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3.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(329): 23-26, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129401

RESUMO

The mission of the mobile ethnopsychiatry team (EMIE) is to provide consultations to patientsfrom an emigrantbackground whopresent problems of acultural nature. Ayoung Congolese is in the grip of rituals and black magic.Heistorn between his father'sinfluence,his mother'sopinions and his place in the familycircle.His story is aperfect illustration of the specific role of the EMIE in the health and immigrant caresystem.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Transtornos Mentais , Religião e Medicina , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 829, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infection caused by anaerobic pseudofilamentous bacteria or fungi. It is commonly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. Men are more susceptible to the disease due to greater participation in agricultural works. Mycetoma commonly involves lower extremities, wherein untreated cases lead to aggressive therapeutic choices, such as amputation of the affected body organs and consequently lifelong disability. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we present the rare case of a 58-year-old man, originally from Algeria with a left foot chronic tumefaction of 5 years. In the initial clinical examination, mycetoma was diagnosed based on tumefaction and the presence of multiple sinuses with the emission of white grains. The latter was observed via direct examination. The histopathological analysis demonstrated an actinomycetoma caused by bacteria, as the etiological agent. Imaging showed a bone involvement with osteolysis at the levels of 2nd to 4th metatarsal diaphysis. The mycological and bacterial cultures were both negative. For an accurate diagnosis, the obtained grains were subjected to molecular analysis, targeting the 16S-rDNA gene. Molecular identification yielded Actinomadura madurae as the causal agent, and 800/160 mg of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was prescribed twice a day for 1 year, as a treatment. CONCLUSION: Considering low information about this disease, especially in non-endemic areas, it is of high importance to enhance the knowledge and awareness of clinicians and healthcare providers, in particular in the countries with immigration issues.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Micetoma/diagnóstico , Micetoma/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Argélia/etnologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Pé/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micetoma/etnologia , Micetoma/microbiologia , Paris , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(15): 2895-2905, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061804

RESUMO

Background: There are more than 258 million international migrants worldwide and the majority reside in countries with ongoing novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic outbreaks. International migrants may not receive adequate and timely disease information during epidemics, increasing vulnerability to disease transmission. This is one of very limited studies focusing on international migrants' COVID-19 prevention knowledge and attitudes during the epidemic. Methods: A national cross-sectional online survey was conducted across 100 cities and 26 regions in China from February 17 and March 1, 2020. The sample included 1,426 international migrants representing 77 countries and 6 continents. Knowledge was defined as the number of correct responses to questions about COVID-19. Attitudes included worries, expectations, and general preparedness. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions evaluated correlates of knowledge and attitudes including information channels and preferences, and trust in Chinese institutions and groups. Results: Just half of the sample, 730/1426 (51.2%) had a good level of knowledge and 656/1426 (46.0%) had a positive attitude towards the COVID-19 epidemic. Knowledge was associated with receiving information through social media (aOR: 2.0, 95%CI: 1.2-3.2), the Internet (aOR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.2-1.8), the community (aOR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.2-1.8), and encountering language barriers when receiving medical services (aOR: 0.8, 95%CI: 0.7-1.0). Positive attitude was associated with the level of trust in various Chinese institutions and groups. Conclusions: Roughly half of the sample reported inadequate knowledge and poor attitudes toward prevention and control of COVID-19. Tailored public health campaigns are needed to ensure that international migrants possess adequate knowledge to protect their health during future epidemics and disasters.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
6.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193595

