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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253215, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360216

RESUMO

Frequencies, magnitudes, and distributions of occurrence can affect the events. The problem can be worse or the solution better if greater frequencies and magnitudes are presented with aggregated distribution in the production system. Indices, hence, are used to assist in decision-making on certain issues. The system formed by Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), a typical and economically important Brazilian Cerrado tree species, and its several arthropods are adequate to evaluate a new index. This study aimed to test an index to identify the loss and solution sources and their importance in the system's loss or income gain. The index is: Percentage of Importance Indice [...] separated the loss sources [e.g., Edessa rufomarginata De Geer, 1773 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on fruits = 41.90%)] on the percentage of reduction of fruit production (e.g., 0.13%), calculated the attention level (e.g., 0.10/fruit), with a total lost production of 1.35% (≈ 307 total lost fruits). The % I.I. also separated the solution sources [e.g., Zelus armillatus (Lep. and Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) = 55.48%), the non-attention level (e.g., Z. armillatus: 0.394 for E. rufomarginata on fruit), with total income gain of 0.56% (≈ 128 total saved fruits) on the natural system (e.g., C. brasiliense trees). This index can calculate losses or the effectiveness of the solutions monetarily. Here I test the % I.I., an index that can detect the key loss and solution sources on the system, which can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Frequências, magnitudes e distribuição de ocorrência pode afetar os eventos. O problema pode ser pior ou a solução melhor se maiores frequências e magnitudes forem apresentadas com distribuição agregada no sistema de produção. Índices, então, são usados para assistir na decisão de certas questões. O sistema formado pelo Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), uma espécie arbórea típica e economicamente importante do Cerrado brasileiro, e seus diversos artrópodes são adequados para avaliar um novo índice. A motivação deste trabalho foi testar um índice capaz de identificar as fontes de perda e de soluções, e suas importâncias em termos de perdas ou ganhos no sistema. O índice é: percentagem de importância [...] separou as fontes de perda [ex., Edessa rufomarginata De Geer, 1773 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) em frutos = 41,90%)] na percentagem de redução na produção de frutos (ex., 0,13%), calculando o nível de atenção (ex., 0,10/fruto), com um total de perda de produção de 1,35% (≈ 307 frutos totais perdidos). O % I.I. também separou as fontes de solução [ex., Zelus armillatus (Lep. and Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) = 55,48%)], o nível de não atenção (ex., Z. armillatus: 0,394 para E. rufomarginata em fruto), com total de ganho de 0,56% (≈ 128 total de frutos salvos) no sistema natural (ex., árvores de C. brasiliense). Esse índice pode calcular essas perdas ou a eficácia das soluções monetariamente. Aqui eu testo o % I.I., um índice capaz de detectar fatores chaves de perda e de soluções no sistema, capaz de ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Brasil , Pradaria , Economia , Malpighiales
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361179

RESUMO

Industrialization and urbanization are critical paths to modernization for a country or region. The coordination of industrialization and urbanization fosters the development of a regional economy. In academic circles, this is usually measured by the IU ratio (ratio of labor industrialization rate to urbanization rate) and the NU ratio (ratio of non-agricultural employment rate to urbanization rate). However, these methods are inapplicable to large countries' inland areas. The traditional methods failed to explain the real situation and produced contradictory results. The IU ratio shows that industrialization lags behind urbanization, while the NU ratio shows that industrialization is ahead of urbanization. According to studies conducted in the Sichuan Province of China, through comparison with Jiangsu Province, it is found that the non-agricultural employment growth is not dependent on the development of local industrialization, and rural-urban migration is not entirely dependent on the evolution of the non-agricultural employment rate. Other factors that promote urbanization, such as the country's capital policies and funds for migrant labor force transfer, should also be considered. This research attempts to improve the traditional methods for measuring the degree of urbanization and industrialization synergy in inland areas. The new empirical approach can effectively identify the critical characteristics of urbanization in inland provinces, such as the development of non-agricultural employment with external assistance and urban migrants "unrelated to employment opportunities". Based on these key characteristics, it can provide the basis for local urbanization policy formulation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Industrial , Urbanização , Humanos , Demografia , População Urbana , Emigração e Imigração , Geografia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional , China , Economia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361454

