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1.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 350, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589476

RESUMO

Maintaining sufficient cerebral oxygen metabolism is crucial for human survival, especially in challenging conditions such as high-altitudes. Human cognitive neural activity is sensitive to fluctuations in oxygen levels. However, there is a lack of publicly available datasets on human behavioural responses and cerebral dynamics assessments during the execution of conflicting tasks in natural hypoxic environments. We recruited 80 healthy new immigrant volunteers (males, aged 20 ± 2 years) and employed the Stroop cognitive conflict paradigm. After a two-week exposure to both high and low-altitudes, the behavioural performance, prefrontal oxygen levels, and electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded. Comparative analyses were conducted on the behavioural reaction times and accuracy during Stroop tasks, and statistical analyses of participants' prefrontal oxygen levels and EEG signals were performed. We anticipate that our open-access dataset will contribute to the development of monitoring devices and algorithms, designed specifically for measuring cerebral oxygen and EEG dynamics in populations exposed to extreme environments, particularly among individuals suffering from oxygen deficiency.


Assuntos
Altitude , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Oxigênio/análise , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem , Emigrantes e Imigrantes
3.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 20: 17455057241242674, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, there has been an increase of immigrants in Australia. Despite this, the availability of culturally responsive resources and services that cater to their needs remains insufficient. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the resources used and trusted by Mongolian- and Arabic-speaking migrant mothers in Australia for child health information and examine how they navigate and overcome challenges they encounter accessing this information. DESIGN: Semi-structured telephone interview. METHODS: A theory informed semi-structured 60-min telephone interview was conducted in Arabic and Mongolian with 20 Arabic- and 20 Mongolian-speaking migrant mothers of children younger than 2 years or currently pregnant and living in Australia. Data were analysed thematically using the framework method. RESULTS: The reliance on digital platforms such as google emerged as a common trend among both groups of mothers when seeking child health information. Notably, there were differences in resources selection, with Mongolian mothers showing a preference for Australian-based websites, while Arabic-speaking mothers tended to opt for culturally familiar resources. There were various barriers that hindered their access to health services and resources, including language barriers, cost, and limited knowledge or familiarity with their existence. Negative encounters with healthcare professionals contributed to a perception among many mothers that they were unhelpful. Both groups of mothers employed a cross-checking approach across multiple websites to verify trustworthiness of information. Acculturation was shown only among the Mongolian-speaking mothers who adapted their cultural practices in line with their country of residence. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study highlight the importance of addressing the needs of migrant mothers in accessing child health information. Health professionals, government agencies, and researchers have an opportunity to provide culturally responsive support by fostering a culturally inclusive approach to developing and promoting equitable access to services and resources, ultimately enhancing the wellbeing of migrant families.


