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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300663, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568939

RESUMO

Music ensemble performance provides an ecologically valid context for investigating leadership dynamics in small group interactions. Musical texture, specifically the relative salience of simultaneously sounding ensemble parts, is a feature that can potentially alter leadership dynamics by introducing hierarchical relationships between individual parts. The present study extended previous work on quantifying interpersonal coupling in musical ensembles by examining the relationship between musical texture and leader-follower relations, operationalised as directionality of influence between co-performers' body motion in concert video recordings. It was hypothesised that the directionality of influence, indexed by Granger Causality, would be greater for 'homophonic' textures with a clear distinction between melody and accompaniment parts than for 'polyphonic' textures with less distinction between melody and accompaniment. This hypothesis was tested by using pose estimation algorithms to track instrumentalists' body movements in a string quartet and a clarinet quintet, and then applying Granger Causality analysis to their head motion to estimate directional influence between instrumentalist pairs for sections of the pieces that varied in texture. It was found that Granger Causality values were generally higher (indicating greater directionality of influence) for homophonic than polyphonic textures. Furthermore, considering melody and accompaniment instrument roles revealed more evidence for the melody instrument influencing accompanying instruments than vice versa, plus a high degree of directionality among accompanying instruments, in homophonic textures. These observed patterns of directional information flow in co-performer body motion are consistent with changing leader-follower relations depending on hierarchical relations between ensemble parts in terms of the relative salience of melodic material in the musical texture. The finding that automatic pose estimation can detect modulations of leadership dynamics in standard video recordings under naturalistic performance conditions has implications for investigating interpersonal coordination in large-scale music video datasets representing different cultural traditions, and for exploring nonverbal communication in group activities more generally.


Assuntos
Drama , Música , Liderança , Movimento , Movimento (Física)
2.
Ambix ; 71(1): 73-97, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38420775

RESUMO

Many of the "signs and tokens" described in alchemical texts relate to colour, from the Crow's Bill signifying putrefaction to the philosophical solvents disguised as Green Lions, Red Dragons, and Grey Wolves. While the process of yellowing, or citrination, often appears in medieval recipes, it seems to have interested commentators less than the more familiar processes of blackening, whitening, or reddening. Yet beyond these canonical colours, yellowness turns out to be ubiquitous in alchemy and its associated craft practices, both in Latin texts and vernacular translations. This paper uses source criticism and experimental reconstruction to interrogate the role of yellowness at the beginning, middle, and end of practice, focusing on fifteenth- and sixteenth-century England. As starting ingredients, yellow vitriol and litharge offered the potential for transmutation but also posed problems for identification and preparation. As an intermediate stage, yellowness offered promising signs of future success, in the form of dramatic colour changes and unexpected products. But yellowness also offered an end in itself, as appears from the many citrination processes attested in recipe collections which aimed to imitate the properties of gold - suggesting that yellowing was prized as a significant indicator of chemical change across diverse areas of craft practice.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Distinções e Prêmios , Drama , Inglaterra
4.
J Med Humanit ; 45(1): 135-137, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37853274

Assuntos
Drama , Medicina , Londres
5.
J Med Humanit ; 45(1): 79-93, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37341852

RESUMO

Research on the unrepresentability of death in Samuel Beckett's oeuvre abound in Beckett scholarship, but little attention has been given to the artist's representation of caregiving to the dying in his plays. With reference to Martin Heidegger's concept of care and Albert Camus's idea of the absurd, this article analyzes Endgame (1957) and Footfalls (1976) by attending to Beckett's dramatic representation of caregiving as undergirded by a sense of its absurdity. The almost 20-year gap between the writing of both plays highlights the development of an understanding that this sense of absurdity is never about the caregiver's questioning of one's obligation to the dependent but about how one chooses to respond to caregiving as an absurd predicament. The pertinence of such a representation of caregiving by Beckett lies in its poignant articulation of a complex experience that is often left unexpressed by caregivers who prioritize their dependent loved ones over themselves.


