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1.
Rev. esp. patol ; 57(2): 91-96, Abr-Jun, 2024. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232412

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivo: La inteligencia artificial se halla plenamente presente en nuestras vidas. En educación las posibilidades de su uso son infinitas, tanto para alumnos como para docentes. Material y métodos: Se ha explorado la capacidad de ChatGPT a la hora de resolver preguntas tipo test a partir del examen de la asignatura Procedimientos Diagnósticos y Terapéuticos Anatomopatológicos de la primera convocatoria del curso 2022-2023. Además de comparar su resultado con el del resto de alumnos presentados, se han evaluado las posibles causas de las respuestas incorrectas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado su capacidad para realizar preguntas de test nuevas a partir de instrucciones específicas. Resultados: ChatGPT ha acertado 47 de las 68 preguntas planteadas, obteniendo una nota superior a la de la media y mediana del curso. La mayor parte de preguntas falladas presentan enunciados negativos, utilizando las palabras «no», «falsa» o «incorrecta» en su enunciado. Tras interactuar con él, el programa es capaz de darse cuenta de su error y cambiar su respuesta inicial por la correcta. Finalmente, ChatGPT sabe elaborar nuevas preguntas a partir de un supuesto teórico o bien de una simulación clínica determinada. Conclusiones: Como docentes estamos obligados a explorar las utilidades de la inteligencia artificial, e intentar usarla en nuestro beneficio. La realización de tareas que suponen un consumo de tipo importante, como puede ser la elaboración de preguntas tipo test para evaluación de contenidos, es un buen ejemplo. (AU)


Introduction and objective: Artificial intelligence is fully present in our lives. In education, the possibilities of its use are endless, both for students and teachers. Material and methods: The capacity of ChatGPT has been explored when solving multiple choice questions based on the exam of the subject «Anatomopathological Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures» of the first call of the 2022-23 academic year. In addition, to comparing their results with those of the rest of the students presented the probable causes of incorrect answers have been evaluated. Finally, its ability to formulate new test questions based on specific instructions has been evaluated. Results: ChatGPT correctly answered 47 out of 68 questions, achieving a grade higher than the course average and median. Most failed questions present negative statements, using the words «no», «false» or «incorrect» in their statement. After interacting with it, the program can realize its mistake and change its initial response to the correct answer. Finally, ChatGPT can develop new questions based on a theoretical assumption or a specific clinical simulation. Conclusions: As teachers we are obliged to explore the uses of artificial intelligence and try to use it to our benefit. Carrying out tasks that involve significant consumption, such as preparing multiple-choice questions for content evaluation, is a good example. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Patologia , Inteligência Artificial , Ensino , Educação , Docentes de Medicina , Estudantes
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 518, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730375

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Satisfaction should be prioritized to maximize the value of education for trainees. This study was conducted with professors, fellows, and surgical residents in the Department of general surgery (GS) to evaluate the importance of various educational modules to surgical residents. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to professors (n = 28), fellows (n = 8), and surgical residents (n = 14), and the responses of the three groups were compared. Four different categories of educational curricula were considered: instructor-led training, clinical education, self-paced learning, and hands-on training. RESULTS: The majority of surgeons regarded attending scrubs as the most important educational module in the training of surgical residents. However, while professors identified assisting operators by participating in surgery as the most important, residents assessed the laparoscopic training module with animal models as the most beneficial. CONCLUSIONS: The best educational training course for surgical residents was hands-on training, which would provide them with several opportunities to operate and perform surgical procedures themselves.