Barriers and enablers to accessing child health resources and services: Findings from qualitative interviews with Arabic and Mongolian immigrant mothers in AustraliaMothers may experience barriers accessing resources and services related to child health behaviours after migration to Australia. Studies have found that parents actively seek health information and have a significant impact on their child's health behaviours, which can have long-term effects. Various factors influence parental decision-making regarding child health, including the socio-cultural environment, life experiences, and access to services and resources.This study reveals that both Arabic- and Mongolian-speaking migrant mothers heavily depend on online sources for accessing health information, primarily due to various barriers they face when accessing in person services, such as language constraints, financial limitations, and challenges in accessing healthcare services. This article also provides recommendations for future research and initiatives to be considered addressing the challenges faced by migrant mothers in accessing healthcare resources and services.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Austrália , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Mães , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
4.
CMAJ ; 196(12): E394-E409, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies of disparities in birth and postnatal outcomes by parental birthplace combine all immigrants into a single group. We sought to evaluate heterogeneity among immigrants in Canada by comparing birth and postnatal outcomes across different immigration categories. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective study using Statistics Canada data on live births and stillbirths (1993-2017) and infant deaths (1993-2018), linked to parental immigration data (1960-2017). We classified birthing parents as born in Canada, economic-class immigrants, family-class immigrants, or refugees, and evaluated differences in preterm births, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births, stillbirths, and infant deaths among singleton births by group. RESULTS: Among 7 980 650 births, 1 715 050 (21.5%) were to immigrants, including 632 760 (36.9%) in the economic class, 853 540 (49.8%) in the family class, and 228 740 (13.4%) refugees. Compared with infants of Canadian-born birthing parents, infants of each of the 3 immigrant groups had higher risk of preterm birth, SGA birth, and stillbirth, but lower risk of LGA birth and neonatal death. Compared with infants of economic-class immigrants, infants of refugees had higher risk of early preterm birth (0.9% v. 0.8%, adjusted risk ratio [RR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.15) and LGA birth (9.2% v. 7.5%, adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.10-1.15), but lower risk of SGA birth (10.2% v. 11.0%, adjusted RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.90-0.94), while infants of family-class immigrants had higher risk of SGA birth (12.2% v. 11.0%, adjusted RR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02). Risk of stillbirth, neonatal death, and overall infant death did not differ significantly among immigrant groups. INTERPRETATION: Heterogeneity exists in outcomes of infants born to immigrants to Canada across immigration categories. These results highlight the importance of disaggregating immigrant populations in studies of health disparities.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Morte Perinatal , Nascimento Prematuro , Lactente , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Pais , Mortalidade Infantil , Morte do Lactente , Peso ao Nascer
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298369, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626038

RESUMO

The NIMH-funded Multilevel Community-Based Mental Health Intervention to Address Structural Inequities and Adverse Disparate Consequences of COVID-19 Pandemic on Latinx Immigrants and African Refugees study aims to advance the science of multilevel interventions to reduce the disparate, adverse mental health, behavioral, and socioeconomic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic that are a result of complex interactions between underlying structural inequities and barriers to health care. The study tests three nested levels of intervention: 1) an efficacious 4-month advocacy and mutual learning model (Refugee and Immigrant Well-being Project, RIWP); 2) engagement with community-based organizations (CBOs); and 3) structural policy changes enacted in response to the pandemic. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) study builds on long-standing collaboration with five CBOs. By including 240 Latinx immigrants and 60 African refugees recruited from CBO partners who are randomly assigned to treatment-as-usual CBO involvement or the RIWP intervention and a comparison group comprised of a random sample of 300 Latinx immigrants, this mixed methods longitudinal waitlist control group design study with seven time points over 36 months tests the effectiveness of the RIWP intervention and engagement with CBOs to reduce psychological distress, daily stressors, and economic precarity and increase protective factors (social support, access to resources, English proficiency, cultural connectedness). The study also tests the ability of the RIWP intervention and engagement with CBOs to increase access to the direct benefits of structural interventions. This paper reports on the theoretical basis, design, qualitative and quantitative analysis plan, and power for the study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Refugiados , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Refugiados/psicologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hispânico ou Latino
6.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 44(1): [100485], Ene-Mar, 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231911

