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4.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 103-111, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404476

RESUMO

This study analyzes postmortem records from 260 homicide cases autopsied by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Rome from 2000 to 2014. The victims were mainly males (74%) and young (61% aged from 21 to 50 years). Although the victims were mostly Italians, the number of foreign victims (33%) has increased since 1990, primarily due to immigration. The offenders frequently used firearms (39%), particularly in multiple murders. An increase in blunt (20%) and sharp force (32%) weapons was also seen. The primary crime scene was residential (42%), and the head was the most frequently injured body region. Male victims occurred frequently in the context of organized crime (7.6%). In family or intimate-sexual relationships, women were the majority of victims (8%). Forensic pathologists play an important role during investigation. They should consider all the information available to them, including autopsy information, crime scene information, and crime investigation data.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Distribuição por Sexo , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Armas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 329-340, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838637

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal cancer patterns are distinct among populations. Our study aims to compare the incidence and risk of gastrointestinal cancers between Chinese American and non-Hispanic whites in Los Angeles, CA, USA, to those of people indigenous to Shanghai to elucidate the changing patterns of gastrointestinal cancers. Cancer incidence data from 1988 to 2012 were extracted from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents plus database. The age standardized incidence and estimated annual percentage change were calculated to estimate the temporal trends of gastrointestinal cancers. Traditional Poisson regression models and three-factor constrained Poisson regression models were applied to compare the gastrointestinal cancer risk across populations. The incidences of oesophageal, stomach, liver and gall bladder cancers were higher among indigenous Chinese residents of Shanghai than among the other two populations in Los Angeles. While the incidences of colorectal and pancreatic cancer were higher among non-Hispanic whites, Chinese American immigrants were considered to be at an intermediate level for most gastrointestinal cancers. The gender-specific gastrointestinal cancer disparities across populations, especially between Shanghai Chinese and non-Hispanic US whites, were significant regardless of age, period or cohort scale. However, the regional differences in gastrointestinal cancer rates decreased over time. Most gastrointestinal cancer patterns in Chinese American immigrants were more aligned to those of their new country of residence than to those of their original country. The disparities in gastrointestinal cancers across populations indicate that environmental factors might play a key role in cancer genesis. Shift in environmental exposures may result in significant changes in gastrointestinal cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Idoso , Americanos Asiáticos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Risco
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(52): e18481, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876734

RESUMO

To study the clinical presentation of Chronic Schistosomiasis (CS) in immigrants from East Africa to Israel and the tests that were useful in confirming the diagnosis.A retrospective study of all medical notes pertaining to hospitalized patients who were immigrants from East Africa with a pathological or microscopic confirmation of CS. Literature review was also conducted focusing on diagnosis of schistosomiasis among immigrants from endemic countries.We identified 32 suspected and 11 confirmed cases of CS. Most of the patients (82%) presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Sensitivity of stool smear, serology and tissue diagnosis (by histopathology or microscopy) were 14%, 100%, 89%, respectively. Patients have undergone extensive diagnostic evaluation with long hospitalization stays (median 10 days, range 4 to 33 days).CS has multiple presentations and is seen in Israel among refugees from Eritrea and Sudan. Most of the manifestations are gastrointestinal, suggestive of infection with Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni). Standard diagnostic techniques used in endemic countries, such as microscopy for ova and parasites were unhelpful, necessitating more advanced procedures like colonoscopic or liver biopsy. We propose a diagnostic algorithm for CS in this patient population in order to make an accurate diagnosis and avoid unnecessary invasive procedures.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adulto , África Oriental/etnologia , Animais , Doença Crônica , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Schistosoma , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/patologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25025, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047998

RESUMO

Este artigo apresenta uma classificação dos perfis pedagógicos dos professores de Educação Física de escolas multiculturais a partir de suas próprias percepções, de sua intervenção pedagógica e de sua trajetória profissional. Foi realizado um estudo de casos múltiplos com 12 professores que trabalham em escolas públicas de Barcelona, com mais de 50% de estudantes imigrantes. As técnicas de investigação utilizadas foram entrevistas semiestruturadas e observações não participantes, juntamente com a Análise de Conteúdo correspondente. Os dados recolhidos a partir da ótica intercultural permitiram estabelecer três perfis docentes: o "sensível inclusivo", o "assimilador romântico" e o "queimado-preconceituoso". Essa classificação permite reconhecer a diversidade de posturas existentes nesse coletivo profissional e analisar as necessidades formativas e de suporte mais oportunas em cada caso