Assuntos
Currículo , Cirurgia Geral , Internato e Residência , Humanos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cirurgiões/educação , Masculino , Feminino , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Docentes de Medicina , Competência Clínica
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 532, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although extensive research exists about students' clinical learning, there is a lack of translation and integration of this knowledge into clinical educational practice. As a result, improvements may not be implemented and thus contribute to students' learning. The present study aimed to explore the nature of clinical faculty members' learning related to how they apply research about student autonomy. METHODS: A course, "Designing learning for students' development of autonomy in clinical practice" was conducted for faculty responsible for students' clinical education. Within the frame of the course the participants designed a project and planned how they would implement it in their clinical context. Fourteen clinical faculty members participated in the study. The participants' interpretation of the educational intervention, which combines complex theory with the equally complex clinical practice, was explored by studying how the participants' approaches and understanding of the facilitation of autonomy were manifested in their projects. The projects in the form of reports and oral presentations were analyzed using qualitative content analysis together with an abductive approach. FINDINGS: One identified domain was "Characteristics of the design and content of the projects". This domain was signified by two themes with different foci: Preparing the soil for facilitating student autonomy; and Cultivating opportunities for students to actively strive for autonomy. A second identified domain, "Embracing the meaning of facilitating autonomy" was connected to participants understanding of theories underlying how to support the development of autonomy. This domain contained two themes: Connection between activities and autonomy is self-evident and Certain factors can explain and facilitate development of autonomy. CONCLUSION: Education directed to strategic clinical faculty members to develop evidence-based approaches to student learning can be productive. To succeed there is a need to emphasize faculty members individual understanding of actual research as well as learning theories in general. Faculty trying to reinforce changes are dependent on their own mandate, the structure in the clinic, and recognition of their work in the clinical context. To achieve a potential continuity and sustainability of implemented changes the implementation processes must be anchored throughout the actual organization.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Feminino , Competência Clínica , Masculino , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Autonomia Profissional , Currículo
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 501, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementing PBL in teaching and learning can be challenging due to a variety of complex barriers. Studies on barriers to the implementation of problem-based learning in Ethiopia are scarce. This study aimed to explore the barriers to the implementation of problem-based learning at the Debre Berhan University Medical School. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted among faculty and medical students at the medical school. Purposive sampling was used to select participants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with tutors and academic leaders, including the problem-based learning coordinator, the biomedical sciences coordinator, and the school dean. Data was also collected from students through focus group discussions. All interviews and discussions were recorded. The four steps of data analysis of Spradley, including domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, componential analysis, and theme analysis, were employed. RESULTS: The study identified student-related, tutor-related, case scenario-related, and assessment-related barriers as the most significant obstacles to implementing problem-based learning. These barriers included work overload for both students and tutors, lack of training and experience among tutors, student reluctance, absence of standardized case scenarios, subjectivity of assessment methods, and on-the-spot assessment of students. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Lack of both tutor and student commitment, lack of standardized cases, absence of a recognition of staff input, gap in communication skills, work overload, lack of continuous training, and at-spot evaluation of students were identified as the main barriers to the implementation of PBL.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Etiópia , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Grupos Focais , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Masculino , Feminino , Docentes de Medicina , Entrevistas como Assunto
6.
Tunis Med ; 102(4): 212-216, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746960

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The valorisation of thesis through its publication is necessary to enhance its visibility. Few data exist concerning the characteristics of theses defended at the Tunis faculty of medicine. AIM: Examine the publication rate of pediatric theses and identify factors associated with an increased publication rate. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive bibliometric study of pediatric theses defended at the Faculty of Medicine of Tunis over 15 years, from 2006 to 2020. Theses were retrieved from the catalog of the faculty library. Publications had been searched in databases "Pub Med ", and "Google Scholar" until December2021. RESULTS: The study involved 235 pediatric theses. Sixty-eight theses were published, representing 29% of the total. The main topics of published theses were neonatology (16%) and hematology (15%). The language of publication was French and English in 55% and 45% of cases, respectively. All publications in Q1 and Q2 journals were written in English. The only independent factor predicting publication of theses was the very honourable mention with congratulations of the jury and proposal for the thesis prize (p=0,007). CONCLUSION: Additional assessments will be necessary to identify the obstacles to the publication of theses.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Pediatria , Editoração , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatria/organização & administração , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Dissertações Acadêmicas como Assunto , Criança , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 20: 17455057241252574, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742705

