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1.
Med Clin North Am ; 106(1): 29-41, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823733

RESUMO

The Half-Century long problem of addiction treatment disparities. We cannot imagine addressing disparities in addiction treatment without first acknowledging and deconstructing the etiology of this inequity. This article examines the history of addiction treatment disparities beginning with early twentieth-century drug policies. We begin by discussing structural racism, its contribution to treatment disparities, using opioid use disorder as a case study to highlight the importance of a structural competency framework in obtaining care. We conclude by discussing diversity in the workforce as an additional tool to minimizing disparities. Addiction treatment should be aimed at addressing care delivery in the context of the social, economic, and political determinants of health, which require appreciation of their historical origins to move toward equitable treatment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/história , Mão de Obra em Saúde/ética , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , /prevenção & controle , Comportamento Aditivo/etiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Competência Cultural/educação , Diversidade Cultural , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , História do Século XX , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/história , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Política , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/ética , Fatores Socioeconômicos , /psicologia
3.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-12-03. (OPS/LEG/DH/dhs7/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55293

RESUMO

La Región de las Américas constituye un territorio extremadamente rico desde el punto de vista de la diversidad cultural, en la cual se presentan una variedad de desafíos relacionados con el reconocimiento y el respeto de los derechos humanos de los miembros de los pueblos indígenas, los afrodescendientes, los romaníes, así como de otros grupos étnicos. A lo largo del curso de la vida, estas personas experimentan discriminación estructural y poca representatividad e inclusión en los procesos de toma de decisiones, lo cual dificulta su acceso a los servicios de salud, afecta la calidad de la atención que reciben y tiene un efecto general en sus condiciones de vida. Por tanto, la protección y la promoción de su salud y seguridad socioeconómica es una cuestión no solo de política pública, sino también de protección y ejercicio de los derechos humanos. En esta publicación se presentan los instrumentos internacionales y regionales de derechos humanos y los sistemas de protección de esos derechos instaurados por las Naciones Unidas y el Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, así como medidas para hacerlos efectivos, con especial hincapié en el derecho a la salud, al medio ambiente sano y otros derechos relacionados con el cuidado del planeta.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Diversidade Cultural , Nações Unidas , Meio Ambiente e Saúde Pública , Ar , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes da Água , Água Potável , Mudança Climática , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
5.
Washington D.C; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1 ed; Dic. 2021. 32 p. ilus.(Serie Derechos Humanos y Salud, 7).
Monografia em Espanhol | LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1352692

RESUMO

En la presente publicación se describen los instrumentos internacionales y regionales de derechos humanos y los sistemas de protección de esos derechos instaurados por las Naciones Unidas y el Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, así como medidas para hacerlos efectivos, con especial hincapié en el derecho a la salud, al medio ambiente y cambio climático sano y otros derechos relacionados con el cuidado del planeta y una variedad de desafíos relacionados con el reconocimiento y el respeto de los derechos humanos de los miembros de los pueblos indígenas, los afrodescendientes, los romaníes, así como de otros grupos étnicos


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Grupos Étnicos , Diversidade Cultural , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Meio Ambiente , Poluição Ambiental , Povos Indígenas , Direito à Saúde , Direitos Humanos
6.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(2): 181-189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924055

RESUMO

The tremendous toll that COVID-19 has taken on this country's minority population is the most recent reminder of the health disparities between people of color and people who classify themselves as white. There are many reasons for these disparities, but one that gets less attention than it deserves is the lack of physicians of color available to treat patients of color.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Faculdades de Medicina , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , SARS-CoV-2 , Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Estados Unidos
7.
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948505

RESUMO

Research across healthcare contexts has shown that, if provided appropriately, spiritual care can be of significant benefit to patients. It can be challenging, however, to incorporate spiritual care in daily practice, not least in post-secular, culturally entwined, and pluralist contexts. The aim of this integrative review was to locate, evaluate and discuss spiritual-needs questionnaires from the post-secular perspective in relation to their applicability in secular healthcare. Eleven questionnaires were evaluated and discussed with a focus on religious/spiritual (RS) wording, local culturally entwined and pluralist contexts, and on whether a consensual understanding between patient and healthcare professional could be expected through RS wording. By highlighting some factors involved in implementing a spiritual-needs questionnaire in diverse cultural and vernacular contexts, this article can assist by providing a general guideline. This article offers an approach to the international exchange and implementation of knowledge, experiences, and best practice in relation to the use of spiritual needs-assessment questionnaires in post-secular contexts.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Espiritualidade , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(2): 190-205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924036

RESUMO

A significant body of evidence shows that law schools and many elite colleges use large admissions preferences based on race, and other evidence strongly suggests that large preferences can undermine student achievement in law school and undergraduate science majors, thus producing highly counterproductive effects. This article draws on available evidence to examine the use of racial preferences in medical school admissions, and finds strong reasons for concern about the effects and effectiveness of current affirmative action efforts. The author calls for better data and careful investigation of several identified patterns.