RESUMO

Objetivo: explorar mediante una revisión sistemática de la evidencia disponible en la literatura publicada qué factores se han mostrado en investigaciones realizadas que puedan influir en la decisión tomada por inmigrantes de segunda generación menores de 18 años sobre el mantenimiento de la lengua de herencia. Asimismo, registrar cuál es la relación encontrada entre el desarrollo de la identidad étnica y el mantenimiento de la lengua de herencia en dichos miembros de una comunidad diáspora. Material y métodos: mediante una revisión sistemática con búsqueda de bibliografía en la base de datos ProQuest en idiomas inglés y español se seleccionaron 128 artículos, de los cuales se excluyeron 94 por población inadecuada o distinta pregunta de investigación y 20 tras la revisión completa del texto. Tras estos pasos, resultaron 14 artículos para el análisis cualitativo. Resultados: entre los factores que se han observado en la literatura publicada que muestran una relación de influencia positiva con el mantenimiento de la lengua de herencia destacan las actitudes y creencias hacia la lengua, el dominio lingüístico, el estatus de la lengua de herencia y la presencia de una comunidad diáspora; mientras que no se ha encontrado consenso acerca de la influencia de las características culturales de cada grupo étnico. En cuanto a la formación de la identidad de estos inmigrantes de segunda generación, se encuentra que estos individuos forman una identidad híbrida. Conclusiones: se observa que el mantenimiento de la lengua de herencia podría resultar un factor beneficioso para el desarrollo de la identidad étnica, sin embargo, no constituye un factor suficiente en sí mismo para asegurar una identidad étnica positiva. Se deben tener en cuenta otros factores que afectan en dicha decisión tomada por los sujetos de estudio..(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Etnicidade , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Cultura
7.
Vaccine ; 42(11): 2793-2800, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Research on immigrant and refugee vaccination uptake in Canada shows that immunization decisions vary by vaccine type, location, age and migration status. Despite their diversity, these studies often treat immigrant and refugee populations as a single group relative to other Canadians. In this comparative study, we explored how previous risk communication and immunization experiences influence immunization decisions by immigrant and refugee women from three communities across Canada. METHODS: Participants included women from the Punjabi immigrant community located in Surrey and Abbotsford, British Columbia (n = 36), the Nigerian immigrant community located in Winnipeg, Manitoba (n = 43), and the Congolese refugee community in Edmonton, Alberta (n = 18). Using focus groups guided by focused ethnography methodology, we sought to understand immunization experiences in Canada and before arrival, and what information sources influenced the immunization decision-making process by the women in the three communities. RESULTS: Participants had differing past experiences in Canada and before their arrival that influenced how they used information in their vaccination decisions. Clear vaccination communications and dialogue with Canadian health care providers increased trust in Canadian health care and the likelihood of vaccine uptake. By contrast, weak vaccine recommendations and antivaccination information in the community prompted participants to decline future vaccines. CONCLUSION: Given our participants' different communication preferences and needs, we argue that a one-size-fits-all communication approach is inappropriate for immigrant and refugee populations. Instead, multi-pronged communication strategies are required to reach participants and respond to previous experiences and information that may lead to vaccination hesitancy.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Vacinação , Feminino , Humanos , Alberta , Vacinação/psicologia , Refugiados
8.
Can J Dent Hyg ; 58(1): 34-47, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505317

RESUMO

Background: Immigrants to Canada count among the socially disadvantaged groups experiencing higher rates of oral disease. Culturally competent oral health care providers (OHCPs) stand to be allies for immigrant oral health. The literature reveals limited knowledge of practising OHCPs' cultural competency, and little synthesis of the topic has been completed. A scoping review is warranted to identify and map current knowledge of OHCPs' understanding of culturally competent care along with barriers and facilitators to developing capacity. Methods: This study was conducted between December 2022 and April 2023 using Arksey and O'Malley's 5-step framework and PRISMA-ScR checklist. Four databases were searched using keywords related to 4 themes: population, provider, oral health, and cultural competence. Peer-reviewed articles published in English in the last 10 years were included. Results: Search results yielded 74 articles. Title and abstract review was completed and an author-developed critical appraisal tool was applied. Forty-six (46) articles were subject to full-text review and 14 met eligibility criteria: 7 qualitative and 7 quantitative. Six barriers and six facilitators at individual and systemic levels were identified, affecting oral care for immigrants and providers' ability to work cross-culturally. Discussion: Lack of cultural or linguistically appropriate resources, guidance, and structural supports were identified as contributing to low utilization of services and to lack of familiarity between providers and immigrants. Conclusion: OHCPs' cultural competency development is required to improve oral health care access and outcomes for diverse populations. Further research is warranted to identify factors impeding OHCPs' capacity to provide culturally sensitive care. Intentional policy development and knowledge mobilization are needed.


