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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(9): e2318181121, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346210

RESUMO

While it is commonly assumed that farmers have higher, and foragers lower, fertility compared to populations practicing other forms of subsistence, robust supportive evidence is lacking. We tested whether subsistence activities-incorporating market integration-are associated with fertility in 10,250 women from 27 small-scale societies and found considerable variation in fertility. This variation did not align with group-level subsistence typologies. Societies labeled as "farmers" did not have higher fertility than others, while "foragers" did not have lower fertility. However, at the individual level, we found strong evidence that fertility was positively associated with farming and moderate evidence of a negative relationship between foraging and fertility. Markers of market integration were strongly negatively correlated with fertility. Despite strong cross-cultural evidence, these relationships were not consistent in all populations, highlighting the importance of the socioecological context, which likely influences the diverse mechanisms driving the relationship between fertility and subsistence.


Assuntos
Economia , Fertilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Países em Desenvolvimento
3.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0292122, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166101

RESUMO

Country's economic growth depends among other factors on the extent to which labour particularly female labour force participates on economic growth enhancing activities. Being the largest contributor in economic activities particularly agriculture in developing countries (over 50%), their participation enables economies to grow in response to higher labour inputs injected. As an outcome, as countries develop; women's capabilities typically improve as well, whereas social constraints weaken, which enables females to participate on work outside the home. However, the existing literature on this topic is scant and has mixed results. This study sought to analyse female fertility rate and its influence on provision of labour in Tanzania using females aged 15-49 years from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2015-2016. The study used instrumental variable-probit and a two-stage residual inclusion as methods of analysis. Results showed that, an increase in female's fertility rate reduces participation of females in provision of market labour by about 1.1-13%. Similarly, household size, education, contraceptive use, self-employment of their husbands and residing in rural areas was associated with increased participation while female's age exhibited an inverted U-shaped relationship with female participation. The results imply that, to foster a more sustainable female participation in labour force, family planning, educating females as well as fostering self-employment and improving rural infrastructures is inevitable.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Classe Social , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Demografia , Tanzânia , Emprego , Economia
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253215, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360216

RESUMO

Frequencies, magnitudes, and distributions of occurrence can affect the events. The problem can be worse or the solution better if greater frequencies and magnitudes are presented with aggregated distribution in the production system. Indices, hence, are used to assist in decision-making on certain issues. The system formed by Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), a typical and economically important Brazilian Cerrado tree species, and its several arthropods are adequate to evaluate a new index. This study aimed to test an index to identify the loss and solution sources and their importance in the system's loss or income gain. The index is: Percentage of Importance Indice [...] separated the loss sources [e.g., Edessa rufomarginata De Geer, 1773 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on fruits = 41.90%)] on the percentage of reduction of fruit production (e.g., 0.13%), calculated the attention level (e.g., 0.10/fruit), with a total lost production of 1.35% (≈ 307 total lost fruits). The % I.I. also separated the solution sources [e.g., Zelus armillatus (Lep. and Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) = 55.48%), the non-attention level (e.g., Z. armillatus: 0.394 for E. rufomarginata on fruit), with total income gain of 0.56% (≈ 128 total saved fruits) on the natural system (e.g., C. brasiliense trees). This index can calculate losses or the effectiveness of the solutions monetarily. Here I test the % I.I., an index that can detect the key loss and solution sources on the system, which can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Frequências, magnitudes e distribuição de ocorrência pode afetar os eventos. O problema pode ser pior ou a solução melhor se maiores frequências e magnitudes forem apresentadas com distribuição agregada no sistema de produção. Índices, então, são usados para assistir na decisão de certas questões. O sistema formado pelo Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), uma espécie arbórea típica e economicamente importante do Cerrado brasileiro, e seus diversos artrópodes são adequados para avaliar um novo índice. A motivação deste trabalho foi testar um índice capaz de identificar as fontes de perda e de soluções, e suas importâncias em termos de perdas ou ganhos no sistema. O índice é: percentagem de importância [...] separou as fontes de perda [ex., Edessa rufomarginata De Geer, 1773 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) em frutos = 41,90%)] na percentagem de redução na produção de frutos (ex., 0,13%), calculando o nível de atenção (ex., 0,10/fruto), com um total de perda de produção de 1,35% (≈ 307 frutos totais perdidos). O % I.I. também separou as fontes de solução [ex., Zelus armillatus (Lep. and Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) = 55,48%)], o nível de não atenção (ex., Z. armillatus: 0,394 para E. rufomarginata em fruto), com total de ganho de 0,56% (≈ 128 total de frutos salvos) no sistema natural (ex., árvores de C. brasiliense). Esse índice pode calcular essas perdas ou a eficácia das soluções monetariamente. Aqui eu testo o % I.I., um índice capaz de detectar fatores chaves de perda e de soluções no sistema, capaz de ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Brasil , Pradaria , Economia , Malpighiales
5.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 27(12): 86-93, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38158866

