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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 225: 105520, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964447

RESUMO

With increasing immigration, it is increasingly important to understand whether and when children consider immigrant peers as co-nationals. Using an experimental design, we examined among native-born preadolescents (8-13 years of age) in the Netherlands whether and when they perceive immigrant peers as co-nationals. First, and in agreement with the social categorization account, we expected that the use of dual identity (vs single ethnic identity) labels for immigrant peers leads to stronger co-nationality perceptions and a related stronger desire for close social contact. Second, and in line with the acculturation account, we expected that an early age of arrival in the country (vs a later age of arrival) leads to stronger perceived co-nationality and related contact desire. The findings support the acculturation account, especially among native-born children with higher national identification. There was no evidence for the social categorization account.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Criança , Emigração e Imigração , Etnicidade , Humanos , Grupo Associado
2.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 253-264, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In line with the immigrant paradox, immigrants' health advantages disappear among second-generation immigrant-origin youths, including a high prevalence of suicidal behaviors. Nevertheless, the secular trend in suicidal behaviors among immigrants in South Korea has not been examined. While Korean society was once considered homogeneous, intra-Asian migration has increased in recent decades. It is needed to explore the relationship between ethnic options and mental health outcomes among immigrant-origin youths, including suicidal behaviors. METHODS: Using the nationally representative Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey from 2011 to 2019 (600,541 non-immigrant-origin and 6,085 immigrant-origin), we examined the rates of suicidal behaviors to identify trends among youths with/without immigrant-origin and depending on the visibility of their immigrant-origin. Then, we conducted logistic regression to examine whether visibility is associated with higher suicidal behaviors among immigrant-origin youths. RESULTS: Overall, suicidal behaviors have declined, but immigrant-origin youths showed higher levels of suicidal behaviors than non-immigrant-origin youths. Visible minority youths showed higher suicidal behaviors than their invisible counterparts, particularly in suicidal planning and suicide attempts. Among immigrant-origin youths, visible minority status was associated with higher suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, controlling for socio-economic factors. Furthermore, female immigrant-origin youths show higher suicidal behaviors than their male counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that data disaggregation is needed when examining the mental health of immigrant-origin youths. Practitioners and policymakers should pay particular attention to immigrant-origin youths and recognize that their visibility may be associated with their risk of suicidal behaviors. Targeted intervention is also required for female visible minority youths.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Surg Res ; 282: 53-64, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257164

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Timely colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to improve CRC-related morbidity and mortality rates. However, even with this preventative care tool, CRC screening rates remain below 70% among eligible United States (US) adults, with even lower rates among US immigrants. The aim of this scoping review is to describe the barriers to CRC screening faced by this unique and growing immigrant population and discuss possible interventions to improve screening. METHODS: Four electronic databases were systematically searched for all original research articles related to CRC screening in US immigrants published after 2010. Following a full-text review of articles for inclusion in the final analysis, data extraction was conducted while coding descriptive themes. Thematic analysis led to the organization of this data into five themes. RESULTS: Of the 4637 articles initially identified, 55 met inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis of the barriers to CRC screening identified five unique themes: access, knowledge, culture, trust, health perception, and beliefs. The most cited barriers were in access (financial burden and limited primary care access) and knowledge (CRC/screening knowledge). CONCLUSIONS: US immigrants face several barriers to the receipt of CRC screening. When designing interventions to increase screening uptake among immigrants, gaps in physician and screening education, access to care, and trust need to be addressed through culturally sensitive supports. These interventions should be tailored to the specific immigrant group, since a one-size-fits approach fails to consider the heterogeneity within this population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento
4.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 296-303, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130076

RESUMO

The Asian American health narrative reflects a long history of structural racism in the US and the complex interplay of racialized history, immigrant patterns, and policies regarding Asians in the US. Yet owing to systematic issues in data collection including missing or misclassified data for Asian Americans and practices that lead to indiscriminate grouping of unlike individuals (for example, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Bangladeshi) together in data systems and pervasive stereotypes of Asian Americans, the drivers and experiences of health disparities experienced by these diverse groups remain unclear. The perpetual exclusion and misrepresentation of Asian American experiences in health research is exacerbated by three racialized stereotypes-the model minority, healthy immigrant effect, and perpetual foreigner-that fuel scientific and societal perceptions that Asian Americans do not experience health disparities. This codifies racist biases against the Asian American population in a mutually reinforcing cycle. In this article we describe the poor-quality data infrastructure and biases on the part of researchers and public health professionals, and we highlight examples from the health disparities literature. We provide recommendations on how to implement systems-level change and educational reform to infuse racial equity in future policy and practice for Asian American communities.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275809, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327211