RESUMO

Despite decades of faculty professional development programs created to prepare women for leadership, gender inequities persist in salary, promotion, and leadership roles. Indeed, men still earn more than women, are more likely than women to hold the rank of professor, and hold the vast majority of positions of power in academic medicine. Institutions demonstrate commitment to their faculty's growth by investing resources, including creating faculty development programs. These programs are essential to help prepare women to lead and navigate the highly matrixed, complex systems of academic medicine. However, data still show that women persistently lag behind men in their career advancement and salary. Clearly, training women to adapt to existing structures and norms alone is not sufficient. To effectively generate organizational change, leaders with power and resources must commit to gender equity. This article describes several efforts by the Office of Faculty in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine to broaden inclusivity in collaborative work for gender equity. The authors are women and men leaders in the Office of Faculty, which is within the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine dean's office and includes Women in Science and Medicine. Here, we discuss potential methods to advance gender equity using inclusivity based on our institutional experience and on the findings of other studies. Ongoing data collection to evaluate programmatic outcomes in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine will be reported in the future.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Equidade de Gênero , Liderança , Humanos , Feminino , Docentes de Medicina/organização & administração , Masculino , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Comportamento Cooperativo , Médicas , Salários e Benefícios , Sexismo , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 530, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective mentorship is an important contributor to academic success. Given the critical role of leadership in fostering mentorship, this study sought to explore the perspectives of departmental leadership regarding 1) current departmental mentorship processes; and 2) crucial components of a mentorship program that would enhance the effectiveness of mentorship. METHODS: Department Division Directors (DDDs), Vice-Chairs, and Mentorship Facilitators from the Department of Medicine at the University of Toronto Temerty Faculty of Medicine were interviewed between April and December 2021 using a semi-structured guide. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, then coded. Analysis occurred in 2 steps: 1) codes were organized to identify emergent themes; then 2) the Social Ecological Model (SEM) was applied to interpret the findings. RESULTS: Nineteen interviews (14 DDDs, 3 Vice-Chairs, and 2 Mentorship Facilitator) were completed. Analysis revealed three themes: (1) a culture of mentorship permeated the department as evidenced by rigorous mentorship processes, divisional mentorship innovations, and faculty that were keen to mentor; (2) barriers to the establishment of effective mentoring relationships existed at 3 levels: departmental, interpersonal (mentee-mentor relationships), and mentee; and (3) strengthening the culture of mentorship could entail scaling up pre-existing mentorship processes and promoting faculty engagement. Application of SEM highlighted critical program features and determined that two components of interventions (creating tools to measure mentorship outcomes and systems for mentor recognition) were potential enablers of success. CONCLUSIONS: Establishing 'mentorship outcome measures' can incentivize and maintain relationships. By tangibly delineating departmental expectations for mentorship and creating systems that recognize mentors, these measures can contribute to a culture of mentorship.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Liderança , Mentores , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tutoria , Entrevistas como Assunto
9.
WMJ ; 123(2): 113-119, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718239

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The minority tax in academic medicine can be defined as the additional responsibilities placed on underrepresented in medicine (URiM) faculty, staff, and students in the name of diversity. Often this looks like participating in additional diversity committees, recruitment efforts, and mentorship activities. These extra responsibilities often are not recognized, not included in promotions, and take time from other clinical, research, and traditional scholarly responsibilities. OBJECTIVES: There is a significant gap in the literature examining the experiences of URiM-identifying faculty and students in relation to the minority tax. Our goal was to do a quality improvement project to explore this gap through interviewing URiM-identifying faculty and conducting focus groups with URiM-identifying students, with the goal of making recommendations to help reduce the minority tax burdens to this community. METHODS: A scoping literature review on the minority tax burden in academic medicine was used to inform the development of questions to use in focus groups of URiM University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health (UWSMPH) students and interviews of URiM UWSMPH faculty members. After development of a facilitation guide, we conducted three 1-hour focus groups with 14 students who identified as URiM and did eight 30-minute interviews with faculty who identified as URiM. A codebook was generated using inductive analysis after reviewing transcripts. Coding was performed independently with 2 separate coders in order to ensure inter-coder reliability. RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of students and 62.5% of faculty endorsed experiencing the minority tax at UWSMPH. Faculty also reported increasing feelings of support due to UWSMPH programs that support URiM faculty. Students reported the minority tax being central to their role as URiM students. Both students and faculty reported that the additional burdens of the minority tax took time away from traditional scholarly activities that were essential for promotion (faculty) or residency (students). CONCLUSIONS: The minority tax burden experienced by URiM faculty and students may negatively affect their careers, as they note spending more time on activities that may not be valued for promotion. It is essential to address these burdens in order to achieve equity within the medical institution.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Grupos Focais , Grupos Minoritários , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Wisconsin , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Impostos , Diversidade Cultural
10.
Med Teach ; 46(4): 433-435, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702199
11.
Perspect Med Educ ; 13(1): 266-273, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706455

