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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246460, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350310

RESUMO

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Resumo O estudo de pesquisa de campo foi realizado na temporada (2017). A soja e as ervas daninhas foram amostradas semanalmente de forma aleatória. Tripes adultos foram identificados e contados. A detecção do vírus isolado e a incidência natural foram determinadas usando transmissão mecânica, gama de hospedeiros, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. A incidência natural de tripes em indivíduos foi detectada dependendo da % de SVNV em tripes e hospedeiros infestantes. Dez espécies de tripes foram associadas a plantas de soja no campo. A espécie mais abundante foi T. tabaci, com média de 256,5 número médio de indivíduos, seguida por F. occidentalis (142,5) e N. variabilis (86,6 / número médio de indivíduos). Catorze espécies de tripes ocorreram em 5 culturas de leguminosas e 41 espécies de plantas daninhas dentro de campos de soja. O maior número médio de 40,6 indivíduos foi registrado em Ammi majus. Enquanto o mais baixo, 3,3 número médio de indivíduos, foi no Urtica urens. Apenas 21 espécies de plantas diagnosticadas foram suscetíveis à infecção com SVNV. G. max e Vigna radiate foram os maiores percentuais de infecção, 80%, seguidos por V. unguilata e N. benthamiana, 75%. O isolado egípcio neste estudo mostrou um alto grau de similaridade e está intimamente relacionado ao TSWV do Egito (DQ479968) e ao TCSV dos EUA (KY820965), com identidade de sequência de nucleotídeos de 78%. Quatro espécies de tripes transmitiram SVNV (F. fusca 4,0%, F. schultzei 4,3%, F. tritici 3,3% e N. variabilis 68,0% de transmissão). Tanto C. phaseoli quanto M. sjostedti podem adquirir o vírus, mas não podem transmiti-lo. As seguintes espécies, T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis e T. palmi não podem adquirir ou transmitir SVNV. A incidência de SVNV no campo, iniciada no final de julho, aumentou gradativamente de 12,7 para 71,3% no final da temporada. Em conclusão, poucos indivíduos de tripes invadiram a cultura da soja e são suficientes para transmitir alta taxa de SVNV dentro da cultura. Além disso, várias espécies de vetores também abundam em ervas daninhas, que são as principais fontes dos vírus da soja transmitidos às lavouras. Essas informações podem ser importantes para controlar e reduzir a incidência de infecção por SVNV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tospovirus , Doenças das Plantas , Soja , Incidência , Urticaceae , Egito/epidemiologia , Plantas Daninhas , Necrose
2.
GM Crops Food ; 14(1): 21-31, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635971

RESUMO

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oil crop and one of the oldest-known oil crops to humankind. Sesame has excellent nutritional and therapeutic properties; it is rich in important fatty acids, protein, fiber, and vital minerals. Oil percentage varies among different genotypes but generally accounts for more than 50% of the seed's dry weight. To meet the increasing demand for vegetable oil production worldwide, expanding the cultivation of oil crops in newly reclaimed areas worldwide is essential. Molecular breeding is an expeditious approach for varietal improvement but requires efficient transgenesis. Published sesame transformation methods are highly genus-specific, tedious, and involve preparing and testing different media and explants. We produced transgenic sesame plants using a stable, noninvasive, and robust Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation method. Leaves and flowers excised from the T0 plants at different developmental stages were PCR screened, and 61/93 seedlings were found to be PCR positive. T1 seeds resulting from two lines were germinated in a biocontainment greenhouse facility and screened using PCR, basta leaf painting, and spraying fully matured plants with basta herbicide (0.02 mg/l); non-transgenic segregants and control non-transgenic plants were severely damaged, and eventually died, while transgenic plants were not affected by the Basta spraying. RT-PCR on T1 plants indicated the presence of Bar transcripts in T1 progeny. Furthermore, RT-PCR using NPTII primers did not result in any amplification in transgenic sesame plants (NPTII is present in the vector but not in the T-DNA region) indicating that the transgenic sesame plants were not an Agrobacterium-contaminant.


