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1.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 48(3): 107-119, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755989

RESUMO

This research study aimed to investigate the impact of probiotic mouthwash and kefir on the surface characteristics, specifically surface roughness and microhardness, of different restorative materials, as well as permanent and deciduous tooth enamels. Thirty disc-shaped specimens were prepared from composite resin (G-ænial Posterior (GP)), polyacid-modified composite resin (compomer) (Dyract-XP (DXP)), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Ionoseal (IS)). Additionally, thirty specimens of enamel were obtained from permanent teeth (PT) and thirty from deciduous teeth (DT) by embedding buccal and lingual sections, acquired through vertical sectioning of 15 permanent and 15 deciduous human tooth crowns in the mesiodistal orientation within acrylic resin blocks. The specimens were then categorized into three distinct groups and immersed for 14 days in one of the following solutions: distilled water, kefir or probiotic mouthwash. The mean surface roughness values of all specimens were assessed using an atomic force microscope, while the mean surface microhardness was measured using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument. The results revealed a statistically significant difference in mean surface roughness among the various restorative materials (p < 0.001). Among the restorative materials, the IS material exhibited notably higher mean surface roughness values than other restorative materials and tooth enamel, while no significant differences were observed between the PT and DT groups. Importantly, the main effect of the solutions under investigation was not statistically significant (p = 0.208). No significant difference was found between the surface roughness values of specimens subjected to the different solutions. When evaluating the effects of materials and solutions on microhardness, the main effects of material and solution variables and the influence of material-solution interactions were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Taken together, these results indicate that consistent use of kefir or probiotic mouthwashes may impact the surface properties of various restorative materials and tooth enamel.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Esmalte Dentário , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Dureza , Probióticos , Propriedades de Superfície , Humanos , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Resinas Compostas/química , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/química , Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Compômeros/química , Dente Decíduo , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Teste de Materiais , Materiais Dentários/química
2.
Braz Oral Res ; 38: e036, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747823

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the effect protocols and anticaries agents containing casein amorphous calcium fluoride phosphopeptide-phosphate (CPP-ACPF, MI Paste Plus), sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) and fluoride (F), in remineralization of caries lesions. Bovine enamel blocks with initial caries lesions were divided into groups (n = 12): 1) Toothpaste without F-TMP-MI Plus (Placebo); 2) Toothpaste 1100 ppm F (1100F), 3) 1100F + MI Paste Plus (1100F-MI Paste Plus), 4) Toothpaste with 1100F + Neutral gel with 4,500 ppm F + 5%TMP (1100F + Gel TMP) and 5) Toothpaste with 1100F + Neutral gel with 9,000 ppm F (1100F + Gel F). For the 4 and 5 groups the gel was applied only once for 1 minute, initially to the study. For the 3 group, after treatment with 1100F, MI Paste Plus was applied 2x/day for 3 minute. After pH cycling, the percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR); integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN); profile and depth of the subsuperficial lesion (PLM); concentrations of F, calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in enamel was determined. The data were analyzed by ANOVA (1-criterion) and Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.001). Treatment with 1100F alone led to ~ 28% higher remineralization when compared to treatment with 1100F associated with MI Paste Plus (p < 0.001). The 1100F and 1100F + Gel F groups showed similar values for %SHR (p = 0.150). 1100F + Gel TMP treatment also remineralized the enamel surface by ~ 30% and 20% when compared to the 1100F + Gel F and 1100F groups (p < 0.001). The lower lesion depth (ΔKHN) was observed for the 1100F + Gel TMP group (p < 0.001), where it was 54% and 44% lower in comparison to the 1100F and 1100F + Gel F groups (p < 0.001). Polarized light microscopy photomicrographs showed subsurface lesions in all groups, but these lesions were present to a lower extent in the 1100F + Gel TMP group (p < 0.001). Treatment with 1100F + Gel TMP promoted an increase in the concentration of Ca in the enamel by ~ 57% and ~ 26% when compared to the 1100F and 1100F + MI Paste Plus groups (p < 0.001), respectively. There were no significant differences between the 1100F, 1100F + MI Paste Plus and 1100F + Gel F groups (p > 0.001). Similar values of P in the enamel were observed in the 1100F, 1100F + MI Paste Plus and 1100F + Gel F groups (p > 0.001), except for the 1100F + Gel TMP group, which presented a high concentration (p < 0.001). We conclude that the 1100F+TMP gel treatment/protocol led to a significant increased remineralization when compared to the other treatments/protocols and may be a promising strategy for patients with early caries lesions.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos , Caseínas , Esmalte Dentário , Fluoretos , Remineralização Dentária , Caseínas/farmacologia , Caseínas/uso terapêutico , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Bovinos , Animais , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Cremes Dentais/química , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Variância , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Polifosfatos/química , Polifosfatos/uso terapêutico , Testes de Dureza , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Materiais , Resultado do Tratamento , Valores de Referência , Dureza/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatos
3.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 83: 264-272, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present in vitro study is to investigate and compare the remineralising potential of Moringa Oleifera extract, eggshell, and sodium fluoride varnish on microhardness of artificially demineralised enamel of primary teeth with biomimetic minimally invasive approach following the world paradigm shift towards natural products in paediatric dentistry. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sample size included 44 primary molars. The mineral content and surface microhardness of all specimens were initially assessed using energy dispersive x-ray examination (EDX) and Vickers microhardness. The specimens were artificially demineralised for 96 h at a temperature of 37°C and then reassessed directly after demineralisation. The demineralised enamel specimens were randomly divided into four groups according to the remineralisation regimen utilised. Group 1: Artificial saliva (control); Group 2: Sodium fluoride varnish; Group 3: Eggshell hydrogel; and Group 4: Moringa Oleifera hydrogel. The specimens were stored for 8 days and then subsequently evaluated using EDX and microhardness assessment by Vickers microhardness test and scanning electron microscope (SEM).  Results: Regarding the microhardness test, there was a significant difference between the Moringa Oleifera group and Eggshell group compared to fluoride varnish (p < 0.05). Regarding EDX analysis, there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between Moringa Oleifera group and Eggshell group compared to fluoride varnish as the highest values were for Moringa Oleifera and Eggshell. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between Moringa Oleifera and Eggshell in both the measurements. CONCLUSION: Moringa Oleifera and Eggshell might be considered as a biomimetic natural material capable of guiding enamel tissue remineralisation in early carious lesion of primary teeth. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This research demonstrated the capability for early enamel caries to be remineralised using novel materials with a naturally counterpart implicated in biomineralisation as proved to be more effective than traditionally used fluoride varnish in primary teeth.


