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2.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 27(1): 68-69, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722126

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The occurrence of pulmonary artery thrombus in association with rheumatic mitral stenosis is a rare complication. Pulmonary artery thrombus formation may worsen pulmonary artery pressures, and this may precipitate acute right heart failure. The possible mechanisms behind pulmonary artery thrombus formation during mitral valve replacement surgery could be acute coagulopathy following surgery, the presence of chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, or chronic atrial fibrillation. We report an unusual case of pulmonary artery thrombus in a patient with rheumatic MS which was diagnosed with transoesophageal echocardiography after MVR.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Valva Mitral , Artéria Pulmonar , Trombose , Humanos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/etiologia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Feminino , Cardiopatia Reumática/complicações , Cardiopatia Reumática/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 484, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730292

RESUMO

Thromboembolic (TE) complications [myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE)] are common causes of mortality in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Therefore, this review was undertaken to explore the incidence of TE complications and mortality associated with TE complications in hospitalised COVID-19 patients from different studies. A literature search was performed using ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the MeSH term search strategy of "COVID-19", "thromboembolic complication", "venous thromboembolism", "arterial thromboembolism", "deep vein thrombosis", "pulmonary embolism", "myocardial infarction", "stroke", and "mortality". There were 33 studies included in this review. Studies have revealed that COVID-19 patients tend to develop venous thromboembolism (PE:1.0-40.0% and DVT:0.4-84%) compared to arterial thromboembolism (stroke:0.5-15.2% and MI:0.8-8.7%). Lastly, the all-cause mortality of COVID-19 patients ranged from 4.8 to 63%, whereas the incidence of mortality associated with TE complications was between 5% and 48%. A wide range of incidences of TE complications and mortality associated with TE complications can be seen among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Therefore, every patient should be assessed for the risk of thromboembolic complications and provided with an appropriate thromboprophylaxis management plan tailored to their individual needs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitalização , Tromboembolia , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Incidência , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 233, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) induces ventilation-perfusion mismatch and hypoxia and increases pulmonary pressure and right ventricular (RV) afterload, entailing potentially fatal RV failure within a short timeframe. Cardiopulmonary factors may respond differently to increased clot burden. We aimed to elucidate immediate cardiopulmonary responses during successive PE episodes in a porcine model. METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, blinded study of repeated measurements. Twelve pigs were randomly assigned to receive sham procedures or consecutive PEs every 15 min until doubling of mean pulmonary pressure. Cardiopulmonary assessments were conducted at 1, 2, 5, and 13 min after each PE using pressure-volume loops, invasive pressures, and arterial and mixed venous blood gas analyses. ANOVA and mixed-model statistical analyses were applied. RESULTS: Pulmonary pressures increased after the initial PE administration (p < 0.0001), with a higher pulmonary pressure change compared to pressure change observed after the following PEs. Conversely, RV arterial elastance and pulmonary vascular resistance was not increased after the first PE, but after three PEs an increase was observed (p = 0.0103 and p = 0.0015, respectively). RV dilatation occurred following initial PEs, while RV ejection fraction declined after the third PE (p = 0.004). RV coupling exhibited a decreasing trend from the first PE (p = 0.095), despite increased mechanical work (p = 0.003). Ventilatory variables displayed more incremental changes with successive PEs. CONCLUSION: In an experimental model of consecutive PE, RV afterload elevation and dysfunction manifested after the third PE, in contrast to pulmonary pressure that increased after the first PE. Ventilatory variables exhibited a more direct association with clot burden.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embolia Pulmonar , Resistência Vascular , Animais , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Suínos , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Gasometria , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Masculino
5.
J Med Vasc ; 49(2): 72-79, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to describe the clinical, paraclinical, therapeutic and outcomes of patients with venous thromboembolic event (VTE) associated with cancer in the context of limited resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study over a period of six years from March 1, 2016 to March 31, 2022, in the cardiology department and the oncology unit of the Sylvanus Olympio Teaching Hospital of Lome. Our study examined medical records of patients who were at least 18 years old and had venous thromboembolic disease and cancer that was histologically confirmed. This study did not include records that were incomplete or records from patients with coronavirus disease. RESULTS: Our study included 87 patients with average age of 56.36±15.26 years. The discovery of VTE occurred incidentally in 28.74%. Venous thrombosis was isolated in 68.96% and proximal in 95%. Pulmonary embolism was bilateral in 77.77%. Gynaecological and urological cancers were found in 33.33% and 32.19% respectively. Adenocarcinoma was the histological type of cancer found in 47.13%. Cancers were at a very advanced stage in 74.71%. Treatment with antivitamin K was prescribed in 12.65%. In our study, there were 58 patients who passed away with a mortality rate of 66.66%. The cause of death was a complication of VTE in 22.42% and related to the course of cancer in 63.79% of cases. CONCLUSION: VTE during cancer is particular with a fatal evolution due to the severity of VTE and the very advanced stage of cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Masculino , Togo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Idoso , Adulto , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 234, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nexplanon implants are a common hormonal contraceptive modality. Though rare, these devices can embolize into the injured wall of the basilic vein, through the right heart, and finally wedge itself into a pulmonary artery. With adherence to the arterial wall over time, it becomes less amenable to endovascular retrieval. Patients may present with symptoms mimicking a pulmonary embolism, or without any symptoms at all. In asymptomatic cases, endovascular retrieval and/or surgery is required when patients wish to begin having children prior to biological inactivity. The current literature showed as little as nine case reports detailing lung tissue removal in the aim of reversing a patient's implanted contraceptive device. CASE PRESENTATION: A 22-year-old asymptomatic active-duty Caucasian female presented for elective outpatient Nexplanon removal. The suspicion of possible implant migration arose when it was discovered to be non-palpable in her left arm. After plain film x-rays failed to localize the implant, a chest x-ray and follow-up Computed Tomography (CT) scan revealed that the Nexplanon had migrated to a distal branch of the left pulmonary artery. Due to the patient's strong desires to begin having children, the decision was made for removal. Initial endovascular retrieval failed due to Nexplanon encapsulation within the arterial wall. Ultimately, the patient underwent a left video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for exploration and left lower lobe basilar S7-9 segmentectomy, which successfully removed the Nexplanon. CONCLUSIONS: Implanted contraceptive devices can rarely result in migration to the pulmonary vasculature. These radiopaque devices are detectable on imaging studies if patients and clinicians are unable to palpate them. An endovascular approach should be considered first to spare lung tissue and avoid chest-wall incisions, but can be complicated by encapsulation and adherence to adjacent tissue. A VATS procedure with single-lung ventilation via a double-lumen endotracheal tube allows surgeons to safely operate on an immobilized lung while anesthesiologists facilitate single-lung ventilation. This patient's case details the uncommon phenomenon of Nexplanon migration, and the exceedingly rare treatment resolution of lung resection to remove an embolized device.


