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1.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 12(4): e1249, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is perceived as lethal tissue damage and significantly increases mortality in combination with acute kidney injury (AKI). M2 macrophages play important roles in the secretion of anti-inflammatory and tissue repair mediators. We aimed to study the role of Dehydroandrographolide (Deh) in sepsis-associated AKI in vitro and in vivo through lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages model and cecal ligation and puncture-induced AKI mice model, and to reveal the mechanism related to M2 macrophage polarization. METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to assess the levels of inflammatory factors. Expression of markers related to M1 macrophages and M2 macrophages were analyzed. Additionally, dual specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) expression was tested. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling staining. Moreover, renal histological assessment was performed by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS: Deh reduced inflammation of THP-1-derived macrophages exposed to LPS. Besides, Deh induced the polarization of M1 macrophages to M2 and downregulated DUSP3 expression in THP-1-derived macrophages under LPS conditions. Further, DUSP3 overexpression reversed the impacts of Deh on the inflammation and M2 macrophages polarization of THP-1-derived macrophages stimulated by LPS. Additionally, human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) in the condition medium from DUSP3-overexpressed THP-1-derived macrophages treated with LPS and Deh displayed decreased viability and increased apoptosis and inflammation. The in vivo results suggested that Deh improved the renal function, ameliorated pathological injury, induced the polarization of M1 macrophages to M2, suppressed inflammation and apoptosis, and downregulated DUSP3 expression in sepsis-induced mice. CONCLUSION: Deh facilitated M2 macrophage polarization by downregulating DUSP3 to inhibit septic AKI.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Diterpenos , Sepse , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Fosfatase 3 de Especificidade Dupla/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(15): 10393-10406, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569115

RESUMO

Covalent chemistry coupled with activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) offers a versatile way to discover ligands for proteins in native biological systems. Here, we describe a set of stereo- and regiochemically defined spirocycle acrylamides and the analysis of these electrophilic "stereoprobes" in human cancer cells by cysteine-directed ABPP. Despite showing attenuated reactivity compared to structurally related azetidine acrylamide stereoprobes, the spirocycle acrylamides preferentially liganded specific cysteines on diverse protein classes. One compound termed ZL-12A promoted the degradation of the TFIIH helicase ERCC3. Interestingly, ZL-12A reacts with the same cysteine (C342) in ERCC3 as the natural product triptolide, which did not lead to ERCC3 degradation but instead causes collateral loss of RNA polymerases. ZL-12A and triptolide cross-antagonized one another's protein degradation profiles. Finally, we provide evidence that the antihypertension drug spironolactone─previously found to promote ERCC3 degradation through an enigmatic mechanism─also reacts with ERCC3_C342. Our findings thus describe monofunctional degraders of ERCC3 and highlight how covalent ligands targeting the same cysteine can produce strikingly different functional outcomes.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Diterpenos , Fenantrenos , Humanos , Cisteína/química , Proteômica , Compostos de Epóxi
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8704-8714, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572931

RESUMO

Miltiradiene serves as a crucial precursor in the synthesis of various high-value abietane-type diterpenes, exhibiting diverse pharmacological activities. Previous efforts to enhance miltiradiene production have primarily focused on the mevalonate acetate (MVA) pathway. However, limited emphasis has been placed on optimizing the supply of acetyl-CoA and NADPH. In this study, we constructed a platform yeast strain for miltiradiene production by reinforcing the biosynthetic pathway of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) and acetyl-CoA, and addressing the imbalance between the supply and demand of the redox cofactor NADPH within the cytoplasm, resulting in an increase in miltiradiene yield to 1.31 g/L. Furthermore, we conducted modifications to the miltiradiene synthase fusion protein tSmKSL1-CfTPS1. Finally, the comprehensive engineering strategies and protein modification strategies culminated in 1.43 g/L miltiradiene in the engineered yeast under shake flask culture conditions. Overall, our work established efficient yeast cell factories for miltiradiene production, providing a foothold for heterologous biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Abietanos , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos
4.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611928

