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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(2): 2007-2018, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862349

RESUMO

A total of 23 road-dust and 9 house-dust samples were collected from Alexandria and Kafr El-Sheikh cities, Egypt in 2016 to investigate heavy metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) contamination, spatial distribution, sources, and health risks. The mean concentrations (mg kg-1) of Cd (road-dust (RD) = 0.33, house-dust (HD) = 0.77), Cu (RD = 80, HD = 141), Pb (RD = 70, HD = 260), and Zn (RD = 169, HD = 771) in Alexandria and Zn (RD = 192, HD = 257) in Kafr El-Sheikh were higher than corresponding background (background refers to generic earth crust shale values given in the literature) levels. Whereas average concentrations (mg kg-1) of Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni (Alexandria: RD = 2.7, 24.3, 251, 14.4; HD = 3.2, 29.2, 237, 25.1 and Kafr El-Sheikh: RD = 6.6, 31.9, 343, 20.2; HD = 8.6, 33.4, 438, 23.2) in both cities were much lower than their background values. Spatially, for most heavy metals, the high concentrations were observed in areas characterized with increased anthropogenic activities, heavy traffic, and high population density. Contamination indices revealed moderate contamination (Cd and Cu) to high contamination (Pb: only house-dust from Alexandria), which posed low (most metals) to moderate ecological risk (Cd and Pb). Correlation analysis and factor analysis classified the studied metals in two groups as: natural input (Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Fe) and anthropogenic sources (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn). The noncancerous risks posed by studied metals ranged from 0.0001 (Cd) to 0.15 (Pb) and were insignificant. The cancerous risk of Pb (1.4 × 10-4) for children on exposure to house-dust form Alexandria exceeded the guideline values and was considered unacceptable, whereas the cancerous risks of other studied metals were acceptable for both subpopulations. The results of health risk revealed that children are facing higher risk than adults.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , Adulto , Criança , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
2.
J Dent Educ ; 85(1): 82-91, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to: (1) assess learner demographics of Introduction to Dental Medicine (IDM), an early Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) developed for the Coursera platform and (2) analyze course enrollment to determine worldwide interest in accessible, high-quality dental education. METHODS: The authors review the development and organization of IDM and present learner statistics to critically evaluate learner traits and course engagement for IDM. RESULTS: IDM has been available since June 15, 2015, and as of March 1, 2020, gained 90,374 visitors, of whom 16,739 have enrolled and demonstrate continued monthly and daily engagement. Learners represent all age groups and genders and include participants of all educational and employment backgrounds, reflecting broad interest in dental knowledge. They originate from 6 continents with the largest percentages of learners from countries including the United States, Egypt, India, and the United Kingdom. IDM learners have provided positive feedback, rating the course 4.8/5 stars and often providing individual accounts of the benefit of their experiences. CONCLUSIONS: IDM presented an opportunity to learn general dental concepts. The course served to increase familiarity in the field for all learners, including health professionals, patients, and anyone with an interest in the subject. It also served as preparation for or to expand education in dental, medical, and allied health professions. High learner engagement with wide global distribution demonstrated interest in dental education worldwide.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Medicina , Odontologia , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Reino Unido
3.
J Community Health ; 46(1): 139-146, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542552

