with BPD and those without, and long-term assessment and management of BPD patients as adults.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Adulto , Displasia Broncopulmonar/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Pulmão , Qualidade de Vida
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047651, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) on morbidity and mortality among preterm multiple pregnancies. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies investigating the outcomes among preterm multiple gestations following to ACS, from their inception to 1 November 2020. Two authors independently performed the study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. The primary outcomes were respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and mortality and secondary outcomes included intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), necrotising enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pooled ORs were obtained using random effects models. Subgroup analyses were performed to explain heterogeneity by ACS completeness, administration-to-delivery intervals (≤7 days) and single or multicentre. RESULTS: A total of 16 observational studies with 36 973 newborns were included in the meta-analysis. ACS treatment was associated with a reduction in RDS (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.82; I2=91.4%; p<0.001), mortality (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.81; I2=85.9%; p<0.001), IVH (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.83; I2=77.4%; p<0.001) and PVL (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.92; I2=75.5%; p<0.001). Subgroup analyses showed ACS completeness, administration-to-delivery interval and multicentre study affected these associations. DISCUSSION: ACS may be beneficial for reducing the risks of RDS, mortality, IVH and PVL among preterm multiple gestations. The efficacy of ACS could be affected by ACS completeness and administration-to-delivery. More robust evidence on the efficacy of ACS treatment among multiple gestations is warranted.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morbidade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle
20.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 36(5): 927-941, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472142

RESUMO

Although crucial in improving health outcomes in the preterm infants, parenteral nutrition (PN) is not without risk, especially if handled improperly. A growing body of evidence suggests that components of PN admixtures, including lipid injectable emulsions (ILEs), are susceptible to degradation, including oxidation when exposed to light (ie, photo-oxidation), resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species. Infants, especially those born preterm, are considered more susceptible to consequences of oxidative stress than children and adults. Oxidative stress is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intestinal failure-associated liver disease. The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) assembled a working group to provide recommendations on clinical practice surrounding photoprotection of PN.This Position Paper reviews the scientific literature on the formation of quantifiable peroxides and other degradation products when PN admixtures and ILEs are exposed to light and reports adverse clinical outcomes in premature infants exposed to PN. Recommendations for photoprotection of PN admixtures and ILEs are provided, as well as the challenges in achieving complete photoprotection with the equipment, supplies, and materials currently available in the US. ASPEN and the authors understand that the full implementation of complete photoprotection may not currently be feasible given current product availability; recommendations provided in this paper serve to represent the goal to which to strive as well as to highlight the importance of product availability to achieve these practices. This paper has been approved by the ASPEN Board of Directors.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Doenças do Prematuro , Criança , Nutrição Enteral , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Nutrição Parenteral , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...