RESUMO

Diterpenes represent one of the most diverse and structurally complex families of natural products. Among the myriad of diterpenoids, grayanane diterpenes are particularly notable. These terpenes are characterized by their unique 5/7/6/5 tetracyclic system and are exclusive to the Ericaceae family of plants. Renowned for their complex structures and broad spectrum of bioactivities, grayanane diterpenes have become a primary focus in extensive phytochemical and pharmacological research. Recent studies, spanning from 2018 to January 2024, have reported a series of new grayanane diterpenes with unprecedented carbon skeletons. These compounds exhibit various biological properties, including analgesic, antifeedant, anti-inflammatory, and inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). This paper delves into the discovery of 193 newly identified grayanoids, representing 15 distinct carbon skeletons within the Ericaceae family. The study of grayanane diterpenes is not only a deep dive into the complexities of natural product chemistry but also an investigation into potential therapeutic applications. Their unique structures and diverse biological actions make them promising candidates for drug discovery and medicinal applications. The review encompasses their occurrence, distribution, structural features, and biological activities, providing invaluable insights for future pharmacological explorations and research.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Diterpenos , Ericaceae , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Carbono
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612797

RESUMO

Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolisms participate in N source-regulated secondary metabolism in medicinal plants, but the specific mechanisms involved remain to be investigated. By using nitrate (NN), ammonium (AN), urea (UN), and glycine (GN), respectively, as sole N sources, we found that N sources remarkably affected the contents of diterpenoid lactone components along with C and N metabolisms reprograming in Andrographis paniculata, as compared to NN, the other three N sources raised the levels of 14-deoxyandrographolide, andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide (except UN), and neoandrographolide (except AN) with a prominent accumulation of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP). These N sources also raised the photosynthetic rate and the levels of fructose and/or sucrose but reduced the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). Conversely, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and malate enzyme (ME) activities were upregulated. Simultaneously, citrate, cis-aconitate and isocitrate levels declined, and N assimilation was inhibited. These results indicated that AN, UN and GN reduced the metabolic flow of carbohydrates from glycolysis into the TCA cycle and downstream N assimilation. Furthermore, they enhanced arginine and GABA metabolism, which increased C replenishment of the TCA cycle, and increased ethylene and salicylic acid (SA) levels. Thus, we proposed that the N sources reprogrammed C and N metabolism, attenuating the competition of N assimilation for C, and promoting the synthesis and accumulation of andrographolide through plant hormone signaling. To obtain a higher production of andrographolide in A. paniculata, AN fertilizer is recommended in its N management.


Assuntos
Andrographis paniculata , Diterpenos , Extratos Vegetais , Carbono , Plântula
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0294932, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603666

RESUMO

An important dietary source of physiologically active compounds, coffee also contains phenolic acids, diterpenes, and caffeine. According to a certain study, some coffee secondary metabolites may advantageously modify a number of anti-cancer defense systems. This research looked at a few coffee chemical structures in terms of edge locating numbers or edge metric size to better understand the mechanics of coffee molecules. Additionally, this research includes graph theoretical properties of coffee chemical structures. The chemicals found in coffee, such as caffeine, diterpene or cafestol, kahweol, chlorogenic, caffeic, gallotannins, and ellagitannins, are especially examined in these publications.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Café/química , Cafeína , Dieta
7.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 43(1): 97, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CAR T cell therapy is a promising approach to improve outcomes and decrease toxicities for patients with cancer. While extraordinary success has been achieved using CAR T cells to treat patients with CD19-positive malignancies, multiple obstacles have so far limited the benefit of CAR T cell therapy for patients with solid tumors. Novel manufacturing and engineering approaches show great promise to enhance CAR T cell function against solid tumors. However, similar to single agent chemotherapy approaches, CAR T cell monotherapy may be unable to achieve high cure rates for patients with difficult to treat solid tumors. Thus, combinatorial drug plus CAR T cell approaches are likely required to achieve widespread clinical success. METHODS: We developed a novel, confocal microscopy based, high-content screen to evaluate 1114 FDA approved drugs for the potential to increase expression of the solid tumor antigen B7-H3 on the surface of osteosarcoma cells. Western blot, RT-qPCR, siRNA knockdown and flow cytometry assays were used to validate screening results and identify mechanisms of drug-induced B7-H3 upregulation. Cytokine and cytotoxicity assays were used to determine if drug pre-treatment enhanced B7-H3-CAR T cell effector function. RESULTS: Fifty-five drugs were identified to increase B7-H3 expression on the surface of LM7 osteosarcoma cells using a novel high-content, high-throughput screen. One drug, ingenol-3-angelate (I3A), increased B7-H3 expression by up to 100%, and was evaluated in downstream experiments. Validation assays confirmed I3A increased B7-H3 expression in a biphasic dose response and cell dependent fashion. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that I3A increased B7-H3 (CD276) mRNA, total protein, and cell surface expression via protein kinase C alpha activation. Functionally, I3A induced B7-H3 expression enhanced B7-H3-CAR T cell function in cytokine production and cytotoxicity assays. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a novel high-content and high-throughput screen can identify drugs to enhance CAR T cell activity. This and other high-content technologies will pave the way to develop clinical trials implementing rational drug plus CAR T cell combinatorial therapies. Importantly, the technique could also be repurposed for an array of basic and translational research applications where drugs are needed to modulate cell surface protein expression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Diterpenos , Osteossarcoma , Humanos , Proteína Quinase C-alfa/metabolismo , Antígenos B7/genética , Antígenos B7/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Linfócitos T , Citocinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
8.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14277, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566271

