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1.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(2): e16584, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372423

RESUMO

Coastal bays, such as Delaware Bay, are highly productive, ecologically important transitions between rivers and the coastal ocean. They offer opportunities to investigate archaeal assemblages across seasons, with the exchange of water masses that occurs with tidal cycles, and in the context of variable organic matter quality. For a year-long estuarine, size-fractionated time series, we used amplicon sequencing, chemical measurements, and qPCR to follow archaeal groups through the seasons. We detected seasonally high abundances of Marine Group II archaea in summer months which correlate with indicators of phytoplankton production, although not phytoplankton biomass. Although previous studies have reported associations between Marine Group II archaea and particles, here they are almost entirely found in very small particles (0.22-0.7 µm), suggesting they are free-living cells. Populations of Nitrososphaeria did not vary with particle size or environmental conditions. Methanogens were significant fractions of archaeal sequences in large particles at low tide during winter months. Contrary to expectations, Nanoarchaeia were found predominantly in the free-living fraction despite the previous observation that they require an association with hosts. These results underscore the utility of time series studies in shallow, tidally mixed estuarine environments that capture variable conditions for understanding the ecology and biogeochemistry of planktic archaea.


Assuntos
Archaea , Ecologia , Archaea/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Fitoplâncton/genética , Rios , Estações do Ano
2.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365236

RESUMO

Nearly all organisms are hosts to multiple viruses that collectively appear to be the most abundant biological entities in the biosphere. With recent advances in metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the known diversity of viruses substantially expanded. Comparative analysis of these viruses using advanced computational methods culminated in the reconstruction of the evolution of major groups of viruses and enabled the construction of a virus megataxonomy, which has been formally adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. This comprehensive taxonomy consists of six virus realms, which are aspired to be monophyletic and assembled based on the conservation of hallmark proteins involved in capsid structure formation or genome replication. The viruses in different major taxa substantially differ in host range and accordingly in ecological niches. In this review article, we outline the latest developments in virus megataxonomy and the recent discoveries that will likely lead to reassessment of some major taxa, in particular, split of three of the current six realms into two or more independent realms. We then discuss the correspondence between virus taxonomy and the distribution of viruses among hosts and ecological niches, as well as the abundance of viruses versus cells in different habitats. The distribution of viruses across environments appears to be primarily determined by the host ranges, i.e. the virome is shaped by the composition of the biome in a given habitat, which itself is affected by abiotic factors.


Assuntos
Vírus , Vírus/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Ecologia , Filogenia , Genoma Viral
3.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365247

RESUMO

Bacterial communities are intricate ecosystems in which various members interact, compete for resources, and influence each other's growth. Antibiotics intensify this complexity, posing challenges in maintaining biodiversity. In this study, we delved into the behavior of kin bacterial communities when subjected to antibiotic perturbations, with a particular focus on how interspecific interactions shape these responses. We hypothesized that social cheating-where resistant strains shield both themselves and neighboring cheaters-obstructed coexistence, especially when kin bacteria exhibited varied growth rates and antibiotic sensitivities. To explore potential pathways to coexistence, we incorporated a third bacterial member, anticipating a shift in the dynamics of community coexistence. Simulations and experimental bacterial communities confirmed our predictions, emphasizing the pivotal role of interspecific competition in promoting coexistence under antibiotic interference. These insights are crucial for understanding bacterial ecosystem stability, interpreting drug-microbiome interactions, and predicting bacterial community adaptations to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microbiota , Biodiversidade , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ecologia , Proliferação de Células
4.
Am J Bot ; 111(2): e16288, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366744

