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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 418, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624147

RESUMO

The Hospitality and Food Service (HaFS) sectors are notoriously known for their contribution to the food waste problem. Hence, there is an urgent need to devise strategies to reduce food waste in the HaFS sectors and to decarbonise their operation to help fight hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition and mitigate climate change. This study proposes three streams to decarbonise the staff cafeteria operation in an integrated resort in Macau. These include upstream optimisation to reduce unserved food waste, midstream education to raise awareness amongst staff about the impact of food choices on the climate and health, and finally downstream recognition to reduce edible plate waste using a state-of-the-art computer vision system. Technology can be an effective medium to facilitate desired behavioural change through nudging, much like how speed cameras can cause people to slow down and help save lives. The holistic and data-driven approach taken revealed great potential for organisations or institutions that offer catering services to reduce their food waste and associated carbon footprint whilst educating individuals about the intricate link between food, climate and well-being.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Eliminação de Resíduos , Humanos , Animais , Alimentos , Pegada de Carbono , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Efeito Estufa
2.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 972023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The use of volatile anesthetics plays an important role in the production of greenhouse gases and other environmental pollutants that negatively affect global health. Programs to reduce anesthesia contaminants have been shown to be effective and reduce costs. For this reason, we conducted a study to implementing a Zero Emissions Program for zero carbon dioxide emissions derived from anesthetic gases used in the operating room, as recommended by the Green Deal of the European Union by 2030 and be climate neutral in 2050, maintaining satisfaction and current clinical results. METHODS: A Zero Emissions Program was implemented within the Zero safety programs of the Cruces University Hospital in order to produce zero emissions of carbon dioxide derived from the anesthetic gases used in the operating rooms. The contribution of anesthetic gases to carbon dioxide production before and after implementation of program was determined. Data analysis was conducted descriptively to analyze program effectiveness. RESULTS: The implementation of a Zero Emissions Program allowed us to achieve a reduction in emissions to zero. CONCLUSIONS: Anesthesiologists must understand that minimizing our harmful impact on environmental health sustainability is not only desirable, but ethically necessary. A way to contribute to this ethical responsibility is Zero Emissions Programs which are effective in reducing emissions to zero, probably improving our impact on planet health.


OBJETIVO: El uso de anestésicos volátiles juega un papel importante en la producción de gases de efecto invernadero y otros contaminantes ambientales que afectan negativamente a la salud mundial. Se ha demostrado que los programas para reducir los contaminantes de la anestesia en el medio ambiente son eficaces y también reducen los costes. Por este motivo nos planteamos como objetivo implementar un Programa de Emisiones Zero para producir cero emisiones de dióxido de carbono derivados de los gases anestésicos utilizados en el quirófano, como recomienda el Pacto Verde de la Unión Europea, para 2030 y ser climáticamente neutros en 2050, manteniendo la satisfacción y los resultados clínicos actuales. METODOS: Se implementó un Programa de Emisiones Zero dentro de los programas Zero de seguridad del Hospital Universitario de Cruces (Barakaldo) con la finalidad de producir cero emisiones de dióxido de carbono derivado de los gases anestésicos utilizados en los quirófanos. Se determinó la contribución de los gases anestésicos a la producción de dióxido de carbono previo y posterior a la implementación del programa. El análisis de los datos se llevó a cabo de forma descriptiva para analizar la efectividad del programa. RESULTADOS: La implementación de un Programa de Emisiones de Zero nos permitió conseguir una disminución de las emisiones a cero. CONCLUSIONES: Los anestesiólogos debemos comprender que minimizar nuestro impacto nocivo en la sostenibilidad de la salud ambiental no es solo deseable, sino éticamente necesario. Una de las formas de contribuir con esta responsabilidad ética es con la implementación de Programas de Emisiones Zero que son eficaces en la reducción a cero de estas emisiones con lo que mejoraremos nuestro impacto en la salud del planeta.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Humanos , Espanha , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Efeito Estufa , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Hospitais
3.
Environ Microbiol ; 25(1): 17-25, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655716