RESUMO

In order to maintain the dynamic physiological balance, plants are compelled to adjust their energy metabolism and signal transduction to cope with the abiotic stresses caused by complex and changeable environments. The diterpenoid natural compound and secondary metabolites, sclareol, derived from Salvia sclarea, has gained significant attention owing to its economic value as a spice material and diverse physiological activities. Here, we focused on the roles and regulatory mechanisms of the sclareol diterpene synthase gene SsdTPS in the resistance of S. sclarea to abiotic stresses. Our results suggested that abiotic stresses could induce the response and upregulation of SsdTPS expression and isoprenoid pathway in S. sclarea. Ectopic expression of SsdTPS conferred drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis, compared with wild-type. Overexpression of SsdTPS enhanced the transcription of ABA signal transduction synthetic regulators and induced the positive feedback upregulating key regulatory genes in the MEP pathway, thereby promoting the increase of ABA content and improving drought tolerance in transgenic plants. In addition, SsdTPS-overexpressed transgenic Arabidopsis improved the responses of stomatal regulatory genes and ROS scavenging enzyme activities and gene expression to drought stress. This promoted the stomatal closure and ROS reduction, thus enhancing water retention capacity and reducing oxidative stress damage. These findings unveil the potentially positive role of SsdTPS in orchestrating multiple regulatory mechanisms and maintaining homeostasis for improved abiotic stress resistance in S. sclarea, providing a novel insight into strategies for promoting drought resistance and cultivating highly tolerant plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Diterpenos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Secas , Retroalimentação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Terpenos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia
9.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 168, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573375

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the change in tear production associated with general anesthesia and the protective effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on the ocular surface during general anesthesia. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial included patients undergoing non-ophthalmic surgery under general anesthesia who randomly received vitamin A palmitate eye gel and taping for one eye (Group A, n = 60) or taping alone for the other eye (Group B, n = 60). Symptom assessment in dry eye (SANDE) score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) score, and Schirmer tear test I (STT-1) were analyzed under a hand-held slit lamp before anesthesia (T0), 0.5 h postoperatively (T1), and 24 h postoperatively (T2). RESULTS: At 0.5 h postoperatively, an increase in CFS score was observed in both groups (P < 0.05 in Group A and P < 0.01 in Group B), and the participants in Group A had less corneal abrasions than those in Group B. STT-1 significantly increased in Group A (P < 0.05), while it significantly decreased in Group B (P < 0.001). The changes between the two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). At 24 h postoperatively, both CFS score and STT-1 almost returned to baseline levels in the two groups. In both groups, the SANDE score and TBUT showed little change at 0.5 h and 24 h postoperatively (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Vitamin A palmitate eye gel effectively protected the ocular surface and aqueous supplementation during general anesthesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2100052140) on 20/10/2021.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Olho , Humanos , Anestesia Geral , Ésteres de Retinil , Géis
10.
Life Sci ; 345: 122592, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554947

