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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180314, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101976

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the Empathic Orientation in Nursing students of the Universidad Metropolitana of Barranquilla (Colombia). Method: a descriptive, exploratory and transversal study in which the Jefferson Medical Empathy Scale in an anonymous and confidential manner was applied to 489 students from the first to fourth undergraduate year of the Nursing Program of the Universidad Metropolitana (Barranquilla, Colombia); the corresponding ethical and methodological rigor was kept. Results: the ANOVA results were not significant in the Academic Year factor and in the interaction (p=0.261), but significant by Gender. It was observed that behavior was different in both genders. The masculine gender tends to descend between the first and third undergraduate year and female gender also descends between first and second undergraduate year to later reach the average levels of empathy of the male gender. Conclusion: the results obtained show that the means of the variable studied do not show a great difference between the different undergraduate courses, nevertheless, a slight increase in the fourth undergraduate year is observed. There were significant differences between genders, the scores observed in men students were higher than those obtained from women students.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a orientação empática em estudantes de enfermagem da Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla (Colombia). Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório e transversal, no qual a Escala de Empatia Médica de Jefferson, de forma anônima e confidencial, foi aplicada a 489 alunos do primeiro ao quarto ano de graduação do Programa de Enfermagem da Universidad Metropolitana (Barranquilla, Colombia). o rigor ético e metodológico correspondente foi mantido. Resultados: os resultados da ANOVA não foram significativos no fator Ano Acadêmico e na interação (p=0,261), mas significativos por Gênero. Observou-se que o comportamento foi diferente em ambos os sexos. O gênero masculino tende a descer entre o primeiro e o terceiro ano de graduação e o gênero feminino também desce entre o primeiro e o segundo ano de graduação para atingir posteriormente os níveis médios de empatia do gênero masculino. Conclusão: os resultados obtidos mostram que as médias da variável estudada não apresentam grande diferença entre os diferentes cursos de graduação. no entanto, observa-se um ligeiro aumento no quarto ano de graduação. Houve diferenças significativas entre os sexos, os escores observados nos estudantes do sexo masculino foram superiores aos obtidos nas estudantes do sexo feminino.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar la orientación empática en estudiantes de enfermería de la Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla (Colombia). Método: un estudio descriptivo, exploratorio y transversal en el que se aplicó la Escala de Empatía Médica de Jefferson de forma anónima y confidencial a 489 estudiantes del primer a cuarto año de pregrado del Programa de Enfermería de la Universidad Metropolitana (Barranquilla, Colombia); guardando el rigor ético y metodológico correspondiente. Resultados: los resultados de ANOVA no fueron significativos en el factor Año Académico y su interacción (p=0.261), pero significativos para género. Se observó que el comportamiento fue diferente en ambos géneros. El género masculino tiende a descender entre el primer y tercer año de pregrado, y el Género femenino también desciende entre el primer y segundo año de pregrado para luego alcanzar los niveles promedio de empatía del género masculino. Conclusión: los resultados obtenidos muestran que las medias de la variable estudiada no muestran gran diferencia entre los diferentes cursos de pregrado, sin embargo, se observa un ligero aumento en el cuarto año de pregrado. Hubo diferencias significativas entre géneros, las puntuaciones observadas en los estudiantes hombres fueron más altas que las obtenidas en las mujeres estudiantes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem , Empatia , Estudantes , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Universidades , Comportamento
2.
Home Healthc Now ; 38(6): 327-330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165103

RESUMO

Gaining patient trust has been shown to improve health outcomes. Trust between the patient and the clinician starts with the clinician demonstrating empathy and positive attributes such as kindness and approachability. The advent of COVID-19 and the need for clinicians, patients, and caregivers to wear masks at all times has unintentionally limited nonverbal communication and potentially affected the ability of clinicians to quickly gain patients' and caregivers' trust. With so much time being spent on reeducating clinicians on infection control and donning and doffing personal protective equipment, agencies must not lose sight of the need to ensure that clinicians understand how to improve their communication skills while wearing a mask. This article provides tips on ways to use verbal and nonverbal communication to demonstrate empathy and to build trust in patient interactions to offset the difficulties wearing a mask can impose.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Relações Médico-Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Confiança
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198084