Assuntos
Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Faculdades de Medicina , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Política Pública , Estados Unidos
10.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(2): 206-210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924042

RESUMO

This article argues that because racial inequalities are embedded in American society, as well as in medicine, more evidence-based investigation of the effects and implications of affirmative action is needed. Residency training programs should also seek ways to recruit medical students from underrepresented groups and to create effective mentorship programs.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Internato e Residência , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Política Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259802, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919540

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: European societies are rapidly becoming multicultural. Cultural diversity presents new challenges and opportunities to communities that receive immigrants and migrants, and highlights the need for culturally safe healthcare. Universities share a responsibility to build a fair and equitable society by integrating cultural content in the nursing curricula. This paper aims to analyze European student nurses´ experience of learning cultural competence and of working with patients from diverse cultural backgrounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A phenomenological approach was selected through a qualitative research method. 7 semi-structured focus groups with 5-7 students took place at the participants' respective universities in Spain, Belgium, Turkey and Portugal. RESULTS: 5 themes and 16 subthemes emerged from thematic analysis. Theme 1, concept of culture/cultural diversity, describes the participants' concept of culture; ethnocentricity emerged as a frequent element in the students' discourse. Theme 2, personal awareness, integrates the students' self-perception of cultural competence and their learning needs. Theme 3, impact of culture, delves on the participants' perceived impact of cultural on both nursing care and patient outcomes. Theme 4, learning cultural competence, integrates the participants' learning experiences as part of their nursing curricula, as part of other academic learning opportunities and as part of extra-academic activities. Theme 5, learning cultural competence during practice placements, addresses some important issues including witnessing unequal care, racism, prejudice and conflict, communication and language barriers, tools and resources and positive attitudes and behaviors witnesses or displayed during clinical practice. CONCLUSION: The participants' perceived level of cultural competence was variable. All the participants agreed that transcultural nursing content should be integrated in the nursing curricula, and suggested different strategies to improve their knowledge, skills and attitudes. It is important to listen to the students and take their opinion into account when designing cultural teaching and learning activities.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural/psicologia , Atenção à Saúde/ética , Aprendizagem , Percepção Social/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Enfermagem Transcultural/organização & administração , Bélgica , Barreiras de Comunicação , Competência Cultural/educação , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , Preconceito/prevenção & controle , Preconceito/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha , Enfermagem Transcultural/educação , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2081, 2021 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explored the experiences of people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds in Greater Western Sydney, Australia, in selected livelihood items during COVID-19 and the perceived impacts of the pandemic on their lives. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data between 25 August and 30 September 2020 among CALD communities in Greater Western Sydney. Information was collected on respondents' experiences in selected livelihood items, including housing, finances, safety, accessing social services and activities, finding work, food, clothing, and relationships during COVID-19 and the pandemic's perceived impact on their lives. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-eight participants were included in the study, 45.5% male and 54.5% female. Many respondents reported their experience in the selected livelihood items as "worse" during COVID-19 at the time of the study. The feeling of safety was most disrupted, with 56% of respondents rating their experience as "worse". This experience was followed by accessing social support group activities, with 50% of respondents stating their experience of using this service had worsened. The experience of accessing social services and financial situation was rated as "worse" by 41% of respondents. Experience in finding work, housing, and attending schools were all rated as "worse". The median perceived impact of COVID-19 among respondents who rated their experience in the selected livelihood items as "worse" were statistically higher than those who rated their experience as the "same". Respondents' characteristics also predicted the perceived impact of COVID-19. Unemployed respondents were 3.53 (95% CI: 1.16-10.73, p = 0.026) times more likely to perceive the impact of COVID-19 on their lives as "high" compared to employed respondents. CONCLUSIONS: The finding demonstrates that the "high" number of respondents had the same situation as before COVID-19 and highlights the level of resilience exhibited by CALD communities in the Australian context. It also suggests that services in Australia were good during the pandemic. However, enhanced policy and initiatives designed to meet the CALD population's needs are required, particularly in the areas most reported to have been disrupted by changes associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Fam Med ; 53(10): 894-895, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780660
15.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(3)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781354

RESUMO

Now more than ever, the lack of racial and ethnic diversity must be addressed within the health care system, specifically in occupational therapy. This change starts with the successful completion of educational programs by underrepresented minority (URM) occupational therapy students. To increase diversity in the profession, accrediting bodies should mandate support for students of all backgrounds to be successful in higher education. As addressed in the American Occupational Therapy Association 2020 Code of Ethics, the Vision 2025 statement and its pillars, current knowledge on health disparities and occupational therapy demographic data, and other health professional programs' accreditation standards, there is a need for an addition to, or revision of, the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE®) standards to support the recruitment and retention of URM occupational therapy students. What This Article Adds: This column provides an evidence-based rationale to address the need for an ACOTE standard requiring documented efforts to support racial and ethnic diversity within occupational therapy education.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Acreditação , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Estados Unidos
16.
Appl Nurs Res ; 62: 151511, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815007

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Cultural diversities in both patients and health professionals possess difficulties in cultural care. Such cultural diversities can lead to culturally inappropriate care and health disparities. Delivering culturally competent nursing care is a powerful tool to provide care equally for all patients and eliminate health disparities among culturally diverse people. The present study aimed to explore the cultural competence of nurses and associated barriers in Ethiopian tertiary hospitals. METHODS: The study was conducted on eight purposively selected key informants from March 1 to April 30, 2018. Data was collected using semi-structured questions through face to face in-depth interview. The collected data analyzed using thematic analysis and presented in the form of text and table. RESULTS: Eight (n = 3 females and n = 5 males) participants were involved in the study. After extensive analysis, four themes emerged: cultural competence, linguistic competence, cultural competence education and training, and barriers to cultural competence. Another six subthemes of barriers encountered by participants identified and consisted of the language barrier, trained interpreter and translator limitation, lack of knowledge of the patient's culture, lack of multicultural nursing workforce, and shortage of nursing staff, cultural and linguistic stereotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses less focused on cultural aspects of patients, and they focused more on biological factors and patients' disease. Interestingly, they expressed respect for the cultural and religious practice of patients and showed an interest to learn about cultural care nursing. Cultural competence of participants was hindered by several barriers that need nurses to overcome it.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Centros de Atenção Terciária
18.
Mol Biol Cell ; 32(22): ae2, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735269

RESUMO

If this was not happening in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, I imagine that I would be speaking these words instead of writing them on my laptop. Even so, I am so jazzed for this opportunity! No word or phrase describes what I am feeling in this moment in receiving the 2021 American Society for Cell Biology Prize for Excellence in Inclusivity. It is certainly an honor to be recognized in this way. I am grateful to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute for awarding me additional resources to keep on keeping on. My approach to finding the connection between people and their science certainly could use the monetary support. Resources open doors. At the same time that I am grateful for the attention, I am not exactly sure what to do with the spotlight. Importantly, there are a host of other folks out there also doing amazing things who have never been recognized. Let's work to ensure that their contributions are supported, appreciated, and recognized. Instead of focusing the spotlight on me, I would rather redirect it to recognize my foundational influences. I also hope to encourage the need for institutional approaches beyond celebrating individual accomplishment.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Diversidade Cultural , Mudança Social , Academias e Institutos , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Meio Social
19.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-11-22. (OPS/LEG/DH/dhs1/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55199

RESUMO

La Región de las Américas constituye un territorio extremadamente rico desde el punto de vista de la diversidad cultural, en la cual se presentan una variedad de desafíos relacionados con el reconocimiento y el respeto de los derechos humanos de los miembros de los pueblos indígenas, los afrodescendientes, los romaníes, así como de otros grupos étnicos. A lo largo del curso de la vida, estas personas experimentan discriminación estructural y poca representatividad e inclusión en los procesos de toma de decisiones, lo cual dificulta su acceso a los servicios de salud, afecta la calidad de la atención que reciben y tiene un efecto general en sus condiciones de vida. Por tanto, la protección y la promoción de su salud y seguridad socioeconómica es una cuestión no solo de política pública, sino también de protección y ejercicio de los derechos humanos. En esta publicación se presentan los instrumentos internacionales y regionales de derechos humanos y los sistemas de protección de esos derechos instaurados por las Naciones Unidas y el Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, así como medidas para hacerlos efectivos, con especial hincapié en el derecho a la salud de estos grupos en los países de las Américas.


Assuntos
Distribuição por Etnia , Povos Indígenas , Diversidade Cultural , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Grupos Étnicos , Roma (Grupo Étnico) , Direitos Humanos
20.
Neuron ; 109(19): 3018-3021, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619081

RESUMO

In an interview with Neuron, Bart De Strooper charts how support from unconventional leaders has informed his inclusive mentorship style. He discusses the need for science literacy and advocacy to combat existential crises, and his optimism around the ongoing revolution in dementia research.


Assuntos
Neurociências/tendências , COVID-19 , Escolha da Profissão , Diversidade Cultural , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Mentores , Pandemias , Pesquisa , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto
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