RESUMO

Reducing atmospheric loads of greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially CO2 and CH4 , has been considered the key to alleviating global crises we are facing, such as climate change, sea level elevation and ocean acidification. To this end, development of strategies and technologies for carbon capture, sequestration and utilization (CCSU) is urgently needed. Although physicochemical methods have been the most actively studied in the early stages of developing CCSU technologies, there have recently been growing interests in developing microbe-based CCSU processes. In this article, we discuss advantages of microbe-based CCSU technologies over physicochemical approaches and even plant-based approaches. Next, various parts of the global carbon cycle where microorganisms can contribute, such as sequestering atmospheric GHGs, facilitating the carbon cycle, and slowing down the depletion of carbon reservoirs are described, emphasizing the impacts of microbes on the carbon cycle. Strategies to upgrade microbes and increase their performance in assimilating GHGs or converting GHGs to value-added chemicals are also provided. Moreover, several examples of exploiting microbes to address environmental crises are discussed. Finally, we discuss things to overcome in microbe-based CCSU technologies and provide future perspectives.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Efeito Estufa , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Água do Mar , Carbono , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso
4.
Water Res ; 230: 119536, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608525

RESUMO

Sustainable water pollution control requires understanding of historical trajectories and spatial characteristics of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which remains inadequately studied. Here, we establish plant-level monthly operational emissions inventories of China's WWTPs in 2009-2019. We show that urban wastewater treatment has been enhanced with 80% more chemical oxygen demand being removed annually. However, this progress is associated with 180% more GHG emissions at the national level, up to 58.3 Mt CO2 eq in 2019. We found significant seasonality in GHG emissions. Increasing sludge yield and electricity intensity became primary drivers after 2015 because of stricter standards, causing GHG emissions increase 12.9 and 8.3% until 2019. GHG emissions from urban wastewater treatment show high spatial difference at province, city and plant levels, with different sludge disposal and energy mix approaches combined with different influent and effluent conditions in WWTPs across China. Stricter effluent standard resulted in similar GHG emissions growth pattern in cities. We argue WWTPs focus on resource recovery in developed areas and higher operational efficiency in developing areas.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Purificação da Água , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Esgotos , Efeito Estufa , China
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 345, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36715872

RESUMO

Regulating the fuel consumption of small-scale fishing vessels could help to keep global warming well below 1.5 °C and lead to effective management in small-scale fisheries (SSF) of developing countries like India. In this regard, a bottom-up approach was carried out to collect the requisite data to explore the fuel consumption of small-scale fishing vessels along India's southeast coast. Consequently, twenty-four fishing vessels (type A to type X) were grouped into seven categories based on fishing methods. The estimated numerical value of fuel use intensity (FUI) ranging from 0.08 to 0.80 was used to examine the fuel-efficient fishing vessel and engine type. In addition, the estimated revenue on fuel ranging from ₹5625.06/l to ₹218.07/l and annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using the Tier 1 method were used to understand the economic efficiency and GHG emission trend, respectively. The total annual GHG emissions from all the fishing vessels at the selected sites were about 1.25E + 08 t CO2-eq year-1. The result shows that longline-cum-gillnetters, seine-netters, longliners and drift-gillnetters largely contributed to 65% of the annual GHG emissions. By recognizing the factors influencing the fuel consumption of fishing vessels in SSF, this sector could be understood, effectively managed, and performed well. Therefore, the possible reasons were extensively discussed through a comparative approach, and potential recommendations for effective management were made.