RESUMO

Reproductive coercion (RC), generally considered a form of intimate partner violence (IPV), refers to perpetrator behaviours and actions that are intended to interfere with and control the autonomous decision-making of a person regarding their reproductive health. To date there are few studies that document RC as experienced by immigrant and refugee women. In this article, we explore cases of RC as described by women who were part of a larger qualitative study investigating violence against immigrant and refugee women in southern Australia. The study aimed to identify the types of RC detailed in immigrant and refugee women's narratives, and to illustrate the contexts in which these experiences occurred. Analysis followed Baxter and Jack's (2008) case study methodology; whereby particular "cases" are used to describe a phenomenon in context. Thirteen women from seven countries described experiences that fit definitions of RC. The cases describe various types of RC including violence during pregnancy with the intent of causing miscarriage, forced abortion, contraception sabotage and forced pregnancy. As well as intimate partners, some women described multiple perpetrators being complicit in their experience of RC, especially in regard to controlling women's access to, and interactions with health services. More information is needed about immigrant and refugee women's experiences of RC, and how vulnerability to multi-perpetrator violence affects health service access. In particular knowledge about how multi-perpetrator RC can affect consent processes for women who already face barriers to health care requires attention. Further research is required to address knowledge gaps about appropriate prevention and advocacy work about RC in refugee and migrant communities, and what training is needed for professionals in the family violence sector, women's health services, women's organisations, multicultural and ethno-specific services.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Refugiados , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Coerção , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Austrália
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277255, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331954