RESUMO

Osteoporosis, characterized by bone metabolism disruption leading to gradual bone loss and increased fracture susceptibility, is linked to the excessive activation of osteoclasts. Pseudolaric acid B (PAB), identified as an NF-κB signaling inhibitor crucial for osteoclastogenesis, is explored here for its protective effects in osteoporosis. Noncytotoxic PAB's impact on osteoclast differentiation was assessed through cell viability and osteoclast formation assays, with subsequent testing of osteoclast function via bone resorption assays. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction evaluated PAB's genetic-level impact on osteoclastogenesis. Network pharmacology, western blot, and luciferase reporter gene assays were employed to elucidate PAB's regulatory mechanism. In an in vivo model of osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in mice, micro-CT, H&E staining, and TRAP staining facilitated histomorphometry analysis, while flow cytometry verified macrophage polarization. PAB demonstrated inhibitory effects on osteoclast formation and bone resorption in BMM and RAW264.7 cells, suppressing osteoclast-specific genes. Bioinformatic analysis, western blot, and luciferase assay results indicated PAB's inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation in the NF-κB signaling pathway and ERK in MAPKs, elucidating its mechanism. In vivo experiments confirmed PAB's attenuation of osteoporosis by reducing osteoclast formation in OVX mice. PAB further facilitated macrophage conversion from M1 to M2 and suppressed IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 synthesis. In conclusion, PAB prevents osteoporosis by inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through NF-κB and ERK signaling pathway suppression, coupled with macrophage polarization. These findings indicate the potential therapeutic role of PAB in osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Diterpenos , Osteoporose , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Osteoclastos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Transdução de Sinais , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Luciferases/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Ovariectomia
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5574-5584, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468388

RESUMO

To explore the use of nonfood plant-derived secondary metabolites for plant protection, a series of ester derivatives for controlling the major migratory agricultural pests were obtained by structural modification of andrographolide, a labdane diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata. Compound Id showed good insecticidal activity against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda Smith. Compounds IIa (LC50: 0.382 mg/mL) and IIIc (LC50: 0.563 mg/mL), the acaricidal activities of which were, respectively, 13.1 and 8.9 times that of andrographolide (LC50: 4.996 mg/mL), exhibited strong acaricidal and control effects against Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval. Against Aphis citricola Van der Goot, compounds IIIc and IVb displayed 3.9- and 3.7-fold pronounced aphicidal activity of andrographolide. Effects of compound Id on three protective enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase) of S. frugiperda were also observed. The obvious differences of epidermal cuticle structures of mites treated with compound IIa were determined by scanning electron microscopy. Structure-activity relationships indicated that 14-ester derivatives of andrographolide showed potential insecticidal/acaricidal activities and can be further utilized as lead compounds.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Produtos Biológicos , Diterpenos , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Praguicidas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Produtos Biológicos/química , Ésteres/química , Inseticidas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Acaricidas/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/química
12.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 40(3): 222-228, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512032

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effects of triptolide (TP) on microglial M1/M2 polarization after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established. TP was administered to rats at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg, with a sham surgery group as the control group. Longa scoring was performed to grade neurological deficits in rats; HE staining was used to observe the morphology of neurons in ischemic brain tissues; neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) immunofluorescence staining was used to measure the number of neurons; and Western blot analysis was used to measure the expression levels of ionised calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase 1 (Arg1), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), NeuN and caspase-3 in ischemic-brain tissues. The protein levels of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Immunofluorescence double labelling was performed to detect the expression of Arg1 and TLR4 in microglia. Results Compared with the model group, the neurological score of the TP treatment group was significantly reduced and the neuronal damage was significantly alleviated. IL-1ß levels decreased while IL-10 levels increased. The expression levels of iNOS, TLR4, NF-κB and caspase-3 decreased, while the expression levels of Arg1 and NeuN increased. Conclusion TP treatment ameliorates cerebral I/R injury in rats, which may be attributed to the promotion of microglial M2 polarization, thereby reducing the release of inflammatory factors and inhibiting apoptosis.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Diterpenos , Fenantrenos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Ratos , Caspase 3 , Interleucina-10 , Microglia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , NF-kappa B , Reperfusão , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1beta , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Epóxi
13.
Acta Cir Bras ; 39: e391424, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511762

