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1.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 68, 2024 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child development is shaped throughout the first years of life through the interaction of genetics and the environment. Bayley-III is valuably used to determine early developmental delay (DD). The aim of this study was to detect the differences in performance of a sample of apparently healthy Egyptian infants and toddlers on the Bayley-III scales in relation to their age and gender. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Bayley scales were applied to 270 of the 300 recruited children following the inclusion criteria; to avoid potential risk factors affecting development. Assessment included cognitive, language and motor skills. Engaged children aged 18-42 months were divided into 4 age groups with six-month intervals. RESULTS: Approximately 78.4%, 76.2%, and 72% of the participants had average and above average scores in the cognitive, motor, and language domains, respectively. The language domain was characteristically impacted. The oldest age group (36-42 months) scored the highest means composite scores, while the 2nd group aged 24 - <30 months, scored the lowest means in the three evaluated domains. In general, girls had non-significantly higher composite scores than boys, with a small effect size (d = 0.2-0.4). In the language domain, girls aged 30 to < 36 months scored significantly higher composite scores than boys (p < 0.05), with a medium effect size (d = 0.73). CONCLUSION: The study indicates that the performance of apparently healthy Egyptian children on the Bayley III evaluation differs in relation to age and sex. The most vulnerable age group at potential risk of DD was children aged 24-30 months. Efforts must be directed to investigate the nutritional, physical, psychological and safety needs of this group. Attention must be paid to early childhood intervention programs that stimulate development, especially language development, and they must be tailored on the basis of age and gender. Gender-specific norms may be needed in the evaluation of language development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Egito , Desenvolvimento Infantil
2.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 453, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This clinical study was conducted aiming to evaluate the impact of repeated preheating of bulk-fill resin composite on postoperative hypersensitivity. METHODS: A total of 105 eligible, consenting adults were recruited. Patients had posterior teeth suffering from proximal decay with no signs of irreversible pulpitis. Patients were prepared for Class II restorations and restored with bulk-fill resin composite. Patients were randomized into three groups of 35 patients according to the number of preheating cycles for the resin composite syringe used; group I: no preheating; control group at room temperature, group II: Resin composite preheated once, and group III: Resin composite preheated ten cycles. Patients were assessed for postoperative dentin hypersensitivity using the visual analogue scale (VAS) at three-time intervals: day one, one week and by the end of one month after restorative treatment. Statistical analysis was performed; ANOVA with a single factor was used to test for significance at a p value ≤ 0.05. For nonparametric data, the Kruskal‒Wallis test was used to compare the three testing groups. Friedman's test was used to study the changes within each group. Dunn's test was used for pairwise comparisons when the Kruskal‒Wallis test or Friedman's test was significant. RESULTS: The scores of the three groups through the three time intervals were almost zero except for the first day where VAS scores were recorded with maximum score of 3 for groups I and II. Groups II and III; there was no statistically significant change in hypersensitivity scores by time with P-values 0.135 and 0.368, respectively. However, for group I there was a significant difference from VAS score recorded on first day and the two following time intervals. CONCLUSION: The repeated preheating cycles of bulk-fill resin composite prior to curing had no adverse effect on the patients regarding postoperative dentin hypersensitivity. This information could be of utmost significance, as the same resin composite syringe can undergo numerous preheating cycles clinically before it is completely consumed with the advantage of improvement on the handling properties. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol of the current study was registered at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov , with the identification number NCT05289479 on 21/03/2022. All procedures involving human participants were performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University, Egypt, under the approval number 73/440 on 11/09/2020.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina , Pulpite , Adulto , Humanos , Sensibilidade da Dentina/etiologia , Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Resinas Compostas/uso terapêutico , Egito
3.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 73, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is a health and social problem. Millions of girls and women have undergone FGM or will soon, and more information is needed to effectively reduce the practice. The aim of this research is to provide an overview of the FGM trendlines, the inequality of its prevalence, and the economic burden. The findings shed light on 30-year trends and the impact of the pandemic on planned efforts to reduce FGM which helps with public health interventions. METHODS: Temporal trend analysis, and graphical analysis were used to assess the change and inequality over the last 30 years. We included 27 countries in which FGM is prevalent. We calculated the extra economic burden of delayed interventions to reduce FGM like COVID-19. RESULTS: For the 27 countries analyzed for temporal trendlines, 13 countries showed no change over time while 14 had decreasing trends. Among the 14, nine countries, Uganda, Togo, Ghana, Benin, Kenya, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Chad, and Ethiopia had high year-decrease (CAGR - 1.01 and - 10.26) while five, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, Gambia, Djibouti, and Mali had low year-decrease (CAGR>-1 and < 0). Among these five are the highest FGM prevalence similar distribution regardless the wealth quintiles or residence. There is an economic burden of delay or non-decline of FGM that could be averted. CONCLUSION: Findings indicate that some countries show a declining trend over time while others not. It can be observed that there is heterogeneity and homogeneity in the FGM prevalence within and between countries which may indicate inequality that deserves further investigation. There is considerable economic burden due to delays in the implementation of interventions to reduce or eliminate FGM. These insights can help in the preparation of public health interventions.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Estresse Financeiro , Egito , Etiópia/epidemiologia
4.
Arch Virol ; 169(5): 99, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625394