Assuntos
Casca de Ovo , Hidrogéis , Moringa oleifera , Fluoreto de Sódio , Dente Decíduo , Fluoreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Dente Decíduo/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Ovo/química , Humanos , Moringa oleifera/química , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Animais , Técnicas In Vitro , Fluoretos Tópicos/administração & dosagem , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Dureza/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria por Raios X , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle , Desmineralização do Dente/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Braz Dent J ; 35: e245616, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775592

RESUMO

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the potential of different fluoridated varnishes to inhibit the progression of incipient caries lesions after cariogenic challenge. Seventy-five enamel specimens of bovine teeth were prepared and selected based on the initial surface microhardness (SMH). The specimens were first subjected to artificial demineralization (in buffer solution) after which SMH was re-analyzed (SM1). They were then randomly assigned to five experimental groups: 1- CONTROL (pH cycling), 2 - MI VAR (MI Varnish with RECALDENTTM - CPP-ACP), 3 - PROFL (Profluorid®), 4 - CLIN (ClinproTM White Varnish with TCP), and 5 - DUR (Duraphat®) (n=15). The varnishes were applied in a thin layer and the specimens were then subjected to pH cycling for eight days. The SMH and cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH) were then analyzed (SM2). The fluoride and calcium ion concentrations in the solution were analyzed by the indirect method and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. Data were statistically analyzed by Student's t-test, ANOVA/Tukey-Kramer, or Kruskall-Wallis/Dunn tests for individual comparisons (p˂0.05). All varnishes led to significantly higher surface and subsurface remineralization compared with the control group but did not differ from each other. The varnishes with the highest fluoride release were: PROFL and CLIN, followed by MI VAR and DUR. The varnishes with significantly higher release of calcium were: DUR, CLIN, and PROFL. In conclusion, all commercial fluoridated varnishes tested have good potential to inhibit the progression of demineralization, regardless of the ion release mechanisms.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária , Esmalte Dentário , Progressão da Doença , Fluoretos Tópicos , Dureza , Desmineralização do Dente , Bovinos , Animais , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cálcio , Distribuição Aleatória , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Caseínas , Teste de Materiais , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Fluoreto de Sódio
5.
J Vis Exp ; (206)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738893