Assuntos
Sesamum , Sesamum/genética , Sesamum/metabolismo , Egito , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
3.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 138, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compared with other regions in the world, the transmission characteristics of the COVID-19 epidemic in Africa are more obvious, has a unique transmission mode in this region; At the same time, the data related to the COVID-19 epidemic in Africa is characterized by low data quality and incomplete data coverage, which makes the prediction method of COVID-19 epidemic suitable for other regions unable to achieve good results in Africa. In order to solve the above problems, this paper proposes a prediction method that nests the in-depth learning method in the mechanism model. From the experimental results, it can better solve the above problems and better adapt to the transmission characteristics of the COVID-19 epidemic in African countries. METHODS: Based on the SIRV model, the COVID-19 transmission rate and trend from September 2021 to January 2022 of the top 15 African countries (South Africa, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Zambia, Algeria, Botswana, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Uganda, and Ghana) in the accumulative number of COVID-19 confirmed cases was fitted by using the data from Worldometer. Non-autoregressive (NAR), Long-short term memory (LSTM), Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, Gaussian and polynomial functions were used to predict the transmission rate ß in the next 7, 14, and 21 days. Then, the predicted transmission rate ßs were substituted into the SIRV model to predict the number of the COVID-19 active cases. The error analysis was conducted using root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). RESULTS: The fitting curves of the 7, 14, and 21 days were consistent with and higher than the original curves of daily active cases (DAC). The MAPE between the fitted and original 7-day DAC was only 1.15% and increased with the longer of predict days. Both the predicted ß and DAC of the next 7, 14, and 21 days by NAR and LSTM nested models were closer to the real ones than other three ones. The minimum RMSEs for the predicted number of COVID-19 active cases in the next 7, 14, and 21 days were 12,974, 14,152, and 12,211 people, respectively when the order of magnitude for was 106, with the minimum MAPE being 1.79%, 1.97%, and 1.64%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Nesting the SIRV model with NAR, LSTM, ARIMA methods etc. through functionalizing ß respectively could obtain more accurate fitting and predicting results than these models/methods alone for the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Africa in which nesting with NAR had the highest accuracy for the 14-day and 21-day predictions. The nested model was of high significance for early understanding of the COVID-19 disease burden and preparedness for the response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Algoritmos , Egito , África do Sul , Previsões , Modelos Estatísticos
4.
Egypt J Immunol ; 30(1): 31-41, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36591956

RESUMO

Since the start of the pandemic, the number of cases has been increased rapidly. Due to asymptomatic and mild cases and restricted testing in many geographic locations, the overall number of actual COVID-19 cases is likely significantly higher than the number of verified cases. Several COVID-19-related comorbid diseases impair immune system function, which has an impact on COVID-19 responsiveness. So, we evaluated the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 after the third wave of COVID-19 and assessed the effect of comorbid diseases on this immune response. The current cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2021 after the third wave of COVID-19. The study included 287 participants. All participants were asked about their epidemiological data, comorbid diseases, data suggesting COVID-19 infection, and precautions measures to minimize the exposure to the disease. Of the 278 participants, 50% had a positive IgG response to COVID-19. Regarding comorbid diseases, the IgG antibody titer was significantly lower in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD) on dialysis, ischemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung diseases than other participants (p= 0.01, p= 0.02, p= 0.005, respectively). Neither precaution measures nor comorbid diseases had a role in risk factors of COVID-19 infections in our participants. In conclusion, high seroprevalence (50%) of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody after the third wave of COVID-19 was observed in the current study. Comorbid conditions as hypertension, chronic cardiac diseases, chronic chest problems, and CKD on dialysis could decrease the immune response against COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Egito/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Imunoglobulina G , Anticorpos Antivirais , Imunidade
5.
Egypt J Immunol ; 30(1): 49-56, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36591958