RESUMO

Background: Most faculty development programs in health professions education, pivotal in cultivating competent and effective teachers, focus on systematic, planned and formal learning opportunities. A large part of clinical teaching however, encompasses ad-hoc, informal and interprofessional workplace-based learning whereby individuals learn as part of everyday work activities. To fully harness the educational potential embedded in daily healthcare practices, prioritizing interprofessional faculty development for workplace-based learning is crucial. Approach: Utilizing the 'ADDIE' instructional design framework we developed, implemented and evaluated an interprofessional faculty development program for workplace-based learning. This program, encompassing seven formal training sessions each with a different theme and five individual workplace-based assignments, aimed to support clinical teachers in recognizing and optimizing informal learning. Outcomes: The pilot program (n = 10) and first two regular courses (n = 13 each) were evaluated using questionnaires containing Likert scale items and open textboxes for narrative comments. The quality and relevance of the program to the clinical work-place were highly appreciated. Additional valued elements included practical knowledge provided and tools for informal workplace-based teaching, the interprofessional aspect of the program and the workplace-based assignments. Since its development, the program has undergone minor revisions twice and has now become a successful interprofessional workplace-based alternative to existing faculty development programs. Reflection: This faculty development program addresses the specific needs of healthcare professionals teaching in clinical settings. It stands out by prioritizing informal learning, fostering collaboration, and supporting integration of formal training into daily practice, ensuring practical application of learned knowledge and skills. Furthermore, it emphasizes interprofessional teaching and learning, enhancing workplace environments.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Local de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Educação Interprofissional/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Projetos Piloto , Docentes/educação
12.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 22(4): 258-266, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The demographic disparities among surgeons in academic leadership positions is well documented. We aimed to characterize the present demographic details of abdominal transplant surgeons who have achieved academic and clinical leadership positions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the 2022-2023 American Society of Transplant Surgeons membership registry to identify 1007 active abdominal transplant surgeons. Demographic details (academic and clinical titles) were collected and analyzed using the chi-square test, the Fisher exact test, and t tests. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted. RESULTS: Female surgeons (P < .001) and surgeons from racial-ethnic minorities (P = .027) were more likely to be assistants or associates rather than full professors. White male surgeons were more likely to be full professors than were White female (P < .001), Asian female (P = .008), and Asian male surgeons (P = .005). There were no Black female surgeons who were full professors. The frequency of full professorship increased with surgeon age (P < .001). Male surgeons were more likely to hold no academic titles (P < .001). Female surgeons were less likely to be chief of transplant(P = .025), chief of livertransplant (P = .001), chief of pancreas transplant (P = .037), or chair of surgery (P = .087, significance at 10%). Chief of kidney transplant was the most common clinical position held by a surgeon from a racial or ethnic minority group. Female surgeons were more likely to hold no clinical titles (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: The underrepresentation of women and people from racial and ethnic minority groups in academic and clinical leadership positions in the field of abdominal transplant surgery remains evident. White male physicians are more likely to obtain full professorship, and they comprise most of the clinical leadership positions overall. A continued push for representative leadership is needed.


