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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2466-2470, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424166

RESUMO

Among 713 equids sampled in northeastern Brazil during 2013-2018, West Nile virus seroprevalence was 4.5% (95% CI 3.1%-6.3%). Mathematical modeling substantiated higher seroprevalence adjacent to an avian migratory route and in areas characterized by forest loss, implying increased risk for zoonotic infections in disturbed areas.


Assuntos
Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ecologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444133

RESUMO

Researchers and managers of natural resource conservation have increasingly emphasized the importance of maintaining a connected network of important ecological patches to mitigate landscape fragmentation, reduce the decline of biodiversity, and sustain ecological services. This research aimed to guide landscape management and decision-making by developing an evaluation framework to construct ecological security patterns. Taking the Jianghan Plain as the study area, we identified key ecological sources by overlaying the spatial patterns of ecological quality (biodiversity, carbon storage, and water yield) and ecological sensitivity (habitat sensitivity, soil erosion sensitivity, and water sensitivity) using the Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model and the Chinese Soil Loss Equation Function. Ecological corridors were obtained by the least-cost path analysis method and circuit theory. A total of 48 ecological sources (3812.95 km2), primarily consisting of water area, forestland, and cropland, were identified. Ninety-one ecological corridors were derived, with a total length of 2036.28 km. Forty barriers and 40 pinch points with the highest improvement coefficient scores or priority scores were selected. There were 11 priority corridors with very high levels of connectivity improvement potential and conservation priority, occupying 16.15% of the total length of corridors. The overall potential for ecological connectivity is high on the Jianghan Plain. Our framework offers a valuable reference for constructing ecological security patterns and identifying sites for ecological restoration at the regional scale.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia , China , Ecossistema , Florestas
3.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 157, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384349

RESUMO

The inaugural BMC Ecology and Evolution image competition attracted entries from talented ecologists and evolutionary biologists worldwide. Together, these photos beautifully capture biodiversity, how it arose and why we should conserve it. This editorial celebrates the winning images as selected by the Editor of BMC Ecology and Evolution and senior members of the journal's editorial board.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
5.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(8): 1810-1813, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346069

RESUMO

In Focus: Li, X-Y., & H. Kokko. (2021). Sexual dimorphism driven by intersexual resource competition: Why is it rare, and where to look for it? Journal of Animal Ecology, 00, 1-13. Ecological sexual dimorphism, that is differences between the sexes in traits that are naturally selected as opposed to sexually selected, is gaining increasing attention after having often been dismissed as the 'less-parsimonious' explanation for differences between sexes. One potential driver of ecological sexual dimorphism is intersexual resource competition, in a process analogous to ecological character displacement between species; yet, clear empirical examples are scarce. Li and Kokko present mathematical models that introduce novel pieces to the puzzle: the role of the scale of mating competition and the spatial variation in resource availability. They show that ecological sexual dimorphism evolves when local mating groups are small (e.g. monogamous pairs) and when different resources are homogeneously available across habitats. Counterintuitively, larger mating groups (e.g. polygyny), and consequently higher intralocus sexual conflict, lead to sexual monomorphism. Habitat heterogeneity also leads to overlapping niches, although it can sometimes drive polymorphism within sexes. This study highlights why the conditions for intrasexual resource competition to drive evolution of sexual dimorphism are stringent, even in the absence of genetic constraints or competing species. Crucially, it highlights the importance of considering the mating system and the spatial scale of resource competition for understanding the occurrence of ecological sexual dimorphism, showing a large potential for future work considering different aspects of species' life histories and spatial dynamics.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Fenótipo
6.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 9420532, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341662