Assuntos
Desogestrel , Remoção de Dispositivo , Migração de Corpo Estranho , Humanos , Feminino , Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Desogestrel/administração & dosagem , Migração de Corpo Estranho/cirurgia , Migração de Corpo Estranho/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Implantes de Medicamento , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Pneumonectomia
7.
Port J Card Thorac Vasc Surg ; 31(1): 41-46, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743520

RESUMO

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) presents as a progressive vascular condition arising from previous episodes of acute pulmonary embolism, contributing to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) is the gold-standard surgical treatment for CTEPH; however, it may be associated with postoperative sequelae, including atrial arrhythmias (AAs). This comprehensive literature review explores the potential mechanisms for PTE-induced AAs with emphasis on the role of PH-related atrial remodelling and the predisposing factors. The identified preoperative predictors for AAs include advanced age, male gender, elevated resting heart rate, previous AAs, and baseline elevated right atrial pressure. Furthermore, we explore the available data on the association between post-PTE pericardial effusions and the development of AAs. Lastly, we briefly discuss the emerging role of radiomic analysis of epicardial adipose tissue as an imaging biomarker for predicting AAs.


Assuntos
Endarterectomia , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar , Humanos , Endarterectomia/efeitos adversos , Endarterectomia/métodos , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/cirurgia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia
8.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 47(5): 464-469, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706070

RESUMO

In situ pulmonary arterial thrombosis (ISPAT) refers to the formation of new blood clots in the pulmonary arterial system in the absence of pre-existing clots in the peripheral venous system. With the emergence and prevalence of COVID-19, ISPAT has become an increasingly important cause of pulmonary arterial thrombosis (PAT) alongside thromboembolism. Several factors such as hypoxia, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hypercoagulable state can lead to ISPAT, which is associated with a number of conditions such as thoracic trauma, partial lung resection, pulmonary infectious disease, pulmonary vasculitis, connective tissue diseases, severe pulmonary hypertension, radiation pneumonitis, and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. It is important to differentiate between pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and ISPAT for proper disease management and prognosis. In this review, we summarized the characteristics of ISPAT under different disease conditions, the methods to distinguish ISPAT from PTE, and the best treatment strategies. We hoped that this review could improve clinicians' understanding of this independent disease and provide guidance for the refined treatment of patients with PAT.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Artéria Pulmonar , Trombose , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 47(5): 401-403, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706061

RESUMO

This issue of Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases published an interesting case illustrating the identification, treatment, and post-treatment management of a high-risk pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) that occurred during surgery. It was a high-risk case of PTE, but during treatment, the risk stratification changed to medium-high risk. We should dynamically assess risk stratification and develop diagnosis and treatment plans based on changes in the patient's condition. At the same time, there was a high risk of bleeding in this patient. We should try to decrease the risk of bleeding as much as possible, consider all the conditions that can be applied at that time and on a local level, and devise a safe and effective treatment plan. The socio-economic status of patients may have an impact on how the final diagnosis and treatment plan are implemented. We need to communicate fully with patients, consider comprehensively, and prepare contingency plans to ensure patients' life safety to the greatest extent possible.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Hemorragia , Embolia Pulmonar , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco
10.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 47(5): 404-418, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706062

RESUMO