RESUMO

Traditionally, studies of mobility follow two main strands: migration driven by better jobs and by better living. However, the interactions and shifts between them are rarely addressed. In the largest-scale domestic migration, millions of Chinese movers have experienced changes in migration motivations in the past ten years. Starting with migration patterns, we attempt to explore the interaction and changes in migration motivations in a dynamic way and relate them to the evolution of socio-economic contexts. Based on the latest two population censuses (2010 and 2020) in mainland China, we built an empirical model attributing migration motivations to job and living conditions, and then estimated the model by ordinary least squares (OLS) and quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) methods. The results reveal that employment is the primary and fundamental factor, though its impact is weakening. Good living is becoming significantly influential in migration willingness, and there is an interactive effect between the factors of job and living. Furthermore, we offer an explanation of the motivation evolution as being migrants' response to socio-economic status to maximize their utility. This study contributes to the migration literature from a longitudinal lens, and appeals to a continuous focus on migration evolution in the scientific research on population geography.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Migrantes , Humanos , Demografia , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Países em Desenvolvimento , China , Economia
5.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 28(6): 55, 2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355245

RESUMO

In this paper, we take inspiration from original institutional economics (OIE) as an approach to study value change within the highly complex assembly of sociotechnical transformations that make up the energy transition. OIE is examined here as a suitable perspective, as it combines Dewey's pragmatist philosophy and a methodological interactionist perspective on value change, behavior and institutions, with technology figuring as a transformational factor. This combination overcomes conceptual and methodological shortcomings of alternative accounts of values. We will present the contours of an OIE based conceptual framework connecting nature, humans, technology, the economic process, society, culture and institutions and habits, valuation and behavior. We illustrate how to use this framework to examine and understand how environmental, ecologic, safety, economic, and social concerns about the energy transition are (re)framed as (new) values in the belief systems and habits of individuals and groups. Moreover, we will explore how that may give rise to collective action, via the institutionalization of such revised values in the procedures, arrangements, norms and incentives guiding transactions. As such, this approach allows us in a fine-grained manner to conceptually and theoretically understand the way in which values change in the energy-transition, as a complex interaction of technology development and social relations.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Tecnologia , Humanos , Economia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360817

RESUMO

Using typical counties in the Yimeng Mountain area of northern China as an example, this paper analyzed the household and agricultural input characteristics of different types of peasant households using survey data from 262 farm households. The target minimization of the total absolute deviations (MOTAD) model was applied to determine the optimal combinations in the allocation of agricultural input factors and production for different types of at-risk peasant households to obtain the ideal agricultural income. The relevant results are twofold. (1) The agricultural input behaviors of different types of peasant households vary significantly. The highest levels of agricultural land, labor, and yield-increasing and labor-saving inputs included I part-time peasant households (I PTPH), followed by full-time peasant households (FTPH), while the input levels of II part-time peasant households (II PTPH) and non-agricultural peasant households (NAPH) with higher levels of non-agricultural employment gradually decreased. In general, an increase in peasant households' part-time employment revealed an inverted U-shaped trend in the agricultural input level, with a trajectory of I PTPH > FTPH > II PTPH > NAPH. (2) The current agricultural inputs and production combinations of different types of peasant households have room for improvement. It is necessary to adjust agricultural inputs and optimize production combinations to obtain target incomes. Overall, all types of peasant households must streamline labor inputs and increase capital inputs, except for I PTPH, for which capital inputs should be reduced. Following optimization, economic crops gradually replace grain crops, and the optimal agricultural incomes of peasant households will be improved. The study results provide practical policy insights for reducing agricultural production risks and improving agricultural production incomes.


Assuntos
Mão de Obra em Saúde , População Rural , Humanos , Demografia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Agricultura , China , Economia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276764, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383529

RESUMO

International migration patterns, at the global level, can to a large extent be explained through economic factors in origin and destination countries. On the other hand, it has been shown that global climate change is likely to affect economic development over the coming decades. Here, we demonstrate how these future climate impacts on national income levels could alter the global migration landscape. Using an empirically calibrated global migration model, we investigate two separate mechanisms. The first is through destination-country income, which has been shown consistently to have a positive effect on immigration. As countries' income levels relative to each other are projected to change in the future both due to different rates of economic growth and due to different levels of climate change impacts, the relative distribution of immigration across destination countries also changes as a result, all else being equal. Second, emigration rates have been found to have a complex, inverted U-shaped dependence on origin-country income. Given the available migration flow data, it is unclear whether this dependence-found in spatio-temporal panel data-also pertains to changes in a given migration flow over time. If it does, then climate change will additionally affect migration patterns through origin countries' emigration rates, as the relative and absolute positions of countries on the migration "hump" change. We illustrate these different possibilities, and the corresponding effects of 3°C global warming (above pre-industrial) on global migration patterns, using climate model projections and two different methods for estimating climate change effects on macroeconomic development.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Emigração e Imigração , Dinâmica Populacional , Demografia , Renda , Economia
9.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275492, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256629