RESUMO

This study aimed to report the dynamic profile of IgG-specific antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 infection for 6 months after infection. We conducted a prospective study, recruited 33 recently confirmed covid -19 patients and collected 6 samples from each patient. The first samples were collected one month from the start of symptoms and subsequent samples collected at 30 days interval. We measured the IgG by chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). According to the disease severity, patients were categorized as asymptomatic 4 (12.1%), mild 14 (42,4%), moderate 9 (27.3%), and severe 6 (18.2%). Patients were 12 (35.3%) females and 21 (64.7%) males. The mean IgG levels maintained a high level till the second month (92.81 ± 110.15 AU/ml) from the onset of symptoms followed by a gradual decrease till the sixth month after infection (17.42 ± 22.61 AU/ml). The patients with severe symptoms significantly exhibited the highest IgG levels, reached the highest level (mean=237.44 ± 164.13 AU/ml) at the second month. While the lowest levels were detected among the asymptomatic patients (mean= 3.04 ± 2.94 AU/ml) at the second month. Older age correlated with higher IgG antibody level (r= 0.350 p=0.046); however, sex was not related to IgG level. In conclusion, Symptomatic COVID-19 disease is followed by protective immunity for more than 6 months. Immunity in asymptomatic patients is low and fades rapidly than symptomatic cases. Patients with severe disease had significantly higher IgG levels compared to mild, moderate, or asymptomatic patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Egito , Estudos Prospectivos , Imunidade , Anticorpos Antivirais , Imunoglobulina M
6.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 46(1): 17-27, Ene. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-214365

RESUMO

Background: There is an obvious need to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma using novel non-invasive and sensitive biomarkers. Circular RNAs have recently attracted great interest as promising biomarkers and treatment targets. However, their function in hepatocellular carcinoma whose etiology related to hepatitis C has been rarely studied. Aim of work: The current study was conducted to analyze differential expression of circ-ITCH in plasma of Egyptian HCC patients with concomitant HCV infection, compared to normal control subjects, to investigate its correlation with liver function parameters, and to determine the possible diagnostic ability of circ-ITCH in plasma as a non-invasive marker, compared to its linear counterpart. Results: The results showed that the relative expression of circ-ITCH was significantly higher in the plasma of HCC patients (P<0.05). Moreover, when comparing its expression in the metastatic and non-metastatic subgroups, it was significantly higher in the non-metastatic HCC group compared to control group (P<0.05). Circ-ITCH was positively correlated with liver enzymes AST, ALT (P<0.001), also was significantly higher in HCC child C patients. To evaluate the potential diagnostic value of circ-ITCH in plasma, a ROC curve was generated, the AUC was 0.661, (95% CI: 0.5433–0.778) with a sensitivity and specificity 65% and 70% respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed that circ-ITCH is-with no doubt-involved in the pathogenesis of HCC and its high level may be related to HCV infection, further researches in this area will certainly make great contributions in understanding. In conclusion our results suggested that circ-ITCH may be used as a noninvasive diagnostic marker and a promising therapeutic target for HCC.(AU)


Antecedentes: Existe una necesidad obvia de diagnosticar el carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) utilizando nuevos biomarcadores no invasivos y sensibles. Los ARN circulares han atraído recientemente un gran interés como biomarcadores prometedores y dianas de tratamiento. Sin embargo, su función en el carcinoma hepatocelular, cuya etiología está relacionada con la hepatitis C, apenas ha sido estudiada. Objetivo: Este estudio se realizó para analizar la expresión diferencial de circ-ITCH en el plasma de pacientes egipcios con CHC con infección concomitante por VHC, en comparación con sujetos de control normales, para investigar su correlación con los parámetros de la función hepática y para determinar la posible capacidad diagnóstica de circ-ITCH en plasma como marcador no invasivo, en comparación con su contraparte lineal. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que la expresión relativa de circ-ITCH fue significativamente mayor en el plasma de pacientes con CHC (p<0,05). Además, al comparar su expresión en los subgrupos metastásico y no metastásico, fue significativamente mayor en el grupo de CHC no metastásico en comparación con el grupo control (p<0,05). Circ-ITCH se correlacionó positivamente con las enzimas hepáticas AST y ALT (p<0,001), y también fue significativamente mayor en pacientes con CHC infantil con VHC. Para evaluar el valor diagnóstico potencial de circ-ITCH en plasma se generó una curva ROC, el AUC fue de 0,661 (IC95%: 0,5433-0,778), con una sensibilidad y una especificidad del 65% y del 70%, respectivamente. Conclusión: Los resultados revelaron que circ-ITCH está, sin duda, involucrado en la patogénesis del CHC, y su alto nivel puede estar relacionado con la infección por VHC, por lo que investigaciones adicionales en esta área ciertamente harán grandes contribuciones para su comprensión. En conclusión, nuestros resultados sugirieron que circ-ITCH puede usarse como un marcador de diagnóstico no invasivo y una diana terapéutica prometedora para el CHC.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepacivirus , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Pacientes , Plasma , RNA , Egito , Gastroenterologia
7.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 76(1)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688777