RESUMO

Functional traits are critical tools in plant ecology for capturing organism-environment interactions based on trade-offs and making links between organismal and ecosystem processes. While broad frameworks for functional traits have been developed for vascular plants, we lack the same for bryophytes, despite an escalation in the number of studies on bryophyte functional trait in the last 45 years and an increased recognition of the ecological roles bryophytes play across ecosystems. In this review, we compiled data from 282 published articles (10,005 records) that focused on functional traits measured in mosses and sought to examine trends in types of traits measured, capture taxonomic and geographic breadth of trait coverage, reveal biases in coverage in the current literature, and develop a bryophyte-function index (BFI) to describe the completeness of current trait coverage and identify global gaps to focus research efforts. The most commonly measured response traits (those related to growth/reproduction in individual organisms) and effect traits (those that directly affect community/ecosystem scale processes) fell into the categories of morphology (e.g., leaf area, shoot height) and nutrient storage/cycling, and our BFI revealed that these data were most commonly collected from temperate and boreal regions of Europe, North America, and East Asia. However, fewer than 10% of known moss species have available functional trait information. Our synthesis revealed a need for research on traits related to ontogeny, sex, and intraspecific plasticity and on co-measurement of traits related to water relations and bryophyte-mediated soil processes.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Traqueófitas , Ecossistema , Ecologia , Viés
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4127, 2024 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374243

RESUMO

Bat flies are one of the most abundant ectoparasites of bats, showing remarkable morphological adaptations to the parasitic habit, while the relationship with their hosts is characterized by a high level of specificity. By collecting bat flies from live hosts, our intention was to elucidate the seasonal differences in bat fly occurrence and to describe factors regulating the level of incipient host specificity. Our results indicate that the prevalence and the intensity of infestation is increasing from spring to autumn for most host species, with significant differences among different fly species. Males showed higher infestation levels than females in autumn, suggesting a non-random host choice by flies, targeting the most active host sex. Bat-bat fly host specificity shows seasonal changes and host choice of bat flies are affected by the seasonal differences in hosts' behavior and ecology, the intensity of infestation and the species composition of the local host community. Nycteribiid bat flies showed lower host specificity in the swarming (boreal autumn) period, with higher prevalence recorded on non-primary hosts. Choosing a non-primary bat host may be an adaptive choice for bat flies in the host's mating period, thus increasing their dispersive ability in a high activity phase of their hosts.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Dípteros , Parasitos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Estações do Ano , Parasitos/fisiologia , Ecologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1330, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351066

RESUMO

Human factors and plant characteristics are important drivers of plant invasions, which threaten ecosystem integrity, biodiversity and human well-being. However, while previous studies often examined a limited number of factors or focused on a specific invasion stage (e.g., naturalization) for specific regions, a multi-factor and multi-stage analysis at the global scale is lacking. Here, we employ a multi-level framework to investigate the interplay between plant characteristics (genome size, Grime's adaptive CSR-strategies and native range size) and economic use and how these factors collectively affect plant naturalization and invasion success worldwide. While our findings derived from structural equation models highlight the substantial contribution of human assistance in both the naturalization and spread of invasive plants, we also uncovered the pivotal role of species' adaptive strategies among the factors studied, and the significantly varying influence of these factors across invasion stages. We further revealed that the effects of genome size on plant invasions were partially mediated by species adaptive strategies and native range size. Our study provides insights into the complex and dynamic process of plant invasions and identifies its key drivers worldwide.


Assuntos
Cidadania , Ecossistema , Humanos , Tamanho do Genoma , Espécies Introduzidas , Ecologia , Biodiversidade , Plantas/genética
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2016): 20232707, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351801

RESUMO

Organisms that immigrate into a recipient habitat generate a movement pattern that affects local population dynamics and the environment. Spillover is the pattern of unidirectional movement from a donor habitat to a different, adjacent recipient habitat. However, ecological definitions are often generalized to include any cross-habitat movement, which limits within- and cross-discipline collaboration. To assess spillover nomenclature, we reviewed 337 studies within the agriculture, disease, fisheries and habitat fragmentation disciplines. Each study's definition of spillover and the methods used were analysed. We identified four descriptors (movement, habitat type and arrangement, and effect) used that differentiate spillover from other cross-habitat movement patterns (dispersal, foray loops and edge movement). Studies often define spillover as movement (45%) but rarely measure it as such (4%), particularly in disease and habitat fragmentation disciplines. Consequently, 98% of studies could not distinguish linear from returning movement out of a donor habitat, which can overestimate movement distance. Overall, few studies (12%) included methods that matched their own definition, revealing a distinct mismatch. Because theory shows that long-term impacts of the different movement patterns can vary, differentiating spillover from other movement patterns is necessary for effective long-term and inter-disciplinary management of organisms that use heterogeneous landscapes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Movimento , Dinâmica Populacional , Agricultura , Ecologia
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2016): 20232666, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351808

