Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.890
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5154, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056993

RESUMO

Blue carbon (C) ecosystems are among the most effective C sinks of the biosphere, but methane (CH4) emissions can offset their climate cooling effect. Drivers of CH4 emissions from blue C ecosystems and effects of global change are poorly understood. Here we test for the effects of sea level rise (SLR) and its interactions with elevated atmospheric CO2, eutrophication, and plant community composition on CH4 emissions from an estuarine tidal wetland. Changes in CH4 emissions with SLR are primarily mediated by shifts in plant community composition and associated plant traits that determine both the direction and magnitude of SLR effects on CH4 emissions. We furthermore show strong stimulation of CH4 emissions by elevated atmospheric CO2, whereas effects of eutrophication are not significant. Overall, our findings demonstrate a high sensitivity of CH4 emissions to global change with important implications for modeling greenhouse-gas dynamics of blue C ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Elevação do Nível do Mar , Atmosfera/química , Eutrofização , Efeito Estufa , Áreas Alagadas
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 690, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034731

RESUMO

Urbanization is occurring globally at an unprecedented rate. The byproduct of this mounting urbanization is an increase in municipal solid waste (MSW), which has a significant effect on population health and the surrounding environment. This trend poses a challenge to the cities responsible for managing waste in a socially and environmentally acceptable manner. Effective waste management strategies depend on local waste characteristics, which vary under different cultural, climatic, and socioeconomic conditions. It is important to note that MSW disposal represents one of the largest sources for anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study found a direct proportional urban and rural gradient between household income and GHG emissions under a typical urban household size. The distribution of GHG is U-shaped. This study found that urbanization exhibited a pattern of continuous growth, and the effect of urbanization was less than the effect of the population in magnitude. The correlation between GHG and income level in recent urban sprawl along a north-south transect was lower than during the period of early urban expansion.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Efeito Estufa , Resíduos Sólidos , Urbanização
4.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 228-235, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016360

RESUMO

Manure composting is a common management practice for cattle feedlots, but gaseous emissions from composting are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to quantify ammonia (NH3 ), nitrous oxide (N2 O), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), and methane (CH4 ) emissions from windrow composting (turning) and static stockpiling (nonturning) of manure at a commercial feedlot in Australia. An inverse-dispersion technique using an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer gas sensor was deployed to measure emissions of NH3 , N2 O, CO2 , and CH4 over a 165-d study period, and 29 and 15% of the total data intervals were actually used to calculate the fluxes for the windrow and stockpile, respectively. The nitrogen (N) lost as NH3 and N2 O emissions represented 26.4 and 3.8% of the initial N in windrow, and 5.3 and 0.8% of that in the stockpile, respectively. The carbon (C) lost as CO2 and CH4 emissions represented 44 and 0.3% of the initial C in windrow, and 54.8 and 0.7% of that in the stockpile, respectively. Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the manure windrow were 2.7 times higher than those of the stockpiled manure. This work highlights the value that could be accrued if one could reduce emissions of NH3 -N and N2 O-N from composting, which would retain manure N content while reducing GHG emissions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Austrália , Bovinos , Gases , Efeito Estufa , Esterco
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18688, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122844

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused drastic reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but due to its large atmospheric reservoir and long lifetime, no detectable signal has been observed in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate. Using the variabilities in CO2 (ΔCO2) and methane (ΔCH4) observed at Hateruma Island, Japan during 1997-2020, we show a traceable CO2 emission reduction in China during February-March 2020. The monitoring station at Hateruma Island observes the outflow of Chinese emissions during winter and spring. A systematic increase in the ΔCO2/ΔCH4 ratio, governed by synoptic wind variability, well corroborated the increase in China's fossil-fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions during 1997-2019. However, the ΔCO2/ΔCH4 ratios showed significant decreases of 29 ± 11 and 16 ± 11 mol mol-1 in February and March 2020, respectively, relative to the 2011-2019 average of 131 ± 11 mol mol-1. By projecting these observed ΔCO2/ΔCH4 ratios on transport model simulations, we estimated reductions of 32 ± 12% and 19 ± 15% in the FFCO2 emissions in China for February and March 2020, respectively, compared to the expected emissions. Our data are consistent with the abrupt decrease in the economic activity in February, a slight recovery in March, and return to normal in April, which was calculated based on the COVID-19 lockdowns and mobility restriction datasets.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Combustíveis Fósseis/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeito Estufa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Atmosfera/química , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Humanos , Japão , Metano/análise , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0234289, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946456