Este trabajo presenta una tipificación de los perfiles pedagógicos del profesorado de Educación Física en escuelas multiculturales a partir de sus percepciones, su intervención pedagógica y su trayectoria profesional. Para ello, se ha realizado un estudio de casos múltiple, con doce docentes de escuelas públicas de Barcelona con más del 50% de alumnado inmigrante. Las técnicas de investigación han sido la entrevista semiestructurada y la observación no participante, junto con el correspondiente análisis de contenido. Los datos recogidos, analizados desde la óptica intercultural, han permitido establecer tres perfiles docentes: el "sensible-inclusor", el "romántico-asimilador" y el "quemado-prejuicioso". Esta tipificación permite reconocer la diversidad de posturas existentes entre el colectivo profesional y analizar las necesidades formativas y de apoyo más oportunas en cada caso


This paper presents a categorization of pedagogical profiles of Physical Education teachers in multicultural schools, based on their perceptions, pedagogical interventions and professional histories. A multiple case study was conducted with twelve teachers from public schools in Barcelona where over 50% of students were immigrants. The study used semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation, and then conducted the corresponding content analysis. The data collected were analysed from the cross-cultural point of view, and three teacher profiles were established: "sensitiveinclusive"; "romantic-assimilator"; and "stressed out-prejudiced". This classification allowed us to recognize the diversity of attitudes among these professionals and to analyze the most appropriate training and support needs for each case


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Competência Cultural , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Inclusão Educacional , Docentes , Sociedade Receptora de Migrantes
9.
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 46(4): 154-158, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184303

RESUMO

Introducción: La mujer inmigrante presenta unas características específicas desde el punto de vista sanitario, debido a su procedencia, diferencias culturales y estrato social, que pueden afectar a sus consultas de salud. El ámbito ginecológico y la salud reproductiva son áreas de frecuente consulta en este grupo poblacional. Objetivo: Describir la enfermedad ginecológica por la que consultan las mujeres inmigrantes y definir posibles factores de riesgo. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal sobre las consultas de salud en la esfera ginecológica de las mujeres de origen inmigrante atendidas en la consulta de atención primaria. Estudio comparativo con una muestra de mujeres de origen nacional. Resultados: La mayoría de las pacientes inmigrantes del estudio eran de origen magrebí. La consulta de salud más habitual fueron las vaginitis de origen infeccioso. Hasta un 19% presentaban multiparidad (3 o más embarazos). Estos 2 procesos fueron significativamente mayores que en el colectivo de mujeres de origen nacional con quienes se comparó la muestra. Conclusiones: Las mujeres inmigrantes presentan, en general, una paridad elevada y más infecciones de la esfera ginecológica. Estos factores pueden causar una mayor vulnerabilidad en este colectivo


Introduction: Immigrant women have specific characteristics from the health point of view, due to their origin, cultural differences and social status, which can affect their health consultations. The gynaecological field and reproductive health are areas of frequent consultation by this population group. Objectives: To describe the gynaecological disorders for which immigrant women consult, and to define possible risk factors. Material and methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on gynaecological health consultations by women of immigrant origin seen in the primary care clinic. A comparative study was performed with a sample of women of Spanish origin. Results: The majority of the immigrant patients in the study were of Maghrebi origin. The most common health consultation was vaginitis of infectious origin. Up to 19% were multiparous (3 or more pregnancies) and these 2 processes were significantly greater than in the group of women of national origin in whom the sample was compared. Conclusions: Immigrant women have a high parity, in general, and have more gynaecological infections. These factors can cause greater vulnerability in this group


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Reprodutiva , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Vaginite/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Feminina , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
11.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 606-622, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711400

RESUMO

What Causes Future-Related Stress in Immigrant and German Adolescents and how do they Cope with these Stressors? In the present study, the stress perception and coping of German and immigrant adolescents with regard to future stress were compared. The 1,789 adolescents (164 immigrated, 1,625 German adolescents) at the age of fifteen completed questionnaires on the assessment of stress and coping with regard to future stress. Immigrated youth show a higher stress burden in the domain future than German adolescents. The fear of becoming unemployed was a major stressor in both groups, and both groups were also very active in tackling future-related problems. However, German youths show an even more active approach to coping with future stress and involve parents or friends more often. Migrant youth have higher levels of the coping style withdrawal, especially in emotion regulation and resignative withdrawal. The ability to reflect on the solution of future-related stressors is quite high in both groups. Worries about the increasing destruction of the environment are more important for German youth, while migrant youth care more about how they should reconcile work and family life later.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Emoções , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(23): 13906-13918, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746186