Assuntos
Drama , Humanos , Redação , Cuidadores
6.
Nurse Educ Today ; 133: 106066, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postmortem care is one of the most difficult aspects of the nursing profession and is frequently given in healthcare settings today. It is important to provide appropriate teaching experiences in order to prepare nursing students for their future professional roles in postmortem care. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to examine the effect of a creative drama method on nursing students' postmortem care knowledge and skill levels, learning retention, and satisfaction with the education method. DESIGN: A randomized controlled model with a pretest-posttest control group was used in this study. SETTINGS: One university school of nursing in Turkey. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 70 nursing students. METHOD: Information about postmortem care was shared with the control group using the classical education method of lectures and demonstration techniques, while the experimental group was taught with a creative drama method. Research data were collected with the Descriptive Characteristics Form, Postmortem Care Knowledge Test, Postmortem Care Skills Checklist, and Education Methods Satisfaction Survey. RESULTS: It was observed that the postmortem care education provided to both experimental and control group was effective in improving the knowledge and skill levels of nursing students regarding postmortem care (p < 0.05). However, the knowledge and skill levels of the experimental group regarding postmortem care, learning retention, and level of satisfaction with the education method were higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Creative drama was thus found to be a more effective method than the classical education method in providing postmortem care education to nursing students. In addition, it was observed that the students were more satisfied with the education given with creative drama.


Assuntos
Drama , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Aprendizagem , Escolaridade
7.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 148(24-25): 1589-1594, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38052224

RESUMO

Friedrich Schiller wrote a Latin "Prüfschrift" (thesis) on fever diseases in 1780 as part of his medical studies in Stuttgart. In it, he accuses nature of aggravating inflammation through excessive resistance. This concept of fever interacts with Schiller's early literary texts: In his first drama, "Die Räuber" (1781), the two protagonists embody the two main types of fever. Accordingly, the descriptions of the two main types of fever in the "Prüfschrift" do not turn out to be "objective" either but contain positive and negative connotations: In a sense, personified heroes and hypocrites are medically juxtaposed and pathologised. In another early poem about the plague (1782), Schiller also interpreted and used fever as an expression of human vitality and natural power, as an anthropological sign for the interconnectedness of soul and body: soul forces are revealed in fever, and the drama of human existence becomes particularly clear in the struggle between nature and disease.


Assuntos
Drama , Médicos , Masculino , Humanos , Febre
8.
BMJ ; 383: 2785, 2023 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38052455

Assuntos
Drama , Humanos , Atletas
9.
Int J Psychoanal ; 104(6): 1025-1041, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38127474

RESUMO

Extracts from Shakespeare's Hamlet are used to show how obstacles to mourning may arise from the persistent demands of melancholic internal objects demanding repair and revenge. It is only with the development of symbolic function as a result of separateness between self and object that reparation becomes possible and ghosts are turned into ancestors.


Assuntos
Drama , Humanos , Pesar , Depressão
10.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0288932, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38032993

RESUMO

TV drama, through synchronization with social phenomena, allows the audience to resonate with the characters and desire to watch the next episode. In particular, drama ratings can be the criterion for advertisers to invest in ad placement and a predictor of subsequent economic efficiency in the surrounding areas. To identify the dissemination patterns of social information about dramas, this study used machine learning to predict drama ratings and the contribution of various drama metadata, including broadcast year, broadcast season, TV stations, day of the week, broadcast time slot, genre, screenwriters, status as an original work or sequel, actors and facial features on posters. A total of 800 Japanese TV dramas broadcast during prime time between 2003 and 2020 were collected for analysis. Four machine learning classifiers, including naïve Bayes, artificial neural network, support vector machine, and random forest, were used to combine the metadata. With facial features, the accuracy of the random forest model increased from 75.80% to 77.10%, which shows that poster information can improve the accuracy of the overall predicted ratings. Using only posters to predict ratings with a convolutional neural network still obtained an accuracy rate of 71.70%. More insights about the correlations between drama metadata and social information dissemination patterns were explored.