RESUMO

The livestock industry is one of the main contributors to greenhouse gas emissions and there is an increasing demand for the industry to reduce its carbon footprint. Several studies have shown that feed additives 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate to be effective in reducing enteric methane emissions. The objective of this study was to estimate the net mitigating effect of using 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate on total greenhouse gas emissions in California dairy industry. A life cycle assessment approach was used to conduct a cradle-to-farm gate environmental impact analysis based on dairy production system in California. Emissions associated with crop production, feed additive production, enteric methane, farm management, and manure storage were calculated and expressed as kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kg of energy corrected milk. The total greenhouse gas emissions from baseline, 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate offered during lactation were 1.12, 0.993, and 1.08 kg CO2e/kg energy corrected milk, respectively. The average net reduction rates for 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate were 11.7% and 3.95%, respectively. In both cases, using the feed additives on the whole herd slightly improved overall carbon footprint reduction compared to limiting its use during lactation phase. Although both 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate had effects on decreasing the total greenhouse gas emission, the former was much more effective with no known safety issues in reducing the carbon footprint of dairy production in California.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Aditivos Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo , Animais , California , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Pegada de Carbono/estatística & dados numéricos , Bovinos/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Efeito Estufa/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Lactação/metabolismo , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Propanóis/administração & dosagem , Propanóis/efeitos adversos
7.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111241, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900543

RESUMO

The government of Indonesia has pledged to meet ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation goals in its Nationally Determined Contribution as well as reduce water pollution through its water management policies. A set of technologies could conceivably help achieving these goals simultaneously. However, the installation and widespread application of these technologies will require knowledge on how governance affects the implementation of existing policies as well as cooperation across sectors, administrative levels, and stakeholders. This paper integrates key governance variables--involving enforcement capacity, institutional coordination and multi-actor networks--into an analysis of the potential impacts on greenhouse gases and chemical oxygen demand in seven wastewater treatment scenarios for the fish processing industry in Indonesia. The analysis demonstrates that there is an increase of 24% in both CH4 and CO2 emissions between 2015 and 2030 in the business-as-usual scenario due to growth in production volumes. Interestingly, in scenarios focusing only on strengthening capacities to enforce national water policies, expected total greenhouse gas emissions are about five times higher than in the business-as-usual in 2030; this is due to growth in CH4 emissions during the handling and landfilling of sludge, as well as in CO2 generated from the electricity required for wastewater treatment. In the scenarios where there is significant cooperation across sectors, administrative levels, and stakeholders to integrate climate and water goals, both estimated chemical oxygen demand and CH4 emissions are considerably lower than in the business-as-usual and the national water policy scenarios.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Águas Residuárias , Efeito Estufa , Indonésia
9.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110988, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778280

RESUMO

Although the food service sector is a major user of water, the potential for heat recovery from commercial kitchens' drain water remains largely unexplored. For the first time, we compare the life cycle environmental burdens of producing and installing a heat recovery system with the environmental credits arising from energy savings for a restaurant case study, and for the entire UK food service sector. Life Cycle Assessment was applied to determine the impacts of heat recovery systems made from different materials and comprising a heat exchanger in the shape of a concentric double-walled pipe, pipework and fittings. The design option with the smallest environmental footprint combined a heat exchanger made out of polypropylene-graphite (PP-GR) with polyethylene pipework, exhibiting 80-99% less environmental impact compared with components made out of (35% recycled) copper. Contrasting the environmental impacts of two heat recovery set-ups with energy savings shows that a PP-GR based system pays back all burdens of the seven assessed environmental impact categories, within two years, while payback times for the copper-based system vary depending on the replaced energy source, and can exceed the 10 year operational lifetime of the system. When looking at typical flow-rates in UK food outlets, net environmental savings can be realised across all analysed impact categories above a threshold water consumption of 555 L/day, using current technology. Extrapolation to the UK food service sector indicates annual greenhouse gas emission mitigation potential of about 500 Gg CO2 equivalent.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Efeito Estufa , Temperatura Alta , Reciclagem
11.
Animal ; 14(S3): s491-s499, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811588