Contexte : Les immigrants au Canada comptent parmi les groupes socialement défavorisés qui connaissent des taux plus élevés de maladies buccodentaires. Les fournisseurs de soins buccodentaires culturellement adaptés sont des alliés pour la santé buccodentaire des immigrants. La documentation révèle une connaissance limitée de la compétence culturelle des fournisseurs de soins buccodentaires en pratique, et peu de synthèse du sujet a été effectuée. Un examen de la portée est nécessaire pour déterminer et mettre en correspondance les connaissances actuelles des fournisseurs de soins buccodentaires sur la compréhension des soins culturellement adaptés ainsi que les obstacles et les facteurs favorables au renforcement des capacités. Méthodes: Cette étude a été menée entre décembre 2022 et avril 2023 à l'aide du cadre en 5 étapes d'Arksey et O'Malley et de la liste de vérification PRISMA-SCr. Pour ce faire, 4 bases de données ont été consultées à l'aide de mots clés liés à 4 thèmes : population, fournisseur, santé buccodentaire et compétence culturelle. Les articles évalués par les pairs publiés en anglais au cours des 10 dernières années ont été inclus. Résultats: La recherche a rapporté 74 articles. Un examen des titres et des résumés a été effectué et un outil d'évaluation critique élaboré par l'auteur a été utilisé. En tout, 46 articles ont fait l'objet d'un examen du texte intégral et 14 répondaient aux critères d'admissibilité : 7 qualitatifs et 7 quantitatifs. À partir de ces articles, 6 obstacles et 6 facteurs favorables aux niveaux individuel et systémique ont été cernés; ceux-ci ont un effet sur les soins buccodentaires des immigrants et à la capacité des fournisseurs de travailler de façon interculturelle. Discussion: Le manque de ressources, d'orientation et de soutien structurel culturellement ou linguistiquement appropriés a été identifié comme contribuant à une faible utilisation des services et à un manque de familiarité entre les fournisseurs et les immigrants. Conclusion: Le perfectionnement des compétences culturelles des fournisseurs de soins buccodentaires est nécessaire pour améliorer l'accès aux soins de santé buccodentaire et les résultats pour diverses populations. D'autres recherches sont nécessaires pour cerner les facteurs qui nuisent à la capacité des fournisseurs de soins buccodentaires de fournir des soins adaptés à la culture. L'élaboration délibérée de politiques et la mobilisation des connaissances sont nécessaires.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Humanos , Canadá , Saúde Bucal , Pessoal de Saúde
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 819, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite increasing studies on mental health among immigrants, there are limited studies using nationally representative samples to examine immigrants' mental health and its potential biopsychosocial contributing factors, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored and estimated the influence of life satisfaction, social/emotional support, and other biopsychosocial factors on self-reported anxiety/depression symptoms among a nationally representative sample of first-generation immigrants in the U.S. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis using the 2021 National Health Interview Survey among first-generation adults aged ≥ 18 years (n = 4295). We applied survey weights and developed multivariable logistic regression model to evaluate the study objective. RESULTS: The prevalence of daily, weekly, or monthly anxiety/depression symptoms was 10.22% in the first-generation immigrant population. There were 2.04% daily, 3.27% weekly, and 4.91% monthly anxiety/depression among the population: about 8.20%, 9.94%, and 9.60% experienced anxiety symptoms, whereas 2.49%, 3.54%, and 5.34% experienced depression symptoms daily, weekly, and monthly, respectively. The first-generation population aged 26-49 years were less likely to experience anxiety/depression daily, weekly, or monthly compared to those aged 18-25. Females (versus males) were more likely to experience anxiety/depression daily, weekly, or monthly. Those who identified as gay/lesbian had higher odds of experiencing anxiety/depression daily, weekly, or monthly compared to heterosexual persons. Relative to non-Hispanic White individuals, non-Hispanic Asian, Black/African American, and Hispanic individuals had lower odds, while other/multi-racial/ethnic groups were more likely to experience anxiety/depression daily, weekly, or monthly. A higher life satisfaction score was associated with lower odds of experiencing anxiety/depression daily, weekly, or monthly. Having social/emotional support sometimes/rarely or using healthcare within the past one/two years was associated with experiencing anxiety/depression daily, weekly, or monthly. CONCLUSIONS: The findings reveal significant burden of anxiety and depression among first-generation population in the U.S., with higher risks among subgroups like young adults, females, sexual minorities, and non-Hispanic White and other/multi-racial individuals. Additionally, individuals with lower life satisfaction scores, limited social/emotional support, or healthcare utilization in the past one or two years present increased risk. These findings highlight the need for personalized mental health screening and interventions for first-generation individuals in the U.S. based on their diversity and health-related risks.