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is classified as group IV pulmonary hypertension, characterized by thrombotic occlusion of the pulmonary arteries leading to vascular stenosis or obstruction, progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure, and eventual right heart failure. Unlike other types of pulmonary hypertension, the prognosis of CTEPH can be significantly improved by surgery, vascular intervention, and/or targeted drug therapy. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the preferred treatment of choice for CTEPH. However, PEA is an invasive procedure with high operative risks, and is currently only performed in a few centers in China. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is an emerging interventional technique for CTEPH, serving as an alternative for patients who are ineligible for PEA or with residual pulmonary hypertension after PEA. BPA is gaining traction in China, but its widespread adoption is limited due to its complexity, operator skills, and equipment requirements, a lack of standard operating procedures and technical guidance, which limit the further improvement and development of BPA in China. To address this, a multidisciplinary panel of experts was convened to develop the Consensus on the Procedure of Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty for the Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension, which fomulates guidelines on BPA procedural qualification, perioperative management, procedural planning, technical approach, and complication prevention, with the aim of providing recommendations and clinical guidance for BPA treatment in CTEPH and standardizing its clinical application in this setting. Summary of recommendations: Recommendation 1: It is recommended that physicians who specialize in pulmonary vascular diseases take the lead in formulating the diagnostic and treatment plans for CTEPH, using a multidisciplinary approach.Recommendation 2: Training in BPA technique is critical; novice operators should undergo standardized operative training with at least 50 procedures under the guidance of experienced physicians before embarking on independent BPA procedures.Recommendation 3: BPA requires catheterization labs, angiography systems, standard vascular interventional devices and consumables, drugs, and emergency equipment.Recommendation 4: Patient selection for BPA should consider cardiac and pulmonary function, coagulation status, and comorbid conditions to determine indications and contraindications, thereby optimizing the timing of the procedure and improving safety.Recommendation 5: In experienced centers, patients deemed likely to benefit from early BPA, based on clinical and imaging features of CTEPH and without elevated D-dimer levels, could bypass standard 3-month anticoagulation therapy.Recommendation 6: BPA is a complex interventional treatment that requires thorough pre-operative assessment and preparation.Recommendation 7: The use of perioperative anticoagulants in BPA requires a comprehensive risk assessment of intraoperative bleeding by the operator for individualized decision making.Recommendation 8: A variety of venous access routes are available for BPA; unless contraindicated, the right femoral vein is usually preferred because of its procedural convenience and reduced radiation exposure.Recommendation 9: For the different types of vascular lesion in CTEPH, treatment of ring-like stenoses, web-like lesions, and subtotal occlusions should be prioritized before addressing complete occlusions and tortuous lesions, in order to reduce complications and improve procedural safety.Recommendation 10: A targeted, incremental balloon dilatation strategy based on vascular lesions is recommended for BPA.Recommendation 11: Intravascular pulmonary artery imaging technologies, such as OCT and IVUS can assist in accurate vessel sizing and confirmation of wire placement in the true vascular lumen. Pressure wires can be used to objectively assess the efficacy of dilatation during BPA.Recommendation 12: Endpoints for BPA treatment should be individually assessed, taking into account improvements in clinical symptoms, hemodynamics, exercise tolerance, and quality of life.Recommendation 13: Post-BPA routine monitoring of vital signs is essential; anticoagulation therapy should be initiated promptly post-procedure in the absence of complications. In cases of intraoperative hemoptysis, postoperative anticoagulation regimen adjustments should be adjusted according to the bleeding severity.Recommendation 14: If reperfusion pulmonary edema occurs during or after BPA, ensure adequate oxygenation, diuresis, and consider non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation if necessary, while severe cases may require early mechanical ventilation assistance or ECMO.Recommendation 15: In cases of intraoperative hemoptysis, temporary balloon occlusion to stop bleeding is recommended, along with protamine to neutralize heparin. Persistent bleeding may warrant the use of gelatin sponges, coil embolization, or covered stent implantation.Recommendation 16: For contrast imaging during BPA, non-ionic, low or iso-osmolar contrast agents are recommended, with hydration status determined by the patient's clinical condition, cardiac and renal function, and intraoperative contrast volume used.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar , Humanos , Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Doença Crônica , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Endarterectomia/métodos , Consenso , China
11.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 47(5): 450-454, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706067