RESUMO

The silent pandemic of antimicrobial resistance (AR) has been on the rise for the past decades. It is essential to determine the burden of AR in animal farms that spreads leading to human exposure. A total of 100 samples including soil, litter, animal excreta, and wastewater were collected from seven conventional and one organic farm in Egypt. The prevalence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-producing E. coli), fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli, fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) was determined in studied farms. Conventional farms had a higher prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria than the organic farm (73.81% vs. 18.75%, P < .001). In conventional farms 21.43% of samples yielded mixed isolates; however, in the organic farm, only single isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli were detected. The most prevalent ESBL-production gene was blaTEM (82.14%), followed by blaCTX-M (48.22%), and blaSHV (19.64%), either alone or in combination with another gene. The most prevalent fluoroquinolone-resistance genes were qnrS (82.69%) and qnrB (42.30%), either alone or in combination with another gene(s). A total of five VRE isolates harbored vanA gene (83.33%), none carried vanB gene, and one isolate was negative for both genes. The studied conventional livestock farms had significantly higher rates of serious AR threats than the organic farm.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Humanos , Animais , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fazendas , Gado , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Egito , beta-Lactamases/genética , Fluoroquinolonas , Antibacterianos
8.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 43(1): 2163625, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689253

RESUMO

Total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, and cervical length (CL) were investigated in pregnant Egyptian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, n = 38), history of miscarriages (RM, n = 40) and without the conditions (HC, n = 40). At week 8, the RM had lower levels of TT (p = 0.000) and free androgen index (FAI) (p = 0.000) and higher SHBG (p = 0.000) and DHEA (p < 0.05) than the PCOS. Compared with the HC, they had elevated SHBG (p < 0.05) and DHEA (p = 0.001) and reduced CL (p = 0.000). TT (p = 0.001) and FAI (p = 0.000) were higher and SHBG (p = 0.000) and CL (p = 0.001) lower in the PCOS than in the HC group. At week 16, TT (p = 0.000) and FAI (p = 0.000) were higher, and SHBG (p = 0.000) and CL (p < 0.05) lower in PCOS than in RM and HC. The PCOS had elevated FAI than the RM (p = 0.000) and HC (p = 0.001) at week 20. The DHEA, SHBG and CL abnormalities in PCOS and RM may compromise pregnancy outcomes.IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject? Hyperandrogenaemia, low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), shortened cervical length (CL) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are the most cited risk factors for recurrent miscarriages (RM). However, the published data are inconsistent, perhaps because of the confounding effects of ethnicity and nutritional milieu.What do the results of this study add? The study's findings comprising ethnically and socially homogenous women demonstrate that PCOS and RM are characterised by elevated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and shortened CL, and PCOS by reduced SHBG. These abnormalities would be expected to have an adverse impact on pregnancy outcomes.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Twenty-weeks DHEA and CL values have the potential to predict outcome risk in women with a history of RM and PCOS. Further research on other population groups is required to validate the current study's findings.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Testosterona , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual , Egito , Desidroepiandrosterona
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 23(1): 39, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data is available regarding the prevalence of dental caries as a chronic disease among adolescents using different caries assessment indices. The aim of this study was to compare and describe the prevalence of dental caries among group of Egyptian students using two caries assessment indices; DMFS and ICDAS II. METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional epidemiological study included 2760 public secondary school students with age range from 15 to 18 years with permanent dentition and good general health. Presence of; retained teeth, congenital or developmental anomalies in the permanent dentition, orthodontic treatments, systematic conditions, smoking and general health problems were considered the exclusion criteria in this study. Participants were selected randomly from 8 public secondary schools in the Great Cairo, Egypt. The examination was achieved by 6 trained and previously calibrated examiners using sets of diagnostic mirrors, compressed air, a WHO probe and cotton rolls. DMFS index and ICDAS II system were used as caries detection methods. In DMFS index; the number of decayed (D), missing (M) and filled (F) surfaces was recorded, while in the ICDAS II index, the assessment of both cavitated and non-cavitated carious, missed and filled teeth with restorations /sealants was recorded. The examiners performed the oral examination using both scoring systems in an alternating manner. The collected data were explored for normality using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests. Chi square test was used to analyze the frequencies. RESULTS: There was a statistical significant difference between the DMFS and ICDAS II methods results regarding the recorded number of caries affected teeth and cavitated teeth surfaces. The prevalence of dental caries among the investigated secondary school students was (69.56%) and (78.29%) for DMFS and ICDAS II, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental caries among Egyptian adolescent is high. ICDAS scoring system revealed higher caries prevalence values than DMFS method. ICDAS method is the best choice for the preventive goals, while DMFS is sufficient for clinical purposes.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Humanos , Adolescente , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária
10.
Ann Afr Med ; 22(1): 82-87, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695227