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immigrants from high tuberculosis-burdened countries have been shown to have an increased risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). To reduce the risk of increased tuberculosis cases in Canada, the country has a comprehensive immigration medical examination process that identifies individuals with active tuberculosis using chest X-ray; however, it fails to identify LTBI. The lack of LTBI identification is concerning because immigrants with LTBI are at an increased risk of developing active tuberculosis within their first few years of migration due to stressful experiences common to many immigrants. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this pilot study is to improve the current LTBI screening protocols among immigrants from high tuberculosis incidence countries and to better prevent and manage tuberculosis cases, by introducing an LTBI screening pilot program. The objectives are threefold: 1) to screen LTBI in immigrants from high tuberculosis incidence countries, including immigrants identified as being at risk of LTBI by the NB health care system, using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA); 2) to offer LTBI treatment and supports to those identified as having LTBI; and 3) to assess immigrant and health care providers (HCPs) satisfaction of the LTBI screening pilot program. METHODS: This cross-sectional study seeks to recruit 288 participants. Participants will be recruited via posters, social media platforms, invitations at immigrant wellness check-ups, presentations to local ethnocultural groups, and by snowball sampling. Consenting participants will be asked to submit a blood sample for LTBI screening; if positive, participants will be assessed and offered treatment for LTBI based on clinical assessment. Participants and HCPs' feedback will be gathered via short questionnaires. For the quantitative portion of the study, descriptive statistics will be used to summarize participant characteristics and feedback. Simultaneous logistic regression will be performed to identify variables associated with the IGRA test outcome and evidence of increased CD8 T-cell immune response among those found to be LTBI-positive. Qualitative results will be analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. DISCUSSION: The findings from this study will allow us to understand the role of the IGRA LTBI screening assay and its feasibility and acceptability by immigrants and HCPs in New Brunswick. The findings will additionally provide information on the enhancers and barriers of LTBI screening and management useful in determining how best to expand the LTBI screening program if deemed appropriate.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Tuberculose Latente , Tuberculose , Humanos , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Transversais , Novo Brunswick , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento
7.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 37(3): 295-313, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite the high prevalence of depression among older Korean Americans (KAs), there has been very little research on depression literacy among older KAs. This study identified specific areas of improvement in depression literacy to address mental health promotion among KAs. Twenty-two items on the depression literacy scale were grouped under five key themes: incidence and prognosis, differential symptoms, symptom recognition, non-pharmacological effectiveness, and pharmacological knowledge. This study aimed to assess the level of understanding depression literacy based on five domains and identify factors associated with depression literacy and its domains among older KAs. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 178 KAs aged 60 years and older was conducted in the Washington DC Metro area. Interviewer and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with depression literacy and its domains. Statistical significance was set at p < .05 for analyses. RESULTS: Knowledge pertaining to all 5 depression literacy domains was low, particularly on pharmacological treatment and differential symptoms were noticeably low. The majority of participants had misconceptions about antidepressants. 86% believed that antidepressants can have a rapid effect on symptoms, 82.6% believed people with depression should stop taking antidepressants as soon as they feel better, and 66.3% believed antidepressants were addictive. CONCLUSION: Misperception about depression and antidepressants may be associated with poor mental health outcomes among older KAs. Culturally-tailored education for older KAs with limited English proficiency could be beneficial in promoting depression literacy and reducing stigma or misconceptions regarding depression and treatments.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Depressão/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , República da Coreia
8.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 142(17)2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a high incidence of emergency caesarean sections among immigrant women, especially those born in Sub-Saharan Africa, but the risk of planned and emergency caesarean section varies with the mother's level of education. The proportion of women with little or no education is higher among those born in Sub-Saharan Africa and other low- and middle-income countries than those born in Norway. We therefore wanted to investigate the relationship between maternal birthplace, level of education and risk of caesarean section. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study was based on all births recorded in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway between 2008 and 2017 linked to data from Statistics Norway. Maternal birthplace, divided into four categories, was the exposure variable. The outcome was planned or emergency caesarean section. We used multinomial logistic regression and stratified the analyses by level of education. Norwegian-born women constituted the reference group. RESULTS: Of 572 349 births, immigrant women accounted for 26.6 %. Caesarean sections and emergency caesareans made up 15.1 % and 9.6 % of all births respectively. Norwegian-born women had the highest proportion of planned caesarean sections (5.7 %), while women born in Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest proportion of emergency caesareans (16.3 %). Among women with a higher education, the proportion of emergency caesareans was 8.3 % among Norwegian-born women and 18.1 % among women born in Sub-Saharan Africa (adjusted relative risk 2.41, 95 % confidence interval 2.18 to 2.66). INTERPRETATION: The impact of education level on risk of caesarean section differed between immigrant women and Norwegian-born women.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Escolaridade , Modelos Logísticos , Sistema de Registros
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278125, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413563

RESUMO

Concerns have been raised that immigrants coming to Europe bring fundamentally different social values, affecting the more liberal receiving societies negatively. However, the topic of immigrants' social values is understudied, and much research studies only one issue at a time, lacking a systematic approach to compare immigrants and native-born across issues. We study the social values of immigrants in Sweden using a large sample of newly arrived immigrants and their opinions on 35 different moral issues. Our results indicate a large heterogeneity across different issues, with, on average, a general tendency towards liberal social values among immigrants. We find that individual characteristics are more important than characteristics of the country of origin in explaining variation of social values between immigrants. Religiosity has the largest effect, with more religious individuals having more conservative stances. Using external data sources, we compare immigrants with native-born regarding both average positions on different issues, and the correlation between issue positions. Compared with the native-born, immigrants have, on average, somewhat more conservative values, but the underlying values structure is the same.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Emigração e Imigração , Humanos , Valores Sociais , Suécia , Europa (Continente)
10.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1635-1644, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343326