RESUMO

Landscape architecture has both natural and social properties, which is the embodiment of people protecting the natural environment. Since the industrial revolution, the modern industry has developed rapidly. It has increased the living standard of people and consumed a lot of natural resources such as forest and energy. The ecological environment has been greatly damaged, and the landscape of gardens has been affected. Therefore, it is of great significance to find a method to evaluate the landscape ecology and plan the landscape ecology. This paper proposes a new high-order wavelet neural network algorithm combining wavelet analysis and artificial neural network. A model of ecological evaluation of landscape based on high-order wavelet neural network algorithm is proposed to evaluate the landscape ecology and provide reference data for the ecological planning of the landscape. The results show that the training times of the wavelet neural network to achieve the target accuracy are 3600 times less than those of the BP neural network. The MSE and MAE of the WNN are 0.0639 and 0.1501, respectively. The average error of the model to the comprehensive evaluation index of the landscape ecology is 0.005. The accuracy of the model to evaluate the sustainability of landscape land resources is 98.67%. The above results show that the model based on the wavelet neural network can effectively and accurately complete the evaluation of landscape ecology and then provide a decision-making basis for landscape ecological planning, which is of high practicability.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia , Algoritmos , China , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise de Ondaletas
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20190983, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431867

RESUMO

Anthracology is the identification of charcoal remains through wood anatomy. Paleoecological and paleoethnobotanical evidence from anthracological studies provides information on past environments as well as the fuel economy and use of plants by those living in ancient societies. Historical ecology and forest conservation can also accrue from findings in anthracological studies. Charcoal identification must rely on adequate reference material, in particular reference collections and descriptions of charcoal anatomy. This paper presents charcoal anatomy descriptions of fifteen Brazilian native species that occur in the Atlantic Forest and the Amazon Rainforest. The charcoal anatomy of six of these species is here described for the first time. Samples were analyzed under a reflected light microscope; the descriptions followed the procedures and terminology recommended by the International Association of Wood Anatomists. Increased knowledge of the charcoal and wood anatomy of native tropical species may improve taxonomic identification, thereby increasing accordingly the amount and quality of data for sociocultural inferences about past societies. In addition, it contributes to a better knowledge of the native flora, which helps to prevent deforestation and to drive more sustainable charcoal production chains.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Floresta Úmida , Ecologia , Florestas , Madeira/química
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431916

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Animais , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Estações do Ano
9.
Oecologia ; 196(4): 989-1004, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328556

RESUMO

Energetic condition is one of the most important factors that influence fitness and reproductive performance in vertebrates. Yet, we lack evidence on how energetic states change in response to reproduction in large marine vertebrates. In the present study, we used a non-lethal approach to assess relationships among reproductive stage, circulating steroid hormones (testosterone and relative corticosteroid levels), plasma fatty acids, and the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate in male sharks of two species with divergent ecologies, the benthic nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) and the epipelagic blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus). We found higher relative corticosteroid levels in adult nurse sharks during the pre-mating period and in blacktip sharks during the mating period. Higher levels of ß-hydroxybutyrate were found in adult nurse sharks during the mating period, but concentrations of this ketone body did not significantly vary across reproductive stages in blacktip sharks. We also detected reduced percentages of essential fatty acids during the mating period of both nurse and blacktip sharks. Taken together, our findings suggest that nurse and blacktip sharks differ in their energetic strategy to support reproduction, however, they likely rely on physiologically important fatty acids during mating, to support spermatogenesis.


Assuntos
Tubarões , Animais , Ecologia , Masculino , Reprodução
10.
Ecol Lett ; 24(10): 2146-2154, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291561

RESUMO

Among the more widely accepted general hypotheses in ecology is that community relationships between abundance and body size follow a log-linear size spectrum, from the smallest consumers to the largest predators (i.e. 'bacteria to whales'). Nevertheless, most studies only investigate small subsets of this spectrum, and note that extreme size classes in survey data deviate from linear expectations. In this study, we fit size spectra to field data from 45 rocky and coral reef sites along a 28° latitudinal gradient, comprising individuals from 0.125 mm to 2 m in body size. We found that 96% of the variation in abundance along this 'extended' size gradient was described by a single linear function across all sites. However, consistent 'wobbles' were also observed, with subtle peaks and troughs in abundance along the spectrum, which varied with sea temperature, as predicted by theory relating to trophic cascades.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Tubarões , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Recifes de Corais , Ecologia
11.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113206, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325371

