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1.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 20, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (CR-hvKP) causes serious infections with significant morbidity and mortality. However, the epidemiology and transmission mechanisms of CR-hvKP and the corresponding carbapenem-resistant plasmids require further investigation. Herein, we have characterized an ST11 K. pneumoniae strain EBSI041 from the blood sample encoding both hypervirulence and carbapenem resistance phenotypes from a patient in Egypt. RESULTS: K. pneumoniae strain EBSI041 showed multidrug-resistance phenotypes, where it was highly resistant to almost all tested antibiotics including carbapenems. And hypervirulence phenotypes of EBSI041 was confirmed by the model of Galleria mellonella infection. Whole-genome sequencing analysis showed that the hybrid plasmid pEBSI041-1 carried a set of virulence factors rmpA, rmpA2, iucABCD and iutA, and six resistance genes aph(3')-VI, armA, msr(E), mph(E), qnrS, and sul2. Besides, blaOXA-48 and blaSHV-12 were harboured in a novel conjugative IncL-type plasmid pEBSI041-2. The blaKPC-2-carrying plasmid pEBSI041-3, a non-conjugative plasmid lacking the conjugative transfer genes, could be transferred with the help of pEBSI041-2, and the two plasmids could fuse into a new plasmid during co-transfer. Moreover, the emergence of the p16HN-263_KPC-like plasmids is likely due to the integration of pEBSI041-3 and pEBSI041-4 via IS26-mediated rearrangement. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the complete genome sequence of KPC-2- and OXA-48-coproducing hypervirulent K. pneumoniae from Egypt. These results give new insights into the adaptation and evolution of K. pneumoniae during nosocomial infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Egito , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
2.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103259, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to comprehensively evaluate olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions during the COVID-19 pandemic regarding onset, course, associated symptoms, prognosis and relation to patients' demographics, treatment received and other symptoms. PATIENTS& METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted on patients proven to be infected with COVID-19 and with olfactory/gustatory dysfunction symptoms. Detailed history was taken from each patient about the onset of this dysfunction, associated symptoms. Then follow-up survey was done after 6 months to evaluate the prognosis. RESULTS: 1031 patients were included in the study, aged 18 to 69 years old, with 31.8% were male. Olfactory/gustatory dysfunctions occurred after other COVID-19 symptoms in 43.5% of cases, occurred suddenly in 80.4% and gradually in 19.6%. These dysfunctions were anosmia & ageusia in 50.2%, hyposmia & hypogeusia in 23.3%, anosmia alone in 17.7%, phantosmia in 18%, Parosmia in 28.4%. In terms of recovery 6-month follow up, 680 patients (66%) recovered completely, 22.1% recovered partially while 11.9% did not recover. Most improvement occurred in the first two weeks. Headache, malaise, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea were the commonest COVID-19 symptoms associated. CONCLUSION: Most recovery of olfactory/gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 infection occurs at the first two weeks and is unrelated to patient demographics, treatment or olfactory training. Parosmia is an independent predictor for complete recovery, while phantosmia is significantly associated with lower probability of complete recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia
3.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106139, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562431

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite known for its heavy toll on people and livestock. It can cause abortion and a variety of congenital diseases. The current study aimed to examine some seroprevalence and molecular attributes of T. gondii obtained from ruminants in the North-West of Egypt. Specimens were random selected from five different locations in Alexandria and Matrouh governorates. A total of 483 blood samples, collected from 96 mixed flocks, were screened for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seropositive results were then confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the B1 and P30 genes. Specific PCR products were selected for sequencing and alignment against the GenBank, where phylogeny has been examined using the maximum likelihood, neighbor-joining, and maximum parsimony in MEGA6. ELISA confirmed the presence of T. gondii in 188 of the investigated samples (38.92%), indicating a higher prevalence in camels (64.51%) and sheep (43.75%) as compared to goats (27.93 %) and cattle (13.46%). PCR confirmed the presence of T. gondii-specific sequences in 159 seropositive specimens, with homology between 98.3 and 100%. The genetic distances between the investigated variants ranged from 0.1 to 0.9, and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were identified in the examined T. gondii specimens. The camel T. gondii parasite, isolated from Matrouh, showed a 100% homology with the most dangerous reference strains of T. gondii-RH in the GenBank. Our results showed that B1 and P30-specific PCR could detect T. gondii in blood samples more accurately than ELISA. In addition, the statistical analysis of our data indicated that species, age, sex, and animal location were all risk factors for toxoplasmosis. These findings are likely to boost disease control and help contain the spread of T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Egito/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Ruminantes , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 7-10, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506635