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: describir conocimientos y percepciones de profesionales de Atención Primaria sobre el acceso al Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) y la atención sanitaria de la población inmigrante, así como analizar diferencias entre categorías profesionales. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal mediante una encuesta a 352 profesionales sanitarios y no sanitarios en centros de salud de la Comunidad de Madrid, y residentes de Medicina y Enfermería de la Unidad Docente Multiprofesional de Atención Familiar y Comunitaria Sur de Madrid (UDMAFyC Sur) entre febrero y marzo de 2019. RESULTADOS: respondieron 179 profesionales (50,9%). El 50,3% opinó que los inmigrantes tienen frecuentes dificultades de acceso y el 65,9% que el estatus migratorio condiciona su salud, señalando el idioma como barrera relevante el 80,4%. El 72,7% de los sanitarios afirmó que no consumen más recursos. Expresaron nulo/escaso conocimiento del Real Decreto-Ley (RDL) 16/2012 el 72%, y del RDL 7/2018, un 66,7%. Un 30,7% consideró que el RDL 16/2012 tuvo efectos negativos en salud, y el 28,5%, que el RDL 7/2018 recuperó la universalidad. Un 54,9% de sanitarios apoyó la universalidad del SNS, contrastando con el 19,1% de personal no sanitario. CONCLUSIONES: la mitad de profesionales percibe frecuentes dificultades de la población inmigrante en su acceso al SNS, aunque el conocimiento de las normativas es limitado. Una ajustada mayoría respalda la universalidad, existiendo posicionamientos restrictivos con relativa frecuencia, especialmente entre el personal no sanitario. Se reproducen ciertos mitos sobre la atención a población inmigrante, no así acerca del consumo de recursos sanitarios


OBJECTIVES: To report the knowledge and perceptions of Primary Care professionals regarding access to the Spanish National Healthcare System and healthcare assistance provided to the immigrant population, as well as to analyse differences by professional categories. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by sending a questionnaire to 352 professionals: healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) from primary health care centres in the southern region of the Community of Madrid and resident doctors and nurses assigned to this primary healthcare area, from February to March 2019. RESULTS: Overall, 179 professionals (50.9%) replied. Of these, 50.3% thought that migrants face frequent difficulties in access, whereas 65.9% considered that migrants' health is conditioned by their migratory status. Moreover, 80.4% identified language as a relevant barrier and 72.7% of HCWs believed that migrants do not consume more resources. Regarding the Spanish Royal Decree-laws (RDL), 72% admitted having no or little knowledge of Spanish RDL 16/2012, and 66.7% of Spanish RDL 7/2018. However, 30.7% considered that Spanish RDL 16/2012 had negative effects on health, 28.5% agreed that Spanish RDL 7/2018 recovered universal healthcare coverage (UHC). Overall, 54.9% of HCWs support UHC in comparison to 19.1% of non-HCW. CONCLUSIONS: Half the professionals perceive that immigrants encounter frequent difficulties when accessing the Spanish Healthcare System, although their knowledge of legislation is limited. A slight majority supports UHC and finds a large number of restrictive stances, especially among non-HCWs. Certain misconceptions regarding care provided to immigrants persist, but not those related to health resources consumption


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Equidade no Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Percepção Social , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
7.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193597

RESUMO

En 2006 nace una ONG en Boulembou (A 500 km de Dakar), fundada por cooperantes e inmigrantes del pueblo en nuestro país, donde se hicieron estudios para definir el entorno y asambleas y comités para priorizar intervenciones. OBJETIVOS: conocer el funcionamiento de un proyecto comunitario y formar parte de una ONG de codesarrollo, así como obtener y valorar los resultados de sus acciones a medio y largo plazo sobre la población. MÉTODOS: codesarrollo (las personas inmigrantes ayudan en realizar intervenciones en sus países de origen) y salud comunitaria (acciones para mejorar la salud de una comunidad más allá de la individual). RESULTADOS: el pueblo tiene agua potable, huertos, centro de salud (enfermero, comadrona y agentes de salud) y mejoras en la escuela. DISCUSIÓN: el enfoque y las líneas de trabajo realizadas desde un punto de vista comunitario y de codesarrollo han permitido que los proyectos se autogestionen y autofinancien para poder seguir evolucionando y progresando


An NGO was founded in 2006 in Boulembou (located 500 km from Dakar). It was founded by aid workers and immigrants from this town to our country. Studies were performed there to define the setting and to start meetings and committees to prioritize interventions. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the operation of a community project and be part of a co-development NGO in addition to obtaining and evaluating the impact of its actions on the population in the medium and long term. METHODS: Co-development (immigrants assist with development in countries of origin) and community health (actions targeted at improving community health). RESULTS: The town now has drinking water from fountains, orchards and a healthcare centre (with a nurse, midwife and healthcare agents) in addition to school improvements. DISCUSSION: Projects were implemented from a community and co-development point of view and have facilitated self-management and self-financing to continue evolving and progressing by themselves