RESUMO

Reperfusion is considered as the cornerstone of the treatment of high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE). However, when thrombolysis is contraindicated and surgery or interventional therapy is not available, the treatment of high-risk PE becomes very difficult. To our knowledge, there are no reports of successful treatment of high-risk PE with low-dose anticoagulation. On November 30, 2021, a 56-year-old male patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage was admitted to the emergency department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. On the second day of admission, the patient suddenly went into shock during aneurysm clipping. After implementing D-dimer, markers of myocardial injury, echocardiography and computed tomography pulmonary angiography, a high-risk PE was diagnosed. Due to the contraindication of thrombolysis and the refusal of endovascular treatment, he was eventually cured with low-dose anticoagulation combined with vasopressors.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Embolia Pulmonar , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea
12.
Am Heart J ; 272: 109-112, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705637

RESUMO

Data comparing catheter-based thrombectomy (CBT) and catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) in acute pulmonary embolism are lacking. To address this, we performed a meta-analysis of prospective and retrospective studies of CBT and compared it to performance goal rates of mortality and major bleeding from a recently published network meta-analysis. When compared with performance goal for CDT based on historical studies, CBT was noninferior for all-cause mortality (6.0% vs 6.87%; P-valueNI < .001), non-inferior and superior for major bleeding (4.9% vs 11%; P-valueNI < .001 and P < .001 for superiority).


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Trombectomia/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Doença Aguda , Resultado do Tratamento , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico
14.
Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013) ; 82(2): 124-133, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739660