RESUMO

Hepatitis, a significant cause of mortality worldwide, results in around 1.34 million deaths each year globally. Africa is not exempt from the plague of Hepatitis. Around 100 million estimated individuals are infected with Hepatitis B or C. Egypt has the highest prevalence of cases of Hepatitis followed by Cameroon and Burundi. The continent is severely affected by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, as the virus has added an additional burden on the already fragile continent. With the pandemic, it is presumable that Hepatitis like other viral diseases will pose a threat to collapsing healthcare system. Therefore, for Africa to become more resilient in the face of such menaces, including Hepatitis, further prevention policies are required to be implemented.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Egito/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Hepatite C Crônica/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 445, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The third epidemic of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has majorly involved middle income countries in which tailored screening and local guidelines require development. The data regarding ROP prevalence and cutoff numbers for screening in Egypt are lacking. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of an independent screening effort spanning 2 years (February 2019 to February 2021) and involving 32 neonatal care units within Sharkia governorate, Egypt. Infants of gestational age (GA) ≤ 34 weeks and/or birth weight (BW) ≤ 2000 g were included, as well as those with unstable clinical course. Two eyecare centers located in Sharkia and Cairo governorates served as referral centers for any required interventions. RESULTS: Of the 276 screened infants, 133 (48.2%) had some form of ROP that was bilateral in 127 (95.5%) of them. Aggressive posterior ROP (AP-ROP) was detected in both eyes of 24 infants (8.7%). The median (IQR) GA of infants with ROP was 32 (30-34) weeks, and the median (IQR) BW was 1600 (1350-2000) g. Sixty-three infants (47.4%) required treatment. Of the total 84 eyes that primarily were treated, 73 (86.9%) received intravitreal ranibizumab, 8 (9.5%) underwent laser ablation therapy, and 3 eyes (3.6%) underwent surgery. Recurrence rate was 16.7% (14 eyes). Final outcome was favorable in 83 eyes (98.8%). Applying the American Academy criteria would have led to the missing of 36.8% of infants with ROP and 28.6% of those requiring treatment in our sample. CONCLUSION: The incidence of both ROP and AP-ROP in the Egyptian rural setting appears to be in the high end of global reported rates. Prevention measures should urgently be planned and implemented.


Assuntos
Retinopatia da Prematuridade , Egito/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(11): 1102-1108, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927714

RESUMO

Background: Egypt has a shortage of physicians despite thousands of medical students graduating annually. Aims: This study aimed to explore the reasons for Egyptian medical students and young physicians wanting to emigrate. Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted from February to April 2019, included 711 fifth- and sixth-year medical students and 174 residents from two medical faculties in Egypt, Tanta and Kafrelshiekh. A questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic factors, desire to emigrate and motives for wanting to emigrate. Results: Most participant (89.4%) wanted to emigrate, and thought their salary was not compatible with their working hours or risks. About half the participants (52.8%) worked part-time in private hospitals. Only 4.9% of participants felt appreciated by the country. Most participants (75.9%) were not satisfied with their relationship with patients and 40.2% were not satisfied with their relationship with colleagues. Verbal abuse was reported by 55.5% of participants and physical assaults by 35.4%. Most participants who wanted to emigrate (85.1%) said they would change their minds if improvements were made in the health sector. Residents generally had less negative attitudes to workplace and professional factors than students. Conclusion: Physicians emigrate to seek better work and financial incentives. A retention policy needs to be developed to prevent Egyptian physicians from emigrating.