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Participação da Comunidade , Organizações , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Cooperação Internacional , Senegal , Saúde Pública , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1563, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of research on patterns of cyber-victimization in minority groups, including immigrants. This study aimed to identify individual, interpersonal and contextual characteristics associated with cyber-victimization among immigrants and non-immigrants. METHODS: We drew on nationally representative data from adolescents and adults in the Canadian General Social Survey on victimization (2014). We used multivariable logistic regression to identify potential factors associated with cyber-victimization in the last 12 months, stratified by immigrant status and sex. RESULTS: Among 27,425 survey respondents, the weighted prevalence of cyber-victimization in the last 12 months was 2.1% among immigrants and 2.3% among non-immigrants. Cyber-victimization rates differed significantly by sex among immigrants (2.8% for males vs. 1.4% for females), but not among non-immigrants (2.1% for males vs. 2.4% for females). While most other factors associated with cyber-victimization were similar for immigrants and non-immigrants, there were pronounced associations of past child maltreatment (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [aPOR] 4.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76, 8.52) and residence in an unwelcoming neighbourhood (aPOR 5.08, 95% CI 2.44, 10.55) with cyber-victimization among immigrants that were diminished or absent among non-immigrants. Additionally, sex-stratified analyses among immigrants showed cyber-victimization to be strongly associated with having a mental health condition (aPOR 3.50, 95% CI 1.36, 8.97) among immigrant males only, and with perceived discrimination (aPOR 4.08, 95% CI 1.65, 10.08), as well as being under 24 years old (aPOR 3.24, 95% CI 1.09, 9.60) among immigrant females. CONCLUSIONS: Immigration status and sex were differentially associated with cyber-victimization. Findings support the salience of a social-ecological perspective and gender-stratified analyses to better elucidate complex pathways linking cyber-victimization to potential gender-based health inequities among immigrants.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 743, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a zoonotic infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which affects an estimated 8-11 million people globally. Chagas disease is almost always associated with poverty in rural areas and disproportionately impacts immigrants from Latin America living in the United States. Approximately 20-30% of people who are infected with Chagas disease will develop a chronic form of the infection that can be fatal if left untreated. Chagas disease is vastly underestimated in the United States, often goes undiagnosed and is not well understood by most U.S. healthcare providers. One of the most important ways at reducing barriers to improving diagnostics of Chagas disease in the U.S. is giving healthcare providers the most up-to-date information and access to leading experts. METHODS: An online webinar was conducted for healthcare providers, veterinarians and public health professionals using Chagas disease expert panelists. Pre and post tests were administered to participants (n = 57) to determine the efficacy in raising awareness and to determine key focus areas for improving knowledge. A Wilcoxon rank-sum was used for non-parametric variables equivalent and for questions that assessed knowledge the McNemar's Chi-Square test was used. RESULTS: There were statistically significant learning increases in multiple categories including transmission (p = <.001), clinical presentation (p = 0.016), diagnostics (p = <.001), and treatment (p = <.001). CONCLUSION: Providing easily accessible learning opportunities using validated testing and evaluations should be further developed for rural healthcare providers in the U.S. as well as healthcare providers serving under represented populations such as immigrants. There is a clear lack of knowledge and awareness surrounding Chagas disease in the United States and just by raising awareness and providing education on the topic, lives will be saved.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Educação em Veterinária , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pobreza , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/diagnóstico
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052932