RESUMO

Poverty-stricken mountainous areas are often subject to ecological vulnerability, and land use transition is a major factor affecting that vulnerability. Land use transition forms a complex network comprised of different land use types which interact with each other and respond to external environment processes, resulting in dynamics. This study develops complex network approach with cascade failure model to quantitatively explore the effects of land use transition on ecological vulnerability from the holistic and dynamic perspective. The study analyzes the characteristics of land use transition, identifying key transition types and simulating their impact on ecological vulnerability in 16 poverty-stricken mountainous counties in western Hubei Province, China, with the following findings. (1) The heterogeneity of change in agricultural land and construction land is significant; from 1990 to 2015, a short-term increase in the amount of agricultural land is followed by a gradual reduction, while the amount of construction land increased continuously. (2) Agricultural land is the dominant output land type, exported mainly to construction land and water area, and construction land is the dominant input land type, imported mainly from agricultural land. Sparse woods, woods, and dryland are the key land use types in the study area. (3) the critical points for maintaining resilience of ecosystem are 80% or higher for cultivated land and 80% or higher for woodland. (4) For the tolerance parameter α, 20% increase in cultivated land and a 10% increase in woodland would enhance ecosystem resilience and reduce its damage degree to corresponding land use transition. These findings are important points of reference for the sustainable management of poverty-stricken mountainous counties in western Hubei Province and in China more generally. They also have policy implications for land resources, especially in terms of the alleviation of poverty and the coordination between ecological protection and economic development.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Pobreza
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(7): 2555-2564, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313074

RESUMO

The identification of ecological sources and corridors plays an important role in the construction of ecological security pattern. However, previous studies mainly concentrated on the optimal path selection of species migration and diffusion rather than the random path selection of the species, which makes most conclusions fail to objectively reveal the process of species migration and diffusion. Taking the downtown area of Hengyang City as an example, we selected the ecological sources and ecological corridors with the habitat quality analysis module of InVEST and Circuitscape 4.0 and evaluated the importance and connectivity of relevant ecological elements with the Linkage Mapper, with the aim to construct the ecological security pattern and delimitate the regions prior to ecological restoration. The results showed that there were 85 ecological sources dominated by woodland and grassland, together with a small number of ponds and beaches, which mainly distributed in the southwest of Zhengxiang District, the west of Yanfeng District, the northeast and south central of Zhuhui District, with a total area of 11.8 km2. There were 60 ecological sources with centrality greater than 100, accounting for 70.6% of the total. There were 217 ecological corridors and five potential ecological corridors mainly composed of forest land, among which the proportion of shrubbery and sparse forest land was higher. The corridors with higher importance were mainly distributed in the west of the studied area. After removing the barriers, the regional connectivity had been significantly improved, with the highest extent of 54.9%. The priority areas of ecological restoration were classified into three levels according to the value of cumulative current, namely, the high-grade area, the middle-grade area and the low-grade area. The high-grade area covered 4.3 km2 of barriers, mainly distributed in the southwest of Zhengxiang District, northeast and south central of Zhuhui District. The middle-grade area was dominated by pinch area and ecological source area with centrality less than 100, covering an area of about 12.9 km2, mainly distributed in the central part of Zhengxiang District, northeast and south central of Zhuhui District. The low-level area was mainly distributed in south central of Zhuhui District, with 51.8 km2 of residual ecological sources. By coupling InVEST habitat quality analysis module and circuit theory, the ecological security pattern for biological protection was constructed, which provides scientific reference for biological protection.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Cidades , Ecologia , Florestas
13.
Nature ; 595(7866): 175-176, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234325
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206781