Assuntos
Médicos , Estudantes de Medicina , Encéfalo , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948585

RESUMO

This study assessed the prevalence of prenatal smoking, factors associated with prenatal smoking, and its association with birth outcomes in a sample of pregnant women in Egypt. Pregnant women were recruited during their last trimester from antenatal clinics in Cairo from June 2015 to May 2016. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey that assessed tobacco use and attitudes, and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) was measured. Gestational age at delivery and offspring birth weight were collected via a postnatal phone interview. Two hundred pregnant women ages 16-37 years participated. More than a quarter (29.0%) of women reported smoking (cigarettes, hookah, or both) during their current pregnancy, and hookah was more popular than cigarettes. Most women who smoked prior to their current pregnancy either maintained their current smoking habits (46.6%) or switched from dual to hookah-only smoking (46.6%). Current smokers during pregnancy had a higher mean (±SD) exhaled CO level (2.97 ± 1.45 vs. 0.25 ± 0.60 ppm, p < 0.001) and had babies with a lower mean birth weight (2583 ± 300 vs. 2991 ± 478 g, p < 0.001) than non-smokers. Smokers during pregnancy had greater odds of premature birth and/or low birth weight babies compared to non-smokers. Dual cigarette-hookah smokers had the highest risk. Additional focused programs are required to prevent women of childbearing age from initiating tobacco use and empower women to stop tobacco use during the preconception and gestational periods.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972115

RESUMO

This study investigates the impact of a theatre-based vocal empowerment program on the vocal and language characteristics and the self-perceptions of young bilingual Egyptian women. The program used applied theatre, a dramatic practice that promotes civic action by utilizing improvisational techniques to engage participants in exploring solutions to self-identified community concerns. These techniques supported participants' pursuit of vocal empowerment: the ability to comfortably express their intended content with a clear audible voice, accompanied by the belief that what they had to say was worthwhile. The program was implemented in Alexandria and Aswan, two Egyptian cities in different regions of the country, with distinct socio-economic profiles. Thirty-six young women from Aswan and nineteen from Alexandria participated. The program was facilitated in Arabic, for 90 minutes per day over twelve consecutive days in 2018. Participants in both groups spoke Arabic as a home language and studied English in school settings but differed in their educational experiences and English proficiency. The vocal and language characteristics of each participant were tested in Arabic and English pre- and post- program using a spontaneous speech task and a reading aloud task. Their self-perceptions were evaluated through a vocal self-perception survey. Results indicated that participants responded differently in each city. In Alexandria, participants showed significant improvement in language skills (e.g., mean length of utterance). In contrast, participants in Aswan showed a significant change in fundamental frequency. Overall, the self-surveys indicated that all participants experienced an increased sense of confidence, a stronger belief in self-authorship, and an increased desire to voice their opinions clearly in public; however, there were subtle differences between the groups. In analyzing these results, we conclude that to design effective vocal empowerment outreach programs internationally, it is necessary to consider participants' cultural backgrounds, language diversity, and socio-economic status.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Idioma , Voz/fisiologia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Leitura , Autoimagem , Fala/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7283, 2021 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907168

RESUMO

Relatively little is known about Nubia's genetic landscape prior to the influence of the Islamic migrations that began in the late 1st millennium CE. Here, we increase the number of ancient individuals with genome-level data from the Nile Valley from three to 69, reporting data for 66 individuals from two cemeteries at the Christian Period (~650-1000 CE) site of Kulubnarti, where multiple lines of evidence suggest social stratification. The Kulubnarti Nubians had ~43% Nilotic-related ancestry (individual variation between ~36-54%) with the remaining ancestry consistent with being  introduced through Egypt and ultimately deriving from an ancestry pool like that found in the Bronze and Iron Age Levant. The Kulubnarti gene pool - shaped over a millennium - harbors disproportionately female-associated West Eurasian-related ancestry. Genetic similarity among individuals from the two cemeteries supports a hypothesis of social division without genetic distinction. Seven pairs of inter-cemetery relatives suggest fluidity between cemetery groups. Present-day Nubians are not directly descended from the Kulubnarti Nubians, attesting to additional genetic input since the Christian Period.