RESUMO

The mechanical property, microhardness, is evaluated in dental enamel, dentin, and bone in oral disease models, including dental fluorosis and periodontitis. Micro-CT (µCT) provides 3D imaging information (volume and mineral density) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) produces microstructure images (enamel prism and bone lacuna-canalicular). Complementarily to structural analysis by µCT and SEM, microhardness is one of the informative parameters to evaluate how structural changes alter mechanical properties. Despite being a useful parameter, studies on microhardness of alveolar bone in oral diseases are limited. To date, divergent microhardness measurement methods have been reported. Since microhardness values vary depending on the sample preparation (polishing and flat surface) and indentation sites, diverse protocols can cause discrepancies among studies. Standardization of the microhardness protocol is essential for consistent and accurate evaluation in oral disease models. In the present study, we demonstrate a standardized protocol for microhardness analysis in tooth and alveolar bone. Specimens used are as follows: for the dental fluorosis model, incisors were collected from mice treated with/without fluoride-containing water for 6 weeks; for ligature-induced periodontal bone resorption (L-PBR) model, alveolar bones with periodontal bone resorption were collected from mice ligated on the maxillary 2nd molar. At 2 weeks after the ligation, the maxilla was collected. Vickers hardness was analyzed in these specimens according to the standardized protocol. The protocol provides detailed materials and methods for resin embedding, serial polishing, and indentation sites for incisors and alveolar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first standardized microhardness protocol to evaluate the mechanical properties of tooth and alveolar bone in rodent oral disease models.


Assuntos
Processo Alveolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Animais , Camundongos , Processo Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Fluorose Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluorose Dentária/patologia , Dureza , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 581, 2024 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to compare chemical, elemental and surface properties of sound and carious dentin after application of two restorative materials resin-modified glassionomer claimed to be bioactive and glass hybrid restorative material after enzymatic chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) agent. METHODS: Forty carious and twenty non-carious human permanent molars were used. Molars were randomly distributed into three main groups: Group 1 (negative control) - sound molars, Group 2 (positive control) - molars were left without caries removal and Group 3 (Test Group) caries excavated with enzymatic based CMCR agent. After caries excavation and restoration application, all specimens were prepared Vickers microhardness test (VHN), for elemental analysis using Energy Dispersive Xray (EDX) mapping and finally chemical analysis using Micro-Raman microscopy. RESULTS: Vickers microhardness values of dentin with the claimed bioactive GIC specimens was statistically higher than with glass hybrid GIC specimens. EDX analysis at the junction estimated: Calcium and Phosphorus of the glass hybrid GIC showed insignificantly higher mean valued than that of the bioactive GIC. Silica and Aluminum mean values at the junction were significantly higher with bioactive GIC specimens than glass hybrid GIC specimen. Micro-raman spectroscopy revealed that bioactive GIC specimens showed higher frequencies of v 1 PO 4, which indicated high level of remineralization. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that ion-releasing bioactive resin-based restorative material had increased the microhardness and remineralization rate of carries affected and sound dentin. In addition, enzymatic caries excavation with papain-based CMCR agent has no adverse effect on dentin substrate.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Preparo da Cavidade Dentária , Dentina , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Dureza , Humanos , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/química , Preparo da Cavidade Dentária/métodos , Fósforo/análise , Papaína/uso terapêutico , Propriedades de Superfície , Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Espectrometria por Raios X , Análise Espectral Raman , Cálcio/análise , Dente Molar , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Alumínio , Dióxido de Silício , Teste de Materiais
7.
J Texture Stud ; 55(3): e12836, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702990

RESUMO

A new technique known as dough crumb-sheet composite rolling (DC-SCR) was used to improve the quality of fresh noodles. However, there is a dearth of theoretical investigations into the optimal selection of specific parameters for this technology, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, the effects of dough crumb addition times in DC-SCR on the texture, cooking, and eating quality of fresh noodles were first studied. Then, the underlying regulation mechanism of DC-SCR technology on fresh noodles was analyzed in terms of moisture distribution and microstructure. The study demonstrated that the most significant enhancement in the quality of fresh noodles was achieved by adding dough crumbs six times. Compared with fresh noodles made without the addition of dough crumbs, the initial hardness and chewiness of fresh noodles made by adding six times of dough crumbs increased by 25.32% and 46.82%, respectively. In contrast, the cooking time and cooking loss were reduced by 28.45% and 29.69%, respectively. This quality improvement in fresh noodles made by DC-SCR came from the microstructural differences of the gluten network between the inner and outer layers of the dough sheet. A dense structure on the outside and a loose structure on the inside could endow the fresh noodles made by DC-SCR with higher hardness, a shortened cooking time, and less cooking loss. This study would provide a theoretical and experimental basis for creating high-quality fresh noodles.