RESUMO

Despite the importance of the role of Climate Finance to comply with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 1.5°C objective, there is no consensus on the definition of Climate Finance and the estimated assessment of its aggregated flows and effects remains challenging. Despite being a major emitter and having a significant and cost-effective mitigation potential, the livestock sector has so far only received a marginal share of Climate Finance. As demand for animal protein products continues to increase (68% between 2010 and 2050), there is a compelling case for channeling more Climate Finance investments into the sector to incentivize greenhouse gas emissions reduction at scale. Bottlenecks in linking the livestock sector to Climate Finance include the insufficient capacity to assess the cost-benefit of projects, high upfront cost and risk perception of investors, the informality of the sector, non-existence of Climate Finance instruments dedicated to the livestock sector and lack of cost-efficient Monitoring, Reporting and Verification systems. Nevertheless, recent developments provide avenues to increase the access of the animal protein sector to Climate Finance.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Administração Financeira , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Efeito Estufa , Gado
12.
Animal ; 14(S3): s427-s437, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829724

RESUMO

The production of beef cattle in the Atlantic Forest biome mostly takes place in pastoral production systems. There are millions of hectares covered with pastures in this biome, including degraded pasture (DP), and only small area of the original Atlantic Forest has been preserved in tropics, implying that actions must be taken by the livestock sector to improve sustainability. Intensification makes it possible to produce the same amount, or more beef, in a smaller area; however, the environmental impacts must be assessed. Regarding climate change, the C dynamics is essential to define which beef cattle systems are sustainable. The objectives of this study were to investigate the C balance (t CO2e./ha per year), the intensity of C emission (kg CO2e./kg BW or carcass) and the C footprint (t CO2e./ha per year) of pasture-based beef cattle production systems, inside the farm gate and considering the inputs. The results were used to calculate the number of trees to be planted in beef cattle production systems to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The GHG emission and C balance, for 2 years, were calculated based on the global warming potential (GWP) of AR4 and GWP of AR5. Forty-eight steers were allotted to four grazing systems: DP, irrigated high stocking rate pasture (IHS), rainfed high stocking rate pasture (RHS) and rainfed medium stocking rate pasture (RMS). The rainfed systems (RHS and RMS) presented the lowest C footprints (-1.22 and 0.45 t CO2e./ha per year, respectively), with C credits to RMS when using the GWP of AR4. The IHS system showed less favorable results for C footprint (-15.71 t CO2e./ha per year), but results were better when emissions were expressed in relation to the annual BW gain (-10.21 kg CO2e./kg BW) because of its higher yield. Although the DP system had an intermediate result for C footprint (-6.23 t CO2e./ha per year), the result was the worst (-30.21 CO2e./kg BW) when the index was expressed in relation to the annual BW gain, because in addition to GHG emissions from the animals in the system there were also losses in the annual rate of C sequestration. Notably, the intensification in pasture management had a land-saving effect (3.63 ha for IHS, 1.90 for RHS and 1.19 for RMS), contributing to the preservation of the tropical forest.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Fazendas , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Florestas , Efeito Estufa
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38513-38536, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770337

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is mainly universal greenhouse gas associated with climate change. However, beyond CO2, some other greenhouse gases (GHGs) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), being two notable gases, contribute to global warming. Since 1900, the concentrations of CO2 and non-CO2 GHG emissions have been elevating, and due to the effects of the previous industrial revolution which is responsible for climate forcing. Globally, emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O from agricultural sectors are increasing as around 1% annually. Moreover, deforestation also contributes 12-17% of total global GHGs. Perhaps, the average temperature is likely to increase globally, at least 2 °C by 2100-by mid-century. These circumstances are responsible for climate forcing, which is the source of various human health diseases and environmental risks. From agricultural soils, rhizospheric microbial communities have a significant role in the emissions of greenhouse gases. Every year, microbial communities release approximately 1.5-3 billion tons of carbon into the atmospheric environment. Microbial nitrification, denitrification, and respiration are the essential processes that affect the nitrogen cycle in the terrestrial environment. In the twenty-first century, climate change is the major threat faced by human beings. Climate change adversely influences human health to cause numerous diseases due to their direct association with climate change. This review highlights the different anthropogenic GHG emission sources, the response of microbial communities to climate change, climate forcing potential, and mitigation strategies through different agricultural management approaches and microbial communities.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Aquecimento Global , Efeito Estufa , Humanos , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760112