RESUMO

The transition from a demographic regime of high mortality and high fertility to one with low mortality and low fertility is universal and comes along with the process of socio-economic modernization. The Spanish total fertility rate has decreased to below replacement levels in the last decades. The decline has persisted since the 1960s and is diverse across the country. Based on that diversity, the use of population forecasts, not only at national but at regional levels, for planning purposes (governments and private sector) with large horizons has become a must to provide essential services. Using a Bayesian hierarchical model we constructed probabilistic fertility forecasts for Spain at the regional level. Although this approach is already issued by the United Nations little research has been done focusing on the Spanish subnational level. Our objective is to disaggregate the national projections of the total fertility rate for Spain into regional forecasts. The results of this research will show the model fitting, first to the national level and then using a multifaceted and continuous evolution of fertility over time, at the regional level, to check its convergence.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Fertilidade , Teorema de Bayes , Demografia , Mudança Social , Dinâmica Populacional , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia
10.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274630, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264859

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic has led to the rise of digitally enabled remote work with consequences for the global division of labour. Remote work could connect labour markets, but it might also increase spatial polarisation. However, our understanding of the geographies of remote work is limited. Specifically, in how far could remote work connect employers and workers in different countries? Does it bring jobs to rural areas because of lower living costs, or does it concentrate in large cities? And how do skill requirements affect competition for employment and wages? We use data from a fully remote labour market-an online labour platform-to show that remote platform work is polarised along three dimensions. First, countries are globally divided: North American, European, and South Asian remote platform workers attract most jobs, while many Global South countries participate only marginally. Secondly, remote jobs are pulled to large cities; rural areas fall behind. Thirdly, remote work is polarised along the skill axis: workers with in-demand skills attract profitable jobs, while others face intense competition and obtain low wages. The findings suggest that agglomerative forces linked to the unequal spatial distribution of skills, human capital, and opportunities shape the global geography of remote work. These forces pull remote work to places with institutions that foster specialisation and complex economic activities, i. e. metropolitan areas focused on information and communication technologies. Locations without access to these enabling institutions-in many cases, rural areas-fall behind. To make remote work an effective tool for economic and rural development, it would need to be complemented by local skill-building, infrastructure investment, and labour market programmes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigração e Imigração , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Demografia , População Urbana , Pandemias , Países em Desenvolvimento , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Economia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294254

RESUMO

Immigrants are often pressed to show how they will contribute to a host country, thus proving through their conditions of entry and human capital whether they will be perceived as an asset or burden, and this is juxtaposed with the host country's institutions offering an improved quality of life, mainly through employment. Seeking employment is often a key factor to be economically assimilated, and in the case of highly educated Turkish migrants, the opportunity to reclaim their previous professional and quality of life statuses. Based on qualitative research, we have examined the experiences of highly educated Turkish people (n = 42) in the recently forced migrant population. Following events including terrorism and the coup on 15 July 2016, Türkiye experienced the highest forced migration in her history. With exiled Turkish migrants, the forced aspect of their migration prompts them to seek a host country that provides safety, and they are also driven to transfer their educational degrees and professional credentials. However, changing careers to become educated and certified in new fields takes time and resources, contributing to a fluctuating economic status and loss of well-being. Once this is regained, their economic situation is improved, but there is still the lost time from the immigration and transfer period. Thus, the process has positive and negative components, but understanding this nuanced process provides opportunities for policy reform that can shorten the time of re-education, increase employability, and support well-being.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Humanos , Países Desenvolvidos , Dinâmica Populacional , Demografia , Qualidade de Vida , Política Pública , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Economia , Países em Desenvolvimento
13.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0271373, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048836

RESUMO

Globally, 21 percent of young women are married before their 18th birthday. Despite some progress in addressing child marriage, it remains a widespread practice, in particular in South Asia. While household predictors of child marriage have been studied extensively in the literature, the evidence base on macro-economic factors contributing to child marriage and models that predict where child marriage cases are most likely to occur remains limited. In this paper we aim to fill this gap and explore region-level indicators to predict the persistence of child marriage in four countries in South Asia, namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. We apply machine learning techniques to child marriage data and develop a prediction model that relies largely on regional and local inputs such as droughts, floods, population growth and nightlight data to model the incidence of child marriages. We find that our gradient boosting model is able to identify a large proportion of the true child marriage cases and correctly classifies 77% of the true marriage cases, with a higher accuracy in Bangladesh (92% of the cases) and a lower accuracy in Nepal (70% of cases). In addition, all countries contain in their top 10 variables for classification nighttime light growth, a shock index of drought over the previous and the last two years and the regional level of education, suggesting that income shocks, regional economic activity and regional education levels play a significant role in predicting child marriage. Given the accuracy of the model to predict child marriage, our model is a valuable tool to support policy design in countries where household-level data remains limited.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Casamento , Bangladesh , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14512, 2022 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36175441