Assuntos
Depressão , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia
10.
J Safety Res ; 88: 366-373, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485379

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the transportation needs of immigrants is crucial for the design and promotion of safe, equitable, and sustainable living environments. This study examines the transportation patterns from a sample of Recent Latinx Immigrants (RLIs) upon arrival to Miami/Dade Co (MDC), Florida. METHODS: Collected between 2018 and 2021, data came from a longitudinal study examining drinking and driving trajectories among 540 RLIs to MDC. Retrospective pre-immigration data (T0) were obtained simultaneously with the first-year post-immigration data (T1). Follow up surveys were conducted one year later, before (T2-BC) or during a pandemic lockout (T2-DC), and two years later (T3). Descriptive and repeated measures mixed-model regression were used to examine the data. RESULTS: Driving declined from T0 to T1, although remained higher than previously reported for other locations. Not having a valid driver's license was the main reason for the decline. The initial reduction in driving was paralleled by an increase in the use of transit, riding as passengers in private vehicles, and walking. A year later (T2), as RLIs' income and access to a driver's license grew, driving rates increased (even during the pandemic lockdown), while the use of other transportation modes decreased. A year after the pandemic lockdown (T3), driving as well as the use of other transportation modes receded. Reasons for this decline are unclear. CONCLUSIONS: RLIs reported elevated driving rates upon their arrival to MDC. The COVID-19 pandemic seems to have altered the RLIs' transportation patterns, provoking an overall decline in mobility that lasted even after the pandemic lockdown ceased. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Transportation planners working on developing safe and equitable transportation systems in MDC should: (1) identify and address barriers to the use of transportation modes other than driving by RLIs; and (2) understand reasons for the broad decline in transportation modes after the pandemic lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Humanos , Florida/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Hispânico ou Latino
11.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2024: 5573068, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38434933

RESUMO

Background: Data on the economic burden of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) among immigrants are limited. Our objective was to estimate the CHC-attributable mortality and healthcare costs among immigrants in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We conducted a population-based matched cohort study among immigrants diagnosed with CHC between May 31, 2003, and December 31, 2018, using linked health administrative data. Immigrants with CHC (exposed) were matched 1 : 1 to immigrants without CHC (unexposed) using a combination of hard (index date, sex, and age) and propensity-score matching. Net costs (2020 Canadian dollars) collected from the healthcare payer perspective were calculated using a phase-of-care approach and used to estimate long-term costs adjusted for survival. Results: We matched 5,575 exposed individuals with unexposed controls, achieving a balanced match. The mean age was 47 years, and 52% was male. On average, 10.5% of exposed and 3.5% of unexposed individuals died 15 years postindex (relative risk = 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.6-3.5). The net 30-day costs per person were $88 (95% CI: 55 to 122) for the prediagnosis, $324 (95% CI: 291 to 356) for the initial phase, $1,016 (95% CI: 900 to 1,132) for the late phase, and $975 (95% CI: -25 to 1,974) for the terminal phase. The mean net healthcare cost adjusted for survival at 15 years was $90,448. Conclusions: Compared to unexposed immigrants, immigrants infected with CHC have higher mortality rates and greater healthcare costs. These findings will support the planning of HCV elimination efforts among key risk groups in the province.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Hepatite C , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Coortes , Hepacivirus , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Ontário/epidemiologia
13.
New Solut ; 34(1): 38-51, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483872