RESUMO

H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) affect both poultry and humans on a global level, and they are especially prevalent in Egypt. In this study, we sequenced the entire genome of AIV H9N2 isolated from chickens in Egypt in 2021, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Phylogenetic analysis of the resulting sequences showed that the studied strain was generally monophyletic and grouped within the G1 sublineage of the Eurasian lineage. Four segments (polymerase basic 2 [PB2], polymerase basic 1 [PB1], polymerase acidic [PA], and non-structural [NS]) were related to Egyptian genotype II, while the nucleoprotein (NP), neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), and haemagglutinin (HA) segments were related to Egyptian genotype I. Molecular analysis revealed that HA protein contained amino acid residues (191H and 234L) that suggested a predilection for attaching to human-like receptors. The antigenic sites of HA had two nonsynonymous mutations: V194I at antigenic site A and M40K at antigenic site B. Furthermore, the R403W and S372A mutations, which have been observed in H3N2 and H2N2 strains that caused human pandemics, were found in the NA protein of the detected strain. The internal proteins contained virulence markers: 504V in the PB2 protein, 622G, 436Y, 207K, and 677T in the PB1 protein, 127V, 550L, and 672L in PA protein, and 64F and 69P in the M protein. These results show that the detected strain had undergone intrasubtype reassortment. Furthermore, it contains changes in the viral proteins that make it more likely to be virulent, raising a question about the tendency of AIV H9N2 to become highly pathogenic in the future for both poultry and humans.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Humanos , Aves Domésticas , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Egito/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Fazendas , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Filogenia
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(5): 436, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589724

RESUMO

Wadi El-Natrun is one of the most observable geomorphological features in the North-Western Desert of Egypt; it contains several old saline and saline soda lakes. This study investigates physicochemical and biochemical characteristics and estimates the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TVC), and bioactivities of sediment, cyanobacteria, and brine shrimp (Artemia salina) in soda lakes, i.e., El-Hamra Lake 1 (H1) and El-Hamra Lake 2 (H2). These soda lakes are unique extreme ecosystems characterized by high pH (> 9.3), high alkalinity, and salinity. Some extremophilic microorganisms are hosted in this ecosystem. The results revealed that the chemical water type of studied lakes is soda-saline lakes according to the calculated percentage sequence of major cations and anions. Sodium ranked first among major cations with an abundance ratio of e% 58, while chloride came first among anions with an abundance ratio of e% 71, and bicarbonate and carbonate occupied the last rank with an abundance of 6%. The biochemical investigations showed that TPC and TVC are present in concern contents of sediment, cyanobacteria, and brine shrimp (A. salina) which contribute 89% of antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activities. Thus, this study helps better understand the chemical and biochemical adaptations in soda lake ecosystems and explores natural sources with potential applications in antioxidant-rich products and environmental conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lagos , Lagos/química , Egito , Antioxidantes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ânions , Cátions
6.
Arch Virol ; 169(5): 95, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594485