RESUMO

Background: Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriacae (CRE) bloodstream infection (BSI) causes complicated infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to assess the renal toxicity and the efficacy of therapy with colistin in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients with BSIs due to CRE and sensitivity to colistin. Patients and Methods: This was an observational, prospective cohort study from May 2017 to October 2017 in Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt 57,357. All patients who had blood stream infections due to CRE receiving intravenous colistin were prospectively enrolled. We used a standardized case form to record patient characteristics, including age, sex, weight, underlying comorbidities, type of infection, causative organism, and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Daily doses, duration of colistin therapy, and co-administered antibiotics (aminoglycosides, vancomycin) were collected. Furthermore, clinical and microbiological responses to treatment were reported. The dosing schedule was based on a loading dose of 5 MU and a 5-MU twice-daily divided maintenance dose, titrated on renal function. Clinical cure, bacteriological clearance, and daily serum creatinine were recorded. Results: One hundred and forty-one Blood Stream infectious episodes mainly due to Klebsiella Species (pneumoniae and Oxytoca) (27%) and Escherichia coli (68%) were analyzed. All strains were susceptible to colistin with Minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of 0.19-1.5 mg/L. Patients were predominantly females (69%), with a mean age of 7 years. It was used as a combination therapy with carbapenems (69.2%) or aminoglycosides (80%). The median duration of treatment was 9 days (Range 1-50 days). Clinical and microbiological cure was observed in 110 cases (80%). Acute kidney injury developed during five treatment courses (4%) in which colistin was used in combination with amikacin. No renal replacement therapy was required and subsided within 7 days from colistin discontinuation. Conclusions: Our study showed that colistin had a high efficacy without significant renal toxicity in severe infections due to CRE Gram-negative bacteria.


Résumé Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative (CRE) bloodstream infection (BSI) causes complicated infections, especially in immunocompromised patients .This study aimed to assess the renal toxicity and the efficacy of therapy with colistin in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients with BSIs due to CRE and sensitivity to colistin. colistin proved to be effective and safe in managing CRE in children with cancer Mots-clés: Colistin, cancer, children, and Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos , Neoplasias , Sepse , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Colistina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Institutos de Câncer , Egito/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/induzido quimicamente , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neoplasias/complicações
11.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279137, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652670

RESUMO

A description is provided of the crocodile remains that were found during an excavation carried out in 2019 at Qubbat al-Hawa (Aswan, Egypt). The material consists of five more or less complete bodies and five heads that were in varying states of preservation and completeness. The absence of resin, which was apparently not used during the preparation of the mummies, and the almost complete loss of linen bandages, due to insect damage, allowed a detailed morphological and osteometric description of the remains. Attention was focused on the general state of preservation of the crocodiles, the completeness of their skeletons and skulls, the presence of cut or other marks that could indicate the cause of death, and the processing of the carcasses. Moreover, the possible provenance of the crocodiles, the methods of capture and killing of the animals and their possible chronological attribution are discussed. It is concluded that the manner in which these specimens were prepared, as well as the variation observed in the type of 'final product', are unlike any other crocodile material described so far. The preparation method suggests a pre-Ptolemaic date for the deposit. The morphological and metrical features indicate that both Crocodylus niloticus and the recently resurrected species Crocodylus suchus are present among these individuals that range from 1.8 to 3.5 m in length.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Múmias , Animais , Egito
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674223