RESUMO

PURPOSE: XinJiaCongRongTuSiZiWan (XJCRTSZW) is a traditional Chinese medicine compound for invigorating the kidney, nourishing blood, and promoting blood circulation. This study aimed to explore the effect of XJCRTSZW on triptolide (TP)-induced oxidative stress injury. METHODS: Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and human ovarian granulosa cell lines were treated with TP and XJCRTSZW. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, CCK-8, JC-1 staining, transmission electron microscopy, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting were performed in this study. RESULTS: XJCRTSZW treatment observably ameliorated the TP-induced pathological symptoms. Furthermore, XJCRTSZW treatment observably enhanced the TP-induced reduction of estradiol, anti-Mullerian hormone, progesterone, superoxide dismutase, ATP content, mitochondrial membrane potential, p62, and Hsp60 mRNA, and protein levels in vivo and in vitro (p < 0.05). However, TP-induced elevation of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, malondialdehyde levels, reactive oxygen species levels, apoptosis rate, mitophagy, and the mRNA and protein expressions of LC3-II/LC3-I, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), and Parkin were decreased (p < 0.05). In addition, XJCRTSZW treatment markedly increased cell viability in vitro (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: XJCRTSZW protects TP-induced rats from oxidative stress injury via the mitophagy-mediated PINK1/Parkin pathway.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Mitocôndrias , Mitofagia , Fenantrenos , Adulto , Ratos , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Oxidativo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Compostos de Epóxi
14.
Ren Fail ; 46(1): 2320834, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to undertake a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness and safety profile of Mahuang Fuzi and Shenzhuo Decoction (MFSD) in the management of primary membranous nephropathy (PMN), within the context of a prospective clinical investigation. METHODS: A multicenter, open-label clinical trial was executed on patients diagnosed with PMN. These individuals were subjected to MFSD therapy for a duration of at least 24 months, with primary outcome of clinical remission rates. The Cox regression analysis was employed to discern the pertinent risk factors exerting influence on the efficacy of MFSD treatment, with scrupulous monitoring of any adverse events. RESULTS: The study comprised 198 participants in total. Following 24 months of treatment, the remission rate was 58.6% (116/198). Among the subgroup of 130 participants subjected to a 36-month follow-up, the remission rate reached 70% (91/130). Subgroup analysis revealed that neither a history of immunosuppressive therapy (HIST) nor an age threshold of ≥60 years exhibited a statistically significant impact on the remission rate at the 24-month mark (p > .05). Multivariate Cox regression analyses elucidated HIST, nephrotic syndrome, or mass proteinuria, and a high-risk classification as noteworthy risk factors in the context of MFSD treatment. Remarkably, no fatalities resulting from side effects were documented throughout the study's duration. CONCLUSIONS: This trial establishes the efficacy of MFSD as a treatment modality for membranous nephropathy. MFSD demonstrates a favorable side effect profile, and remission rates are consistent across patients, irrespective of HIST and age categories.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa , Síndrome Nefrótica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diterpenos/efeitos adversos , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 399: 130596, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493939

RESUMO

Cembratriene-ol (CBT-ol), a plant-derived macrocyclic diterpene with notable insecticidal activity, has attracted considerable attention with respect to the development of sustainable and green biopesticides. Currently, CBT-ol production is limited by an inefficient and costly plant extraction strategy. Herein, CBT-ol production was enhanced by redesigning the CBT-ol biosynthetic pathway in Candida tropicalis, with subsequent truncation of CBT-ol synthase further increasing CBT-ol production. Moreover, bottlenecks in the CBT-ol biosynthetic pathway were eliminated by adjusting the gene dosage of the rate-limiting enzymes. Ultimately, the resulting strain C. tropicalis CPPt-03D produced 129.17 mg/L CBT-ol in shaking flasks (a 144-fold increase relative to that of the initial strain C01-CD) with CBT-ol production reaching 1,425.76 mg/L in a 5-L bioreactor, representing the highest CBT-ol titer reported to date. These findings provide a green process and promising platform for the industrial production of CBT-ol and lays the foundation for organic farming.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Diterpenos , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 447: 139044, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513481