Assuntos
Egito , Feminino , Fósseis , Pool Gênico , Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano/genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Sudão
10.
F1000Res ; 10: 123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900224

RESUMO

Background: Sapovirus has emerged as a viral cause of acute gastroenteritis. However, there are insufficient data about the presence of this virus among children with acute gastroenteritis. The present study aimed to evaluate the presence of sapovirus in children with acute gastroenteritis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Methods: A cross-sectional study enrolled 100 children patients with acute gastroenteritis from outpatient clinics with excluded bacterial pathogens and parasitic infestation. A stool sample was collected from each child for laboratory examination. Each stool sample was subjected to study by direct microscopic examination, study for rotavirus by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and the remaining sample was subjected to RNA extraction and RT- PCR for sapovirus. Results: The most frequently detected virus was rotavirus by ELISA (25%). RT-PCR detected sapovirus in 7% of the stool samples. The children with sapovirus were all from rural regions and presented mainly during the winter season in Egypt (42.9%). The main presenting symptoms were fever (71.4%) and vomiting (57.1%). None of the children with sapovirus had dehydration. Rotavirus was significantly associated with sapovirus infections in 5 patients (71.4%, P=0.01). There was an insignificant difference between symptoms of gastroenteritis in children with sapovirus and children with gastroenteritis without sapovirus as regards vomiting (P=0.7), fever (P=0.46), and abdominal pain (P=0.69). Conclusion: The present study highlights the emergence of sapovirus as a frequent pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis in children. There is a need for a national survey program for the study of sapovirus among other pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis for better management of such infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Sapovirus , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sapovirus/genética
11.
Recent Adv Antiinfect Drug Discov ; 16(2): 157-165, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is high proportion of geriatric patients who acquired chronic hepatitis C virus infection. There is a shortage in evidence- based data as regards direct-acting antivirals in this group of patients. The aim was to assess safety, efficacy, and tolerability of direct acting antiviral drugs in Egyptian geriatric patients. METHODS: This prospective study was performed on 177 patients with chronic hepatitis C and administrated different regimens of direct acting antivirals. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: patients below 65 years old (N = 143), and Group II: patients > 65 years old (N = 34). Pretreatment history taking, baseline characteristics, and investigations were done for both groups. Follow up was made to detect treatment efficacy and adverse effects. RESULTS: Geriatric group were found to have more comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy); also liver cirrhosis. Minor adverse effects occurred in both groups without significant difference included fatigue, insomnia, headache, and dizziness. Vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash occurred in group II more than group I. Leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, jaundice, and significant anemia occurred without significant difference between both groups. Eighteen patients (25%) of 72 patients who took ribavirin had to reduce ribavirin dose or to stop it. The overall treatment response in the entire study was 97.7% without significant difference between both groups. CONCLUSION: Direct acting antivirals are recommended regardless the age. These drugs are effective and tolerable in elderly patients. Attention to other comorbidities, drug-drug interactions, and follow up are recommended.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepatite C Crônica , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Egito/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Arch Razi Inst ; 76(3): 507-519, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824744