Assuntos
Pão , Culinária , Farinha , Manipulação de Alimentos , Água , Culinária/métodos , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Pão/análise , Dureza , Glutens/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Triticum/química , Humanos
8.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 546, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, a new generation of high-strength flowable dental composites has been introduced by manufacturers. The manufacturers claim that these materials have enhanced mechanical and physical properties and are suitable for use in a wide range of direct anterior and posterior restorations, even in high-stress bearing areas. AIM: The objective of this study was to assess certain physical and mechanical properties of these recently introduced high-strength flowable composites in comparison to conventional multipurpose dental composites. METHODS: Four types of high-strength flowable composites (Genial Universal FLO, Gaenial Universal Injectable, Beautifil Injectable, and Beautifil Flow Plus) were tested in experimental groups, while a nanohybrid conventional composite (Filtek Z350 XT) was used as the control. For flexure properties, ten rectangular samples (2 × 2 × 25 mm) were prepared from each composite material and subjected to 5000 cycles of thermocycling. Samples were then subjected to flexural strength testing using the universal testing machine. Another twenty disc-shaped specimens of dimensions (5 mm diameter × 2 mm thickness) were fabricated from each composite material for surface roughness (Ra) (n = 10) and hardness (VHN) test (n = 10). All samples underwent 5000 cycles of thermocycling before testing. Additionally, microleakage testing was conducted on 60 standardized class V cavities prepared on molar teeth and divided randomly into five groups (n = 12). Cavities were then filled with composite according to the manufacturer's instructions and subjected to thermocycling for 1000 cycles before testing using methylene blue solution and a stereomicroscope. RESULTS: All tested materials were comparable to the control group in terms of flexural strength and surface roughness (p > 0.05), with Gaenial Universal FLO exhibiting significantly higher flexural strength compared to the other flowable composite materials tested. However, all tested materials demonstrated significantly lower elastic modulus and surface hardness than the control group (p < 0.05). The control group exhibited higher microleakage scores, while the lowest scores were observed in the Gaenial Universal FLO material (p < 0.05) CONCLUSION: The physical and mechanical behaviors of the different high-strength flowable composites investigated in this study varied. Some of these materials may serve as suitable alternatives to conventional composites in specific applications, emphasizing the importance of dentists being familiar with material properties before making material selections.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Infiltração Dentária , Resistência à Flexão , Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Técnicas In Vitro , Humanos , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Materiais Dentários/química , Estresse Mecânico , Polietilenoglicóis , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303311, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753656

RESUMO

In this paper, the research hypothesis of conservation of hardness coefficient is put forward, and a mathematical formula for describing and analyzing the relationship between hardness coefficient and bond energy is established in this model. The binding process of two heteronuclear atoms can be represented by Cassini oval in dynamic form, every molecular state corresponds to one of these graphs; then the critical phenomena of molecular deformation are discovered and the calculated potential energy at the critical point is consistent with the experimental dissociation energy of molecules (R is 0.99999, P < 0.0001).


Assuntos
Termodinâmica , Dureza
10.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(6): 324, 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the growth of a multispecies biofilm on root canal dentin under different radiotherapy regimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-three human root dentin cylinders were distributed into six groups. In three groups, no biofilm was formed (n = 3): NoRT) non-irradiated dentin; RT55) 55 Gy; and RT70) 70 Gy. In the other three groups (n = 18), a 21-day multispecies biofilm (Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans) was formed in the canal: NoRT + Bio) non-irradiated + biofilm; RT55 + Bio) 55 Gy + biofilm; and RT70 + Bio) 70 Gy + biofilm. The biofilm was quantified (CFUs/mL). Biofilm microstructure was assessed under SEM. Microbial penetration into dentinal tubules was assessed under CLSM. For the biofilm biomass and dentin microhardness pre- and after biofilm growth assessments, 45 bovine dentin specimens were distributed into three groups (n = 15): NoRT) non-irradiated + biofilm; RT55 + Bio) 55 Gy + biofilm; and RT70 + Bio) 70 Gy + biofilm. RESULTS: Irradiated specimens (70 Gy) had higher quantity of microorganisms than non-irradiated (p = .010). There was gradual increase in biofilm biomass from non-irradiated to 55 Gy and 70 Gy (p < .001). Irradiated specimens had greater reduction in microhardness after biofilm growth. Irradiated dentin led to the growth of a more complex and irregular biofilm. There was microbial penetration into the dentinal tubules, regardless of the radiation regimen. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy increased the number of microorganisms and biofilm biomass and reduced dentin microhardness. Microbial penetration into dentinal tubules was noticeable. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Cumulative and potentially irreversible side effects of radiotherapy affect biofilm growth on root dentin. These changes could compromise the success of endodontic treatment in oncological patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Candida albicans , Cavidade Pulpar , Dentina , Enterococcus faecalis , Streptococcus mutans , Biofilmes/efeitos da radiação , Dentina/microbiologia , Dentina/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos da radiação , Candida albicans/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos da radiação , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos da radiação , Bovinos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dureza , Microscopia Confocal , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9909, 2024 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688952