RESUMO

The relationship between immigrant entry and COVID-19 spread in the United States has driven much political discussion and policy, including the implementation of Title 42 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To examine the relationship between COVID-19 spread and immigrant entry, we compared 2020-21 immigrant flows with local COVID-19 rates, using estimates of border crossings from the Border Patrol and visas issued through the Department of Labor's seasonal guest worker program. Our analysis capturing seasonal guest worker entry at the national level showed no statistically significant relationship with COVID-19 rates. Our analyses of Southwest border crossings showed a small, statistically significant relationship between immigrant flows and COVID-19 rates in border counties (0.14 percent increase in local cases per 100,000 residents for each additional 100 immigrants). However, this estimate is modest compared with the fact that half of all month-to-month changes in case rates were greater than 59 percent. Furthermore, the modest increase became nonsignificant with increasing local vaccination rates. Estimates also did not maintain their statistical significance when analyzed with some alternative approaches. Our findings support existing evidence that the short-term impacts of immigrant flow on local COVID-19 rates were minimal.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emigração e Imigração , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Grupos Populacionais
12.
13.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115476, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decades of research have shown a strong association between wellbeing, health, and social resources. LGBTQ2+ communities are among those who historically have been excluded from accessing quality social resources. However, little is known about how access to different types of resources influences mental health and wellbeing. METHOD: Data were drawn from an online sample of 3890 LGBTQ2+ people aged 18 years and older in Quebec, Canada. We identified key social resource patterns (from family of origin, friends, partner, neighbourhood, and LGBTQ2+ community) and investigated differences in socio-demographic and health outcomes across classes. RESULTS: A five-class solution best fitted the data, highlighting distinctive patterns in access to five key social resources: moderate friend support access (42.14%), overall high support access (23.51%), high friend support access (18.06%), only close ties support access (10.90%) and overall low support access (5.39%). Marginalized groups (trans and non-binary people, racialized or disabled people, immigrants) were less likely to access diverse, high-quality social resources. Accessing diverse social resources, particularly close ties (e.g., family of origin), was associated with better health outcomes. In the absence of close ties, having at least one other social resource was associated with better health outcomes compared to having limited access to all resources. CONCLUSIONS: We found a major imbalance in social resource access among LGBTQ2+ people. Creating safe spaces for LGBTQ2+ people and ensuring access to high-quality social resources is important in sustaining their health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Adulto , Humanos , Canadá , Análise de Classes Latentes , Quebeque , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
15.
Ethn Dis ; 32(4): 315-324, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388867

RESUMO

Scholars have been interested in the relationship between skin tone and health since at least the 1970s; however, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed a diverse immigrant sample. In this study, we use the New Immigrant Survey and interactions to examine how skin tone and race/ethnicity - alongside gender - jointly pattern BMI among Legal Permanent Residents. Our approach allows for the analysis of BMI among multiple racial/ethnic immigrant groups, while considering skin tone. Our results document that darker skin shades are associated with higher BMI, but only for women. Further, we also tease out the relationship between gender and race/ethnicity for BMI, which allows us to better understand this critical connection for new immigrants' health in the United States. Together, our results highlight that BMI jointly varies by skin tone and race/ethnicity, which emphasizes the importance of an intersectional approach, especially for new immigrant women of color.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Pigmentação da Pele , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores Sexuais
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277757, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395155