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serovars are considered a significant threat to veterinary and public health. Developing new antimicrobial compounds that can treat the infection caused by these notorious pathogens is a big challenge. Bacteriophages can be adsorbed on and inhibit the growth of bacteria, providing optimal and promising alternatives to chemical antimicrobial compounds against foodborne pathogens due to their abundance in nature and high host specificity. The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize new phages from poultry farms and sewage and to evaluate their efficacy against S. Enteritidis isolates. The study reports three lytic phages designated as ϕSET1, ϕSET2, and ϕSET3 isolated from poultry carcasses and sewage samples in Qalubiya governorate Egypt. The effectiveness of phages was evaluated against multidrug-resistant S. Enteritidis strains. Electron microscopy showed that these phages belong to the Siphoviridae family. Phages were tested against 13 bacterial strains to determine their host range. They could infect four S. Enteritidis and one S. Typhimurium; however, they did not infect other tested bacterial species, indicating their narrow infectivity. The bacteriophage's single-step growth curves revealed a latent period of 20 min for ϕSET1 and 30 min for ϕSET2 and ϕSET3. The isolated Salmonella phages prevented the growth of S. Enteritidis for up to 18 hrs. The findings revealed that Salmonella phages could be used as alternative natural antibacterial compounds to combat infection with MDR S. Enteritidis in the poultry industry and represent a step forward to using large panels of phages for eliminating Salmonella from the food chain.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Egito , Fazendas , Salmonella enteritidis , Sorogrupo
13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(40): 6951-6966, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various liver and gastrointestinal involvements occur in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at variable prevalence. Most studies report mild liver function disturbances correlated with COVID-19 severity, though liver failure is unusual. AIM: To study liver and gastrointestinal dysfunctions in Egyptian patients with COVID-19 and their relation to disease outcomes. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study was conducted on 547 Egyptian patients from April 15, 2020 to July 29, 2020. Consecutive polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 cases were included from four quarantine hospitals affiliated to the Egyptian ministry of health. Demographic information, laboratory characteristics, treatments, fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, COVID-19 severity, and outcomes were recorded and compared according to the degree of liver enzyme elevation and the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Follow-ups were conducted until discharge or death. Regression analyses were performed to determine the independent factors affecting mortality. RESULTS: This study included 547 patients, of whom 53 (9.68%) died during hospitalization and 1 was discharged upon his request. Patients' mean age was 45.04 ± 17.61 years, and 21.98% had severe or critical COVID-19. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were available for 430 and 428 patients, respectively. In total, 26% and 32% of patients had elevated ALT and AST, respectively. Significant liver injury with ALT or AST elevation exceeding 3-fold was recorded in 21 (4.91%) and 16 (3.73%) patients, respectively. Male gender, smoking, hypertension, chronic hepatitis C, and lung involvement were associated with elevated AST or ALT. AST was elevated in 50% of patients over 60-years-old. FIB-4 was significantly higher in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), those with more severe COVID-19, and non-survivors. The independent variables affecting outcome were supplementary vitamin C intake (1 g daily capsules) [odds ratio (OR): 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.008-0.337]; lung consolidation (OR: 4.540, 95%CI: 1.155-17.840); ICU admission (OR: 25.032, 95%CI: 7.110-88.128); and FIB-4 score > 3.25 (OR: 10.393, 95%CI: 2.459-43.925). Among 60 (13.98%) patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, 52 (86.67%) had diarrhoea. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were predominantly females with higher body mass index, and 50 (83.40%) patients had non-severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Few Egyptian patients with COVID-19 developed a significant liver injury. The independent variables affecting mortality were supplementary vitamin C intake, lung consolidation, ICU admission, and FIB-4 score.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 826, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796383

RESUMO

The Eastern Harbour of Alexandria, on the Egyptian Mediterranean coast, is characterized by environmental complications due to different types of anthropogenic stressors associated with water dynamics inside the harbor as well as the rapid water exchange with the open sea. These conditions caused chronic eutrophication conditions, with variable levels in the long term. The present study followed daily some physicochemical parameters, nutrients, and phytoplankton biomass, for a complete year. The results indicate coincidence on the short-time scale between the nutrients, phytoplankton biomass, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Spearman's correlation illustrated strong positive correlations between algal blooms and both pH and dissolved oxygen. The present study recorded twelve separate algal blooms, with an average of chlorophyll-a > 16.7 µg/L, confirming the continuity of high eutrophication in the Eastern Harbour. The seasonal Mann-Kendall tests showed that summer attained significant increasing trends for chlorophyll-a, silicate, nitrite, and nitrate, while winter has a significant decreasing trend for chlorophyll-a and pH.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila A , Egito , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes
15.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(12): 1027-1036, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780022