Assuntos
Drama , Metadados , Teorema de Bayes , Aprendizado de Máquina , Disseminação de Informação , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
12.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291642, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37729156

RESUMO

We provide evidence that the roughness of chords-a psychoacoustic property resulting from unresolved frequency components-is associated with perceived musical stability (operationalized as finishedness) in participants with differing levels and types of exposure to Western or Western-like music. Three groups of participants were tested in a remote cloud forest region of Papua New Guinea (PNG), and two groups in Sydney, Australia (musicians and non-musicians). Unlike prominent prior studies of consonance/dissonance across cultures, we framed the concept of consonance as stability rather than as pleasantness. We find a negative relationship between roughness and musical stability in every group including the PNG community with minimal experience of musical harmony. The effect of roughness is stronger for the Sydney participants, particularly musicians. We find an effect of harmonicity-a psychoacoustic property resulting from chords having a spectral structure resembling a single pitched tone (such as produced by human vowel sounds)-only in the Sydney musician group, which indicates this feature's effect is mediated via a culture-dependent mechanism. In sum, these results underline the importance of both universal and cultural mechanisms in music cognition, and they suggest powerful implications for understanding the origin of pitch structures in Western tonal music as well as on possibilities for new musical forms that align with humans' perceptual and cognitive biases. They also highlight the importance of how consonance/dissonance is operationalized and explained to participants-particularly those with minimal prior exposure to musical harmony.


Assuntos
Drama , Música , Humanos , Austrália , Cognição , Niacinamida
13.
JASA Express Lett ; 3(9)2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37747320

RESUMO

The Mini Profile of Music Perception Skills (Mini-PROMS) is a rapid performance-based measure of musical perceptual competence. The present study was designed to determine the optimal way to evaluate and score the Mini-PROMS results. Two traditional methods for scoring the Mini-PROMS, the weighted composite score and the parametric sensitivity index (d'), were compared with nonparametric alternatives, also derived from signal detection theory. Performance estimates using the traditional methods were found to depend on response bias (e.g., confidence), making them suboptimal. The simple nonparametric alternatives provided unbiased and reliable performance estimates from the Mini-PROMS and are therefore recommended instead.


Assuntos
Drama , Música , Viés , Percepção
14.
Anal Methods ; 15(34): 4311-4320, 2023 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37605803

RESUMO

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) of metabolites can reveal how metabolism is altered throughout heterogeneous tissues. Here negative ion mode MALDI-MSI has been coupled with laser post-ionisation (MALDI-2) and applied to the MSI of low molecular weight (LMW) metabolites (

Assuntos
Drama , Animais , Camundongos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Peso Molecular , Ácido Glutâmico , Lasers , Magreza
15.
BMJ Open ; 13(8): e069905, 2023 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37591647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In recent years, 'deaths of despair' due to drugs, alcohol and suicide have contributed to rising mid-life mortality in the USA. We examine whether despair-related deaths and mid-life mortality trends are also changing in peer countries, the UK and Canada. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of population mortality rates. SETTING: The USA, UK (and constituent nations England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland) and Canada, 2001-2019. PARTICIPANTS: Full population aged 35-64 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: We compared all-cause and 'despair'-related mortality trends at mid-life across countries using publicly available mortality data, stratified by three age groups (35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years) and by sex. We examined trends in all-cause mortality and mortality by causes categorised as (1) suicides, (2) alcohol-specific deaths and (3) drug-related deaths. We employ several descriptive approaches to visually inspect age, period and cohort trends in these causes of death. RESULTS: The USA and Scotland both saw large relative increases and high absolute levels of drug-related deaths. The rest of the UK and Canada saw relative increases but much lower absolute levels in comparison. Alcohol-specific deaths showed less consistent trends that did not track other 'despair' causes, with older groups in Scotland seeing steep declines over time. Suicide deaths trended slowly upward in most countries. CONCLUSIONS: In the UK, Scotland has suffered increases in drug-related mortality comparable with the USA, while Canada and other UK constituent nations did not see dramatic increases. Alcohol-specific and suicide mortalities generally follow different patterns to drug-related deaths across countries and over time, questioning the utility of a cohesive 'deaths of despair' narrative.