RESUMO

Constructing the ecological security pattern is imperative to stabilize ecosystem services and sustainable development coordination of the social economy and ecology. This paper focuses on the Karst region in southeastern Yunnan, which is ecologically fragile. This paper selects the main types of ecosystem services and identifies the ecological source using hot spot analysis for Guangnan County. An inclusive consideration of the regional ecologic conditions and the rocky desertification formation mechanism was made. The resistance factor index system was developed to generate the basic resistance surface modified by the ecological sensitivity index. The Ant algorithm and Kernel density analysis were used to determine ecological corridor range and ecological restoration points that constructed the ecological security pattern of Guangnan County. The results demonstrated that, firstly, there were twenty-three sources in Guangnan County, with a total area of 1292.77 km2, accounting for 16.74% of the total. The forests were the chief ecological sources distributed in the non-Karst area, where Bamei Town, Yangliujing Township and Nasa Town had the highest distribution. Secondly, the revised resistance value is similar to "Zhe (Zhetu Township)-Lian (Liancheng Town)-Yang (Yangliujing Township)-Ban (Bambang Township)". The values were lower in the north and higher in the south, which is consistent with the regional distribution of Karst. Thirdly, the constructed ecological security pattern of the "Source-Corridor-Ecological restoration point" paradigm had twenty-three ecological corridors. The chief ecological and potential corridor areas were 804.95 km2 and 621.2 km2, respectively. There are thirty-eight ecological restoration points mainly distributed in the principal ecological corridors and play a vital role in maintaining the corridor connectivity between sources. The results provide guidance and theoretical basis for the ecological security patterns construction in Karst areas, regional ecologic security protection and sustainable development promotion.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Algoritmos , China , Cidades , Ecologia
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(7)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313584

RESUMO

Introduction. Periodontitis, one of the most common oral disorders in sheep, is caused by a mixed and opportunistic microbiota that severely affects the health and welfare of animals. However, little is known about the ecological processes involved and the composition of the microbiota associated with the development of the disease.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and network analysis it would be possible to discriminate the microbiomes of clinically healthy sheep and those with periodontitis and possibly identify the key microorganisms associated with the disease.Aim. The present study aimed to characterise the composition of dental microbiomes and bacterial co-occurrence networks in clinically healthy sheep and animals with periodontitis.Methodology. Dental biofilm samples were collected from ten sheep with periodontitis and ten clinically healthy animals. Bacteria were identified using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene.Results. The most prevalent genera in the dental microbiota of sheep with periodontitis were Petrimonas, Acinetobacter, Porphyromonas and Aerococcus. In clinically healthy animals, the most significant genera were unclassified Pasteurellaceae, Pseudomonas, and Neisseria. Fusobacterium was found at high prevalence in the microbiomes of both groups. The dental microbiota of sheep in the two clinical conditions presented different profiles and the diversity and richness of bacteria was greater in the diseased animals. Network analyses showed the presence of a large number of antagonistic interactions between bacteria in the dental microbiota of animals with periodontitis, indicating the occurrence of a dysbiotic community. Through the interrelationships, members of the Prevotella genus are likely to be key pathogens, both in the dental microbiota of healthy animals and those with periodontitis. Porphyromonas stood out among the top three nodes with more centrality and the largest number of hubs in the networks of animals with periodontitis.Conclusion. The dental biofilm microbiota associated with ovine periodontitis is dysbiotic and with significant antagonistic interactions, which discriminates healthy animals from diseased animals and highlights the importance of key bacteria, such as Petrimonas, Porphyromonas, Prevotella and Fusobacterium species.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Periodontite/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Ecologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1955): 20211176, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284622

RESUMO

Radiodonts evolved to become the largest nektonic predators in the Cambrian period, persisting into the Ordovician and perhaps up until the Devonian period. They used a pair of large frontal appendages together with a radial mouth apparatus to capture and manipulate their prey, and had evolved a range of species with distinct appendage morphologies by the Early Cambrian (approx. 521 Ma). However, since their discovery, there has been a lack of understanding about their basic functional anatomy, and thus their ecology. To explore radiodont modes of feeding, we have digitally modelled different appendage morphologies represented by Anomalocaris canadensis, Hurdia victoria, Peytoia nathorsti, Amplectobelua stephenensis and Cambroraster falcatus from the Burgess Shale. Our results corroborate ideas that there was probably a significant (functional and hence behavioural) diversity among different radiodont species with adaptations for feeding on differently sized prey (0.07 cm up to 10 cm). We argue here that Cambroraster falcatus appendages were suited for feeding on suspended particles rather than filtering sediment. Given the limited dexterity and lack of accessory feeding appendages as seen in modern arthropods, feeding must have been inefficient and 'messy', which may explain their subsequent replacement by crown-group arthropods, cephalopods and jawed vertebrates.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Fósseis , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ecologia , Extremidades/anatomia & histologia
17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(25): 258301, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241496