Assuntos
Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Caça , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 297, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635561

RESUMO

The generation of municipal solid waste is increasing globally and poses a negative impact on society, the economy, and the environment. Applying an integrated system for managing MSW and recovering the material for the production of new products can reduce the negative impacts on the environment. The aim of this paper is to apply the DPSIRO framework to develop a system that reduces the negative impacts of MSW in Bahir Dar city in a sustainable way. The study started by identifying the main driving forces that led to the generation of MSW. Then, pressures and states of the environment resulting from driving forces were investigated. Next, the consequent impacts through driving forces, pressure, and state are identified. Finally, the appropriate responses and outcomes obtained from the responses were studied. Numerical models were used to quantify GHG emissions, leachate, and eutrophication potential. According to the findings, the waste disposal site emits about 46 Gg of greenhouse gases per year in 2020. The eutrophication capacity of organic waste generated in the city was 0.0594 kg N-equivalent or 59.4 g N-equivalent. The waste also contains an average of 1112 mm of leachate per day on an annual basis. The state of the environment has an impact on human health and the ecosystem. Implementing a circular economic system, knowledge transfer, and waste management fees are the main responses suggested to decision and policymakers. The outcomes were quantified in terms of organic fertilizer, income, and renewable energy (briquette) when the actions were taken.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Efeito Estufa , Ecossistema , Etiópia , Gases/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos
7.
J Environ Manage ; 329: 117056, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549059

RESUMO

As an answer to the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, organizations are increasingly making efforts to account for their carbon footprint. While general guidelines for carbon footprint calculation exist, they usually do not consider special characteristics of organisations such as institutions of higher education. Case studies can act then as learning tools, and comparisons between applied methodologies can be used to develop best practices. However, a lack of case studies published in peerreviewed journals limits access to the calculation results. This work provides a case study for a Northern European institution to extend the pool of available calculation methodologies tested under real-life conditions. The carbon footprint calculation of the University of Oulu utilises a hybrid model, combining approaches of Environmentally Extended Input-Output Analysis and Life-Cycle Assessment. The focus of the work was to consider included scopes and categories of emissions that represent indirect and non-energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, such as commuting or procurement of research and laboratory equipment. In 2019, the institution's emission inventory sums up to 19,072 t CO2e, with the highest share due to the use of district heat on campus. Another goal of conducting this research was to show the limitations researchers might encounter when analysing caused emissions on an organisational level, and how the calculated carbon footprint can help to identify the best mitigation measures and possibilities for universities to reach carbon neutrality. It was found that the availability of information and missing strategies for data collection are prominent limiting factors. Favourable mitigation measures include the implementation of energysaving policies and improved policies for procurements.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Políticas , Carbono/análise , Efeito Estufa
8.
Water Res ; 229: 119491, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535087

RESUMO

Municipal wastewater treatment which is associated with high energy consumption and excessive greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, has been facing severe challenges toward carbon emissions. In this study, a high-rate activated sludge-two-stage vertical up-flow constructed wetland (HRAS-TVUCW) system was developed to reduce carbon emissions during municipal wastewater treatment. Through carbon management, optimized mass and energy flows were achieved, resulting in high treatment efficiency and low operational energy consumption. The carbon emission of the HRAS-TVUCW system (i.e., 0.21 kg carbon dioxide equivalent/m3 wastewater) was 4.1-folds lower than that of the conventional anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (A2O) process. Meanwhile, the recovered energy from the HRAS-TVUCW system increased its contribution to carbon neutrality to 40.2%, 4.6-folds higher than that of the A2O process. Results of functional microbial community analysis at the genus level revealed that the controlled dissolved oxygen allocation led to distinctive microbial communities in each unit of HRAS-TVUCW system, which facilitated denitrification efficiency increase and carbon emissions reduction. Overall, the HRAS-TVUCW system could be considered as a cost-effective and sustainable low-carbon technology for municipal wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Purificação da Água , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Esgotos/análise , Efeito Estufa , Áreas Alagadas , Dióxido de Carbono
9.
Waste Manag ; 156: 227-235, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493666