RESUMO

The first detection of a human infection with avian influenza A/H6N1 virus in Taiwan in 2013 has raised concerns about this virus. During our routine surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in live-bird markets in Egypt, an H6N1 virus was isolated from a garganey duck and was characterized. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Egyptian H6N1 strain A/Garganey/Egypt/20869C/2022(H6N1) has a unique genomic constellation, with gene segments inherited from different subtypes (H5N1, H3N8, H7N3, H6N1, and H10N1) that have been detected previously in AIVs from Egypt and some Eurasian countries. We examined the replication of kinetics of this virus in different mammalian cell lines (A549, MDCK, and Vero cells) and compared its pathogenicity to that of the ancestral H6N1 virus A/Quail/HK/421/2002(H6N1). The Egyptian H6N1 virus replicated efficiently in C57BL/6 mice without prior adaptation and grew faster and reached higher titers than in A549 cells than the ancestral strain. These results show that reassortant H6 AIVs might pose a potential threat to human health and highlight the need to continue surveillance of H6 AIVs circulating in nature.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8 , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Camundongos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Células Vero , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N3 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Animais Selvagens , Patos , Mamíferos
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(5): 429, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575685

RESUMO

Water, as an indispensable constituent of life, serves as the primary source of sustenance for all living things on Earth. The contamination of surface water with heavy metals poses a significant global health risk to humans, animals, and plants. Sharkiya Governorate, situated in the East Nile Delta region of Egypt, is particularly susceptible to surface water pollution due to various industrial, agricultural, and urban activities. The Bahr Mouse Stream, crucial for providing potable water and supporting irrigation activities in Sharkiya Governorate, caters to a population of approximately 7.7 million inhabitants. Unfortunately, this vital water source is exposed to many illegal encroachments that may cause pollution and deteriorate the water resource quality. In a comprehensive study conducted over two consecutive seasons (2019-2020), a total of 38 surface water samples were taken to assess the quantity of heavy metals in surface water destined for human consumption and other applications, supported by indices and statistics. The assessment utilized flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine the concentration of key heavy metals including iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr). The calculated mean value of the Water Quality Index (WQI) was found to be 39.1 during the winter season and 28.05 during the summer season. This value suggests that the surface water maintains good quality and is suitable for drinking purposes. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals in the study area were below the recommended limits set by the World Health Organization and fell within the safe threshold prescribed by Egyptian legislation. Despite the identification of localized instances of illegal activities in certain areas, such as unauthorized discharges, the findings affirm that the Bahr Mouse stream is devoid of heavy metal pollution. This underscores the importance of continued vigilance and regulatory enforcement to preserve the integrity of these vital water resources.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Egito , Rios , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Cádmio/análise , Qualidade da Água , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
J Clin Immunol ; 44(4): 92, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578558