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) printing, otherwise known as additive manufacturing in a non-technical context, is becoming increasingly popular in the field of dentistry. As an essential step in the 3D printing process, postwashing with organic solvents can damage the printed resin polymer and possibly pose a risk to human health. The development of water-washable dental resins means that water can be used as a washing agent. However, the effects of washing agents and washing times on the mechanical and biocompatibility properties of water-washable resins remain unclear. This study investigated the impact of different washing agents (water, detergent, and alcohol) and washing time points (5, 10, 20, and 30 min) on the flexural strength, Vickers hardness, surface characterization, degree of conversion, biocompatibility, and monomer elution of 3D printed samples. Using water for long-term washing better preserved the mechanical properties, caused a smooth surface, and improved the degree of conversion, with 20 min of washing with water achieving the same biological performance as organic solvents. Water is an applicable agent option for washing the 3D printing water-washable temporary crown and bridge resin in the postwashing process. This advancement facilitates the development of other water-washable intraoral resins and the optimization of clinical standard washing guidelines.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Teste de Materiais , Impressão Tridimensional , Água , Água/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Humanos , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Dureza , Coroas , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
Arch Oral Biol ; 163: 105973, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study assessed the effect of low-fluoride gels supplemented with micrometric or nano-sized sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on dentin erosive wear in vitro. DESIGN: Bovine dentin blocks (n = 154) were selected by surface microhardness and randomly allocated into seven groups (n = 22/group), according to the gels: Placebo; 4500 ppm F (4500F); 9000 ppm F (9000F); 5% TMP microparticulate plus 4500F (5TMPm+4500F); 2.5% TMP nanoparticulate plus 4500 F (2.5TMPn+4500F); 5% TMP nanoparticulate plus 4500F (5TMPn+4500F); and 12,300 ppm F acid gel (APF). All blocks were treated only once for 60 s and cyclically eroded (ERO, citric acid, 4 × 90 s/day) or eroded and brushed (4 × 15 s/day, five strokes/s, ERO+ABR) over five days (each subgroup n = 11). Dentin wear and integrated hardness loss in depth (ΔKHN) were determined, and the data were submitted to two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test, and Spearman's correlation (p < 0.05). RESULTS: For ERO, all gels containing 4500F supplemented with TMP significantly reduced dentin wear compared with their counterpart without TMP, reaching values similar to 9000F. For ERO+ABR, 5TMPn+ 4500F gel led to significantly lower wear than all its counterparts, reaching values similar to 9000F and APF. As for ΔKHN, all gels containing TMP promoted superior protective effects compared with 4500F, reaching values similar to 9000F and APF under both challenges. A positive correlation between dentin wear and mineral content in depth was verified. CONCLUSIONS: Gels containing 4500F supplemented with TMP significantly reduced dentin erosive wear compared with pure 4500F, with additional benefit from the use of nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Dentina , Fluoretos , Géis , Nanopartículas , Polifosfatos , Erosão Dentária , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Dureza , Distribuição Aleatória , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 268(Pt 2): 131942, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685546

RESUMO

The interaction of monoglycerides and phytosterols in olive- and coconut oil on the structuring of oleogels was analyzed. Specifically, bigels with gelatin hydrogel in different ratios (40:60 and 60:40 w/w) were formed. The physicochemical and microstructural attributes of these systems were assessed. The olive oil to coconut oil ratio (0-100 w/w) and the added oleogelators affected the crystal structure and the mechanical properties of the oleogels. Polarized light microscopy revealed that the addition of coconut oil created a denser triglycerides crystal network and the presence of phytosterols created more needle-like crystals, enhancing the textural properties of the oleogels and of the resulting bigels. The hardness of the oleogels ranged from 0.50 N to 1.24 N and for bigels was 5.96-36.75 N. Bigels hardness decreased as the oleogel ratio in the bigel increased. Microscopy and FTIR revealed that the addition of coconut oil in oleogels hampered the formation of a distinct crystalline monoglycerides network. Also, the absence of new peaks in the bigels indicated that the two structured phases interact with each other mostly physically, without the formation of new chemical bonds. Consequently, the oleogels and bigels developed, comprise a promising hard fat substitute with improved nutritional profile.