RESUMO

(1) Background: Children spend a lot of time within schools. The school setting generally has many ergonomic hazards and reinforced behavior patterns which put children at greater risk of environmental hazards than adults during their critical developmental stages. (2) Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and detect spinal deformities amongst general and technical secondary school students. (3) Methods: A total of 418 students from the second grade of secondary school in Shaquira governorate, Egypt participated in this cross-sectional study. Each student in the study was screened via Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and had their upper limb posture measured via RULA (Rapid Upper Limb assessment), and the deviation in their thoracic curve was measured using a scoliometer. (4) Results: There was a prevalence of MSDs amongst students as there were 69.7% of general school students and 83.8% of the technical school students suffering from MSDs with a statistically significant difference between both technical and general school students in RULA score and musculoskeletal complaints, whereas there were non-statistical differences in the scoliometer scale in both general and technical education students. (5) Conclusions: Musculoskeletal problems are prevalent among Egyptian secondary school students, with higher prevalence between technical school students. Therefore, preventive measures and strategies are recommended to overcome the future complications of these musculoskeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Egito/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Ergonomia , Estudantes , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia
13.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677732

RESUMO

Centaurea is a genus compromising over 250 herbaceous flowering species and is used traditionally to treat several ailments. Among the Egyptian Centaurea species, C. lipii was reported to be cytotoxic against multidrug-resistant cancer cells. In this context, we aimed to explore the metabolome of C. lipii and compare it to other members of the genus in pursuance of identifying its bioactive principles. An LC-MS/MS analysis approach synchronized with feature-based molecular networks was adopted to offer a holistic overview of the metabolome diversity of the Egyptian Centaurea species. The studied plants included C. alexandrina, C. calcitrapa, C. eryngioides, C. glomerata, C. lipii, C. pallescens, C. pumilio, and C. scoparia. Their constitutive metabolome showed diverse chemical classes such as cinnamic acids, sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids, and lignans. Linking the recorded metabolome to the previously reported cytotoxicity identified sesquiterpene lactones as the major contributors to this activity. To confirm our findings, bioassay-guided fractionation of C. lipii was adopted and led to the isolation of the sesquiterpene lactone cynaropicrin with an IC50 of 1.817 µM against the CCRF-CEM leukemia cell line. The adopted methodology highlighted the uniqueness of the constitutive metabolome of C. lipii and determined the sesquiterpene lactones to be the responsible cytotoxic metabolites.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Centaurea , Sesquiterpenos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Egito , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Centaurea/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Lactonas/química
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 413, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624261

RESUMO

Natural radioactivity in irrigation drains was measured by gamma spectrometry, and the resulting dose rates received by aquatic organisms were estimated. Irrigation water and sediment samples were collected from 5 irrigation drains located in Qena governorate, south of Egypt. The average activity concentrations (Bq L-1) of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40 K in irrigation water were 0.76 ± 0.06, 0.27 ± 0.02, and 8.14 ± 0.71, while in sediment (Bq kg-1) were 24.46 ± 1.84, 20.72 ± 1.45, and 453.00 ± 28.14, respectively. The total dose rate per aquatic organism ranged from 1.94 × 10-04 µGy h-1 in Mollusc to 7.15 × 10-04 µGy h-1 in phytoplankton. These values are far from the international recommended limit 400 µGy h-1 for chronic exposure to aquatic organisms, and the dose rate screening value of 10 µGy h-1 suggested by ERICA tool. Based on these results, it is unlikely that harmful effects will appear on the considered aquatic organisms due to exposure to natural radioactivity in the studied environment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Organismos Aquáticos , Egito , Radioisótopos/análise , Espectrometria gama , Água/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
15.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 524, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627360

RESUMO

Illustrated papyruses from Ancient Egypt have survived across millennia, depicting with vivid colors numerous stories and practices from a distant past. We have investigated a series of illustrated papyruses from Champollion's private collection showing scenes from the Book of the Dead, a document essential to prepare for the afterlife. The nature of the different pigments and their distribution are revealed by combining optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and fluorescence. The standardized three-step process from the New Kingdom period was used, comprising a preparatory drawing made of red hematite, a coloring step using pigments from the Egyptian palette, and a final black contour drawn with a carbon-based ink. Interestingly, specific pigment mixes were deliberately chosen to obtain different shades. In some parts, the final contour significantly differs from the preliminary drawing, revealing the artist's creativity. These results enhance our knowledge of illustrative practices in Ancient Egypt.