RESUMO

Grounded in an ecodevelopment perspective, in the current study we examined unique and moderating effects of daily COVID-19 prevalence (social contexts) on effects of COVID-19 related risk and protective factors such as emotional distress (individual contexts) and employment (working from home and unemployment status; family contexts) on family functioning among 160 recent immigrant families in Israel. In general, results indicate several unique effects of COVID-19 related factors (such as COVID-19 emotional distress, unemployment, and remote work arrangements) on both parents' and adolescents' reports of family functioning. However, results indicated that there were more significant associations between COVID-19 factors (e.g., emotional distress and COVID-19 prevalence) and family functioning indicators with adolescents, than with parents. The effects of COVID-19 factors (e.g., emotional distress and remote work arrangements) were moderated by daily COVID-19 prevalence (new cases and deaths). We discuss ways in which interventionists can contribute to pandemic-related research to promote optimal family functioning among immigrant families.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Humanos , Prevalência , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Emprego , Surtos de Doenças
17.
CMAJ Open ; 10(4): E956-E963, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer incidence has been associated with various sociodemographic factors, such as race, income and age, but the association with immigrant status in Canada is unclear. In this population-based study in Ontario, Canada, we compared age-standardized incidence rates for immigrant males from various regions of origin with the rates of long-term residents. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we linked several provincial-level databases available at ICES, an independent, non-profit research institute. We included all males aged 20 years and older in the province of Ontario eligible for health care for each fiscal year (Apr. 1 to Mar. 31) in 2008-2016. We determined age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates, stratifying by immigrant status (a binary variable) and region of origin. We used a log-binomial model to estimate adjusted incidence rate ratios, with long-term residents (Canadian-born Ontarians as well as those who immigrated before 1985, when available data on immigration starts) as the reference group. We included age, neighbourhood income and time since landing in the models. Additional models limited to immigrant males in the cohort included immigration admission category (economic class, family class, refugee, other) and time since landing in Canada. RESULTS: There were 74594 incident cases of prostate cancer in the study period, 6742 of which were among immigrant males. Males who had immigrated from West Africa and the Caribbean had significantly higher incidence of prostate cancer than other immigrants and long-term residents: adjusted rate ratios of 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.41-3.05) and 1.91 (95% CI 1.78-2.04), respectively. Immigrants from other regions, including East Africa and Middle-Southern Africa, had lower or similar incidence rates to long-term residents. Males from South Asia had the lowest adjusted rate ratio (0.47, 95% CI 0.45-0.50). INTERPRETATION: The age-standardized incidence rate of prostate cancer from 2008 to 2016 was consistently and significantly higher among immigrants from West African and Caribbean countries than among other immigrants and long-term residents of the province. Future research in Canada should focus on further understanding heterogeneity in prostate cancer risk and epidemiology, including stage of diagnosis and mortality, for immigrants.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1332, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Norwegian colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme started in May 2022. Inequities in uptake of CRC screening is a concern, and we expect that immigrants are at risk of non-uptake. Immigrants from Poland are the most populous immigrant group in Norway. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore factors that may facilitate Polish immigrants' access to the Norwegian CRC screening programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was based on qualitative interviews with ten Polish immigrants in Norway. The participants represented a convenience sample that varied in terms of gender, education, employment, time in Norway, place of residence, Norwegian language skills and ties to the Norwegian-Polish community. We performed thematic content analysis to understand CRC screening from the perspective of Polish immigrants, using transnationalism and Levesque's conceptualization of accessibility as theoretical frameworks. RESULTS: We grouped our findings into three themes; "understanding of CRC development and the need to access health care", "binationalism" and "improving accessibility through information". Within these themes, various factors influenced the participants' accessibility to CRC screening, namely knowledge about the screening and about causes, development and prevention of the disease, language, choice of screening country, trust in health personnel's competence, information needs, methods and sources, as well as participants' perception of the faecal immunochemical test screening user manual. These factors were further influenced by communication between the Polish community in Norway and Poland, as well as travel between the countries. CONCLUSION: We identified several factors that can be targeted with an aim to increase Polish immigrants' access to the Norwegian CRC screening programme. Effective measures could include increasing cultural competence among health care providers and providing information in Polish through Polish-speaking health care professionals, general practitioners and internet portals used by the Polish-speaking community. Focusing on accessibility in a transnational setting, our findings may be of interest for policy makers and service providers planning preventive health measures for immigrants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Humanos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Polônia , Idioma , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Noruega , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
19.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e273, 2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36353898

RESUMO

The principal contrasts that Jagiello et al. highlight are among many cultural transmission biases we now know of. I suggest they are also reflected more widely in social learning decisions among nonhuman animal cultures governing whether cultural innovations spread, or are instead over-ridden by immigrants' conformity in their new group. Such conformity may serve either informational or social-integrative functions.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Aprendizado Social , Animais , Humanos , Conformidade Social , Comportamento Social
20.
Am J Public Health ; 112(12): 1738-1746, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383934

RESUMO

Objectives. To investigate whether the 2016 US presidential election and the subsequent leak of a proposed change to the public charge rule reduced immigrant families' participation in food and nutrition assistance programs. Methods. We used nationally representative data on n = 57 808 households in the United States from the 2015-2018 Current Population Survey-Food Security Supplement. We implemented difference-in-difference-in-difference analyses to investigate whether the election and proposed rule change produced decreases in immigrant families' participation in food and nutrition assistance programs and whether such decreases varied according to state policy generosity toward immigrants. Results. Findings indicate significant and large decreases in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, School Breakfast Program, and National School Lunch Program participation among immigrants in moderately generous states but no changes to receipt of food assistance from nongovernmental sources or to household food insecurity. Conclusions. Both anti-immigrant rhetoric and the perceived threat of policy enactment can be enough to produce chilling effects that have potentially serious implications for the health of immigrant households and thus the health of the nation. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(12):1738-1746. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307011).


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Assistência Alimentar , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pobreza , Estado Nutricional , Assistência Pública
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