RESUMO

As of August 2020, the United States is the global epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging data suggests that "essential" workers, who are disproportionately more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants, bear a disproportionate degree of risk. We used publicly available data to build a series of spatial autoregressive models assessing county level associations between COVID-19 mortality and (1) percentage of individuals engaged in farm work, (2) percentage of households without a fluent, adult English-speaker, (3) percentage of uninsured individuals under the age of 65, and (4) percentage of individuals living at or below the federal poverty line. We further adjusted these models for total population, population density, and number of days since the first reported case in a given county. We found that across all counties that had reported a case of COVID-19 as of July 12, 2020 (n = 3024), a higher percentage of farmworkers, a higher percentage of residents living in poverty, higher density, higher population, and a higher percentage of residents over the age of 65 were all independently and significantly associated with a higher number of deaths in a county. In urban counties (n = 115), a higher percentage of farmworkers, higher density, and larger population were all associated with a higher number of deaths, while lower rates of insurance coverage in a county was independently associated with fewer deaths. In non-urban counties (n = 2909), these same patterns held true, with higher percentages of residents living in poverty and senior residents also significantly associated with more deaths. Taken together, our findings suggest that farm workers may face unique risks of contracting and dying from COVID-19, and that these risks are independent of poverty, insurance, or linguistic accessibility of COVID-19 health campaigns.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estados Unidos
13.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 09 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Social determinants and health inequalities have a huge impact on health of populations. It is important to study their role in the management of the Covid-19 epidemic, especially in cities, as certain variables like the number of tests and the access to health system cannot be assumed as equal. The aim of this work was to determine the relation of social determinants in the incidence of Covid-19 in the city of Barcelona. METHODS: An observational retrospective ecological study was performed, with the neighbourhood as the population unit, based on data of cumulative incidence published at May 14th, 2020 by the Public Health Agency of Barcelona. Covid-19 incidence disparities depending on the income of the neighbourhoods, the Pearson linear correlation of the variables selected (age, sex, net density, immigrants, comorbidities, smokers, Body Mass Index [BMI] and Available Income per Family Index [AIFI]) with the incidence and the correlation with a multivariant Generalized Linear Model (GLM) were estimated. RESULTS: It was found that neighbourhoods belonging to the lowest quintile of income had a 42% more incidence than those belonging to the highest quintile: 942 cases per 100,000 inhabitants versus 545 per 100,000 inhabitants of the highest quintile. The Pearson correlation was statistically significative between the incidence of Covid-19 and the percentage of population over 75 (r=0.487), the percentage of immigration of the neighbourhood and the origin of the immigrants (r=-0.257), the AIFI (r=-0.462), the percentage of smokers (r=0.243) and the percentage of people with BMI over 25 (r=0.483). The GLM showed that the most correlated variables with the incidence are the percentage of people over 75 (Z-score=0.258), the percentage of people from Maghreb (Z-score=-0.206) and Latin America (Z-score=0.19) and the percentage of people with BMI over 25 (Z-score=0.334). The results of the GLM were significative. CONCLUSIONS: Social determinants are correlated with the modification of the incidence of Covid-19 in the neighbourhoods of Barcelona, with special relevance of the prevalence of BMI over 25 and the percentage of immigrants and its origin.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22015, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899054

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is a global infectious disease. In low-incidence countries, paediatric TB affects mostly immigrant children and children of immigrants. We hypothesize that these children are at risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis when they travel to the country of origin of their parents to visit friends and relatives (VFR). In this study, we aim to estimate the incidence rate and risk factors associated to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB in VFR children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A prospective study will be carried out in collaboration with 21 primary health care centres (PCC) and 5 hospitals in Catalonia, Spain. The study participants are children under 15 years of age, either immigrant themselves or born to immigrant parents, who travel to countries with high incidence of TB (≥ 40 cases/100,000 inhabitants). A sample size of 492 children was calculated. Participants will be recruited before traveling, either during a visit to a travel clinic or to their PCC, where a questionnaire including sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical data will be completed, and a tuberculin skin test (TST) will be performed and read after 48 to 72 hours; patients with a positive TST at baseline will be excluded. A visit will be scheduled eight to twelve-weeks after their return to perform a TST and a QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus test. The incidence rate of LTBI will be estimated per individual/month and person/year per country visited, and also by age-group. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Universitari Mútua Terrassa (code 02/16) and the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Fundació Institut Universitari per a la Recerca a l'Atenció Primària de Salut Jordi Gol i Gurina (code P16/094). Articles will be published in indexed scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical-Trials.gov: NCT04236765.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Latente/transmissão , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Família , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Viagem/tendências , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 660, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894102