RESUMO

Racialized immigrants in Canada have been disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Our qualitative, community-based study with South Asian Women and Immigrants' Services examined the impact of the second and third waves of the pandemic on the work and health of precariously employed Bangladeshi immigrant women and men in Toronto. Our study is based on interviews and focus group discussions with 45 workers, all conducted in Bangla, and 11 key informants. Interviews reveal work transitions, an increase in precarity, work in essential sectors, exposures at work, home and in transit, workplace prevention and management gaps, and an inability to take time off, with significant impacts on workers' physical and mental health. We discuss the implications of our findings for prevention, preparedness, and response by workplaces and governments to decrease the risk and reduce the impact of infectious diseases emergencies in the precarious work sector.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Pandemias , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Child Abuse Negl ; 151: 106718, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite existing literature on the link between bullying victimization and psychological well-being, little is known about the potential lasting negative effects of chronic bullying victimization, especially among children from multicultural families (CMF). OBJECTIVE: This study examined the longitudinal association between chronic bullying victimization and life satisfaction among CMF in Korea, and further investigated whether this association differs by immigrant mothers' country of origin. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: This study utilized data from the Multicultural Adolescents Panel Study (MAPS) 2011-2019, a nationally representative longitudinal study of CMF in Korea who were between the ages of 9 and 12 at baseline (N = 1375). METHODS: Fixed effects models were employed to address potential bias resulting from unobserved time-invariant confounders. Three theoretical models were proposed to examine the trajectory patterns of change in life satisfaction among chronically bullied children: cumulative effects, immediate-sustained effects, and short-lived effects models. RESULTS: The longitudinal trajectories of change in life satisfaction associated with chronic bullying victimization were consistent with an immediate-sustained effects model. Heterogeneous patterns in the association by mothers' country of origin were observed. A cumulative effects model was supported for children with Southeast Asian mothers, indicating that chronic bullying victimization leads to a cumulative decrease in life satisfaction. For children with Chinese and Japanese mothers, the results supported either immediate-sustained or short-lived effects models. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to improve the psychological well-being of CMF should consider the potential long-term risk of chronic bullying victimization, particularly among youth with mothers from Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Criança , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Bullying/psicologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal
15.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606289, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440081

RESUMO

Objectives: To compare the utilization of prenatal services between immigrant and Italian women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at 3 maternity care centers in Italy. Results: We included 1,312 women, 1,198 (91.3%) were Italian and 114 (8.7%) were immigrants. A significantly higher proportion of Italians underwent 8 or more prenatal care visits (64.4% vs. 54.4%, p = 0.03) and more immigrants than Italians attended their appointments at hospital settings (45% vs. 18%, p < 0.001). Regarding prenatal course, Italians were more likely than immigrants to attend a non-hospital setting or an online class (49.6% and 30.2% vs. 34.9% and 11.6%, p = 0.008). A higher influenza vaccine uptake among immigrants compared with Italians was observed (39.5% vs. 19.8%, p < 0.001). Among women not receiving certain prenatal services, immigrants were more likely to state COVID-19 pandemic was the main reason for non-compliance. Conclusion: Immigrant pregnant women were more likely to receive prenatal services at a hospital setting than their Italian counterparts. Among women who did not comply with prenatal services, immigrants were more likely to cite the pandemic as their main reason.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , População Europeia , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal
16.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 53(2): 23, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446283

RESUMO

Research on first language (L1) attrition typically focuses on immigrant populations in their second language (L2) environment, yet we know comparably little about L1 attrition in the L1 setting. This study used two lexical tasks to test L1 attrition, a time-sensitive word decision task and a video retelling. Chinese teachers of English vs. Chinese teachers of other subjects (N = 25/group) were recruited at a secondary school in China. The aim was to provide an exploratory basis of the L2 influence on L1 lexical attrition in the L1 environment, both on the level of lexical comprehension and production. Mixed-effects models were used to analyse multiple measures including response accuracy and reaction times in comprehension, and lexical diversity, density, sophistication, and accuracy in production. The results showed Chinese teachers' L1 lexical attrition in the form of longer response times to high-frequency Chinese words compared to non-English Chinese teachers, and the use of significantly fewer sophisticated words in their retellings. Also, teachers of English were faster and more accurate in decisions about Chinese borrowings from English, suggesting L2-driven influence on their mental lexicon. Considering participants' background information, analyses showed that increased L2 exposure and frequency of use can predict L1 lexical attrition.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Humanos , China , Idioma , Tempo de Reação
18.
Demography ; 61(2): 463-491, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506307