RESUMO

We evaluated the between-cow (b-cow) variation and repeatability in omasal and milk fatty acids (FA) related to methane (CH4) emission. The dataset was originated from 9 studies with rumen-cannulated dairy cows conducted using either a switch-back or a Latin square design. Production of CH4 per mole of VFA (Y_CH4VFA) was calculated based on VFA stoichiometry. Experiment, diet within experiment, period within experiment, and cow within experiment were considered as random factors. Empirical models were developed between the variables of interest by univariate and bivariate mixed model regression analysis. The variation associated with diet was higher than the b-cow variation with low repeatability (< 0.25) for milk odd- and branch-chain FA (OBCFA). Similarly, for de novo synthesized milk FA, diet variation was ~ 3-fold greater than the b-cow variation; repeatability for these FA was moderate to high (0.34-0.58). Also, for both cis-9 C18:1 and cis-9 cis-12 cis-15 C18:3 diet variation was more than double the b-cow variation, but repeatability was moderate. Among the de novo milk FA, C4:0 was positively related with stoichiometric Y_CH4VFA, while for OBCFA, anteiso C15:0 and C15:0 were negatively related with it. Notably, when analyzing the relationship between omasal FA and milk FA we observed positive intercept estimates for all the OBCFA, which may indicate endogenous post-ruminal synthesis of these FA, most likely in the mammary gland. For milk iso C13:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0, and C15:0 were positively influenced by omasal proportion of their respective FA and by energy balance. In contrast, the concentration of milk C17:0, iso C18:0, C18:0, cis-11 C18:1, and cis-9 cis-12 cis-15 C18:3 were positively influenced by omasal proportion of their respective FA but negatively related to calculated energy balance. Our findings demonstrate that for most milk FA examined, a larger variation is attributed to diet than b-cow differences with low to moderate repeatability. While some milk FA were positively or negatively related with Y_CH4VFA, there was a pronounced effect of calculated energy balance on these estimates. Additionally, even though OBCFA have been indicated as markers of rumen function, our results suggest that endogenous synthesis of these FA may occur, which therefore, may limit the utilization of milk FA as a proxy for CH4 predictions for cows fed the same diet.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População , Efeito Estufa , Lactação/fisiologia , Metano/metabolismo , Leite/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Rúmen/metabolismo
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111508, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798921

RESUMO

This study reviews and categorises ports' technical and operational measures to reduce greenhouse gas emission and improve energy efficiency. Through a systematic review, both measures in the portside including land transport, and in the ship-port interface, were identified and structured into 7 main categories and 19 subcategories based on 214 studies. The measures' characteristics, abatement potential, best practices and key issues were clarified. The results show that there is insufficient research on ports in developing countries, as research is centred on developed countries' ports. Furthermore, it is unlikely that any single measure may lead to port decarbonisation owing to varying abatement potential, complexity, and cost. Therefore, assessments of feasibility and effectiveness to identify the best combination of measures are vital steps forward. In addition to the highlighted fertile research areas, the result of measures categorisation is considered a tool for policymakers and a basis for researchers to verify future agendas.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Navios , Efeito Estufa , Transportes
16.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 577-583, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628406

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pollution and global warming/climate change contribute to one-quarter of all deaths worldwide. Global healthcare as a whole is the world's fifth largest emitter of greenhouse gases, and anesthetic gases, intravenous agents and supplies contribute significantly to the overall problem. It is the ethical obligation of all anesthesiologists to minimize the harmful impact of anesthesia practice on environmental sustainability. RECENT FINDINGS: Focused programs encouraging judicious selection of the use of anesthetic gas agents has been shown to reduce CO2 equivalent emissions by 64%, with significant cost savings. Good gas flow management reduces nonscavenged anesthetic gas significantly, and has been shown to decrease the consumption of volatile anesthetic agent by about one-fifth. New devices may allow for recapture, reclamation and recycling of waste anesthetic gases. For propofol, a nonbiodegradable, environmentally toxic agent, simply changing the size of vials on formulary has been shown to reduce wasted agent by 90%. SUMMARY: The 5 R's of waste minimization in the operating room (OR) (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Rethink and Research) have proven benefit in reducing the environmental impact of the practice of anesthesiology, as well as in reducing costs.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/ética , Anestesiologia/ética , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Mudança Climática , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Efeito Estufa , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas
17.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110860, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721308