RESUMO

Postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and costly complication following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Development of a refined thrombophilic screening panel will better equip clinicians to identify patients at high-est risk for developing VTEs. In this pilot study, 62 high-risk TJA recipients who had developed pulmonary emboli (PE) within 90-days of surgery were eligible to participate. Of these patients, 14 were enrolled and subsequently adminis-tered a pre-determined panel of 18 hematologic tests with the aim of identifying markers that are consistently elevated or deficient in patients developing PE. A separate cohort of seven high-risk TJA recipients who did not report a symp-tomatic VTE within 90-days of surgery were then enrolled and Factor VIII and lipoprotein(a) levels were assessed. The most common aberrance was noted in 10 patients (71.4%) who had elevated levels of Factor VIII followed by five patients (35.7%) who had elevated levels of lipoprotein(a). Factor VIII was significantly prevalent (p < 0.001) while lipoprotein(a) failed to achieve statistical significance (p = 0.0708). Of the patients who were within normal limits of Factor VIII, three-fourths were "high-normal" with Fac-tor VIII levels within 5% of the upper limit of normal. This study demonstrates the potential utility of this hematologic panel as part of a perioperative screening protocol aimed at identifying patients at risk for developing VTEs. However, future larger scale studies assessing the capabilities and limitations of our findings are warranted.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Fator VIII/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Artroplastia de Substituição/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
15.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 72(1): 96-98, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736081

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis is seen in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a result of antiretroviral drug therapy and hypertriglyceridemia. Thrombotic complications are known in patients of HIV as a result of endothelial dysfunction, and right-sided infective endocarditis (IE) is seen in HIV patients mostly due to intravenous (IV) drug abuse. However, the occurrence of acute pancreatitis with sepsis, IE, and bilateral thromboembolism in the same patient is rare. Here, we report this case of a treatment-naive nondrug abuser HIV patient with acute pancreatitis in sepsis, IE, and bilateral pulmonary thromboembolism who recovered completely with treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Embolia Pulmonar , Sepse , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/complicações , Pancreatite/etiologia , Adulto , Doença Aguda , Endocardite/complicações , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico
16.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 75(2): 137-144, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736261

RESUMO

In this study, we examined the changes in the fibrinolytic system in a rabbit model of two acute pulmonary thromboembolisms (PTE). Fourteen healthy adult New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups: the single PTE group (five rabbits), the double PTE group (five rabbits), and the control group (four rabbits). A rabbit model of acute pulmonary embolism was established, and immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in plasma, and pulmonary embolism tissue. Plasma results: 1) t-PA levels: one hour following the initial modeling, the levels of t-PA in the modeling groups were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). In addition, the t-PA levels in the double PTE group were found to be lower after the modeling, as compared to the pre-modeling period (P<0.05). One hour after the second modeling, the double PTE group had lower t-PA levels compared to the control group (P<0.05). However, t-PA rebounded two hours after modeling in the double PTE group. One week after the second modeling, the double PTE group had higher t-PA levels compared to the other two groups (P<0.05). 2) PAI-1 results: one hour after the initial modeling, PAI-1 levels in the two modeling groups were lower compared to the pre-modeling period and control groups (P<0.05). Two hours following modeling, PAI-1 levels in both modeling groups were lower compared to the control group (P<0.05). PAI-1 levels were lower in the double PTE group one and two hours after the second modeling compared to the other two groups and pre-modeling period (P<0.05). 3) The immunohistochemistry results: the expression of PAI-1 decreased in the two modeling groups, while t-PA expression increased compared to the control group. 4) PCR results: t-PA mRNA expression did not differ among the three groups. The PAI-1 mRNA expression was lower in the two PTE groups compared to the control group. We conclude that in the early stages of PTE, the local fibrinolytic activity of the thrombus is increased, which is favorable for thrombolysis. However, as the thrombus persists, the activity of the fibrinolytic system is inhibited, contributing to the development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrinólise , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio , Embolia Pulmonar , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Animais , Coelhos , Embolia Pulmonar/metabolismo , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/metabolismo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/genética , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Pulmão/metabolismo
17.
Pol J Pathol ; 75(1): 54-57, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741429

RESUMO

A 27-year-old woman with jaundice and abdominal pain was admitted to an emergency ward. The diagnostic process showed that gallstones were causing her symptoms. The patient was treated via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and during the procedure she suffered a cardiac arrest. Autopsy findings included multiple pulmonary bile emboli as well as features of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Among 22 thus far described cases of bile pulmonary embolism, 13 were associated with medical procedures involving the liver and biliary tract. We present the case report of a pulmonary bile embolism associated with acute pancreatitis treated via ERCP in a woman with gallbladder bile stones.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Embolia Pulmonar , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Pancreatite/complicações , Pancreatite/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Doença Aguda , Cálculos Biliares/complicações , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Bile
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732160