RESUMO

Migration scholars have long regarded the trajectory of the third generation as a critical test of assimilation; however, scholarship to date has been limited and largely focused on socioeconomic attainment. In this article, we rely on a large dataset of adolescent respondents in England, Germany, and the Netherlands to compare the second and third generations in terms of their social networks and cultural identities. The third generation shows stronger ties to the native fourth-plus generation alongside weaker ties to coethnics. We document comparable, albeit more moderate, dynamics of assimilation over generations in regard to national and ethnic identification, along with substantial variation by country of destination and ethnic origin group. Our results point to a dominant trend of assimilation at the third generation and suggest future challenges to provide a more durable assessment of postwar migration waves two generations after settlement.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Migrantes , Adolescente , Humanos , Demografia , Dinâmica Populacional , Emigração e Imigração , Países Desenvolvidos , Europa (Continente)
19.
Demography ; 61(2): 569-593, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506316

RESUMO

Although growing research has emphasized the critical importance of studying returns for understanding various aspects of migration processes, knowledge regarding return migrants' fertility behaviors remains limited. This study addresses this knowledge gap by comparing rates of first births and completed fertility among three groups: nonmigrants (at origin), migrants, and return migrants. Using extensive data collected both in the home regions and at destination, we analyze female migration from Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana, and Réunion Island to metropolitan France (European France). We find intermediate fertility behaviors for return migrants relative to nonmigrants and migrants: on average, completed fertility levels are lower among return migrants than nonmigrants but slightly higher among return migrants than migrants. Some of these differences can be attributed to selection into migration and return, although significant gaps persist among women with similar socioeconomic characteristics. Our findings highlight three key observations. First, when migrants return before beginning childbearing, their transition to motherhood closely resembles that of nonmigrants with similar characteristics. Second, the lower fertility rates among prospective return migrants indicate an anticipation of disruption effects. Finally, reduced fertility while residing in metropolitan France translates into lower completed fertility rates for return migrants.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Migrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Demografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Emigração e Imigração , Fertilidade , Economia
20.
Ethn Health ; 29(3): 353-370, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest an increased prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases among African immigrants with increased length of stay in the U.S. The objective of the current study is to understand the dietary practices and perceptions of recent African immigrant families. DESIGN: Focus group sessions were conducted with Nigerian and Congolese immigrant parents residing in Illinois. Participants were recruited using convenience sampling methods and focus group sessions were conducted via videoconference. Participants discussed dietary practices, meal preparation, and family mealtimes for their families. They also discussed experiences with eating different kinds of foods since arrival in the U.S. Verbatim transcription of focus group sessions were completed and deductive thematic analysis of transcribed data was conducted using NVivo (QSR International Pty Ltd. [2020] NVivo [version 12]). RESULTS: Twenty African immigrant parents (Mean age: 42 years, Female: 95%) residing in Northern and Central Illinois participated in a total of five focus group sessions. Seven themes were derived from the analysis. Participants had a positive attitude toward healthy diet and had a high level of interest in receiving educational resources to make healthier food choices. Participants preferred and mostly consumed foods they were familiar with before migration. A majority of the participants perceived 'American foods' as unhealthy, characterizing them as containing a high amount of sugar and salt. Parents reported that their school-aged children often preferred a western diet over traditional African meals. CONCLUSION: This study helps to understand unique diet-related practices and perceptions of recent Nigerian and Congolese African immigrants in Illinois. Findings could help to inform cultural adaptation of evidence-based nutrition education programs for these groups of African immigrants.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Comportamento Alimentar , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Nigéria , Congo , Dieta , Illinois
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