RESUMO

Wildlife is increasingly exposed to sublethal transient cancer risk factors, including mutagenic substances, which activates their anti-cancer defences, promotes tumourigenesis, and may negatively impact populations. Little is known about how exposure to cancer risk factors impacts the behaviour of wildlife. Here, we investigated the effects of a sublethal, short-term exposure to a carcinogen at environmentally relevant concentrations on the activity patterns of wild Girardia tigrina planaria during a two-phase experiment, consisting of a 7-day exposure to cadmium period followed by a 7-day recovery period. To comprehensively explore the effects of the exposure on activity patterns, we employed the double hierarchical generalized linear model framework which explicitly models residual intraindividual variability in addition to the mean and variance of the population. We found that exposed planaria were less active compared to unexposed individuals and were able to recover to pre-exposure activity levels albeit with a reduced variance in activity at the start of the recovery phase. Planaria showing high activity levels were less predictable with larger daily activity variations and higher residual variance. Thus, the shift in behavioural variability induced by an exposure to a cancer risk factor can be quantified using advanced tools from the field of behavioural ecology. This is required to understand how tumourous processes affect the ecology of species.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Neoplasias , Humanos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Animais Selvagens , Fatores de Risco
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(7): e2312396121, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315845

RESUMO

Understanding the assembly of multispecies microbial communities represents a significant challenge in ecology and has wide applications in agriculture, wastewater treatment, and human healthcare domains. Traditionally, studies on the microbial community assembly focused on analyzing pairwise relationships among species; however, neglecting higher-order interactions, i.e., the change of pairwise relationships in the community context, may lead to substantial deviation from reality. Herein, we have proposed a simple framework that incorporates higher-order interactions into a bottom-up prediction of the microbial community assembly and examined its accuracy using a seven-member synthetic bacterial community on a host plant, duckweed. Although the synthetic community exhibited emergent properties that cannot be predicted from pairwise coculturing results, our results demonstrated that incorporating information from three-member combinations allows the acceptable prediction of the community structure and actual interaction forces within it. This reflects that the occurrence of higher-order effects follows consistent patterns, which can be predicted even from trio combinations, the smallest unit of higher-order interactions. These results highlight the possibility of predicting, explaining, and understanding the microbial community structure from the bottom-up by learning interspecies interactions from simple beyond-pairwise combinations.


Assuntos
Interações Microbianas , Microbiota , Humanos , Ecologia , Bactérias
12.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(2): e1011675, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330086

RESUMO

Ecosystems are commonly organized into trophic levels-organisms that occupy the same level in a food chain (e.g., plants, herbivores, carnivores). A fundamental question in theoretical ecology is how the interplay between trophic structure, diversity, and competition shapes the properties of ecosystems. To address this problem, we analyze a generalized Consumer Resource Model with three trophic levels using the zero-temperature cavity method and numerical simulations. We derive the corresponding mean-field cavity equations and show that intra-trophic diversity gives rise to an effective "emergent competition" term between species within a trophic level due to feedbacks mediated by other trophic levels. This emergent competition gives rise to a crossover from a regime of top-down control (populations are limited by predators) to a regime of bottom-up control (populations are limited by primary producers) and is captured by a simple order parameter related to the ratio of surviving species in different trophic levels. We show that our theoretical results agree with empirical observations, suggesting that the theoretical approach outlined here can be used to understand complex ecosystems with multiple trophic levels.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar
13.
Am Nat ; 203(3): 382-392, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358811

RESUMO

AbstractModels of range expansion have independently explored fitness consequences of life history trait evolution and increased rates of genetic drift-or "allele surfing"-during spatial spread, but no previous model has examined the interactions between these two processes. Here, using spatially explicit simulations, we explore an ecologically complex range expansion scenario that combines density-dependent selection with allele surfing to asses the genetic and fitness consequences of density-dependent selection on the evolution of life history traits. We demonstrate that density-dependent selection on the range edge acts differently depending on the life history trait and can either diminish or enhance allele surfing. Specifically, we show that selection at the range edge is always weaker at sites affecting competitive ability (K-selected traits) than at sites affecting birth rate (r-selected traits). We then link differences in the frequency of deleterious mutations to differences in the efficacy of selection and rate of mutation accumulation across distinct life history traits. Finally, we demonstrate that the observed fitness consequences of allele surfing depend on the population density in which expansion load is measured. Our work highlights the complex relationship between ecology and expressed genetic load, which will be important to consider when interpreting both experimental and field studies of range expansion.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Evolução Biológica , Mutação , Deriva Genética , Ecologia , Seleção Genética , Modelos Genéticos
14.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296688, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335166