RESUMO

Extraordinary actions have been implemented in an effort to control the rapid spread of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Egypt. People's adherence to control measures is influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the disease. Therefore, in the present study we assessed pharmacy senior students' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the COVID-19 pandemic. An online questionnaire was created and it consisted of 12 questions testing their knowledge about COVID-19 clinical characteristics, transmission routes and prevention and control steps. Among senior pharmacy students (n = 238), 70% were females and 63% were living in greater Cairo. Their main source of information included social media (70%), published articles (48%) and television (48%). The overall correct knowledge score was 83%. Most of the students displayed a good COVID-19 knowledge level (72.5% of the students). The students were least informed when trying to answer questions about hyper-coagulation, as a major cause for death in patients with severe COVID-19, and about the timings on the necessity to wear masks. Assessment of students' attitudes and practices towards COVID-19 reflected that 87% of them were confident that health care teams and scientists could win the fight against the virus. In addition, 72% of students agreed that COVID-19 will be controlled successfully. The greater the students' knowledge, the more confident they felt that COVID-19 will be controlled successfully (OR 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-4.72). Good behavioral practice towards COVID-19 control was confirmed when 87% of students answered that they didn't go out to any crowded place. Females were 3.6 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-3.11) more likely to avoid going out than males. Bad behavioral practice became evident when approximately 50% of students admitted that they did not wear masks when they left their house. Therefore, more efforts should be taken to protect future pharmacists from this pandemic.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111496, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069147

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) not only affected health and economics, but also its effect extended to include other aspects, such as the environment. Using Egypt as a case study, this paper presents the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on air pollution levels by studying nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter represented in absorbing aerosol index (AAI), carbon monoxide (CO), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The paper also highlights the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on other environmental indicators including environmental noise, medical and municipal solid wastes. The paper presents the Egyptian COVID-19 story from its different angles including the development of confirmed COVID-19 cases, containment measures from the government, the impact on the country's economy and the national energy consumption so as to effectively evaluate the effect on both the air pollution levels and the other studied environmental indicators. For the other environmental indicators, a strong link was observed between COVID-19 lockdown and the reduction in environmental noise, beaches, surface and groundwater pollution. For environmental noise, this has been confirmed by officially governmental announcements which reported that the level of environmental noise in Egypt was reduced by about 75% during the lockdown period. On the other hand, there are some negative effects, including an increase in medical solid waste (from 70 to 300 ton/day), municipal solid waste, as well as a less efficient solid waste recycling process. For air pollution levels, the data were obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency satellite data sets. The data for the lockdown period in 2020 have been extracted and compared to the corresponding months in the selected baseline period (2015-2019) to identify the effect that the lockdown period had on the air pollution levels in Egypt with focus on Cairo and Alexandria governorates. It was found that the AAI decreased by about 30%, the NO2 decreased by 15 and 33% over Cairo and Alexandria governorates, respectively, and that the CO decreased by about 5% over both governorates. In addition, the GHG emissions in Egypt were reduced by at least 4% during the pandemic. In contrast, ozone levels increased by about 2% over Cairo and Alexandria governorates. It can be concluded that the implemented containment measures during COVID-19 pandemic had resulted in both positive and negative environmental impacts. The positive environmental impacts are not sustainable and deterioration on them is expected to occur after the lockdown as it was before the pandemic. Therefore, stricter laws must be enacted to protect the environment in Egypt.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , Egito , Indicadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
6.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116229, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321310

RESUMO

In the present study, the daily dose in terms of particle surface area received by citizens living in different low- and middle-income countries, characterized by different lifestyles, habits, and climates, was evaluated. The level of exposure to submicron particles and the dose received by the populations of Accra (Ghana), Cairo (Egypt), Florianopolis (Brazil), and Nur-Sultan (Kazakhstan) were analyzed. A direct exposure assessment approach was adopted to measure the submicron particle concentration levels of volunteers at a personal scale during their daily activities. Non-smoking adult volunteers performing non-industrial jobs were considered. Exposure data were combined with time-activity pattern data (characteristic of each population) and the inhalation rates to estimate the daily dose in terms of particle surface area. The received dose of the populations under investigation varied from 450 mm2 (Florianopolis, Brazil) to 1300 mm2 (Cairo, Egypt). This work highlights the different contributions of the microenvironments to the daily dose with respect to high-income western populations. It was evident that the contribution of the Cooking & Eating microenvironment to the total exposure (which was previously proven to be one of the main exposure routes for western populations) was only 8%-14% for low- and middle-income populations. In contrast, significant contributions were estimated for Outdoor day and Transport microenvironments (up to 20% for Cairo, Egypt) and the Sleeping & Resting microenvironment (up to 28% for Accra, Ghana), highlighting the effects of different site-specific lifestyles (e.g. time-activity patterns), habits, socioeconomic conditions, climates, and outdoor air quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Brasil , Países em Desenvolvimento , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gana , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
7.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 365-371, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007626