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) represents a rare group of inherited inborn errors of immunity (IEI) characterized by bacterial infections, delayed umbilical stump separation, and autoimmunity. This single-center study aimed at describing the clinical, immunological, and molecular characterizations of 34 LAD-I Egyptian pediatric patients. METHODS: Details of 34 patients' personal medical history, clinical and laboratory findings were recorded; Genetic material from 28 patients was studied. Mutational analysis was done by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Omphalitis, skin and soft tissue infections with poorly healing ulcers, delayed falling of the umbilical stump, and recurrent or un-resolving pneumonia were the most common presentations, followed by chronic otitis media, enteropathy, periodontitis; and recurrent oral thrush. Persistent leukocytosis and neutrophilia were reported in all patients, as well as CD18 and CD11b deficiency. CD18 expression was < 2% in around 90% of patients. Sixteen different pathological gene variants were detected in 28 patients who underwent ITGß2 gene sequencing, of those, ten were novel and six were previously reported. Three families received a prenatal diagnosis. Patients were on antimicrobials according to culture's results whenever available, and on prophylactic Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 5 mg/kg once daily, with regular clinical follow up. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was offered for 4 patients. However due to severity of the disease and delay in diagnosis, 58% of the patients passed away in the first 2 years of life. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and distribution of ITGß2 gene mutation in Egyptian children. Further molecular studies, however, remain a challenging necessity for better disease characterization in the region.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD18 , Síndrome da Aderência Leucocítica Deficitária , Humanos , Criança , Antígenos CD18/genética , Antígenos CD18/metabolismo , Egito/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Aderência Leucocítica Deficitária/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Aderência Leucocítica Deficitária/genética , Síndrome da Aderência Leucocítica Deficitária/terapia , Leucócitos/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7990, 2024 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580717

RESUMO

One of the significant aromatic plants applied in food and pharma is cumin. Despite its massive trading in Egypt, there are no comprehensive reports on cumin landraces profile screening. This study aimed to investigate the variation in seeds' physical and biochemical profiles and genetic diversity as well as assess the efficiency of seeds' germination under salinity stress. Consequently, during the 2020/2021 growing season, four common cumin seed landraces were gathered from various agro-climatic regions: El Gharbia, El Menia, Assiut, and Qena. Results showed a significant variation in physical profile among the four seeds of landraces. In addition, Assiut had the highest percentage of essential oil at 8.04%, whilst Qena had the largest amount of cumin aldehyde, the primary essential oil component, at 25.19%. Lauric acid was found to be the predominant fatty acid (54.78 to 62.73%). According to ISSR amplification, El Menia presented a negative unique band, whereas other landraces offered a positive band. Additionally, the cumin genotypes were separated into two clusters by the dendrogram, with El Gharbia being located in an entirely separate cluster. There were two sub-clusters within the other cluster: El Menia in one and Assiut and Qena in the other. Moreover, the germination sensitivity to the diverse salinity concentrations (control, 4, 8, 12, and 16 dS/m) findings showed that landraces exhibited varying responses to increased salinity when El Gharbia and El Menia showed a moderate response at four dS/m. Whilst, Qena landraces showed supreme values among other landraces under 12 and 16 dS/m. The majority of the examined features had strong positive associations over a range of salinity levels, according to phenotypic correlation coefficient analysis. To accomplish the aims of sustainable agriculture in Egypt, it would be imperative that the potential breeding program for cumin landraces consider this screening study.


Assuntos
Cuminum , Óleos Voláteis , Egito , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Genótipo
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 248, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat is one of the world's most important cereal crops. However, the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici can cause disease epidemics, leading to reduced yields. With climate change and development of new agricultural areas with suitable environments, Z. tritici may advance into geographical areas previously unaffected by this pathogen. It is currently unknown how Egyptian wheat will perform in the face of this incoming threat. This project aimed to assess the resistance of Egyptian wheat germplasm to Z. tritici, to identify cultivars with high levels of resistance and characterise the mechanism(s) of resistance present in these cultivars. RESULTS: Eighteen Egyptian wheat cultivars were screened against two Z. tritici model isolates and exhibited a wide spectrum of responses. This ranged from resistance to complete susceptibility to one or both isolates tested. The most highly resistant cultivars from the initial screen were then tested under two environmental conditions against modern UK field isolates. Disease levels under UK-like conditions were higher, however, symptom development on the cultivar Gemmeiza-12 was noticeably slower than on other Egyptian wheats. The robustness of the resistance shown by Gemmeiza-12 was confirmed in experiments mimicking Egyptian environmental conditions, where degree of Z. tritici infection was lower. The Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) diagnostic assay suggested the presence of an Stb6 resistant allele in several Egyptian wheats including Gemmeiza-12. Infection assays using the IPO323 WT and IPO323ΔAvrStb6 mutant confirmed the presence of Stb6 in several Egyptian cultivars including Gemmeiza-12. Confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that growth of the IPO323 strain is blocked at the point of stomatal penetration on Gemmeiza-12, consistent with previous reports of Stb gene mediated resistance. In addition to this R-gene mediated resistance, IPO323 spores showed lower adherence to leaves of Gemmeiza-12 compared to UK wheat varieties, suggesting other aspects of leaf physiology may also contribute to the resistance phenotype of this cultivar. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that Gemmeiza-12 will be useful in future breeding programs where improved resistance to Z. tritici is a priority.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Egito , Melhoramento Vegetal , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
11.
Egypt J Immunol ; 31(2): 18-27, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615201