RESUMO

Despite the end of the pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a major public health concern. The first waves of the virus led to a better understanding of its pathogenesis, highlighting the fact that there is a specific pulmonary vascular disorder. Indeed, COVID-19 may predispose patients to thrombotic disease in both venous and arterial circulation, and many cases of severe acute pulmonary embolism have been reported. The demonstrated presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within the endothelial cells suggests that direct viral effects, in addition to indirect effects of perivascular inflammation and coagulopathy, may contribute to pulmonary vasculopathy in COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the pathological mechanisms leading to pulmonary vascular damage during acute infection, which appear to be mainly related to thromboembolic events, an impaired coagulation cascade, micro- and macrovascular thrombosis, endotheliitis and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. As many patients develop post-COVID symptoms, including dyspnea, we also discuss the hypothesis of pulmonary vascular damage and pulmonary hypertension as a sequela of the infection, which may be involved in the pathophysiology of long COVID.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , COVID-19/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/virologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Trombose/virologia , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/patologia
19.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e074818, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A subset of patients with superficial venous thrombosis (SVT) experiences clot propagation towards deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE). The aim of this systematic review is to identify all clinically relevant cross-sectional and prognostic factors for predicting thrombotic complications in patients with SVT. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were systematically searched until 3 March 2023. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Original research studies with patients with SVT, DVT and/or PE as the outcome and presenting cross-sectional or prognostic predictive factors. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS OF RESULTS: The CHecklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling (CHARMS) checklist for prognostic factor studies was used for systematic extraction of study characteristics. Per identified predictive factor, relevant estimates of univariable and multivariable predictor-outcome associations were extracted, such as ORs and HRs. Estimates of association for the most frequently reported predictors were summarised in forest plots, and meta-analyses with heterogeneity were presented. The Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool was used for risk of bias assessment and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) for assessing the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included (n=10 111 patients). The most reported predictive factors were high age, male sex, history of venous thromboembolism (VTE), absence of varicose veins and cancer. Pooled effect estimates were heterogenous and ranged from OR 3.12 (95% CI 1.75 to 5.59) for the cross-sectional predictor cancer to OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.53) for the prognostic predictor high age. The level of evidence was rated very low to low. Most studies were scored high or moderate risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Although the pooled estimates of the predictors high age, male sex, history of VTE, cancer and absence of varicose veins showed predictive potential in isolation, variability in study designs, lack of multivariable adjustment and high risk of bias prevent firm conclusions. High-quality, multivariable studies are necessary to be able to identify individual SVT risk profiles. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021262819.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Embolia Pulmonar , Varizes , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Masculino , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 25: e942578, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Duplicate inferior vena cava (IVC) accompanied by deep venous thrombosis is rare. The optimal treatment plan is determined according to the results of imaging, including venography. In this report, we present a case of successful treatment of a patient with duplicate IVC and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). CASE REPORT An 84-year-old man with history of hypertension was admitted to the hospital because of 4 days of moderate left lower-limb edema. A thorough examination led to the diagnosis of the DVT. The duplicate IVC was discovered during venography. As the blood from the left common iliac vein mainly flowed to the left IVC, and there were no other communicating branches before the convergence of the left and right IVCs, which was located above the 1st lumbar vertebrae body near the junction of the hepatic vein and the IVC, the strategy of placing only 1 filter in the left inferior vena cava were chosen, rather than placing 1 filter above the confluence of bilateral IVC, or placing a filter in each IVC below the level of renal veins on each side. Following that, the DVT was safely treated with thrombolysis and aspiration without the risk of pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSIONS This case report presented the complete evaluation and management of a patient with lower-limb DVT accompanied by the malformation of duplicate IVC. The filter placement strategy with duplicate IVC in the literature was summarized. We concluded that even in emergency situations, with comprehensive consideration, it is possible to perform endovascular intervention successfully and achieve satisfactory treatment results.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Filtros de Veia Cava , Trombose Venosa , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Veia Cava Inferior , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Filtros de Veia Cava/efeitos adversos
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