RESUMO

The "Zero-waste City" program and carbon peak plan are currently vital environmental strategies in China. Solid waste management systems are closely related to greenhouse gas emissions, and "Zero-waste City" programs are highlighted because of their great potential for carbon footprint reduction and pollution mitigation. However, a knowledge gap remains in terms of quantifying the carbon footprint when implementing "Zero-waste City" programs. Here, we developed a methodology for accounting for the carbon footprint of a solid waste management system, and Ningbo city, which is one of the first demonstration "Zero-waste Cities" in China, was chosen as the study case. The material flow and carbon footprint of construction and demolition waste, industrial waste, hazardous waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste were analyzed. The results show that the carbon footprint of the solid waste management system in Ningbo city was -1679.9 Gg CO2_eq in 2018, which can be divided into 3472.5, 1131.3, and -6283.8 Gg CO2_eq by Scopes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. According to the scenario analysis, the SWMS in Ningbo city can achieve a carbon footprint reduction potential of at least 5771.5 Gg CO2_eq by 2025, by implementing the "Zero-waste City" strategy. This suggests that waste minimization, construction and demolition waste recycling, and municipal solid waste recycling are the most effective measures for carbon footprint reduction.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Pegada de Carbono , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Cidades , Efeito Estufa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , China
10.
J Environ Manage ; 329: 117025, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563445

RESUMO

Marine aquaculture is increasingly gaining importance as a source of food with high nutritional value. However, the expansion of aquaculture could be responsible for water contamination that influences the environmental quality of coastal ecosystems, and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) that affect global climate. China is the world's largest producer of marine aquaculture protein, which demands robust studies to assess the corresponding GHG emissions and intensity. To fill in this knowledge gap, the current study quantifies and analyzes GHG emissions and intensity (emission intensity is defined as GHG emissions per unit of production) from Chinese marine aquaculture (marine aquaculture production) over the past 30 years (1991-2020). The production of marine aquaculture comes from the China Fisheries Statistical Yearbooks. And the GHG emissions and intensity were calculated based on five sectors (commercial feed, trash fish, N2O, CH4, and energy) by Emission-Factor Approach. The results suggest that, excluding shellfish and algae, GHG emissions of ten coastal provinces (excluding Shanghai, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau) increased from 2 Mt (109 kg) CO2-eq in 1991 to 25 Mt CO2-eq in 2020. In contrast, GHG emission intensity decreased in the same period from 7.33 (t CO2-eq/t production) to 6.34 (t CO2-eq/t production), indicating a progressive mitigation in GHG emissions per unit of product, hence sustainably satisfying a growing demand for food. As a result, China's marine aquaculture seems to be paving a promising way towards the neutrality of GHG emissions. In most provinces, GHG is on the rise, and only in Tianjin is on the decline in recent years. For the emissions intensity, the values of more than half provinces showed the downtrends. In addition, by considering the ratio of shellfish and algae, Chinese marine aquaculture can improve the net zero goal for GHG emissions of the sector. Finally, results also reveal for the first time the changes in taxonomic composition and spatial GHG emissions and intensity, providing new understanding and scientific bases to elaborate consistent mitigation strategies for an expanding global marine aquaculture.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Humanos , Efeito Estufa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , China , Aquicultura
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(1): 44-52, 2023 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574507

RESUMO

The European Union (EU) has set a 37.5% GHG reduction target in 2030 for the mobility sector, relative to 1990 levels. This requires increasing the share of zero-emission passenger vehicles, mainly in the form of electric vehicles (EVs). This study calculates future GHG emissions related to passenger vehicle manufacturing and use based on stated policy goals of EU Member States for EV promotion. Under these policies, by 2040 the stock of EVs would be about 73 times larger than those of 2020, contributing to a cumulative in-use emission reduction of 2.0 gigatons CO2-eq. Nevertheless, this stated EV adoption will not be sufficiently fast to reach the EU's GHG reduction targets, and some of the GHG environmental burdens may be shifted to the EV battery manufacturing countries. To achieve the 2030 reduction targets, the EU as a whole needs to accelerate the phase-out of internal combustion engine vehicles and transit to e-mobility at the pace of the most ambitious Member States, such that EVs can comprise at least 55% of the EU passenger vehicle fleet in 2030. An accelerated decarbonization of the electricity system will become the most critical prerequisite for minimizing GHG emissions from both EV manufacturing and in-use stages.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Efeito Estufa , União Europeia , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Eletricidade , Veículos Automotores
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7853, 2022 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543764