RESUMO

This study uses a comparative approach to investigate population growth patterns and women employment in two strategic sectors of China and India from 2005 to 2021. Consequently, a descriptive statistic was used to estimate the performance of each of the variables of interest. The results showed that the average mean value of population growth rate in China is 0.52 % while that of India is 1.23%. The mean value of women employed in agriculture in India is higher comparing to the average percentage of women in agriculture in China. Moreover, Chinese service sector accounts for 45.27% of female workforce but its India counterpart engages 21.71% of women working population. This implies that the Chinese service sector engages a significant proportion of the female working population. In the light of this, policymakers in India should prioritise investment in human development of the female population in order to ensure gender balancing in the service sector of the country. Also, the policymakers in India need to embark on a proactive measure in controlling its increasing population in order to ensure that the country's population growth rate does not overshoot the means of sustenance in the country.


Cette étude utilise une approche comparative pour étudier les schémas de croissance démographique et l'emploi des femmes chez deux secteurs stratégiques de Chine et de l'Inde de 20 05 à 2021. Par conséquent, une statistique descriptive était Wase pour estimer la performance des variables d'intérêt. Les résultats ont montré que le La valeur moyenne moyenne du taux de croissance démographique en Chine est de 0,52% tandis que celle de l'Inde 1,23%. La valeur moyenne des femmes employées dans l'agriculture de l'Inde est plus élevée pour le pourcentage moyen de femmes en agriculture en Chine. Représente 45,27% de la main-d'œuvre féminine mais Son homologue de l'Inde engage 21,71% de la population professionnelle des femmes. Assurer l'équilibre entre les sexes dans le service hors du comptoir. Mesure proactive de l'ONA dans le contrôle de sa population croissante afin que le taux de taux de taux de population du pays ne dépasse pas les moyens de subsistance dans le pays.


Assuntos
Emprego , Crescimento Demográfico , Feminino , Humanos , China , Agricultura , Índia , Economia , Países em Desenvolvimento
6.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0287912, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37917665

RESUMO

The structural demographic theory for industrialized societies generates three testable predictions. The first prediction is that labor oversupply leads to declining (relative) wages. The second prediction is that labor oversupply leads to elite overproduction: as relative wages fall, elite incomes display a hump-shaped pattern while elite numbers increase. The third prediction is that elite overproduction leads to political instability. I test these predictions on US data by combining evidence from existing studies with empirical proxies for elite numbers and elite income. The predictions are not supported by the data. First, labor oversupply cannot explain the polarization of wages and the decline in relative wages. The largest share in wage variance is explained by automation. Second, the data shows that as relative wages fall, elite incomes increase, in contrast to the hump-shaped pattern displayed by the model. Third, elite overproduction did not predict political instability in the last decades. Political instability is modelled by the Political Stress Index (PSI). The reviewed evidence shows that the increase in the model based PSI in the last decades is driven by the increase in inequality. The rise in inequality was caused by technological change, globalisation and to a lesser extent by the erosion of labor market institutions. Attributing the rise in inequality and the resulting increase in political instability to labor oversupply rather than to the lost race between education and technology may weaken incentives to design effective policies addressing the inefficiencies in the US education system.


Assuntos
Emprego , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Renda , Salários e Benefícios , Demografia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Economia
7.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0294952, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38019782