RESUMO

This paper provides economic estimates of the energy-related climate damages of mining Bitcoin (BTC), the dominant proof-of-work cryptocurrency. We provide three sustainability criteria for signaling when the climate damages may be unsustainable. BTC mining fails all three. We find that for 2016-2021: (i) per coin climate damages from BTC were increasing, rather than decreasing with industry maturation; (ii) during certain time periods, BTC climate damages exceed the price of each coin created; (iii) on average, each $1 in BTC market value created was responsible for $0.35 in global climate damages, which as a share of market value is in the range between beef production and crude oil burned as gasoline, and an order-of-magnitude higher than wind and solar power. Taken together, these results represent a set of sustainability red flags. While proponents have offered BTC as representing "digital gold," from a climate damages perspective it operates more like "digital crude".


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Mineração de Dados , Economia , Gasolina , Humanos , Petróleo , Carne Vermelha , Vento
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954752

RESUMO

Young people have to be provided with opportunities to access prosperous, resilient and fulfilling lives. Investing in education and skills is considered one of the most important ways to support young people's well-being and to enable them to enjoy good career prospects. Using the framework of human capital theory, we explored the role of education among the factors explaining wage variation among Romanian youth. We built our analysis on micro-data for Romania from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions 2020. In order to identify the most important factors influencing the wage distribution, we employed the elastic net regression approach. Moreover, we considered the phenomenon of expansion of education and ran the analysis by alternately using a traditional measure for education and a relative measure reflecting the theory of education as positional good. We ran the analysis for different cohorts of the population, focusing the discussion on the results for young people. Our findings confirm the importance of education for wage distribution together with other factors of influence, such as gender, degree of urbanization, region, sector of employment and working experience. Our conclusions are relevant for designing more effective educational and social policies to deal with various disadvantages faced by youth in Romania.


Assuntos
Renda , Salários e Benefícios , Adolescente , Economia , Escolaridade , Etnicidade , Humanos , Romênia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272341, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939444

RESUMO

There is an ongoing debate about whether gender equality in education has been achieved or not. Research efforts have focused on primary and secondary education, while there are fewer studies on higher education, and few studies refer to distance education. To contribute to address this gap, this article presents a gender analysis of educational outcomes in economics at Spain's leading distance university, UNED, which is also the largest university in the European Union in terms of enrolment. The aim of the article is to assess whether there is a gender gap in academic results and to identify the sociodemographic and academic variables that may be causing such a gap by analysing how they shape such differences. Finally, the impact of COVID-19 is also considered. The results confirm that women underperformed significantly in our sample in terms of passing and scoring, especially among those between 30 and 45 years of age, who are more likely to have young children. When considering a distribution of family tasks biased against women, along with the higher average age of distance learning university students, gender gaps could probably be greater in nonface-to-face education. COVID-19 narrowed the gender gap during the lockdown period, as some men and women staying at home together were able to improve task sharing capabilities. After the lockdown, however, women's results worsened compared to pre-COVID-19 levels. A possible explanation is that they had to continue performing the same family duties in addition to substituting education and caring services (e.g., nurseries and day centres for the elderly) that did not resume activity immediately or continuously.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
19.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273910, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040988

RESUMO

Researchers have long observed that foreign-educated immigrants earn lower wages and hold less-skilled jobs than U.S. natives who have the same level of educational attainment, but the reasons for the disparity have been less clear. This paper tests the hypothesis favored by the human capital model of earnings and employment-namely, that foreign-educated immigrants struggle in the U.S. labor market primarily because they possess fewer marketable skills than workers with U.S. degrees. Standardized tests administered as part of the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies reveal that foreign-educated immigrants score 0.82 and 0.54 standard deviations lower on measures of literacy and numeracy, respectively, compared to natives who have the same age and educational attainment. The gaps remain significant after controlling for self-assessed English reading ability. When these skill measures are incorporated into regression analyses, the wage and skilled-employment penalties experienced by foreign-educated immigrants fall by half or more, providing strong evidence for the human capital model. However, this analysis cannot rule out additional explanatory factors, such as legal and social obstacles that foreign-educated immigrants may face.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Adulto , Economia , Escolaridade , Emprego , Humanos , Renda , Salários e Benefícios , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Nature ; 608(7921): 37-38, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915246

Assuntos
Economia , Sociologia
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