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As the Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) was declared by the world health organization a pandemic in March 2020, thousands of healthcare workers (HCWs) worldwide were on the frontlines fighting against the pandemic. Herein, we selected two Middle East countries; Egypt and Saudi Arabia to investigate the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on their HCWs. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a Google survey was used to access HCWs in many hospitals in Egypt and Saudi Arabia between the 14th and 24th of April 2020. The survey assessed HCWs regarding their sociodemographic and occupational features, sleeping hours, and psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). RESULTS: This study included 426 HCWs (48.4% physicians, 24.2% nurses, and 27.4% other HCWs). Of them, 69% had depression, 58.9% had anxiety, 55.9% had stress, and 37.3% had inadequate sleeping (<6 h/day). Female sex, age ≤30 years, working in Egypt, attending emergency and night shifts, watching/reading COVID-19 news ≥2 h/day, and not getting emotional support from family, society, and hospital were associated with a high likelihood of depression, anxiety, stress, and inadequate sleeping. LIMITATIONS: the cross-sectional design restricted our ability to distinguish between preexisting and emerging psychological symptoms. CONCLUSION: HCWs on the frontlines in Egypt and Saudi Arabia experienced depression, anxiety, stress, and inadequate sleeping during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 71(1): 4-9, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128226

RESUMO

Drug repositioning is a strategy that identifies new uses of approved drugs to treat conditions different from their original purpose. Current efforts to treat Covid-19 are based on this strategy. The first drugs used in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 were antimalarial drugs. It is their mechanism of action, i. e., rise in endosomal pH, which recommends them against the new coronavirus. Disregarding their side effects, the study of their antiviral activity provides valuable hints for the choice and design of drugs against SARS-CoV-2. One prominent drug candidate is thymoquinone, an antimalarial substance contained in Nigella sativa - most likely one of the first antimalarial drugs in human history. Since the outbreak of the pandemic, the number of articles relating thymoquinone to Covid-19 continuously increases. Here, we use it as an exemplary model drug, compare its antiviral mechanism with that of conventional antimalarial drugs and establish an irreducible parametric scheme for the identification of drugs with a potential in Covid-19.Translation into the laboratory is simple. Starting with the discovery of Nigella sativa seeds in the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun, we establish a physicochemical model for the interaction of thymoquinone with both coronavirus and cells. Exploiting the predictive capability of the model, we provide a generalizable scheme for the systematic choice and design of drugs for Covid-19. An unexpected offshoot of our research is that Tutankhamun could not have died of malaria, a finding contrary to the mainstream theory.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Nigella sativa/química , Antimaláricos/história , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Egito , Pessoas Famosas , História Antiga , Humanos
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 898-914, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822008

RESUMO

Limited water resources are one of the major challenges facing Egypt during the current stage. The agricultural drainage water is an important water resource which can be reused for agriculture. Thus, the current study aims to assess the quality of drainage water for irrigation purpose through monitoring and predicting its suitability for irrigation. The chemical composition of Bahr El-Baqr water drain, especially salinity, as well as ions are mainly involved in calculating indicators of water suitability for irrigation, i.e., Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO-3, Cl-, and SO42-. Further analysis was carried out to evaluate the irrigation water quality index (IWQI) through integrated approaches and artificial neural network (ANN) model. Further, ARIMA models were developed to forecast IWQI of Bahr El-Baqr drain in Egypt. The results indicated that the computed IWQI values ranged between 46 and 81. Around 11% of the samples were classified as excellent water, while 89% of the samples were categorized as good water. The results of IWQI showed a standard deviation of 8.59 with a mean of 62.25, indicating that IWQI varied by 13.79% from the average. ANN model showed much higher prediction accuracy in IWQI modeling with R2 value greater than 0.98 during training, testing and validation. A relatively good correlation was obtained, between the actual and forecasted IWQI based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC); the best fit models were ARIMA (1,0) (0,0) without seasonality. The determination coefficient (R2) of ARIMA models was 0.23. Accordingly, 23% of IWQI variability could be explained by different model parameters. These findings will support the water resources managers and decision-makers to manage the irrigation water resources that can be implemented in the future.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Irrigação Agrícola , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Redes Neurais de Computação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 1029-1039, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827299