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial polygenic disease; results from autoimmune and neurodegenerative processes which lead to multifocal lesions of the central nervous system. Axonal degeneration was found to be prominent in the inflammation period of MS and contribute to the progression of disability. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) complex plays a vital role in the release of neurotransmitter by synaptic vesicle fusion. Stx-1A protein (Stx-1A), a major component of the SNARE complex, is widely expressed in brain tissue. This study intended to evaluate the prevalence of the Stx-1A gene polymorphism (rs1569061) in the Egyptian population with MS and to investigate its association with various clinical factors. This study included 65 adult Egyptian MS patients and 35 age- and sex-matched normal control subjects. Diagnosis of MS was made by an experienced neurologist according to revised McDonald criteria. All Patients underwent full history taking, included Age of onset of MS, disease duration, disease course and degree of disability according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and family history of neurological diseases. Stx-1A gene polymorphism (rs1569061) genotyping was performed by TaqMan assay based quantitative real time (qPCR) and verified by sanger sequencer. Genotype and allele frequencies of (rs1569061) did not differ significantly between case and control groups. No difference was detected when comparing the genotype frequency and the allele frequency to different disease parameters. Discrepancy of the minor allele frequency (MAF) of Stx-1A gene (rs1569061) between different populations was noted. In conclusion, our study in Stx-1A gene polymorphism (rs1569061) and MS showed that no difference between the patient and control as regards gene frequency and allele frequency. Predicting no association between the studied polymorphism and MS in the Egyptian population. However, discrepancy between different population was noted as regards the MAF for Stx-1A gene (rs1569061).


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Adulto , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Egito , Polimorfismo Genético , Frequência do Gene , Proteínas SNARE
12.
Egypt J Immunol ; 31(2): 44-54, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615234

RESUMO

One of the most common neurological illnesses in the world is multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). MS has both a genetic and an environmental origin. In terms of environmental factors, vitamin D deficiency is one of the most important risk factors and closely connected with gene polymorphisms involved in vitamin D metabolism, transport, or activity. Since vitamin D activity requires a receptor-mediated response, any changes to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) may have an effect on the pathophysiology of the disease. In this study, we aimed to identify the relationship between VDR gene polymorphisms, FokI A>G (rs2228570), ApaI A>C (rs7975232) and BsmI C>T (rs1544410) and MS. FokI, ApaI and BsmI genotypes were determined in 50 patients with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and in 50 control subjects. DNA was isolated from blood samples, and then FokI, ApaI and BsmI gene polymorphisms were identified using allelic discrimination real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The distribution of FokI, ApaI and BsmI polymorphisms did not show any significant differences between MS patients and controls. Thus, we concluded that there is no association between the studied VDR gene polymorphisms and MS.