Assuntos
Microscopia , Análise Espectral Raman , História Antiga , Antigo Egito , Egito
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 27, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650425

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the perception and practices of ophthalmologists for trachoma is important to develop interventions aimed at disease elimination in Egypt. The survey investigated: (1) the views and practice patterns of Egyptian ophthalmologists for trachoma and (2) the influence of geographic location, setting, and years of practice on ophthalmologists' perceptions. METHODS: A questionnaire sent to ophthalmologists currently working in Egypt collected information on: (1) demographics, (2) caseload and practice patterns for trachoma, (3) 13 Likert scale questions regarding the current state of trachoma, and (4) two open-ended written response questions. RESULTS: Of the 500 recipients, 194 ophthalmologists participated. 98% of the respondents reported seeing trachoma patients in their practice. 28.8% agreed that trachoma is currently an active health problem in Egypt, with ophthalmologists in public practice having significantly higher agreement scores compared to private practitioners (p = 0.030). Rural ophthalmologists were significantly more likely to agree that a targeted trachoma control program is needed in their location of practice compared to their urban counterparts (p < 0.001). Open-ended questions revealed recurrent themes, including the rural distribution of trachoma patients and the high volume of patients with corneal opacity. CONCLUSION: Ophthalmologists' experiences with trachoma in Egypt differed based on practice setting, years in practice, and location, and the overall perception of the impact of the disease remains low. However, there was widespread agreement that trachoma is present in communities across the country. Practitioners in rural areas and in the public sector shared a disproportionate burden of the trachoma caseload. The perspectives of such ophthalmologists must be emphasized in decision-making related to trachoma interventions.


Assuntos
Oftalmologistas , Tracoma , Humanos , Egito/epidemiologia , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Rural , Prevalência
17.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279874, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638110

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence and clinical characteristics of a large cohort of childhood glaucoma patients that presented to a tertiary Egyptian children's hospital using the childhood glaucoma research network (CGRN) classification. METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients ≤ 14 years with a diagnosis of childhood glaucoma or glaucoma suspects who presented to Children's Hospital between January 2014 to December 2019 was conducted. Data collected included age at the time of diagnosis, gender, laterality, prenatal history, parental history, including consanguinity, intraocular pressure, horizontal corneal diameter, and cup-to-disc ratio. RESULTS: A total of 1113 eyes of 652 patients with diagnoses of either childhood glaucoma or glaucoma suspects were included in the study. Six hundred and sixteen patients (94%) were born full-term. A history of positive parental consanguinity was identified in 334 patients (51.2%). Almost 60% of patients were males. Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) was the most prevalent diagnosis (68.2%), followed by glaucoma suspects (10.4%) and glaucoma following cataract surgery (GFCS) (8.4%). Juvenile open-angle glaucoma was the least prevalent category (0.3%). Other categories including glaucoma associated with non-acquired systemic disease, glaucoma associated with non-acquired ocular disease, and glaucoma associated with acquired conditions represented 5.8%, 4.7%, and 1.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PCG is the most common form of glaucoma in Egypt. More than half of the pediatric glaucoma patients had a positive history of parents' consanguinity.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Glaucoma , Hipertensão Ocular , Criança , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Egito/epidemiologia , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Pressão Intraocular , Hipertensão Ocular/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 741, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639553