RESUMO

Thiophanate methyl is a broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide extensively applied in pre- and post-harvest, for the control of a wide range of fruit and vegetable pathogens. In the current work, the residue behavior of thiophanate methyl after application on strawberries and an estimation of the consumer dietary exposure was performed. Supervised field trials were conducted in Egypt (Qaluobiya Governorate) as to investigate the residue dynamics and terminal residues at different PHIs of thiophanate methyl and its metabolite carbendazim in strawberries under Egyptian conditions. For the measurement of residues in fruits, a QuEChERS-based protocol coupled with LC-MS/MS was optimized and successfully validated at 0.01 mg kg-1. The half-life (t1/2) of thiophanate methyl in strawberries was estimated, and a dietary risk assessment was performed employing both FAO/WHO and EFSA approaches.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Fungicidas Industriais , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida , Egito , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Meia-Vida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tiofanato/análise
11.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 1888-1896, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417070

RESUMO

Background: Community pharmacies provide an important healthcare service, which is broadly established, and constitutes the preferred and initial contact for members of the community. The significant value of community pharmacies was further highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Objective: The assessment of community pharmacies preparedness for the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional interview survey of 1018 community pharmacies working in four regions of Egypt (South, East, Centre, and North). Data collection was conducted from 8-19 April 2020. Results: Availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) and medication was better than alcohol (70% conc.). Home delivery services were available in 49.1% of pharmacies. Infection control measures covering interactions between staff were in place in up to 99.5% of pharmacies. Conversely, there was less frequent availability of contactless payment (29.1%), hand sanitizers (62.1%) or masks (86.5%) for customer use, or a separate area for patients with suspected COVID-19 (64%). Verbal customer education (90.4%) was used preferably to written (81.3%). Despite high clinical knowledge and awareness (97.6%-99.2%), only 8.8% of pharmacists had reported suspected COVID-19 cases, however this varied significantly with pharmacist demographics (geographic region P < 0.001; pandemic training p < 0.001; position p = 0.019; age p = 0.046). Conclusions: Government and policymakers strive to mitigate the shortage of PPE and medication. More attention should be given to infection control measures around interactions between staff and customers to ensure community pharmacists are fit and able to provide continuity in their important role. Educating customers using regularly-updated posters, banners or signs will contribute to decreasing contact with patients, and reducing the number and duration of visits to the pharmacy. Pandemic preparedness of community pharmacists must also extend to reporting procedures. By avoiding under-reporting or over-reporting, community pharmacists will contribute to accurate monitoring of the national spread of infection.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/provisão & distribução , Farmacêuticos/provisão & distribução , Papel Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/tendências , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/tendências , Farmacêuticos/tendências
12.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111760, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316644