RESUMO

The object of this study was to trace TwHf-derived toxins in raw honey and clarify their acute toxic effect related to the addition of honey or sugars. TwHf flowers, raw honey from TwHf planting base and from beekeepers in high-risk area were detected using LC-MS/MS. The results revealed five target toxins were detected in TwHf flowers; only celastrol was detected in one raw honey sample, as a food safety risk factor, celastrol had been traced back to TwHf flowers from raw honey. In a series of acute toxic tests on zebrafish, toxification effects were observed when honey, mimic honey or sugar was mixed with toxins. The degree of toxicity varied among various sugar-based solutions. At the same mass concentration, they follow this order: raw honey/mimic honey > glucose > fructose. The main toxic target organs of triptolide and celastrol with honey were the heart and liver.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Mel , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos , Fenantrenos , Tripterygium , Animais , Mel/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Peixe-Zebra , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Açúcares , Compostos de Epóxi
17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 269: 116313, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503168

RESUMO

Owing to the increasing resistance to most existing antimicrobial drugs, research has shifted towards developing novel antimicrobial agents with mechanisms of action distinct from those of current clinical options. Pleuromutilins are antibiotics known for their distinct mechanism of action, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. Recent studies have revealed that pleuromutilin derivatives can disrupt bacterial cell membranes, thereby enhancing antibacterial efficacy. Both marketed pleuromutilin derivatives and those in clinical trials have been developed by structurally modifying the pleuromutilin C14 side chain to improve their antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this review aims to review advancement in the chemical structural characteristics, antibacterial activities, and structure-activity relationship studies of pleuromutilins, specifically focusing on modifications made to the C14 side chain in recent years. These findings provide a valuable reference for future research and development of pleuromutilins.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Compostos Policíclicos , 60595 , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/química , Compostos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 328: 118010, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499260

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional herbal pair Paeoniae Radix Rubra (roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Chishao in Chinese) and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, Fuzi in Chinese) are widely used for the treatment of liver diseases, demonstrating clinical efficacy against acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). As the core drug pair representing the "clearing method" and "warming method" in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), they align with the TCM syndromic characteristics of ACLF, characterized by a mixture of deficiencies and realities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-ACLF effects of Chishao - Fuzi herbal pair remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To reveal the immunoinflammatory status of patients with hepatitis B virus-related ACLF (HBV-ACLF) based on macrophage polarization and to explore the mechanism of action of Chishao - Fuzi herbal pair in regulating macrophage polarization against ACLF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were prospectively obtained from patients with HBV-ACLF, patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the immunoactive phase and healthy individuals. Flow cytometry, qRT-qPCR, and ELISA were used to reveal the activation status of monocyte-macrophages and the expression differences in related cytokines in the peripheral blood of patients with HBV-ACLF. Then, an ACLF rat model and a macrophage inflammation model in vitro were established. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry, western blotting, RT-qPCR, and ELISA were used to observe changes in the expression of M1/M2 macrophage markers and related inflammatory factors after Chishao - Fuzi herbal pair intervention, both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Patients with HBV-ACLF exhibited an imbalance in M1/M2 macrophage polarization, showing a tendency to activate M1 macrophages with high expression of CD86 and iNOS. This imbalance led to an increase in relevant pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α) and a decrease in anti-inflammatory factors (IL-10, TGF-ß, VEGF), exacerbating the uncontrolled immune-inflammatory response. Chishao - Fuzi herbal pair intervention improved liver function, coagulation function, and histopathological injury in ACLF rats. It also partially ameliorated endotoxemia and inflammatory injury in ACLF. The mechanism was to restore the immune-inflammatory imbalance and prevent the exacerbation of inflammatory response to liver failure by promoting macrophage polarization toward M2 anti-inflammatory direction, inhibiting M1 macrophage activation, and increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory factors and decreasing pro-inflammatory factors. CONCLUSION: Chishao - Fuzi herbal pair can reduce the systemic inflammatory burden of liver failure by modulating macrophage polarization and restoring ACLF immune-inflammatory imbalance. This study provides new perspectives and strategies for studying HBV-ACLF immune reconstitution and inflammatory response control.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Diterpenos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1721: 464815, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522406