Assuntos
Minorias Étnicas e Raciais , Liderança , Transplante de Órgãos , Médicas , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Médicas/tendências , Cirurgiões/tendências , Transplante de Órgãos/tendências , Minorias Étnicas e Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Diversidade Cultural , Fatores Raciais , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Estados Unidos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Sistema de Registros , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
J Surg Educ ; 81(6): 841-849, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify what best practices facilitate implementation of Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) into surgical training programs. DESIGN: This is a mixed methods study utilizing both survey data as well as semi-structured interviews of faculty and residents involved in the American Board of Surgery (ABS) EPA pilot study. SETTING: From 2018 to 2020, the ABS conducted a pilot that introduced five EPAs across 28 general surgery training programs. PARTICIPANTS: All faculty members and residents at the 28 pilot programs were invited to participate in the study. RESULTS: About 117 faculty members and 79 residents responded to the survey. The majority of faculty (81%) and residents (66%) felt that EPAs were useful and were a valuable addition to training. While neither group felt that EPAs were overly time consuming to complete, residents did report difficulty incorporating them into their daily workflow (44%). Semi-structured interviews found that programs that focused on faculty and resident -development and utilized frequent reminders about the importance and necessity of EPAs tended to perform better. CONCLUSIONS: EPA implementation is feasible in general surgery training programs but requires significant effort and engagement from all levels of program personnel. As EPAs are implemented by the ABS nationally a focus on resident and faculty development will be critical to success.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Cirurgia Geral , Internato e Residência , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Educação Baseada em Competências , Masculino , Feminino , Competência Clínica , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
15.
HNO ; 72(5): 303-309, 2024 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital transformation in curricular teaching in medicine comprises the use of digital teaching and learning formats as well as the transfer of digital skills for medical staff. Concepts of knowledge transfer and competency profiles also have to be adapted and transferred in advanced training due to necessary changes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was an evaluation of the current state of digital transformation in otorhinolaryngology teaching in undergraduate and advanced training at otorhinolaryngology departments of university medical centers in Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire with nine questions on digital transformation was sent to the assistant professors of 37 national university ENT departments. The anonymous survey was conducted online via the online platform SurveyMonkey®. RESULTS: Of the contacted assistant professors, 86.5% participated in the survey. Teaching sessions on digital skills for medical students are part of the curriculum in only 25% of ENT departments. Digital teaching formats are used by half of the departments in undergraduate training. Only 56.25% of the assistant professors receive support to realize the changes required by digital transformation. In 40.62% of departments, the issue of digital transformation is broached during advanced training, but only 28.12% use digital teaching methods to train junior doctors. CONCLUSION: Aspects of digital transformation are implemented mainly in undergraduate education, partly driven by the COVID 19 pandemic. Overall, there is still considerable backlog in undergraduate and advanced training in ENT.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Otolaringologia , Otolaringologia/educação , Alemanha , Humanos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Docentes de Medicina/educação
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301502, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603669

RESUMO

Duty hour regulations (DHRs) were enforced in 2017 in Korea to prevent the detrimental effects of excessively prolonged working hours among medical residents. We investigated the adoption of and implications of the new DHRs among medical residents and faculty members. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 medical residents and 9 faculty members across general surgery, internal medicine, obstetrics-gynecology, and pediatrics departments at Chonnam National University Hospital. Based on the constructivist grounded theory, we developed themes from the data by concurrent coding and analysis with theoretical sampling until data saturation. In addition, respondent validation was used to ensure accuracy, and all authors remained reflexive throughout the study to improve validity. The methods of DHRs adoption among residents and faculty members included the following 4 themes: DHRs improved work schedule, residents have more time to learn on their own, clinical departments have come to distribute work, organization members have strived to improve patient safety. Residents have undertaken initial steps towards creating a balance between personal life and work. Teamwork and shift within the same team are the transitions that minimize discontinuity of patient care considering patient safety. Teaching hospitals, including faculty members, should ensure that residents' work and education are balanced with appropriate clinical experience and competency-based training.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Carga de Trabalho , Criança , Humanos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Docentes de Medicina , República da Coreia
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301285, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564594

RESUMO

Increasing awareness of gender barriers and biases in academic institutions is an essential component of institutional change strategies to promote equity and inclusion. There is an established perception gap in recognizing gender inequities in the workplace, whereby men faculty under acknowledge the stressors, barriers, and biases faced by their women faculty colleagues. This study explored the gender gap in faculty perceptions of institutional diversity climate at a rural comprehensive regional university in the United States. In addition to gender, differences across academic discipline and time were explored using 2 (men and women) x 2 (STEM and other) x 2 (2017 and 2022) between-groups ANOVAs. Results revealed a gender gap that persisted across time and perceptions of stressors, diversity climate, student behavior, leadership, and fairness in promotion/tenure procedures, with marginalized (women) faculty consistently reporting greater barriers/concern for women faculty relative to the perceptions of their men faculty colleagues. These findings are largely consistent with the extant literature and are discussed both with regard to future research directions and recommendations for reducing the perception gap and addressing institutional barriers to gender equity.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Docentes de Medicina , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Fatores Sexuais , Faculdades de Medicina , Liderança , Mobilidade Ocupacional
18.
Orthopadie (Heidelb) ; 53(5): 324-326, 2024 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The departure of young habilitated colleagues from their university careers reflects, on the one hand, a move away from university medicine per se and, on the other, an unwillingness to take on university management positions. In addition to the question of "How do I qualify for these positions?", the question of "Why should I aspire to such a position?" is increasingly taking centre stage when less expensive alternatives are available. In addition, there is uncertainty about the extent to which one's own achievements and qualities are sufficient to distinguish oneself clinically and scientifically in the course of one's career and thereby recommend oneself for management positions. AIMS: This is where the KUOU's Excellence Academy comes in, with the aim of identifying young colleagues with high potential for university leadership positions at an early stage, encouraging them to get to know each other, and focusing the attention and visibility of the university locations and the associated appreciation on the members of the Academy. The focus here is on ensuring that excellent colleagues benefit from the many years of experience of the members of the KUOU, receive feedback on their clinical and scientific achievements and are supported in their university career in the form of mentoring. CONCLUSION: The large number of 22 very good applications, of which 12 candidates were accepted, confirms our belief that there are excellently qualified colleagues at our sites, who are ready to take on responsibility in the future in the triad of research, teaching and patient care.