RESUMO

Male orangutans (Pongo spp.) exhibit bimaturism, an alternative reproductive tactic, with flanged and unflanged males displaying two distinct morphological and behavioral phenotypes. Flanged males are larger than unflanged males and display secondary sexual characteristics which unflanged males lack. The evolutionary explanation for alternative reproductive tactics in orangutans remains unclear because orangutan paternity studies to date have been from sites with ex-captive orangutans, provisioning via feeding stations and veterinary care, or that lack data on the identity of mothers. Here we demonstrate, using the first long-term paternity data from a site free of these limitations, that alternative reproductive tactics in orangutans are condition-dependent, not frequency-dependent. We found higher reproductive success by flanged males than by unflanged males, a pattern consistent with other Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) paternity studies. Previous paternity studies disagree on the degree of male reproductive skew, but we found low reproductive skew among flanged males. We compare our findings and previous paternity studies from both Bornean and Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) to understand why these differences exist, examining the possible roles of species differences, ecology, and human intervention. Additionally, we use long-term behavioral data to demonstrate that while flanged males can displace unflanged males in association with females, flanged males are unable to keep other males from associating with a female, and thus they are unable to completely mate guard females. Our results demonstrate that alternative reproductive tactics in Bornean orangutans are condition-dependent, supporting the understanding that the flanged male morph is indicative of good condition. Despite intense male-male competition and direct sexual coercion by males, female mate choice is effective in determining reproductive outcomes in this population of wild orangutans.


Assuntos
Pongo abelii , Pongo pygmaeus , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Reprodução , Ecologia
15.
Soc Sci Res ; 118: 102978, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336421

RESUMO

Ecological competition models from biology have been adopted for the study of a wide variety of social entities, including workplace organizations and voluntary associations.Despite their popularity, a number of fundamental challenges to these models have not been sufficiently recognized or addressed. As a result, it's possible that some apparently supportive evidence for ecological competition is in fact the outcome of chance or other processes. We propose a permutation test to compare observed evidence for ecological competition against an appropriate counterfactual population. To demonstrate our approach and validate our concern about the quality of evidence for ecological competition models, we apply the permutation test to one specific case. The results indicate that K-correlation values that have been taken as evidence for a well-established model, the Ecology of Affiliation, are quite common even in the absence of ecological competition. We conclude that the existing evidence for social ecology models may not be as reliable as commonly believed due to the disconnect between theory and empirical testing.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos , Meio Social
16.
Ecol Lett ; 27(2): e14371, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361471

RESUMO

It is widely acknowledged that biodiversity change is affecting human well-being by altering the supply of Nature's Contributions to People (NCP). Nevertheless, the role of individual species in this relationship remains obscure. In this article, we present a framework that combines the cascade model from ecosystem services research with network theory from community ecology. This allows us to quantitatively link NCP demanded by people to the networks of interacting species that underpin them. We show that this "network cascade" framework can reveal the number, identity and importance of the individual species that drive NCP and of the environmental conditions that support them. This information is highly valuable in demonstrating the importance of biodiversity in supporting human well-being and can help inform the management of biodiversity in social-ecological systems.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Ecologia
17.
Harmful Algae ; 132: 102566, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331538

RESUMO

Pelagic Sargassum in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) plays an important role in ocean biology and ecology, yet our knowledge of its origins and transport pathways is limited. Here, using satellite observations of Sargassum areal density and ocean surface currents between 2000 and 2023, we show that large amounts of Sargassum in the GoM can either originate from the northwestern GoM or be a result of physical transport from the northwestern Caribbean Sea, both with specific transport pathways. Sargassum of the northwestern GoM can be transported to the eastern GoM by ocean currents and eddies, eventually entering the Sargasso Sea. Sargassum entering the GoM from the northwestern Caribbean Sea can be transported in three different directions, with the northward and eastward transports governed by the Loop Current System (LCS) and westward transport driven by the westward extension of the LCS, the propagation or relaying of ocean eddies, the wind-driven westward currents on the Campeche Bank with or without eddies, and the westward currents with/without currents associated with eddies in the northern/central GoM. Overall, the spatial distribution patterns of pelagic Sargassum in the GoM are strongly influenced by the LCS and relevant eddies.