RESUMO

This study examines the risks of seawater intrusion (SWI) in data scarce aquifers along the Eastern Mediterranean by quantifying the interaction of the main natural, anthropogenic and climatic drivers, while also considering varying abilities of implementing adaptation and mitigation measures. For this purpose, we conducted a semi-quantitative Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis representing a first attempt at integrating a complex physical process with multi layered influences in a SWOT analysis model that was tested at 26 coastal aquifers with varying levels of SWI severity. The analysis results showed alarming signs of SWI at several eastern and southeastern aquifers, particularly those underlying densely populated centers (i.e. Beirut, Lebanon; Magoza, Cyprus; Gaza, Palestine and the Nile Delta, Egypt). The analysis also highlighted adaptive capabilities that appear to be strong in Cyprus, Israel and Turkey, emerging in Egypt, and weak in Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine. The risks exhibited a strong and statistically significant positive relationship with the reported status of SWI at the tested aquifers thus providing an effective decision-making tool towards the preliminary assessment of SWI in regions with data scarcity. The study concludes with proposing a framework for sustainable aquifer management in the East Med region with emphasis on controlling SWI risks.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Chipre , Egito , Israel , Líbano , Medição de Risco , Síria , Turquia
13.
Chemosphere ; 265: 128999, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302199

RESUMO

A new approach of highly fluxes thin film nanocomposite (TFN) nanofiltration (NF) membranes is reported. The fabricated module was made by incorporation of commercial-Al2O3 (CO.TFN) and camphor-Al2O3NPs (CA.TFN) into polyamide layers throughout the interfacial polymerization method. A simple biological reduction technique was adopted in preparation of camphor-Al2O3 NPs by using CinnamomumCamphora (CC) leaf extract. The crystallography of the commercial and camphor-Al2O3 NPs was examined by XRD and FTIR analyses. The CO.TFN and CA.TFN membranes were characterized by determining their surface roughness, pore size, porosity, zeta potential and contact angle parameters. The morphology and the cross-sectional of the NF membranes were studied by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). NF performance was investigated at various Al2O3 NPs loads, applied pressure, and time. The results, of the membranes fabricated at low cost, showed the high permeable flux and elimination of multivalent cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, and water softening). Incorporating 0.98 mM of camphor-Al2O3 NPs into the TFC membrane increased the water flux up to 4 times compared to only 1.5 times for commercial-Al2O3 NPs. Moreover, the salt rejection of CO.TFN and CA.TFN NF membranes increased to 95.1% and 96.5%, respectively for the feed solution (2 g/L Na2SO4 at 25 °C). The optimized NF membrane module of 0.98 mM camphor-Al2O3-NPs (CA.TFN) shows the maximum water flux 69.0,62.2, 60.5 and 55.4 L/m2.h for the feed solutions of following salts NaCl, Na2SO4, MgCl2 and MgSO4 with high salt rejections 92.4%, 96.5%, 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively. This proves that camphor-Al2O3 NPs have a significant role in increasing the membrane hydrophilicity. Hence, the CA.TFN membrane module proved to be a promising candidate for the real brackish water desalination as that collected from Marsa Alam, Egypt.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Nanopartículas , Cânfora , Estudos Transversais , Egito , Águas Salinas
14.
Chemosphere ; 265: 129186, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307505

RESUMO

Globally, proper management of solid waste has been a massive issue. Incineration is popularly used in waste treatment worldwide due to its ability to minimize waste volume and generate electricity. Despite its advantages, incineration of waste can still generate large amounts of flue gas, which can be harmful if not handled properly. Therefore, the present study seeks to examine the environmental consequences of incineration in Africa. The study used the most accurate secondary data on the municipal solid waste incineration in 56 African countries from literature for the analysis. Due to data availability, the years 2012 and 2025 are considered for the study. The environmental analysis was based on global warming, acidification, and dioxin emission potentials. The emission of greenhouse gases from the incineration plant was estimated based on the method from the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The acid gases and dioxins emissions were evaluated based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (Acidification Potential-42). Key findings show that the global warming potential of Seychelles is expected to decline from 200.10 kton CO2eq to 196.18 kton CO2eq in 2025, while that of Saint Helena will be constant at 7.85 kton CO2eq. The study found that except for Seychelles and Saint Helena, the global warming potential of incineration projects in all the countries is expected to increase in 2025 compared to 2012. It was realized that the acidification potential of the project in 2012 ranges from 740.56 kg SO2eq to 4,297,839.96 kg SO2eq, and that of 2025 is expected to be from 740.56 kg SO2eq to 9,449,175.32 kg SO2eq. The results further indicate that South Africa, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, and Nigeria have higher dioxin emission potential in 2012 and 2025 compared to other countries in this study. This study will guide decision-making on the environmental sustainability of waste-to-energy incineration projects in Africa.