Assuntos
Imidoésteres , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Egito , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Vitamina D
13.
Egypt J Immunol ; 31(2): 55-60, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615235

RESUMO

Prevention of transfusion-transmitted viral infections and insurance of safe blood transfusion are the main goals of all blood banks worldwide. Despite the high sensitivity and specificity of currently used enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, viral transmission could still occur during the window period. Introducing viral individual donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) can greatly decrease such risk providing an additional layer in securing blood transfusion. We aimed to assess the clinical significance of viral markers testing by ELISA and ID-NAT for blood screening in the Blood Bank of Suez Canal University Hospital. We studied all donations (2132) collected during a two-months period. Blood donor samples were screened by ELISA and ID-NAT tests for HBV, HCV, and HIV. Serological testing results for HCV by ELISA revealed 2,122 (99.5 %) negative donations compared to 2,131 (99.95 %) negative donations by ID-NAT testing. Of the positive ELISA samples, only one was NAT positive. For HBV ELISA testing, 2,115 (99.2 %) donations were negative, also by ID-NAT testing 2,115 (99.2 %) donations were HBV DNA negative. Out of the negative ELISA samples, two samples were ID-NAT reactive donors which were missed by serology assay being in the window period. HIV ELISA testing revealed negative 2,130 (99.9 %) donations while ID-NAT testing showed 2,131 (99.95 %) negative donations and one positive donation. In conclusion, this is the first study carried out in the Suez Canal and Sinai region, Egypt to assess the importance of ID-NAT implementation. The introduction of ID-NAT in blood banks is an effective method for increasing safety of the blood transfusion.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , Bancos de Sangue , Relevância Clínica , Egito , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hepacivirus/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores
14.
Egypt J Immunol ; 31(2): 87-92, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615265

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most malignant tumor among women in the world. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might better predict breast cancer prognosis. PvuII (T/C substitution), XbaI (A/G substitution), and aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) (G/A substitution) were evaluated as possible genetic prognostic factors for breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to assess the relation between PvuII (rs2234693), XbaI (rs9340799), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene polymorphisms AhR (rs2066853) in breast cancer prognosis. This was a case-control study that included 120 breast cancer patients classified into two groups. The first group included 60 patients with good prognostic factors, and the second group included 60 patients with poor prognostic factors. Blood samples were taken from all study participants to perform the genotyping assay. We found that positive genotypes of PvuII, XbaI, and AhR polymorphisms were strongly associated with better prognostic factors for breast cancer patients, while negative genotypes of PvuII and XbaI were more and significantly prevalent in poor prognostic breast cancer patients. We conclude that PvuII T/C, XbaI G/A, and AhR G/A alleles may be prognostic for breast cancer progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Egito , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico
15.
Egypt J Immunol ; 31(2): 112-121, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615268

RESUMO

In the first phase of its treatment program, Egypt aimed to treat 250,000 people annually until 2020, thereby reducing the number of viremic patients and limiting hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission. Egypt strives to eradicate HCV and HCV-associated morbidity by 2030. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV infection among end-stage renal disease patients and the reasons for non-treatment among those offered free medication. This multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from November 2022 to April 2023. The study included 500 patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) sessions on a regular basis for more than three months in Dakahlia Governorate. According to patients` medical history, we found that 23.4% of patients had previous HCV infection. Of these, 12.6% received treatment, and 10.8% did not receive treatment due to a variety of reasons. For instance, some patients were unaware of the drug's availability, five patients (1%) feared side effects, 43 patients (8.6%) did not require treatment, and five patients (1%) had other causes as contraindications of drugs, noncompliance and deterioration of health status. In addition, 20.4% of patients were reported to have fully recovered, while 0.8% had a recurrence. After investigations, 1% of patients had positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), 23.4% positive HCV Ab, and 4.2% positive HCV by the polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, the low prevalence of HCV among HD patients confirms that HCV infection is not currently a significant health concern among patients on maintenance HD.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Humanos , Hepacivirus/genética , Egito/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos
16.
Egypt J Immunol ; 31(2): 102-111, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615267