RESUMO

We construct a cohort-based frailty index for 180 countries over the period 1990-2019. We use this measure of physiological aging to estimate the impact of deteriorating health on labor force participation. Our three-dimensional panel framework, in which the unit of observation is a cohort in a given country at a given age, allows us to control for a range of unobserved factors. Our identification strategy further exploits a compensating law of physiological aging to account for reverse causality. We find a negative effect of physiological aging on labor market participation: an increase of the frailty index by one percent leads to a reduction of labor force participation of about 0.6 (±0.2) percentage points. Since health deficits (in the frailty index) are accumulated at a rate of about 3 percent per year of life, almost all of the age-related decline in labor force participation can be motivated by deteriorating health.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Renda , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Classe Social , Demografia , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Países Desenvolvidos , Recursos Humanos , Envelhecimento , Economia
8.
Med Care ; 61(12 Suppl 2): S109-S115, 2023 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37963029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer diagnosis and treatment can substantially affect health and financial outcomes for patients and families. Research in health care delivery across the cancer control continuum includes diverse activities led by multiple government and private sector organizations. Assessing the economic drivers and influencing factors associated with costs across this continuum is challenging as organizations leading research efforts often do not have forums to share data, develop linkages, and explore collaborative opportunities. OBJECTIVE: To describe the objectives, activities, and goals of the Interagency Consortium to Promote Health Economics Research on Cancer (HEROiC) to strengthen data resources and capacity for collaborative patient-focused cancer health economics research. MAIN ARGUMENT: HEROiC's goals include assessing the economic burden of cancer; examining the effects of policies, health care setting/system factors, and health service delivery approaches across the cancer control continuum; and enhancing collaborations among researchers and organizations. CONCLUSIONS: Data resources to study economic outcomes associated with cancer control are highly fragmented; HEROIC provides a forum to collaboratively develop, enhance, and utilize data resources and infrastructure for patient-centered cancer health economics research. This includes sharing data resources, developing linkages, identifying new data collection venues, and creating and supporting the dissemination of evidence-based information to diverse stakeholders. These efforts provide critical information to address the economic burden of cancer. RELEVANCE TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE: Cancer diagnosis and treatment affect patient health and financial outcomes. This commentary describes how HEROiC will enhance research data infrastructure and collaborations to support patient-centered research with the goal of reducing the economic burden of cancer.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Neoplasias , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Organizações , Neoplasias/terapia , Economia
9.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0294558, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37983220

RESUMO

Based on China Household Finance Survey (CHFS) data from 2019, this paper explores the impact of the residential pattern of coresidence with parents on the labor market performance of women in married families with minor children. The study finds that coresidence with parents significantly increases the possibility of female labor market participation and positively impacts women's employment income. To overcome the potential endogeneity problem of residential patterns, this paper uses the Heckman two-step method and the conditional mixed process estimation method (CMP method) for regression, and the conclusions remain robust. The mechanism analysis shows that coresidence with parents has both grandchild care and elderly care factors, which have a spillover effect and a crowding-out effect on female labor market performance, respectively. Since the spillover effect is more significant than the crowding-out effect, coresidence with parents positively impacts women's labor market performance. The heterogeneity analysis shows that in terms of labor force participation rate, coresidence with parents has a more significant impact on women in families with children aged 0-6, women in families without boys, and women in families with employed husbands. In terms of income, coresidence with parents has a more significant impact on women in families with employed husbands. This study provides a new perspective for promoting female labor market performance and can serve as a reference for future policy formulation.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Classe Social , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Mão de Obra em Saúde , China , Economia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Direitos da Mulher
11.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 73(7): 385-387, 2023 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37862449
12.
Demography ; 60(5): 1493-1522, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37732838

RESUMO

This article examines fertility and labor supply responses to a 2014 French policy reform that consisted of conditioning the amount of child allowances on household income. Employing regression discontinuity design and French administrative income data, I find that restricting family allowance eligibility criteria decreases fertility among the richest households. The results also highlight that receiving half the amount of the allowances or none leads to an increase in both male and female labor supply through an increase in overtime work. The implied change in earned income, due to an increase in weekly working hours, is found to be comparable to the euro value reduction in benefits. Auxiliary regression analyses show that the fertility decline reflects a decrease in the probability of having an additional child for parents rather than in the probability of becoming parents for households without children.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Renda , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Demografia , Dinâmica Populacional , Fertilidade , França , Recursos Humanos , Economia
13.
Behav Brain Sci ; 46: e171, 2023 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37646281

RESUMO

When it comes to behavioral change, economic design and behavioral science are complements, not substitutes. Chater & Loewenstein give examples from policy design. In this commentary, I use examples, often from my own research, to show how behavioral insights inform the design of the rules that govern market transactions.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Economia , Humanos
14.
PLoS One ; 18(8): e0289781, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37556431

RESUMO

The outbreak of the COVID-19 in early 2020 and the recurring epidemic in later years have disturbed China's economy. Moreover, China's demographic dividend has been disappearing due to its fastest aging population and declining birth rate. The birth rates in eastern provinces of China are much lower than those of the western provinces. Considering the impacts of the COVID-19 and aging population, this paper focused on the relationship between birth rate and the disposable income and tried to find effective measures to raise China's birth rate. We discovered through regression analysis that the link between per capita disposable income and birth rate is initially "reverse J" and later "inverted J", indicating that per capita disposable income will influence the birth rate. Women's employment rate and educational level are negatively correlated with the birth rate. To raise the fertility rate in China, it is necessary to increase the marriage rate and the willingness to have children by raising the per capita disposable income and introducing effective tax relief policies.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , COVID-19 , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Demografia , Fertilidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , China/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia
15.
Demography ; 60(5): 1309-1333, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37575067