Assuntos
Drama , Suicídio , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Etanol , Canadá/epidemiologia , Inglaterra
17.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 35(4): 241-243, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37202919
18.
Risk Anal ; 43(5): 871-874, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37012223

RESUMO

"Modest doubt is call'd the beacon of the wise."-William Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida. Although the character Hector warns his fellow Trojans with this line not to engage in war against the Greeks, Shakespeare's works are replete with characters who do not incorporate modest doubt, or any consideration of uncertainty, in their risk decisions. Perhaps Shakespeare was simply a keen observer of human nature. Although risk science has developed tremendously over the last five decades (and scientific inquiry over five centuries), the human mind still frequently defaults to conviction about certain beliefs, absent sufficient scientific evidence-which has effects not just on individual lives, but on policy decisions that affect many. This perspective provides background on the Shakespearean quote in its literary and historical context. Then, as this quote is the theme of the 2023 Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, we describe how "modest doubt"-incorporating the notion of uncertainty into risk analysis for individual and policy decisions-is still the "beacon of the wise" today.


Assuntos
Drama , Medicina na Literatura , Humanos , Incerteza , Drama/história , Emoções , Políticas
19.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0282716, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37083841

RESUMO

Since 2007 a number of investigators have compiled statistics on the length in words of speeches in plays by William Shakespeare and his contemporaries, focusing on a change to shorter speeches around 1600. In this article we take account of several potentially confounding factors in the variation of speech lengths in these works and present a model of this variation in the period 1538-1642 through Linear Mixed Models. We confirm that the mode of speech lengths in English plays changed from nine words to four words around 1600, and that Shakespeare's plays fit this wider pattern closely. We establish for the first time: that this change is independent of authorship, dramatic genre, theatrical company, and the proportion of verse in a play's dialogue; that the chosen time span can be segmented into pre-1597 plays (with high modes), 1597-1602 plays (with mixed high and low modes), and post-1602 plays (with low modes); that some additional secondary modes are evident in speech lengths, at 16 and 24 words, suggesting that the length of a standard blank verse line (around 8 words) is an underlying unit in speech length; and that the general change to short speeches also holds true when the data is viewed through the perspective of the median and the mean. The change in speech lengths is part of a collective drift in the plays towards liveliness and verisimilitude and is evidence of a hitherto hidden constraint on the playwrights: whether or not they were aware of the fact, playwrights as a group were conforming to a structure for the distribution of speech lengths peculiar to the era they were writing in. The authors hope that the full modelling of this variation in the article will help bring this change to the attention of scholars of Shakespeare and his contemporaries.


Assuntos
Drama , Medicina na Literatura , Fala , Idioma , Autoria , Drama/história
20.
J Health Commun ; 28(5): 282-291, 2023 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37057592

RESUMO

Previous research has found an association between awareness of e-cigarette, or vaping, product-use associated lung injury (EVALI) and lower intention to use e-cigarettes among young people. This study utilized Twitter data to evaluate if the January 2020 depiction of EVALI on New Amsterdam, Chicago Med, and Grey's Anatomy-three popular primetime medical dramas-could be a potential innovative avenue to raise awareness of EVALI. We obtained tweets containing e-cigarette-related search strings from 1/21/2020 to 02/18/2020 and filtered these with storyline-specific keywords, resulting in 1,493 tweets for qualitative coding by two trained human coders. Content codes were informed by prior research, theories of narrative influence, and e-cigarette related outcomes. Of 641 (42.9%) relevant tweets, the most frequent content codes were perceived realism (n = 292, 45.6%) and negative response (n = 264, 41.2%). A common theme among these tweets was that storylines were unrealistic because none of the characters with EVALI used THC-containing products. Approximately 12% of tweets (n = 78) mentioned e-cigarette knowledge and 28 (4.4%) mentioned behavior, including quitting e-cigarettes because of viewing the storylines. Implications for health communication research utilizing social media data and maximizing the achievement of positive health-related outcomes for storylines depicting current health topics are discussed.


Assuntos
Drama , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar , Mídias Sociais , Vaping , Humanos , Adolescente , Vaping/efeitos adversos
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