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Two risk factors that cause 80-90% of HCC cases globally are chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The diagnostic value of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in numerous tumors has been described. Our research assessed microRNA-16 (miR-16) as a novel biomarker in patients with HCV-induced HCC. The study included three groups. Group 1 included 55 individuals with cirrhosis caused by liver HCV infection in addition to HCC. Group 2 included 55 individuals with cirrhosis brought on by HCV infection. Group 3 included 55 normal control individuals. Expression of miR-16 in blood was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The mean level of miR-16 was significantly different in the three groups, with group 1 having the greatest value (1.098 ± 0.647), followed by group 2 (1.1035 ± 0.8567) and group 3 (control subjects) having the lowest value (0.3842 ± 0.21485). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that miR-16 had a higher diagnostic value at area under the curve (AUC) of 0.935 than alpha-feto protein (AUC of 0.859) to differentiate between HCC and control subjects. MiR-16 has a sensitivity of 81.82 % and a specificity of 69.09%, to distinguish between patients with liver cirrhosis and HCC patients. Our findings illustrated that circulating miR-16 can be proposed as a marker for detection of patients with HCV-induced HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , MicroRNA Circulante , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Hepacivirus/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Egito , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores
17.
Egypt J Immunol ; 31(2): 122-129, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615271

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multifactorial disease with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to its pathogenesis. ACYP2 is a gene that is related to cell differentiation, apoptosis and prevention of malignant tumors. The ACYP2 gene also affects telomere length. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ACYP2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs843711), and (rs843706) and incidence of HCC in Egyptian HCC patients. The study included 30 patients with HCC and 30 normal controls. Detection of ACYP2 gene SNPs rs843711, and rs843706 in all study participants was done using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that all participants including HCC patients and controls carried the heterozygous CA (100%) of the rs843706 SNP (p> 0.05). As for the rs843711, 3.3% of HCC patients had the homozygous TT genotype, 46.7% had the heterozygous CT genotype and 50% had the wild CC genotype, while in the control group, 60% had the heterozygous CT genotype and 40% had the wild CC genotype with no significant difference between both groups (p>0.05). We concluded that there was no association between SNPs ACYP2 rs843706 and rs843711 and occurrence of HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Egito , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Genótipo , 60549
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8565, 2024 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609410

RESUMO

Tropical theileriosis is an important protozoan tick-borne disease in cattle. Vaccination using attenuated schizont-infected cell lines is one of the methods used for controlling the disease. This study describes the production of attenuated schizont-infected cell lines from Egypt and an evaluation of its use as a vaccine to protect calves against clinical disease upon field challenge. Two groups of exotic and crossbred male calves were divided into vaccinated and control groups. The vaccinated groups were inoculated with 4 ml (1 × 106 cells/ml) of the attenuated cell line. Three weeks after vaccination, calves of both groups were transported to the New Valley Governorate (Egyptian oasis) where they were kept under field conditions and exposed to the natural Theileria annulata challenge. All animals in the control group showed severe clinical signs and died despite treatment with buparvaquone, which was administered after two days of persistent fever due to a severe drop in packed cell volume (PCV). Animals in the vaccinated group became seropositive without developing severe clinical signs other than transient fever. Post-mortem examinations revealed enlarged and fragile lymph nodes, spleen, and liver with necrosis and hemorrhages. These findings indicate that the Egyptian attenuated cell line was successful in protecting both exotic and crossbred animals against tropical theileriosis under field conditions.