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and other organochlorine compounds, are abundant in the environment and in foodstuffs from the Indian subcontinent. These environmental contaminants have been associated with a higher risk of diabetes in numerous studies. Asian Indians are well known to have a high risk of diabetes compared with other populations, and this risk is also found in migrant populations of Asian Indians in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere. We hypothesized that high plasma concentrations of POPs in Asian Indian migrants are linked to a variety of diabetes-related pathologies and explored the mechanism for the induction of these effects. We measured 30 environmental pollutants in plasma samples obtained from 147 participants in the Metabolic syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America pilot study using a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analytical method that uses less than 0.5 mL of plasma. We found that plasma levels of o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were independently associated with both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Doubling the levels of the sums of these DDTs was associated with insulin insensitivity (-0.38 Matsuda index, p = 0.001), increased adiposity (1.26 kg/m2 BMI and 3.58 cm waist circumference increase, p < 0.0001), circulating insulin (12.9 mIU/L, p = 0.002), hepatic fat (-0.051 HU, p = 0.001), as well as increased odds of obesity (OR = 2.17, p < 0.001, BMI-based; OR = 2.37, p = 0.001, waist-based), prediabetes (OR = 1.55, p = 0.02), diabetes (OR = 1.72, p = 0.01), and fatty liver (OR = 1.66, p = 0.01) in multivariable models accounting for confounding by age, sex, years in the US, education, and fish protein. Furthermore, levels of DDTs were associated with increased hepatic fat and circulating insulin, independent of obesity and confounders. These findings suggest that exposure to DDTs may contribute to the risk of metabolic disease among Asian Indians by affecting hepatic fat levels independent of obesity.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Poluentes Ambientais , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estados Unidos
13.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(668): 1952-1953, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643160
14.
Rev Prat ; 69(6): 679-682, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626434

RESUMO

The health of migrants is a complex issue in public health. In French Guyana, as elsewhere, globalization, through migrants in particular, has transformed the care of diseases previously geographically distant. In this context, the borders now concern the entire territory and not just the peripheries. These borders contribute to the aggravation of the migrants health determinants through the complex and sometimes risky paths that they generate. Transboundary areas are also areas of high vulnerability. However, these cross-border spaces and routes can also constitute health resources, in the original interfaces that they can produce in terms of cooperation promoting shared screening and monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento , Migrantes , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Guiana Francesa , Humanos , Migrantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis
15.
Rev Prat ; 69(5): 550-554, 2019 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626466

RESUMO

The intensification of international migrations questions the national health system: do people who come from elsewhere have specific health needs? Answering this question is difficult on the one hand because of the very great heterogeneity of situations that can cover this "coming from elsewhere", and on the other hand because of the scarcity of available health data depending on the origin. This article brings some elements to answer these questions, starting by defining who are the populations concerned and what is their weight in the French population. From the available scientific literature, it shows that if immigrants are sometimes healthier than natives when they arrive in France, because good health is one of the conditions to "try the adventure elsewhere", this initial robustness can be undermined by the difficult living conditions on arrival in France. In addition, people from countries with limited resources know during their lives in France an "accelerated health transition", chronic diseases and mental disorders taking precedence over infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Emigração e Imigração , França , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
16.
Rev Prat ; 69(5): 555-560, 2019 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626467

RESUMO

The pathologies encountered by migrants are varied and depend on many factors such as sex, age, country of origin, migration conditions, administrative status, living conditions in France and the year of arrival. There are imported diseases such as tuberculosis or chronic hepatitis B, congenital as sickle cell disease, consequent to the difficulties encountered during the migration course -psychological disorders and malnutrition in particular-, acquired on the French territory in connection with hardship like scabies or nearly one in two HIV infections, but also related to the adoption of deleterious dietary habits and the consumption of tobacco and alcohol that can potentiate certain diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. There is no clinical specificity of migrants' health but reflexes to be acquired in relation to the epidemiological and clinical knowledge that varies from one group to another. The frequency of certain often asymptomatic diseases such as hepatitis B, schistosomiasis or hypertension justifies the proposal of a systematic health check-up for all migrants and immigrants. Migration for health reasons remains, for its part, a minority reason for migration to France.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Nível de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Migrantes , França , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos
18.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 09 13.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556496

RESUMO

Mary Mallon (1869-1938) was an Irish immigrant who worked as a cook for rich families in New York. She was responsible for several outbreaks of typhoid fever since she was an asymptomatic carrier of Salmonella typhi. Because of the danger and fear for new outbreaks, she was held in quarantine for years, against her will. What factors contributed to this decision? Was it necessary to keep her isolated? And what was the role of public opinion and media? The history of Mary Mallon is a sad and tragic chapter in medical history, from which we can still draw important lessons.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio , Surtos de Doenças/história , Febre Tifoide/história , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , New York , Quarentena , Salmonella typhi
20.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(5): 791-798, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539336

RESUMO

In the United States, undocumented residents face unique barriers to healthcare access that render them disproportionately dependent on the emergency department (ED) for care. Consequently, ED providers are integral to the health of this vulnerable population. Yet special considerations, both clinical and social, generally fall outside the purview of the emergency medicine curriculum. This paper serves as a primer on caring for undocumented patients in the ED, includes a conceptual framework for immigration as a social determinant of health, reviews unique clinical considerations, and finally suggests a blueprint for immigration-informed emergency care.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos
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