RESUMO

Because of the COVID-19 outbreak, Mass gathering restrictions were imposed. The lockdown of the Higher Education Institutions was obligatory to save lives. In February 2021 in Egypt, HEIs were allowed to ease the lockdown restrictions on a case-by-case basis gradually. In this paper, we propose a risk evaluation of planned regular mass gathering events during the pandemic, such as students gathering on-campus during indoor exams, by implementing WHO COVID-19 Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan through Intra-Action Review guidance. This one-group posttest-only design study was done on October 6 University campus during indoor students' exams in Giza, Egypt. We conducted IAR to implement the WHO's COVID- 19 SPRP; Country-level coordination; risk communication; surveillance, rapid response teams; points of entry; infection prevention control; laboratories; supply chain; case management; essential health services, and other possible topics. Between February-21, 2021; April-10, 2021, 25,927 students attended the on-campus living exams. Our result suggests that the high level of Readiness-Capacity during mass gatherings will reduce COVID-19 transmission. The most compelling evidence is the significance of synchronization between the ten pillars in preventing COVID-19 transmission. These findings may be used to influence decision-making for continual improvement of the operational planning guidelines during the outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Egito/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudantes , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Arch Virol ; 168(2): 62, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633687

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a serious highly contagious viral disease affecting all cloven-hoofed animals, and outbreaks can have a severe economic impact. An inactivated heptavalent oil-adjuvanted FMD vaccine (Aphtovac-7, MEVAC) was prepared from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains A-Iran05, A-Africa-IV, O-PanAsia2, O-Manisa, O-EA3, SAT-2 Gharbia, and SAT-2 LIB-12. The vaccine potency and effectiveness were evaluated in three groups of 6- to 8-month-old calves and 200 adult dairy cattle under field conditions. All animals were vaccinated with the vaccine preparation, and the three groups of calves were challenged after 28 days by intradermolingual inoculation with 104 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of FMDV serotype A, O, or SAT-2. Mock-vaccinated calves (two per group) served as unvaccinated controls during the challenge test. Adult dairy cattle were tested for seroconversion using a virus neutralization test at 30, 60, and 120 days post-vaccination. All calves displayed complete protection against challenge with the different serotypes of FMDV when compared to the control groups. Serum samples collected after the primary and booster immunizations at 30 days post-vaccination contained high titers of protective antibodies (≥ 1/32; i.e. 1.5 log10). Antibodies persisted until the end of the study period (120 days), with a peak value around 60 days post-vaccination. The heptavalent FMD vaccine preparation was found to be potent and capable of providing a protective immune response under both experimental and field conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Bovinos , Egito , Anticorpos Antivirais , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Vacinação/veterinária
20.
Egypt J Immunol ; 30(1): 116-124, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592387

RESUMO

Different genetic and environmental factors are implicated in type I diabetes (T1DM) pathogenesis. About 50% of the genetic susceptibility for T1DM is related to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Other non-HLA genes have variable roles in the destruction of pancreatic ß cells. A highly variable gene called endoplasmic reticulum associated with antigen processing gene 1(ERAP1) shares in activating autoreactive CD8+ T lymphocytes, peptide trimming, and subsequent pancreatic ß cells destruction. Local production of inflammatory cytokines within the cells of islets of Langerhans is linked to T1DM progression. Different viral and autoimmune disorders have been linked to genetic variations in type III interferon (IFNλs). This study aimed to determine genetic polymorphisms of interferon lambda 4 (IFNλ4rs 73555604) and endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases 1 (ERAP1 rs26618) in Egyptian patients with T1DM. The study recruited 120 patients with T1DM from Kafrelsheikh University Hospital and 100 normal controls who were age and sex matched with the patients' group. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of ERAP1(rs26618) and IFN-λ-4(rs73555604) was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patients with CC genotype were less likely to develop T1DM than those with TC and TT genotypes for both genes. In addition, T allele frequency in comparison to C allele frequency was significantly increased in T1DM patients when compared to control group (p < 0.001). There were positive correlations between studied SNPs for both genes, fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels which suggest the association of these genes with T1DM occurrence. We concluded that the studied SNPs of ERAP1gene (rs26618) and IFNλ-4 gene(rs73555604) may be associated with T1DM development. In addition, T alleles for both genes could be considered risk alleles while C alleles would be regarded as a protective allele. Patients with TC and TT genotypes would be at a higher risk for T1DM than those carrying CC genotype.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Egito , Aminopeptidases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Retículo Endoplasmático , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética
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