RESUMO

A pressing challenge facing the aviation industry is to aggressively reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the face of increasing demand for aviation fuels. Climate goals such as carbon-neutral growth from 2020 onwards require continuous improvements in technology, operations, infrastructure, and most importantly, reductions in aviation fuel life cycle emissions. The Carbon Offsetting Scheme for International Aviation of the International Civil Aviation Organization provides a global market-based measure to group all possible emissions reduction measures into a joint program. Using a bottom-up, engineering-based modeling approach, this study provides the first estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from petroleum jet fuel on regional and global scales. Here we show that not all petroleum jet fuels are the same as the country-level life cycle emissions of petroleum jet fuels range from 81.1 to 94.8 gCO2e MJ-1, with a global volume-weighted average of 88.7 gCO2e MJ-1. These findings provide a high-resolution baseline against which sustainable aviation fuel and other emissions reduction opportunities can be prioritized to achieve greater emissions reductions faster.


Assuntos
Aviação , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Petróleo , Efeito Estufa , Carbono/análise
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 225, 2022 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562897

RESUMO

Due to using fossil energy resources, power generation is the most important factor of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Considering the importance of the issue, seven scenarios for decreasing greenhouse gas emissions in the power industry, including the development of renewable energies, energy efficiency in thermal power plants, and decreasing the emission of carbon according to international agreements, and the creation of sustainable power generation systems, were defined and evaluated technically, economically, and environmentally. In the current study, an optimization model for long-term power generation planning was used for two concepts of supply and demand. The results of comparing the scenarios showed that the development of renewable power plants was not solely a suitable and optimal way for decreasing greenhouse gas and carbon emissions. The strategies for improving efficiency in thermal power plants, including the development of combined cycle power plants and the repowering of steam power plants, are more suitable options for implementation, considering the constraints of the problem. Therefore, eliminating the existing circumstances and employing the combined scenario while considering the objectives of the study should be the only strategy for decarbonization in this industry, with the minimum cost and minimum rate of emission. By decreasing the share of thermal power plants, decreasing fuel demand, and increasing the share of renewable power plants to 20%, the combined scenario would decrease pollution and greenhouse gas emissions by up to 77.6 million tons of carbon dioxide, as well as the environmental costs up to 1894.5 million dollars, compared to the basic scenario up to 2030. Moreover, paying attention to the management strategies of a demand concept seems necessary from an economic viewpoint, in addition to other presented strategies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Centrais Elétricas , Efeito Estufa
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554799

RESUMO

This review paper discusses the Stockholm Paradigm (SP) as a theoretical framework and practical computational instrument for studying and assessing the risk of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) as a result of climate change. The SP resolves the long-standing parasite paradox and explains how carbon emissions in the atmosphere increase parasites' generalization and intensify host switches from animals to humans. The SP argues that the growing rate of novel EID occurrence caused by mutated zoonotic pathogens is related to the following factors brought together as a unified issue of humanity: (a) carbon emissions and consequent climate change; (b) resettlement/migration of people with hyper-urbanization; (c) overpopulation; and (d) human-induced distortion of the biosphere. The SP demonstrates that, in an evolutionary way, humans now play a role migratory birds once played in spreading parasite pathogens between the three Earth megabiotopes (northern coniferous forest belt; tropical/equatorial rainforest areas; and hot/cold deserts), i.e., the role of "super-spreaders" of parasitic viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. This makes humans extremely vulnerable to the EID threat. The SP sees the +1.0-+1.2 °C limit as the optimal target for the slow, yet feasible curbing of the EID hazard to public health (150-200 years). Reaching merely the +2.0 °C level will obviously be an EID catastrophe, as it may cause two or three pandemics each year. We think it useful and advisable to include the SP-based research in the scientific repository of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, since EID appearance and spread are indirect but extremely dangerous consequences of climate change.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Animais , Humanos , Efeito Estufa , Mudança Climática
15.
Science ; 378(6619): 482, 2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378978
16.
Science ; 378(6619): 455, 2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378987