RESUMO

The gender gap in labor force participation (LFP) in China has grown over the last 30 years, despite substantial advances in women's education and economic development. Previous research has identified gender discrimination and work-family conflicts as two key explanations for the gap, both of which have risen since the start of China's economic reform in 1978. Using multiple waves of the national census and household panel data from China, this research shows that one overlooked mechanism widening the LFP gender gap lies in the institutional constraints that require women to retire earlier than men. This research also demonstrates how the impact of women's early retirement on the LFP gender gap has been exacerbated by two societal-level changes: (1) population aging, which increased the share of women who reached the retirement age; and (2) economic development, which increased the number of women entering nonfarming occupations and, hence, the gender-based retirement system. These findings suggest that without significant revisions to China's retirement system, the LFP gender gap will continue to expand as the population ages and economic development proceeds.


Assuntos
Emprego , Aposentadoria , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , China , Características da Família , Economia , Classe Social , Países em Desenvolvimento , Direitos da Mulher
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(39): 90656-90674, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37462875

RESUMO

In Europe, there has been a significant shift in the movement of people and things. Nonetheless, despite the fact that transportation is an important component of the supply chain, its environmental consequences pose a severe threat to the ecosystem as a whole. As a result, we intend to explore the relationship between transportation, economy, and CO2 emissions. We used the Static method with Pooled OLS, then tested the Granger causality to validate the use of dynamic approach via the GMM system. The major findings revealed that GDP and trade openness had a considerable impact on CO2 emissions. Although the three modes of transportation have different effects on CO2 emissions, road density has a positive and considerable impact on CO2 emissions. The railway network is inversely connected to CO2 emissions. While the quantity of flight passengers has no substantial effect on emissions. In terms of the impulse response function, there is an initial shock in period 2 for the response of air passengers carried to CO2 emissions, followed by convergence back to zero in period 6, whereas road density has a slight decrease in period 2 with a post shock peak in period 4, followed by convergence back to zero in period 5. The variance decomposition results reveal a little increase until the fifth period for road density, air passengers, and trade openness with coefficients equal to 0.0893, 0.636, and 1.573, respectively, after which these three variables offer decreasing coefficients.


Assuntos
Economia , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Meios de Transporte , Europa (Continente) , Dióxido de Carbono , Urbanização , Emissões de Veículos
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(39): 91415-91439, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37479931

RESUMO

Diversification of energy mix is related to the heterogeneity of contributions of energy sources in the energy consumption basket of nations. Its persistent degree reveals the efficiency of energy-related policies or shocks to diversify the contributions of energy sources in the energy mix. For the first time, the current study measures the diversification level of energy mix of the USA and its 51 states and examines its stochastic behavior to analyze its degree of persistence. To this end, we calculated the diversification of energy mix using Herfindahl-Hirschman index over the period 1960-2020. Then, we applied two novel versions of LM unit root tests that can incorporate sharp or smooth breaks and common factors (to control for cross-sectional dependence) to quantify the stochastic behavior of time series of Herfindahl-Hirschman index. Our results indicate (i) the energy mix of most of the US states diversified over the period. (ii) Most parts of diversification of energy mix occurred from mid of the 1970s to first half of the 1990s. (iii) Sharp breaks of deterministic part (intercept and slope of the linear trend) of Herfindahl-Hirschman indexes occurred coinciding with oil prices shocks in two decades 1970 and 1980. (iv) The Herfindahl-Hirschman index of most of states display stationary behavior, which indicate the pro-diversification policies, e.g., which are implemented to develop renewable energy sources, have transitory effects and policymakers should implement long-horizon policies to achieve their targeted level of diversification.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Estados Unidos , Economia , Política Pública
20.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0283041, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37343023

RESUMO

Rural residents account for the bulk of poverty in developing countries. This paper evaluates the impact of Indonesia's Dana Desa program (Village Fund Program or VFP) on rural poverty and female labour force participation. The VFP, introduced in 2014, was an ambitious national-level village governance program which transferred administrative responsibility and financial resources to Indonesia's 79,000 plus rural villages, providing them with the autonomy to invest in rural infrastructure, human capital, and job creation programs. Using nationally representative data from before and after the program, we show that the implementation of the VFP was associated with an improvement in rural household's consumption expenditure among households, particularly among agricultural households. Female labour force participation in rural areas increased by about 10 percentage points and there is also evidence of a sectoral shift away from agricultural employment towards jobs in the service sector. This improvement in labour force participation is associated with poverty reduction among rural households.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira , Pobreza , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Emprego , População Rural , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia
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