Assuntos
Ortopedia , Humanos , Academias e Institutos , Cirurgia de Cuidados Críticos , Docentes de Medicina , Traumatologia/educação , Universidades
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 447, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrimination and sexual harassment are prevalent in higher education institutions and can affect students, faculty members and employees. Herein the aim was to assess the extent of discriminatory experiences and sexual harassment of students and lecturers at one of the largest teaching hospitals in Europe. We analyze whether there are differences between lecturers and students, different study programs as well as sex/gender differences. METHODS: In an interdisciplinary, iterative process, a semi-standardized questionnaire was developed and sent to N = 7095 students (S) of all study programs and N = 2528 lecturers (L) at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. The study was conducted from November 2018 to February 2019. Besides a broad range of questions on sociodemographic background allowing for diversity sensitive data analysis, they were asked if they had witnessed and/or experienced any form of discrimination or sexual harassment at the medical faculty, if yes, how often, the perceived reasons, situational factors and perpetrators. RESULTS: The response rate was 14% (n = 964) for students and 11% (n = 275) for lecturers. A proportion of 49.6% of students (L: 31%) reported that they have witnessed and/or experienced discriminatory behavior. Sexual harassment was witnessed and/or experienced by 23.6% of students (L: 19.2%). Lecturers (85.9%) were identified as the main source of discriminatory behavior by students. Directors/supervisors (47.4%) were stated as the main source of discriminatory behavior by lecturers. As the most frequent perceived reason for discriminatory experiences sex/gender (S: 71%; L: 60.3%) was reported. Women and dental students experienced more discriminatory behavior and sexual harassment. CONCLUSIONS: Discriminatory behavior is experienced by a significant number of students and lecturers, with power structures having a relevant impact. Dental students and women appear to be particularly exposed. Specific institutional measures, such as training programs for lecturers and students are necessary to raise awareness and provide resources. Furthermore, national preventive strategies should be thoroughly implemented to fight discrimination and harassment at the workplace.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Assédio Sexual , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Alemanha , Sexismo , Discriminação Social
20.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 22(1): 53, 2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interaction between researchers and policymakers is an essential factor to facilitate the evidence-informed policymaking. One of the effective ways to establish this relationship and promote evidence-informed policymaking is to employ people or organizations that can play the role of knowledge brokers. This study aims to analyze the communication network and interactions between researchers and policymakers in Iran's health sector and identify key people serving as academic knowledge brokers. METHODS: This study was a survey research. Using a census approach, we administered a sociometric survey to faculty members in the health field in top ten Iranian medical universities to construct academic-policymaker network using social network analysis method. Network maps were generated using UCINET and NetDraw software. We used Indegree Centrality, Outdegree Centrality, and Betweenness Centrality indicators to determine knowledge brokers in the network. RESULTS: The drawn network had a total of 188 nodes consisting of 94 university faculty members and 94 policymakers at three national, provincial, and university levels. The network comprised a total of 177 links, with 125 connecting to policymakers and 52 to peers. Of 56 faculty members, we identified four knowledge brokers. Six policymakers were identified as key policymakers in the network, too. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that the flow of knowledge produced by research in the health field in Iran is not accomplished well from the producers of research evidence to the users of knowledge. Therefore, it seems necessary to consider incentive and support mechanisms to strengthen the interaction between researchers and policymakers in Iran's health sector.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Análise de Rede Social , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Conhecimento , Masculino , Docentes de Medicina , Universidades , Pessoal Administrativo , Feminino , Docentes , Comunicação , Pesquisadores , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Rede Social , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Setor de Assistência à Saúde
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