Assuntos
Óleo de Coco , Azeite de Oliva , Compostos Orgânicos , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Óleo de Coco/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Monoglicerídeos/química , Gelatina/química , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Triglicerídeos/química , Fitosteróis/química , Dureza , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 268(Pt 2): 131788, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657931

RESUMO

While individual starch types may not possess the ideal gelatinization and retrogradation properties for specific applications, the amalgamation of multiple starch varieties might bestow desirable physicochemical properties upon resulting starch-based products. This study explored the impact of incorporating purple rice starch (PRS), as a novel starch variant (up to 15 % PRS), on the gelatinization and retrogradation (within 14 days) of regular wheat starch (WS). Rheological and texture assessments demonstrated that the introduction of PRS diminished the viscoelasticity and hardness of fresh WS paste. Additionally, in the case of retrograded WS pastes stored at 4 °C for 1-14 days, the incorporation of 10 % or 15 % PRS effectively retarded the reduction in transparency and significantly reduced hardness, retrogradation degree, the ratio of absorbance at 1047/1017 cm-1, and relative crystallinity. Notably, 10 % PRS results in a more pronounced effect. Conversely, 5 % PRS induced an opposing impact on retrograded WS post-storage. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy revealed that as the proportion of PRS increased, the microstructure of gelatinized WS-PRS closely resembled that of pure PRS. In conclusion, the diverse effects of varying PRS proportions on WS alter the texture and characteristics of starch-based foods, underscoring the potential of starch blending for improved applications.


Assuntos
Oryza , Reologia , Amido , Triticum , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Oryza/química , Viscosidade , Dureza
15.
J Food Sci ; 89(5): 2645-2658, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563094

RESUMO

Xylanases are mainly utilized in bakery industry for the hydrolysis of dietary fiber-based fractions. Their applications in gluten-free products have not been considered before. In the present study, the xylanase produced by Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL Y-2311-1 was utilized in a mulberry and rice flours-based gluten-free cookie formulation for the first time. Effects of various xylanase concentrations on gluten-free dough rheology and cookie characteristics were elucidated. Only rice flour-based cookie and only wheat flour-based cookie formulations were also prepared as comparison. Incorporation of xylanase into all cookie recipes resulted in softer cookie doughs with lower absolute stickiness. The hardness and absolute stickiness of the cookie doughs prepared by the mixture of mulberry and rice flours decreased by the addition of the enzyme into the formulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Enzyme concentrations above 100 U/100 g flour did not provide statistically significant further changes on gluten-free cookie doughs. Incorporation of xylanase into the cookie recipes resulted in increased baking loss and spread ratio in an enzyme concentration-dependent manner for all cookie types. Hardness values of both types of gluten-free cookies decreased by xylanase incorporation. Different effects on fracturability were observed depending on the cookie type and enzyme concentration. Enzyme concentration of 100 U/100 g flour provided mulberry and rice flours-based cookies with a more flexible and softer structure. No significant effects on color parameters of cookies were observed by xylanase incorporation.