Assuntos
Theileria annulata , Theileriose , Vacinas , Masculino , Bovinos , Animais , Egito , Theileriose/prevenção & controle , Linhagem Celular
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 390, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes recently has been identified as a growing epidemic. Although insulin's vital role in both types of diabetes, it is considered one of the harmful medications if used incorrectly. In Egypt, effective usage of insulin remains a challenge due to insufficient knowledge of insulin and diabetes management, leading to errors in insulin therapy. As pharmacists are experts in pharmacological knowledge, they are uniquely situated to assess adherence to treatment regimens, the effect of drug therapy, or potential alterations in drug therapy to meet patient goals. To provide effective patient education and counseling, community pharmacists in Egypt should be efficiently knowledgeable about diabetes and insulin. OBJECTIVE: To identify the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pharmacists and patients about insulin. To identify pharmacists' educational preparedness and confidence in counseling diabetic patients. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted with two knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys. This study was carried out from September 2016 to February 2023. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with patients, and a paper-based questionnaire was administered to pharmacists. The two questionnaires were adapted from previous studies. RESULTS: A total of 492 patients and 465 pharmacists participated in this study. The mean knowledge score of correct answers among patients and pharmacists was 10.67 ± 1.9 and 15 ± 3.6. Most of the patients and pharmacists had a positive attitude regarding insulin's role in improving health and to better control blood glucose. On the negative side, around half of the patients reported that they believe that regular use of insulin leads to addiction, while only 14.5% of the pharmacists believed that insulin could cause addiction. Self-confidence scores for pharmacists differed statistically with sex, years of experience, and pharmacist's direct exposure to diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study uncovers considerable deficiencies in patients' and pharmacists' knowledge about insulin therapy. This study also strongly recommends higher education and a more structured pharmacist training schedule.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Farmacêuticos , Humanos , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Egito , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Virol J ; 21(1): 83, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian leukosis virus Subgroup-J (ALV-J) is a rapidly oncogenic evolving retrovirus infecting a variety of avian species; causing severe economic losses to the local poultry industry. METHODS: To investigate ALV-J, a total of 117 blood samples and 57 tissue specimens of different organs were collected for virological, and pathological identification, serological examinations, molecular characterization, and sequencing analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed report recorded in broiler flocks in Egypt. The present study targets the prevalence of a viral tumor disease circulating in broiler flocks in the El-Sharqia, El-Dakahliya, and Al-Qalyubiyya Egyptian governorates from 2021 to 2023 using different diagnostic techniques besides ALV-J gp85 genetic diversity determination. RESULT: We first isolated ALV-J on chicken embryo rough cell culture; showing aggregation, rounding, and degeneration. Concerning egg inoculation, embryonic death, stunting, and curling were observed. Only 79 serum samples were positive for ALV-J (67.52%) based on the ELISA test. Histopathological investigation showed tumors consist of uniform masses, usually well-differentiated myelocytes, lymphoid cells, or both in the liver, spleen, and kidneys. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the myelocytomatosis-positive signals were in the spleen, liver, and kidney. The PCR assay of ALV-J gp85 confirmed 545 base pairs with only 43 positive samples (75.4%). Two positive samples were sequenced and submitted to the Genbank with accession numbers (OR509852-OR509853). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gp85 gene showed that the ALV-J Dakahlia-2 isolate is genetically related to ALV-EGY/YA 2021.3, ALV-EGY/YA 2021.4, ALV-EGY/YA 2021.14, and ALV-EGY/YA 2021.9 with amino acid identity percentage 96%, 97%; 96%, 96%; respectively. Furthermore, ALV-J Sharqia-1 isolate is highly genetically correlated to ALV-EGY/YA 2021.14, and ALV-EGY/YA 2021.9, ALV-J isolate QL1, ALV-J isolate QL4, ALV-J isolate QL3, ALV-EGY/YA 2021.4 with amino acid identity percentage 97%, 97%; 98%, 97%, 97%, 95%; respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that ALV-J infection had still been prevalent in broilers in Egypt, and the genetic characteristics of the isolates are diverse.


Assuntos
Vírus da Leucose Aviária , Leucose Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Embrião de Galinha , Animais , Galinhas , Leucose Aviária/patologia , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/genética , Egito/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Evolução Molecular , Aminoácidos/genética
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