Assuntos
Incineração , Eliminação de Resíduos , Argélia , Ilhas Atlânticas , Egito , Meio Ambiente , Marrocos , Nigéria , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , África do Sul
15.
Food Chem ; 339: 127861, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836025

RESUMO

The role of variety and effects of pickling on Egyptian olive fruit metabolome was determined using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics targeting nutrients and bioactive metabolities. The analyzed fresh olive fruit varieties included Manzanilo, Picual, Koroneiki, and Coratina, while the pickled samples included the Manzanilo and Picual varieties. Profiling of primary and secondary metabolites resulted in the detection of 201 metabolites. Variation between varieties was mostly observed among sugars, sugar alcohols, secoiridoids, and flavonoids. An abundance of carbohydrates and O-glycosides in Picual and Manzanilo versus enrichment of secoiridoids in Picual and Coratina olives viz. dehyro-oleuropein could account for the difference in palatability and health benefits among varieties. Herein, 13 new compounds are reported in the tested varieties, of which 10 appeared exclusively in pickled samples. Generally, pickled samples were characterized by the relative abundance of secoiridoids regarded as important markers for the pickling process. Metabolites profiling provided greater insight into the pickling process as a preservation method and accounted for the improved organoleptic characters in pickled fruits.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Olea/metabolismo , Egito , Olea/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Gene ; 764: 145062, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860900

RESUMO

Recently, DNA-based methods have proved to be accurate, fast and sensitive for meat authentication. According to the European Union, the food safety standards require accurate and detailed composition information of the meat products. Therefore, an accurate, fast and cost-effective identification methodology is needed. In this study, multiplex PCR coupled with 12S rDNA sequencing was employed for the detection of meat adulteration in two red meat products (frozen beef liver and cold cut samples, respectively) in Egypt. Multiplex PCR allowed the identification of ruminant, poultry, pork, and donkey residuals in processed red meat products (cold cuts) in a single step PCR reaction. Preliminary uniplex PCR was performed to evaluate primers specificity using DNA extracted from the positive control samples. The primers produced specific fragments for ruminant, poultry, pork, and donkey as follows: 271, 183, 531 and 145 bp, respectively. Multiplex PCR revealed that none of the samples was contaminated by porcine or donkey residuals, but 62.5% of all tested processed beef samples contained poultry contaminants. The sensitivity of this method was 0.01 ng/µL for beef, poultry and donkey and 0.1 ng/µL for pig. Another promising finding is the identification of all frozen beef liver samples as a cattle species (Bos taurus) through PCR-sequencing of a short fragment of 12S rRNA gene. Finally, we recommend the employment of multiplex PCR and PCR-sequencing of 12S rDNA for quality control in routine analysis of processed and frozen meat products.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Egito , Limite de Detecção , Produtos da Carne/normas , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne Vermelha/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
J Environ Radioact ; 226: 106368, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077303

RESUMO

Radon mass balances in lakes can be used to trace transport processes along the sediment-water interface, such as groundwater discharge or pore water exchange. Understanding these transport processes is important, as they can affect the lake water budget, or biogeochemical cycles in lakes due to nutrient inputs. We present here a seasonal 222Rn mass balance of Lake Burullus (Northern Egypt), the second largest lake of Egypt. The Lake receives 222Rn from drainage water and the decay of 226Ra, and loses 222Rn via decay of 222Rn, atmospheric evasion and water discharge into the Mediterranean Sea. However, the mass balance reveals a significant surplus of 222Rn, which cannot be explained by the previously mentioned processes. The 222Rn surplus is especially high during the dry season, and might be explained by groundwater discharge and pore water exchange which transports 222Rn into the lake. Higher 222Rn fluxes into the lake during dry season might be explained by higher bioirrigation rates due to warmer temperatures, or higher groundwater discharge rates due to a higher hydraulic head on land caused by excessive irrigation in adjacent fields. Groundwater discharge and pore water exchange should be investigated in further detail in order to understand if they have effects on water budgets and biogeochemical cycles of Lake Burullus.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea , Lagos/química , Mar Mediterrâneo , Estações do Ano , Água
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 1): 142422, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011593