RESUMO

Microbial cell factories are an attractive alternative to produce high-value natural products using sustainable processes. However, product recovery is one of the main challenges to reduce production cost and make these technologies economically interesting. In this work, new resins were formulated to 3D print hydrophobic adsorbents for the recovery of biologics from microbial cultivations. Benzyl methacrylate (BEMA) and butyl methacrylate (BUMA) were selected as functional monomers suitable for the adsorption of hydrophobic compounds. Pore morphology was tailored through the inclusion of pore forming agents (porogens) in the resin. Different porogens and porogen concentrations were evaluated resulting in materials with different porous networks. Sudan 1 and the anticancer drug paclitaxel were employed as model compounds to test the adsorption performance of hydrophobic and terpene molecules onto the developed 3D printed materials. The material with greatest adsorption capacity was obtained using BEMA monomer with 40 % (v/v) porogen (BEMA40). The performance of BEMA40 to recover taxadiene from small-scale (5 mL) Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivations was tested and compared with commercial Diaion HP-20 beads. Taxadiene titres on BEMA40 (46 ± 2 mg/L) and Diaion HP-20 (54 ± 4 mg/L) were comparable, with no taxadiene detected in the cells and cell-free media, suggesting near 100 % taxadiene partition on the adsorbents. Compared to commercial beads, 3D printed adsorbents can be customized with adjustments in the resin formulation, are well adaptable to diverse bioreactor types, do not clog sampling ports and columns and are easier to handle during post processing. The results of this work demonstrate the potential of 3D printing to fabricate hydrophobic interaction adsorbent materials and their application in the recovery of biological products.


Assuntos
Alcenos , Diterpenos , Metacrilatos , Diterpenos/química , Paclitaxel , Terpenos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Impressão Tridimensional
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 328: 118036, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460575

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The proper application of toxic medicines is one of the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines, and the use of traditional Chinese medicines follows the principle of dialectical treatment. It is necessary to combine different "syndrome" or "disease" states with the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicines to form a reliable toxicity evaluation system. Fuzi, the lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx, is recognized as a panacea for kidney yang deficiency syndrome, however, its toxic effects significantly limit its clinical application. AIM OF THE STUDY: Herein, our research aimed to explore the toxic effects of Fuzi on syndrome models, and tried to reveal the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, the mouse model of kidney yang deficiency syndrome was established through intramuscular injection of 25 mg/kg hydrocortisone per day for 10 consecutive days. Then, the acute toxicity of Fuzi in normal mice and kidney yang deficiency model mice was explored. Finally, the plasma metabolite concentrations and liver CYP3A4 enzyme activity were analyzed to reveal the possible mechanisms of the different pharmacological and toxicological effects of Fuzi in individuals with different physical constitutions. RESULTS: It was found that the treatment with Fuzi (138 g/kg) had serious toxic effects on kidney yang deficiency mice, leading to the death of 80% of the mice, whereas it showed no lethal toxicity in normal mice. This indicates that Fuzi induced greater toxicity in kidney yang deficiency mice than in normal ones. The liver CYP3A4 enzyme activity in kidney yang deficiency mice was decreased by 20% compared to the controls, resulting in slower metabolism of the toxic diester diterpenoid alkaloids in Fuzi. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study showed that changes of the metabolic enzyme activity in individuals with different syndromes led to different toxic effects of Chinese medicines, emphasizing the crucial importance of considering individual physical syndromes in the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine, and the significance of conducting safety evaluations and dose predictions on animal models with specific syndromes for traditional Chinese medicines.


Assuntos
Aconitum , Diterpenos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Camundongos , Animais , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Deficiência da Energia Yang/induzido quimicamente , Deficiência da Energia Yang/tratamento farmacológico , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Rim
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