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a common cause of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Despite advances in treatment, the prognosis remains poor. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors decrease HF events by 27-39% in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Moreover, the DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced studies randomized patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with or without diabetes mellitus to receive guideline-directed medical therapy versus guideline-directed medical therapy plus an SGLT-2 inhibitor. Both studies showed the benefits of SGLT-2 inhibitors. In addition, SGLT-2 inhibitors have shown improvement according to the EMPEROR-Preserved study of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Therefore, a panel of cardiology experts from the Egyptian Atherosclerosis and Vascular Biology Association (EAVA) revised the literature for SGLT-2 inhibitors in HF, along with the recommended indications and contraindications, and this article presents their consensus on the topic. The panel concluded that SGLT-2 inhibitors have significantly benefited patients with chronic HFrEF, as indicated through the DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced trials. The panel recommended early use of dapagliflozin 10 mg or empagliflozin 10 mg in patients with symptomatic chronic HFrEF, whether diabetic or non-diabetic, to ameliorate HF hospitalization rate, mortality, symptoms, and decline in renal function.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Biologia , Consenso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Egito , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico
16.
Zootaxa ; 5032(3): 301-330, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811124

RESUMO

The subgenus Eutricharaea Thomson of the genus Megachile Latreille (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Egypt is revised. Fifteen species are recognized, of which two are new: Megachile laniventris Praz sp. nov. and M. rufomandibularis Praz sp. nov. In addition, three unclear taxa known from few specimens in one sex are documented to facilitate future work. The following new synonymies are proposed: M. microxantha Cockerell 1937, M. privigna Rebmann 1968, and M. submucida Alfken 1926 are synonymized with M. leucostoma Prez 1907 (syn. nov.); M. blanda Rebmann 1968 with M. walkeri Dalla Torre 1896 (syn. nov.); M. uniformis Alfken 1934 (not M. uniformis Mitchell 1929) and the replacement name M. minutuloides Alfken 1936 with M. minutissima Radoszkowski 1876 (syn. nov.); and M. tkalcui Zanden 1996 with M. rugipuncta Alfken 1934 (syn. nov.). Lectotypes are designated for M. soikai Benoist 1961, M. rugipuncta, M. tenuistriga Alfken 1938, M. niveascopa Ferton 1908, and M. naevia Kohl 1906. The previously unknown males of M. impressipuncta Alfken 1934 and M. rugipuncta, as well as the undescribed female of M. soikai are described. Illustrated keys for both males and females are provided and DNA barcodes are published for most species.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , Egito , Feminino , Masculino
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 532, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738183