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although women comprise 33% of the HIV-1-carriers in Israel, they have not previously been considered a risk group requiring special attention. Immigration waves from countries in Africa and in East Europe may have changed the local landscape of women diagnosed with HIV-1. Here, we aimed to assess viral and demographic characteristics of HIV-1-positive women identified in Israel between 2010 and 2018. METHODS: All > 16 year-old, HIV-1-infected women, diagnosed in Israel in 2010-2018, (n = 763) registered in the National HIV reference laboratory were included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the database. Viral subtypes and transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) were determined in 337 (44.2%) randomly selected samples collected from treatment-naive women. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 38 years. Most (73.3%) women were immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) (41.2%, 314) or sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (32.2%, 246) and carried subtype A (79.7%) or C (90.3%), respectively. Only 11.4% (87) were Israeli-born women. Over the years, the prevalence of women from SSA decreased while that of women from FSU increased significantly (p < 0.001). The median CD4+ cell count was 263 cells/mm3, and higher (391 cells/mm3) in Israeli-born women. TDRM were identified in 10.4% of the tested samples; 1.8, 3 and 7.1% had protease inhibitors (PI), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) TDRM, respectively. The prevalence of women with NNRTI TDRM significantly increased from 4.9% in 2010-2012 to 13.3% in 2016-2018. Israeli-born women had the highest prevalence (16.3%) of NNRTI TDRM (p = 0.014). NRTI A62 (5.6%), NNRTI E138 and K103 (5.6 and 4.2%, respectively) were the most prominent mutated sites. CONCLUSIONS: Most HIV-1-positive women diagnosed in Israel in 2010-2018 were immigrants, with the relative ratio of FSU immigrants increasing in recent years. The high proportion of women diagnosed with resistance mutations, particularly, the yearly increase in the frequency of NNRTI mutations, support the national policy of resistance testing at baseline.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico
17.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3129-3132, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We analyzed differences in 90-day poststroke outcomes between Mexican Americans born in the United States (nonimmigrant) compared with those born outside the United States (immigrant). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospective data from the population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project. We identified stroke cases from 2008 to 2016 and quantified functional, cognitive, and neurological outcomes. Associations between outcome scores and immigration status were analyzed using weighted linear regression models. RESULTS: Eighty-three Mexican American stroke cases (n=935) were immigrants, and 852 stroke cases were nonimmigrants. Average length of stay in the United States for immigrants was 47 years. Immigrants were older (69 versus 66 years), more likely men (60% versus 49%), had less education on average, and were more likely to have atrial fibrillation compared with nonimmigrants. No differences in other comorbidities existed between groups. After adjustment for confounders, immigrants had better functional outcomes (activities of daily living/instrumental activities of daily living; mean difference, -0.22; P=0.02; 1-4, higher scores worse) and no difference in neurological outcomes (log-National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; mean difference, -0.15; P=0.15; 0-44, higher scores worse) or cognitive outcomes (3 Mini-Mental State Examination; mean difference, -0.79; P=0.64; 0-100, lower scores worse). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term Mexican American immigrants in this community display better stroke functional outcomes than nonimmigrant Mexican Americans and comparable neurological and cognitive outcomes.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Escolaridade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
18.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(4): 304-307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921037

RESUMO

It has been hypothesized that bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the anti-tuberculosis vaccine, can be protective against Covid-19. Using data of performed swabs and RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 in the Reggio Emilia province (Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy) from March 6th to March 26th, 2020, we computed age, gender, and place of birth (Italy or abroad) specific risk of being tested, prevalence of positive tests, and probability of testing positive given that a swab has been taken during the epidemic peak. We report that immigrants resident in Reggio Emilia province, mostly coming from Countries with high BCG vaccination coverage, and Italians had a similar prevalence of infection (odds ratio - OR 0.99; 95%CI 0.82-1.20) and similar probability of being tested (OR 0.93; 95%CI 0.81-1.10). Our data do not support the hypothesis that immigrants from Countries where BCG vaccination is recommended have a lower risk of Covid-19 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , África/etnologia , Idoso , Ásia/etnologia , Vacina BCG , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Polônia/etnologia , Prevalência , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Cobertura Vacinal
19.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 267-274, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879191

RESUMO

International immigration into Japan is increasing. It would make sense that investigating the health status of immigrants would be associated with improvements in their health and would be beneficial in building a complete social security system in which minorities can live safely and securely. The objective of this study is to describe the health status of immigrants in Japan and to explore the association between self-rated health status and employment status. As a result, half of those surveyed had some health problem, particularly a lot of mental stress. We did not find a significant relationship between self-rated health status and employment status, but it seems that people who stay in Japan 5 years or more tend to have poor self-rated health status. The factors associated with poor self-rated mental health status were being a non-employee, and having visited a hospital 1 time or more during the past 12 months. A system of mental stress care would be the most necessary health care for international students in Japan.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emprego , Nível de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Autoavaliação , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto Jovem
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