Assuntos
Dieta Livre de Glúten , Farinha , Morus , Oryza , Reologia , Farinha/análise , Oryza/química , Morus/química , Ascomicetos/enzimologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Dureza , Culinária/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Triticum/química , Glutens/análise
16.
J Dent ; 145: 105013, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the protective effect of fluoride (F) gels supplemented with micrometric or nano-sized sodium trimetaphosphate (TMPmicro and TMPnano, respectively) against enamel erosion in vitro. METHODS: Bovine enamel blocks (n = 140) were selected according to their surface hardness, and randomly divided into seven groups (n = 20/group), according to the gels tested: Placebo (without F/TMP), 4,500 µg F/g (4500F), 9,000 µg F/g (9000F), 4500F plus 2.5 % TMPnano (2.5 % Nano), 4500F plus 5 % TMPnano (5 % Nano), 4500F plus 5 % TMPnano (Micro 5 %) and 12,300 µg F/g (Acid gel). Blocks were treated once during one minute with the gels, and submitted to erosive (ERO, n = 10/group) or erosive plus abrasive (ERO+ABR, n = 10/group) challenges 4 times/day, for 90 s for each challenge (under reciprocating agitation), during consecutive 5 days. Blocks were analyzed by profilometry, and by surface (SH) and cross-sectional hardness (∆KHN). Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA, and Fisher's LSD test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: For ERO, both TMPnano-containing gels promoted enamel wear significantly lower than Placebo and 4500F, reaching levels similar to both positive controls (9000F and acid gel); significantly lower softening was observed for enamel treated with 4500F+5 % Micro and 4500F+2.5 % Nano. Also, the lowest ∆KHN values were observed for 4500F+2.5 % TMPnano among the TMP-containing gels. For ERO+ABR, the lowest enamel wear was achieved by the use of 4500F+5 % Nano among all gels, including both positive controls; lower softening was observed for Placebo and 9000F groups. CONCLUSION: The addition of 5 % nano-sized TMP to a low-fluoride gel produced superior protective effects for enamel under both challenges conditions, when compared with micrometric TMP, reaching values similar to or superior than both positive controls, respectively for ERO and ERO+ABR. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The supplementation of low-F gels with TMP was shown to significantly improve their effects on enamel erosive wear, and the use of nano-sized TMP further enhances this protective action.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos , Esmalte Dentário , Géis , Dureza , Nanopartículas , Polifosfatos , Erosão Dentária , Animais , Bovinos , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Placebos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Dent ; 145: 104993, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the physical and mechanical properties of four denture base materials: Polyan IC (PA), milled polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), three-dimensional (3D)-printed resin (3DP), and SR Ivocap (SR). METHODS: Ninety-six samples were prepared and divided into four groups as follows. Group A consisted of 3DP (Asiga DentaBASE, Asiga) fabricated using a manufacturer-recommended 3D printer (Asiga Pro 4k, Asiga). Group B comprised milled PMMA (MP) (Ivotion Base, Ivoclar Vivadent). Group C included PA (BredentSenden), meanwhile, group D involved SR (Ivoclar VivadentSchaan). Cuboid samples (65 mm x 10 mm x 2.5 mm) were used for biaxial flexure strength testing in a universal testing machine (UTM). Cylindrical samples of 20 mm x 40 mm were used for compressive strength testing in a UTM. Additionally, cuboid samples (65 mm x 10 mm x 2.5 mm) were used for Vickers surface hardness testing in a microhardness tester. disk samples (10 mm x 2.5 mm) were employed for color stability testing both in a coffee solution and Coca-Cola, using a digital spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc analysis (α=0.05). RESULTS: MP demonstrated superior compressive strength (p = 0.002) and color stability compared to that exhibited by 3DP (p < 0.001) while displaying similar flexure strength (p = 0.336) and hardness (p = 0.708). MP and PA displayed similar compressive strength (p = 0.081), flexure strength (p = 0.159), and color stability in coke (p = 0.071). However, MP had reduced hardness (p < 0.001) and color stability in coffee (p < 0.001). Moreover, MP demonstrated a higher compressive strength (p < 0.001) than that displayed by SR. However, the flexure strength, hardness, and color stability were similar (p > 0.05). Furthermore, 3DP exhibited comparable compressive strength (p = 0.334) to that of PA but demonstrated significantly lower flexure strength (p = 0.005), hardness (p < 0.001), and color stability (p < 0.001) compared to PA. In comparison to SR, PA had a higher compressive strength (p < 0.001), hardness (p = 0.001), and color stability in coffee (p < 0.001), although they demonstrated similar (p > 0.05) flexure strength and color stability in coke. CONCLUSIONS: The MP and PA demonstrated superior compressive strength than that exhibited by the other materials tested. The tested materials had similar flexure strengths, except for PA which demonstrated superiority over the 3DP. Among all tested materials, PA exhibited the highest hardness, while the 3DP was the least color-stable. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Considering the mechanical properties and color stability, Polyan and milled polymethylmethacrylate are preferred for complete denture fabrication. However, the limited repairability and complex handling of Polyan should be considered.