RESUMO

Despite Africa ranking top in mismanaged plastic waste, there is insufficient data on the extent of microplastics and its interaction with other contaminants in its ecosystems. Microplastics pollution has been documented globally, however, specific data from the continent is crucial for accurate risk assessment and to drive policies. We critically reviewed 56 articles from 1987 to 2020 and provide an overview of the current knowledge of the abundance and distribution of microplastics and associated contaminants in African aquatic systems and organisms. Most of the studies were carried out in the marine environment and there is currently no available data on the abundance of microplastic pollution in the African terrestrial environment. We show that across all studies, 5-100% of all sampled aquatic organisms contained microplastics. Concerning high levels of microplastics were reported in fish from Egypt compared to other parts of Africa and the world. Across all persistent organic pollutants sampled in microplastics, hopanes and phthalates were present at high concentrations while sodium and zinc were high relative to other trace metals reported. The most frequently occurring plastics were polyethylene followed by polypropylene and polystyrene. We found that most of the studies relied on visual inspection (52%) > FTIR (38%) > Raman spectroscopy (5%) > Scanning electron microscopy (3%) > Differential scanning calorimetry (2%) for identifying microplastics. Major gaps in sampling and identification techniques which may have overestimated or underestimated the current levels were identified. We discuss other research priorities and recommend solutions to address these issues associated with microplastic pollution in Africa.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , África , Animais , Ecossistema , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244172, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related stigma and its associated factors among Egyptian physicians. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using an anonymous online questionnaire was conducted from 7 to 21 June 2020. The survey was distributed via social media and email to physicians working in Egypt through convenience sampling. RESULTS: 509 physicians participated in the study (mean age: 41.5±10.2). 138 (27.1%) participants were directly involved in the care of COVID-19 patients. 159 (31.2%) participants reported severe level of COVID-19-related stigma. Participants' mean overall COVID-19-related stigma score was 40.6±8.0. The mean subscale scores were: personalized stigma 26.0±5.7, disclosure concerns 9.3±2.2, negative self-image 6.9±1.6, and concern with public attitudes 24.4±4.9. In the multivariable regression analyses, the overall COVID-19-related stigma score was higher in participants with lower qualifications (ß = -0.19, 95% CI: 2.32, -0.64, p = 0.001), and in those working in a quarantine hospital (ß = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01, 7.14, p = 0.050). CONCLUSIONS: A considerable proportion of Egyptian physicians in this exploratory study experienced COVID-19-related stigmatization. These preliminary findings highlight the need for specific research and targeted interventions particularly addressing COVID-19-related stigmatization among healthcare workers.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Saúde Pública , Quarentena , Inquéritos e Questionários , Revelação da Verdade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 11, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325002

RESUMO

Parallel reductions in atmospheric aerosols (particulate matter (PM)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) accompanied the drastic measures that were adopted to limit the spread of COVID-19. The results of this preliminary study conducted in northern Egypt revealed that ambient PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 levels decreased by 22.8%, 29.3%, and 25.9%, respectively, after the lockdown started on March 13, 2020. These reductions in concentrations significantly (p ˂ 0.01) correlated with the decrease in transportation and industrial and other economic activities. Furthermore, PM and NO2 concentrations radically reduced during the full lockdown on Easter, Ramadan, and Eid Al-Fitr. The findings of this study will help the World Health Organization (WHO) and other health regulators to combat COVID-19 in the world. This study is part of an ongoing research related to the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise
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