Assuntos
Sargassum , Golfo do México , Meio Ambiente , Região do Caribe , Ecologia
18.
Science ; 383(6682): 531-537, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301018

RESUMO

Large mammalian herbivores (megafauna) have experienced extinctions and declines since prehistory. Introduced megafauna have partly counteracted these losses yet are thought to have unusually negative effects on plants compared with native megafauna. Using a meta-analysis of 3995 plot-scale plant abundance and diversity responses from 221 studies, we found no evidence that megafauna impacts were shaped by nativeness, "invasiveness," "feralness," coevolutionary history, or functional and phylogenetic novelty. Nor was there evidence that introduced megafauna facilitate introduced plants more than native megafauna. Instead, we found strong evidence that functional traits shaped megafauna impacts, with larger-bodied and bulk-feeding megafauna promoting plant diversity. Our work suggests that trait-based ecology provides better insight into interactions between megafauna and plants than do concepts of nativeness.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Extinção Biológica , Herbivoria , Espécies Introduzidas , Mamíferos , Plantas , Animais , Ecologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Filogenia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
19.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1898): 20220515, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310937

RESUMO

Hormones regulate most physiological functions and life history from embryonic development to reproduction. In addition to their roles in growth and development, hormones also mediate responses to the abiotic, social and nutritional environments. Hormone signalling is responsive to environmental changes to adjust phenotypes to prevailing conditions. Both hormone levels and receptor densities can change to provide a flexible system of regulation. Endocrine flexibility connects the environment to organismal function, and it is central to understanding environmental impacts and their effect on individuals and populations. Hormones may also act as a 'sensor' to link environmental signals to epigenetic processes and thereby effect phenotypic plasticity within and across generations. Many environmental parameters are now changing in unprecedented ways as a result of human activity. The knowledge base of organism-environmental interactions was established in environments that differ in many ways from current conditions as a result of ongoing human impacts. It is an urgent contemporary challenge to understand how evolved endocrine responses will modulate phenotypes in response to anthropogenic environmental impacts including climate change, light-at-night and chemical pollution. Endocrine responses play a central role in ecology, and their integration into conservation can lead to more effective outcomes. This article is part of the theme issue 'Endocrine responses to environmental variation: conceptual approaches and recent developments'.


Assuntos
Sistema Endócrino , Hormônios , Humanos , Sistema Endócrino/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Transdução de Sinais , Ecologia
20.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1898): 20220516, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310938

RESUMO

Reproduction in fishes is sensitive to temperature. Elevated temperatures and anomalous 'heat waves' associated with climate change have the potential to impact fish reproductive performance and, in some cases, even induce sex reversals. Here we examine how thermal sensitivity in the hormone pathways regulating reproduction provides a framework for understanding impacts of warmer conditions on fish reproduction. Such effects will differ depending on evolved variation in temperature sensitivity of endocrine pathways regulating reproductive processes of sex determination/differentiation, gametogenesis and spawning, as well as how developmental timing of those processes varies with reproductive ecology. For fish populations unable to shift geographical range, persistence under future climates may require changes in temperature responsiveness of the hormone pathways regulating reproductive processes. How thermal sensitivity in those hormone pathways varies among populations and species, how those pathways generate temperature maxima for reproduction, and how rapidly reproductive thermal tolerances can change via adaptation or transgenerational plasticity will shape which fishes are most at risk for impaired reproduction under rising temperatures. This article is part of the theme issue 'Endocrine responses to environmental variation: conceptual approaches and recent developments'.


Assuntos
Peixes , Reprodução , Animais , Reprodução/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Aclimatação , Ecologia , Temperatura
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