RESUMO

A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in granulosa cells (GC) is warranted, during different follicular and luteal developmental stages in buffalo cows. We aimed to (I) study the expression of selected genes in GC during follicular and luteal phases, (II) evaluate correlations between GC gene expression and steroid concentrations {17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4)} in follicular fluid (FF), and (III) study effect of ovarian status on follicular population as well as follicular size frequency. Ovaries were collected in pairs from buffaloes (n = 178). Ovaries bearing corpus luteum (CL) were subdivided into hemorrhagic, developing, mature, and albicans. Follicles from luteal groups were classified only into small (< 4 mm) and large (9-20 mm), while follicles from follicular groups were classified into three subgroups: small (< 4 mm), medium (5-8 mm), and large (9-20 mm). The FF and GC were collected for steroid concentrations measurement and gene expression, respectively. In the follicular phase, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) in small follicles decreased compared to medium ones. Large follicle showed an increase in LHCGR and CYP19 compared to medium ones. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) decreased in large compared to medium size follicles. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) increased in small and large follicles. Meanwhile, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and phospholipase A2 group III (PLA2G3) decreased in small and large follicles. The different stages of luteal phase had a profound impact on GC gene expression. There were strong (positive and/or negative) correlations between gene expression and steroid hormones. The different scenarios between expressed genes in GC and steroid concentrations are required for the proper growth and development of follicles and CL.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Fase Luteal , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Bovinos , Egito , Estradiol , Feminino , Líquido Folicular , Células da Granulosa , Folículo Ovariano , Progesterona
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Limited literature has examined the epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and fibrosis among young adults in Egypt, a country with one of the highest obesity rates globally. We assessed the prevalence of steatosis and fibrosis among college students in Egypt. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited students unaware of having fatty liver via a call-for-participation at a private university in the Dakahlia governorate of Egypt. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of steatosis as determined by the controlled attenuation parameter component of transient elastography and fibrosis as determined by the liver stiffness measurement component of transient elastography. Secondary outcomes were clinical parameters and socioeconomic factors associated with the presence and severity of steatosis and fibrosis. RESULTS: Of 132 participants evaluated for the study, 120 (91%) were included (median (IQR) age, 20 (19-21) years; 65 (54.2%) female). A total of 38 participants (31.6%) had steatosis, among whom 22 (57.9%) had S3 (severe) steatosis. There was a higher risk for steatosis in persons with overweight (adjusted OR 9.67, 95% CI (2.94 to 31.7, p<0.0001) and obesity (adjusted OR 13.87, 95% CI 4.41 to 43.6, p<0.0001) compared with lean persons. Moreover, higher level of parental education was associated with progressing steatosis stages (S1-S3). Six (5%) participants had transient elastography values equivalent to F2-F3 fibrosis (four with F2 fibrosis (≥7.9 kPa), and two with F3 fibrosis (≥8.8 kPa)). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of college students in Egypt, around 1 in 3 had steatosis, and 1 in 20 had moderate-to-advanced fibrosis, an established risk factor for hepatic and extrahepatic morbidity and mortality. These data underscore the urgency to address the silent epidemic of NAFLD among young adults in the Middle East-North Africa region.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
F1000Res ; 10: 785, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621516

RESUMO

  Background: COVID-19 causes a critical occupational risk to frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) who respond to the pandemic, as they are placed in environments with an increased risk of infection exposure. It is a public health priority to understand how transmission occurs to protect this vulnerable group of HCWs. This study was conducted to estimate the incidence of self-reported COVID-19 infection among physicians and its possible associated factors.  Methods: An online national survey using Survey Monkey was initiated to collect sociodemographic e.g. age and sex, occupational e.g. place and duration of work, and clinical data e.g. COVID symptoms and laboratory investigations, and to describe affected physicians' diagnoses. Results: The self-reported incidence of COVID-19 infection was found to be 65.4% among studied physicians. The significant independent predictors of COVID-19 infection were  smoking, working as a frontline physician, having contact with a COVID-19 case, and working for less than ten years [ARR (95% CI): 3.0(1.6-5.7), 2.3(1.4-3.8), 2.1(1.2-3.6), and 1.8(1.2-2.9); respectively].  Conclusions: The incidence of COVID-19 infection among Egyptian physicians is relatively high. Smoking, being a frontline physician, having contact with a COVID-19 case, and working for less than 10 years are all factors associated with an increased risk of infection. There should be strict application of preventive measures, periodic screening for COVID-19 for early detection and isolation of infected HCWs together with effective vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Médicos , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 703, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623531

RESUMO

The Nile River is the soul of Egypt, providing more than 95% of its freshwater demand. However, it receives different pollutants discharged into the water body along its stretch from Aswan (downstream of the High Dam) to Cairo, which is approximately 950 km. Alternatively, sediments play an important role in the dynamics of the entire aquatic environment and act as a sink or a source of pollution in the overlying water under various conditions. This study assessed sediment quality and its heavy metal levels. Several indices and human health risks were determined to assess the potential ecological risk of the Nile River sediment. On the basis of the index results, Cd registered the highest pollution ranking, whereas Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Ni had the lowest effect. In another context, southern sites represented the lowest ecological risk relative to the central and northern sectors. The results of the noncarcinogenic hazard indices, hazard quotient, and hazard index in addition to the lifetime cancer risk were below the acceptable international limits, confirming that there are no adverse effects on the exposed population due to the Nile sediment.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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