RESUMO

Notwithstanding the proliferation of papers dealing with the corporate finance implications of the so-called "carbon risk", very few studies analysed in depth the relationship between the firm's environmental risk profile and the cost of debt financing. We contribute to this stream of research by inspecting the relationship between EuroStoxx 600 companies' carbon emissions and cost of debt financing. We argue that lenders mitigate the impact of borrowers' GHG emissions on their future cash flows primarily requiring firms with higher carbon emissions intensity to pay significantly higher costs for financing their operations through indebtedness. We also found statistically significant evidence to support the conclusion that the positive effect of carbon emissions reduction on the cost of debt financing is relevant both for high and low emitting industries. Finally, we postulated that high emitting firms pay, on average, a higher cost of debt financing than less polluting firms but are less penalized if an increase in their carbon intensity occurs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first study to directly document the impact of carbon emissions on the cost of debt financing for non-financial European industries, substantially enriching the existing environmental financial literature.


Assuntos
Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Indústrias
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(7): 3410-3417, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608915

RESUMO

To quantify the net greenhouse gas emissions (NGHGE) of typical open-field vegetables production in China and analyze potential mitigation measures, the life cycle assessment (LCA) method was used to calculate the agricultural inputs, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse gas emissions of open-field tomato, cucumber, Chinese cabbage, and radish production in China based on national statistical data. The results showed that greenhouse gas emissions of typical vegetable production in China were much higher than the associated carbon sequestration, suggesting that they were net greenhouse gas emitters. The weighted average net greenhouse gas emissions of open-field tomato, cucumber, Chinese cabbage, and radish production when expressed on an area basis were 4149, 3718, 3780, and 2427 kg·hm-2(CO2-eq), respectively. The results from this study also indicated significant differences in the spatial distribution of greenhouse gas emissions for open-field vegetable production in China, and open-field tomato, cucumber, Chinese cabbage, and radish had higher greenhouse gas emissions in Hainan, Yunnan, Shaanxi, and Shandong, respectively, than in the other provinces. Fertilizer production, transportation, and application were the most significant contributors to the greenhouse gas emissions, contributing 86.8%-90.8% of the total emissions. This is significant for improving industry technology during fertilizer production and optimizing fertilizer management in open-field vegetable production based on different vegetables and provinces, which could achieve a double-win strategy in terms of increasing open-field vegetable yield and minimizing greenhouse gas emissions simultaneously.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Agricultura , China , Fertilizantes , Efeito Estufa , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Verduras
19.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115135, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650301

RESUMO

In the past two decades, more and more attentions have been paid to soil-derived greenhouse gases (GHGs) including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) because there are signs that they have rising negative impacts on the sustainability of the earth surface system. Farmlands, particularly paddy soils, have been regarded as the most important emitter of GHGs (nearly 17%) due to a large influx of fertilization and the abundance in animals, plants and microorganisms. Geobacter, as an electroactive microorganism widely occurred in soil, has been well studied on electron transport mechanisms and the direct interspecies electron transfer. These studies on Geobacter illustrate that it has the ability to be involved in the pathways of soil GHG emissions through redox reactions under anaerobic conditions. In this review, production mechanisms of soil-derived GHGs and the amount of these GHGs produced had been first summarized. The cycling process of CH4 and N2O was described from the view of microorganisms and discussed the co-culture relationships between Geobacter and other microorganisms. Furthermore, the role of Geobacter in the production of soil-derived GHGs is defined by biogeochemical cycling. The complete view on the effect of Geobacter on the emission of soil-derived GHGs has been shed light on, and appeals further investigation.


Assuntos
Geobacter , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Efeito Estufa , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38602-38606, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623679

RESUMO

This study examines the convergence of greenhouse gas emissions per capita across the 19 Spanish regions using the Phillips-Sul club convergence approach over the period spanning from 1990 to 2017. The results indicate the presence of four clubs which converge to different equilibria in emissions per capita and three clubs in terms of income per capita, which involves different regions. These findings suggest that mitigation policies should explicitly consider the presence of different clubs of regions with different convergence paths in terms of emissions and income per capita and address the distributional effect of transfers across regions.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Análise por Conglomerados , Efeito Estufa , Renda , Organizações , Espanha
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA