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2.
J Surg Res ; 257: 246-251, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Training diverse house staff, including those who are underrepresented in medicine, is vital to provide high-quality patient care for the communities that we serve. In 2018, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education announced new common program requirements for systematic efforts to recruit and retain a diverse workforce. However, questions remain about how to implement such efforts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) data from eight residency programs spanning two recruitment cycles (2017-2018, 2018-2019) was reviewed. The number of candidates at each stage in the process (applicant, invited to interview, interviewed, and matched) was examined by self-identified race or ethnicity. These data were presented to residency program directors at our Graduate Medical Education committee meeting before the next recruitment cycle. Data were analyzed following the 2019-20 residency match. Odds ratios and Pearson's chi-squared test were used to assess statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 10,445 and 10,982 medical students applied to our 8 core residency programs in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Medical students who applied and self-identified as Asian, Black or African American, and Hispanic or Latino or Spanish origin had lower odds of being invited to interview than those who self-identified as White. After data presentation, the odds of inviting Black or African American applicants to interview increased significantly. The odds of attending an interview once invited were the same across groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sharing ERAS data patterns with residency program directors was associated with a significant year over year change in interviewee diversity. Structured analysis of institutional ERAS data can provide insight into the resident selection process and may be a useful tool to improve house staff diversity.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Candidatura a Emprego , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(4): 58, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315121

RESUMO

This paper uses the example of the COVID-19 pandemic to analyse the danger associated with insufficient epistemic pluralism in evidence-based public health policy. Drawing on certain elements in Paul Feyerabend's political philosophy of science, it discusses reasons for implementing more pluralism as well as challenges to be tackled on the way forward.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Política de Saúde , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , /epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle
4.
Am J Bioeth ; 20(12): 5-13, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196380

RESUMO

Theological and secular voices in bioethics have drifted into separate silos. Such a separation results in part from (1) theologians focusing less on conveying ideas in ways that contribute to a pluralistic and public bioethical discourse and (2) the dwindling receptivity of religious arguments within secular bioethics. This essay works against these drifts by putting forward an argument that does not bounce around a religious echo-chamber, but instead demonstrates how insights of Christian anthropology can be meaningfully responsive to secular bioethics' rightful concerns with inequality and injustice. We offer core concepts from Christian bioethics that encourage dialogue with secular and theological bioethicists. The theologically-grounded concepts, human dignity, sin, and the common good, provide intellectual resources to address major areas of bioethical concern that remain unresolved.


Assuntos
Bioética , Religião , Cristianismo , Diversidade Cultural , Eticistas , Humanos , Teologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241980, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171482

RESUMO

While many languages are in danger of extinction worldwide, multilingualism is being adopted for communication among different language groups, and is playing a unique role in preserving language and cultural diversities. How multilingualism is developed and maintained therefore becomes an important interdisciplinary research subject for understanding complex social changes of modern-day societies. In this paper, a mixed population of multilingual speakers and bilingual speakers in particular is considered, with multilingual defined broadly as zero, limited, or full uses of multiple languages or dialects, and an evolutionary dynamic model for its development and evolution is proposed. The model consists of two different parts, formulated as two different evolutionary games, respectively. The first part accounts for the selection of languages based on the competition for population and social or economic preferences. The second part relates to circumstances when the selection of languages is altered, for better or worse, by forces other than competition such as public policies, education, or family influences. By combining competition with intervention, the paper shows how multilingualism may evolve under these two different sources of influences. It shows in particular that by choosing appropriate interventional strategies, the stable co-existence of languages, especially in multilingual forms, is possible, and extinction can be prevented. This is in contrast with major predictions from previous studies that the co-existence of languages is unstable in general, and one language will eventually dominate while all others will become extinct.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Comunicação , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos
7.
Am J Bioeth ; 20(12): 16-18, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196388
15.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; Vol. 31(1): 21-30, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045816

RESUMO

With the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, international law provides an effective reference source beyond the law of the States. This law has two specific characteristics. In the first place it is as much a law in relation with new technologies as a law of principles because it applies the principles in the light of the diversity of scientific practices.Secondly, these technologies are at their most active in the field of globalization and support some standardization of practices.When the first character deals with power and standardization of scientific practices, the second – the normative aspect – recognizes the cultural and professional dimension of technoscience. In both cases, the diffusion and integration of science and technologies in society is a global phenomenon, exceeding the sphere of local cultures and laws.


Assuntos
Bioética , Direitos Humanos , Direito Internacional , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Internacionalidade
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867132

RESUMO

The present study forms part of the project "Cross-disciplinary education for sexual, body, and gender diversity" (Code 419). The aim of this study was to analyze the role played by the psychoeducational variables involved in burnout (resilience, self-efficacy, self-esteem, emotional intelligence, empathy, and everyday stress) on attitudes toward sexual and gender diversity rights. Participants comprised 170 university students undertaking a degree in primary education. Instruments were administered to assess the constructs analyzed, ensuring informed consent, voluntary participation, anonymity, and data confidentiality. An ex post facto design was employed to determine whether attitudes toward sexual and gender diversity rights are influenced by the possible relationships and role of these variables. We found statistically significant associations between students' attitudes toward sexual and gender diversity at all three levels (sociocultural, relational, and personal) and the variable of burnout. Attitudes towards gender sexual orientation and gender identity rights influence burnout, and vice versa. As we ponder deeply about how these factors influence one another, we can shift our perspectives in a way that builds social harmony. It is important to learn how exactly these influences work, and this knowledge translates into making teaching strategies more effective to help raise awareness about guaranteeing rights for all. At the personal level of students' attitudes toward sexual and gender diversity/equality, we found positive correlations between this level and the total score for the variable of resilience and with its factor of personal competence. The data obtained will be of use for future psychoeducational assessment and intervention programs related to an education in sexual orientation and gender identity rights that are aimed at developing socio-emotional competencies and attention to diversity with the ultimate goal of improving social harmony by dismantling stereotypes and raising awareness of the importance of the variables of resilience, self-efficacy, self-esteem, emotional intelligence, empathy, and everyday stress which highlights how "education is an instrument of social transformation".


Assuntos
Empatia , Identidade de Gênero , Resiliência Psicológica , Autoeficácia , Estresse Psicológico , Atitude , Diversidade Cultural , Inteligência Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2015205, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870313

RESUMO

Importance: Increasing diversity in the physician workforce is a fulcrum for reducing health disparities. Efforts to increase the diversity in the internal medicine (IM) workforce may improve health equity among an increasingly diverse population with increasing prevalence of chronic disease. Objectives: To assess diversity trends in the academic IM workforce and evaluate how well these trends reflected medical student diversity and the changing demographic composition of the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study analyzed data from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 2018, from the Association of American Medical Colleges Faculty Roster and Applicant Matriculant File, which capture full-time US medical school faculty and matriculants, respectively, and population data through 2017 from the US Census Bureau. Main Outcomes and Measures: The study calculated the proportions of women and individuals from racial/ethnic groups that are traditionally underrepresented in medicine (URM) among IM faculty and faculty in all other clinical departments. These data were compared with the proportions of female and URM matriculants in US medical schools and the proportions of women and individuals from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups in the population. The analysis was stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and intersections of sex and race/ethnicity. Results: From 1980 to 2018, the absolute number of full-time IM faculty increased from 10 964 to 42 547. Although IM was the department classification with the most women faculty, in 2018 it continued to have a lower proportion of women (n = 17 165 [40.3%]) compared with all other clinical departments (n = 48 936 [43.2%]). Among IM faculty, the percentage of URM faculty members more than doubled during the study period (from 4.1% to 9.7%) but still made up only a small portion of faculty members. The percentage of female matriculants among medical school matriculants increased steadily (from 28.7% in 1980 to 51.6% in 2018) and was nearly identical to their population representation in 2017 (50.7% compared with 50.8%). Although the percentage of URM matriculants had nearly doubled since 1980 (from 11.3% to 18.1%), it still lagged far behind the proportion of individuals in the US population who are members of underrepresented racial/ethnic groups (18.1% vs 31.5% in 2017). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that progress has been made in diversifying academic IM faculty; however, it does not yet reflect the diversity of medical students or the US population. Continued efforts to increase the diversity of the academic IM workforce are needed.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Grupos Étnicos , Docentes de Medicina , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Medicina Interna/educação , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Feminino , Equidade em Saúde/normas , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Melhoria de Qualidade , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
20.
Acad Med ; 95(12): 1844-1852, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889948

RESUMO

As educators, researchers, clinicians, and administrators, faculty serve pivotal roles in academic medical centers (AMCs). Thus, the quality of faculty members' experiences is inseparable from an AMC's success. In seeking new methods to assess equity in advancement in academic medicine, the authors developed the Rank Equity Index (REI)-adapted from the Executive Parity Index, a scale previously implemented within the business sector-to examine national data on gender and racial/ethnic equity across faculty ranks. The REI was employed on self-reported demographic data, collected by the Association of American Medical Colleges, from U.S. medical school faculty in 2017, to make pairwise rank comparisons of the professoriate by demographic characteristics and department. Overall results indicated that women did not attain parity at any pairwise rank comparison, while men were above parity at all ranks. Similar results were observed across all departments surveyed: women in the basic sciences had REIs closest to parity, women in pediatrics had the highest representation but had REIs that were further from parity than REIs in the basic sciences, and women in surgery demonstrated the lowest REIs. Nationally, REIs were below 1.00 for all racial/ethnic group rank comparisons except for White and, in one case, multiple-race non-Hispanic/Latinx. Across all analyzed departments, Black/African American, Asian, Hispanic/Latinx, and multiple-race Hispanic/Latinx faculty had REIs below parity at all ranks except in 2 cases. In a comparison of 2017 and 2007 data, REIs across both race/ethnicity and gender were lower in 2007 for nearly all groups. REI analyses can highlight inequities in faculty rank that may be masked when using aggregate faculty proportions, which do not account for rank. The REI provides AMCs with a new tool to better analyze institutional data to inform efforts to increase parity across all faculty ranks.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Diversidade Cultural , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
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