RESUMO

We study a reference model in theoretical ecology, the disordered Lotka-Volterra model for ecological communities, in the presence of finite demographic noise. Our theoretical analysis, valid for symmetric interactions, shows that for sufficiently heterogeneous interactions and low demographic noise the system displays a multiple equilibria phase, which we fully characterize. In particular, we show that in this phase the number of locally stable equilibria is exponential in the number of species. Upon further decreasing the demographic noise, we unveil the presence of a second transition like the so-called "Gardner" transition to a marginally stable phase similar to that observed in the jamming of amorphous materials. We confirm and complement our analytical results by numerical simulations. Furthermore, we extend their relevance by showing that they hold for other interacting random dynamical systems such as the random replicant model. Finally, we discuss their extension to the case of asymmetric couplings.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos , Ecologia/métodos , Transição de Fase
18.
Rev Infirm ; 70(272): 25-26, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238491

RESUMO

Microorganisms are invisible to the naked eye. Hospital hygiene practices are therefore based on the representation that caregivers have of them. This difficulty can generate irrational behavior and fear of blame. Conversely, a better knowledge of the specificities of this invisible living world favors a rationalization of care practices. To do this, caregivers will be able to appropriate the major concepts of microbiology, particularly microbial ecology.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Higiene
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299779

RESUMO

People experiencing homelessness (PEH) face extreme weather exposure and limited social support. However, few studies have empirically assessed biophysical and social drivers of health outcomes among unsheltered PEH. Social network, health, and outdoor exposure data were collected from a convenience sample of unsheltered PEH (n = 246) in Nashville, TN, from August 2018-June 2019. Using multivariate fixed-effects linear regression models, we examined associations between biophysical and social environments and self-reported general health and emotional well-being. We found that study participants reported the lowest general health scores during winter months-Nashville's coldest season. We also found a positive association between the number of nights participants spent indoors during the previous week and general health. Participants who spent even one night indoors during the past week had 1.8-point higher general health scores than participants who spent zero nights indoors (p < 0.01). Additionally, participants who experienced a conflict with a social contact in the past 30 days had lower emotional well-being scores than participants who experienced no conflict. Finally, women had worse general health and emotional well-being than men. Ecologically framed research about health and well-being among PEH is critically needed, especially as climate change threatens to increase the danger of many homeless environments.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Habitação , Ecologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Apoio Social
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4163, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230463

RESUMO

The nighttime environment is being altered rapidly over large areas worldwide through introduction of artificial lighting, from streetlights and other sources. This is predicted to impact the visual ecology of many organisms, affecting both their intra- and interspecific interactions. Here, we show the effects of different artificial light sources on multiple aspects of hawkmoth visual ecology, including their perception of floral signals for pollination, the potential for intraspecific sexual signalling, and the effectiveness of their visual defences against avian predators. Light sources fall into three broad categories: some that prevent use of chromatic signals for these behaviours, others that more closely mimic natural lighting conditions, and, finally, types whose effects vary with light intensity and signal colour. We find that Phosphor Converted (PC) amber LED lighting - often suggested to be less harmful to nocturnal insects - falls into this third disruptive group, with unpredictable consequences for insect visual ecology depending on distance from the light source and the colour of the objects viewed. The diversity of impacts of artificial lighting on hawkmoth visual ecology alone argues for a nuanced approach to outdoor lighting in environmentally sensitive areas, employing intensities and spectra designed to limit those effects of most significant concern.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Flores , Iluminação , Polinização , Animais , Aves , Comportamento Alimentar , Insetos , Luz , Manduca
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