Assuntos
Cor , Materiais Dentários , Bases de Dentadura , Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Polimetil Metacrilato , Propriedades de Superfície , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Materiais Dentários/química , Força Compressiva , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Humanos , Estresse Mecânico , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Resistência à Flexão
18.
J Dent ; 145: 105022, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the erosion preventive effect of 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution in enamel and dentin of human permanent teeth. METHODS: Ninety enamel and ninety dentin blocks were prepared from permanent molars and allocated into three groups. Gp-SDF received a one-off application of 38 % SDF solution. Gp-SNF received a one-off application of a solution containing 800 ppm stannous chloride and 500 ppm fluoride. Gp-DW received a one-off application of deionized water. The blocks were submitted to acid challenge at pH 3.2, 2 min, 5 times/day for 7 days. All blocks were immersed in human saliva between cycles for one hour. The crystal characteristics, percentage of surface microhardness loss (%SMHL), surface loss, and elemental analysis and surface morphology were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness test, non-contact profilometry, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Data of%SMHL and surface loss were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: XRD spectra revealed that fluorapatite and silver compounds formed in Gp-SDF, while fluorapatite and stannous compounds formed in Gp-SNF. Gp-DW presented only hydroxyapatite. The median (interquartile range) of%SMHL in Gp-SDF, Gp-SNF and Gp-DW were 27.86(3.66), 43.41(2.45), and 46.40(3.54) in enamel (p< 0.001), and 14.21(1.57), 27.99(1.95), and 33.18(1.73) in dentin, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean (standard deviation, µm) of surface loss of Gp-SDF, Gp-SNF, and Gp-DW were 2.81(0.59), 4.28(0.67), and 4.63(0.64) in enamel (p < 0.001) and 4.13(0.69), 6.04(0.61), and 7.72(0.66) in dentin, respectively (p < 0.001). SEM images exhibited less enamel corruption and more dentinal tubular occlusion in Gp-SDF compared to Gp-SNF and Gp-DW. EDS analysis showed silver was detected in Gp-SDF while stannous was detected in the dentin block of Gp-SNF. CONCLUSION: 38 % SDF yielded superior results in protecting enamel and dentin blocks from dental erosion compared to SNF and DW. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Topical application of 38 % SDF is effective in preventing dental erosion in human enamel and dentin.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário , Dentina , Fluoretos Tópicos , Dureza , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Compostos de Prata , Espectrometria por Raios X , Erosão Dentária , Difração de Raios X , Humanos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos Tópicos/farmacologia , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Apatitas , Compostos de Estanho/farmacologia , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Saliva/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Teste de Materiais , Fatores de Tempo
19.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 10(5): 2935-2944, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627890

RESUMO

Ti-Au intermetallic-based material systems are being extensively studied as next-generation thin film coatings to extend the lifetime of implant devices. These coatings are being developed for application to the articulating surfaces of total joint implants and, therefore, must have excellent biocompatibility combined with superior mechanical hardness and wear resistance. However, these key characteristics of Ti-Au coatings are heavily dependent upon factors such as the surface properties and temperature of the underlying substrate during thin film deposition. In this work, Ti3Au thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on both glass and Ti6Al4V substrates at an ambient and elevated substrate temperature of 275 °C. These films were studied for their mechanical properties by the nanoindentation technique in both variable load and fixed load mode using a Berkovich tip. XRD patterns and cross-sectional SEM images detail the microstructure, while AFM images present the surface morphologies of these Ti3Au thin films. The biocompatibility potential of the films is assessed by cytotoxicity tests in L929 mouse fibroblast cells using Alamar blue assay, while leached ion concentrations in the film extracts are quantified using ICPOEMS. The standard deviation for hardness of films deposited on glass substrates is ∼4 times lower than that on Ti6Al4V substrates and is correlated with a corresponding increase in surface roughness from 2 nm for glass to 40 nm for Ti6Al4V substrates. Elevating substrate temperature leads to an increase in film hardness from 5.1 to 8.9 GPa and is related to the development of a superhard ß phase of the Ti3Au intermetallic. The standard deviation of this peak mechanical hardness value is reduced by ∼3 times when measured in fixed load mode compared to the variable load mode due to the effect of nanoindentation tip penetration depth. All tested Ti-Au thin films also exhibit excellent biocompatibility against L929 fibroblast cells, as viability levels are above 95% and leached Ti, Al, V, and Au ion concentrations are below 0.1 ppm. Overall, this work demonstrates a novel Ti3Au thin film system with a unique combination of high hardness and excellent biocompatibility with potential to be developed into a new wear-resistant coating to extend the lifetime of articulating total joint implants.


Assuntos
Ligas , Vidro , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio , Titânio/química , Ligas/química , Animais , Camundongos , Vidro/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Dureza , Ouro/química
20.
Urolithiasis ; 52(1): 57, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563829

RESUMO

Calcium oxalate kidney stones, the most prevalent type of kidney stones, undergo a multi-step process of crystal nucleation, growth, aggregation, and secondary transition. The secondary transition has been rather overlooked, and thus, the effects on the disease and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Here, we show, by periodic micro-CT images of human kidney stones in an ex vivo incubation experiment, that the growth of porous aggregates of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals triggers the hardening of the kidney stones that causes difficulty in lithotripsy of kidney stone disease in the secondary transition. This hardening was caused by the internal nucleation and growth of precise calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals from isolated urine in which the calcium oxalate concentrations decreased by the growth of COD in closed grain boundaries of COD aggregate kidney stones. Reducing the calcium oxalate concentrations in urine is regarded as a typical approach for avoiding the recurrence. However, our results revealed that the decrease of the concentrations in closed microenvironments conversely promotes the transition of the COD aggregates into hard COM aggregates. We anticipate that the suppression of the secondary transition has the potential to manage the deterioration of kidney stone disease.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Cálculos Renais , Litotripsia , Humanos , Oxalato de Cálcio , Dureza
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