RESUMO

In the 30 years since the world began negotiating the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, no one has identified exactly where all that pollution is coming from. That will begin to change next week when Climate TRACE (Tracking Real-Time Atmospheric Carbon Emissions)-a nonprofit coalition of artificial intelligence (AI) specialists, data scientists, researchers, and nongovernmental organizations-releases the first facility-level inventory of the largest known individual sources of the 162 million tons of GHG pollution emitted into the troposphere every day. With thousands of businesses, banks, investors, and 88 nation-states committed to reducing emissions to net zero by 2050, comprehensively tracking progress toward that goal is essential. This is especially important given last week's United Nations Emissions Gap Report indicating that the world is far behind pace for reducing emissions by 2030.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Mudança Climática
18.
Healthc Q ; 25(3): 18-24, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36412524

RESUMO

Research has shown that the healthcare sector is among the least green sectors and constitutes one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, posing risks to human health. This review discusses the development of a knowledge translation tool that aims to compare a range of interventions that can be applied in hospital settings to reduce the local GHG emissions and associated financial costs. It discusses several interventions that potentially have the most impact on GHG reduction and compares these to interventions that are commonly used in different hospital departments. The authors propose opportunities to advance the implementation of these interventions within hospital operations across many other geographic locations.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Humanos , Redução de Custos , Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Hospitais , Ciência Translacional Biomédica
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18314, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316445

RESUMO

The Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Sector is a major source of Methane (CH4) emission, a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) that contributes to Climate Change. However, governments of developing countries have not been able to address the challenges posed by this sector due to inadequate funding and technical requirement. The objective of this study was to determine how seasonal variation influences the CH4 gas emission. The First Order Decay (FOD) Tier 1 Model was used to estimate CH4 emission from four Solid Waste Disposal Sites (SWDS) in Lagos namely: Ewu-Elepe (Ewu), Abule-Egba (A/E), Soluos (Sol), and Olushosun (Olu) covering the dry and wet seasons, respectively for the inventory year 2020. A known weight of the wet waste deposited was characterized. The study revealed that the Degradable Organic Carbon (DOC) for the dry season was 12.897 GgC/kgWaste while that of the wet season was 12.547 GgC/kgWaste. But, the methane gas generated during the wet season was 0.331 Gg higher than that of the dry season which was 0.134 Gg for the study period. This is an appreciable quantity of methane that can contribute to the global Climate Change impact if not addressed. Therefore, these waste types should be segregated from other recyclables and processed into compost or energy resource.


Assuntos
Metano , Eliminação de Resíduos , Estações do Ano , Efeito Estufa , Nigéria , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430107

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the monetary GHG reduction benefits and health co-benefits for the industrial sector under the imposition of a carbon charge in Taiwan. The evaluation proceeds from 2023-2030 for different rates of carbon charge for the GHGs by a model of "Taiwan Economic Input Output Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Value" constructed in this study. It is innovative in the literature to simulate the benefits of GHG reductions and health co-benefits of air pollutions for the industrial sector under the imposition of a carbon charge comprehensively. The results consistently show benefits whether the charge is imposed on the scope 1 and scope 2 GHG emissions or on the scope 1 emissions only. The health co-benefits are on average about 5 times those of GHG reductions benefits in 2023-2030. The average total benefits with the summation of GHG reduction benefits and health co-benefits are 821.9 million US dollars and 975.1 US million US dollars per year, respectively. However, both the GHG reduction benefits and health co-benefits are consistently increasing at a decreasing rate in 2023-2030. The increased multiple for the rate of the carbon charge is higher than the increased multiple of the total benefits and this result shows that the increase of the carbon charge becomes less effective.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Carbono , Efeito Estufa , Taiwan , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Indústrias
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