RESUMO

Emergency situations have been associated with negative psychological adjustment outcomes in healthcare professionals, although studies on the impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic amongst Italian health workers are limited. The main aim of this study was to investigate the psychological adjustment of healthcare professionals during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating differences according to working or not with patients affected by COVID-19 and in areas with a more severe spread of this pandemic. Healthcare professionals' attitudes toward psychological support were analyzed. The levels of anxiety, depression, psychological stress, and professional quality of life (compassion satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue) and attitudes toward psychological support were measured among 627 Italian healthcare workers (mean age = 40.55 years; SD = 11.49; range: 27-72). Significantly higher levels of stress, burnout, secondary trauma, anxiety, and depression were observed among professionals working with COVID-19 patients. Higher levels of stress and burnout and lower levels of compassion satisfaction were detected in professionals working in areas with higher rates of contagion. No interaction effects were found between working (or not) with patients affected by COVID-19 and working (or not) in areas with a more severe diffusion of this pandemic. Finally, in the group of professionals who worked with COVID-19 patients, the percentage of professionals who thought to ask for psychological support was twice that of the group that did not work with COVID-19 patients. The overall findings indicate that the mental health of frontline healthcare workers requires further consideration and that targeted prevention and intervention programs are necessary.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Fadiga por Compaixão , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Empatia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida
4.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(328): 34-40, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039091

RESUMO

Ethical questioning and reflection are a requirement for the psychiatric caregiver, a particular discipline which is both clinical and political. Ethics is a safeguard that allows the professional to refocus on the core of their profession. It is not synonymous with morality and is situational. It is a combat sport against oneself and against those who reduce the patient to a human-machine to be repaired.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psiquiatria/ética , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/ética , Empatia/ética , Humanos
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1027-1030, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018160

RESUMO

Empathy which can understand and respond to the unique affective experiences of others plays an essential role in social interaction. Although many neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying empathy for social pain, how its mechanisms are modulated by trait empathy remains unknown. The present event-related potential (ERP) study used Chatroom Interact Task to examine how trait empathy modulates brain response to empathy for social rejection. The behavior results showed that participants were less pleasant when observing rejection compared to observing acceptance in both high- and low-levels empathy groups. The ERP results revealed more negative-going N2 for social acceptance compared to rejection in both groups, but there was no difference in N2 between high- and low- empathy group. However, the late components, i.e., the P3b, N400 and LPP, revealed significant difference between social acceptance and rejection in high empathic participants rather than low empathic participants. These findings suggested that individuals with high empathic traits could devote more attention and mental resources to process observing ostracism.


Assuntos
Empatia , Distância Social , Encéfalo , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Med Ref Serv Q ; 39(4): 399-405, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085949

RESUMO

When COVID-19 was recognized as a global pandemic and offices, clinics, and academic centers closed in the spring of 2020, many librarians found themselves answering reference questions, teaching, meeting, facilitating access to information resources, and organizing resources remotely. In the transition from traditional offices and workspaces to work from home, librarians and their administrations faced many challenges and adapted to a variety of new technologies. Video-conferencing and phone-forwarding tools were being used in new ways or for the first time. Instead of addressing technology that librarians adopted or adapted in greater numbers during the global pandemic, this column will examine an attitude of care and approach to technology called "compassionate computing" that helped ease the transition to work from home during an unprecedented time.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Empatia , Bibliotecários/psicologia , Bibliotecas Médicas/organização & administração , Serviços de Biblioteca/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027308

RESUMO

Adolescence is a formative phase for social development. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated regulations have led to many changes in adolescents' lives, including limited opportunities for social interactions. The current exploratory study investigated the effect of the first weeks of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on Dutch adolescents' (N = 53 with attrition, N = 36 without attrition) mood, empathy, and prosocial behavior. Longitudinal analyses comparing pre-pandemic measures to a three-week peri-pandemic daily diary study showed (i) decreases in empathic concern, opportunities for prosocial actions, and tension, (ii) stable levels of social value orientation, altruism, and dire prosociality, and (iii) increased levels of perspective-taking and vigor during the first weeks of lockdown. Second, this study investigated peri-pandemic effects of familiarity, need, and deservedness on giving behavior. To this end, we utilized novel hypothetical Dictator Games with ecologically valid targets associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Adolescents showed higher levels of giving to a friend (a familiar other, about 51% of the total share), a doctor in a hospital (deserving target, 78%), and individuals with COVID-19 or a poor immune system (targets in need, 69 and 63%, respectively) compared to an unfamiliar peer (39%) This suggests that during the pandemic need and deservedness had a greater influence on adolescent giving than familiarity. Overall, this study demonstrates detrimental effects of the first weeks of lockdown on adolescents' empathic concern and opportunities for prosocial actions, which are important predictors of healthy socio-emotional development. However, adolescents also showed marked resilience and a willingness to benefit others as a result of the lockdown, as evidenced by improved perspective-taking and mood, and high sensitivity to need and deservedness in giving to others.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Afeto , Altruísmo , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Empatia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diários como Assunto , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Grupo Associado , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3779-3782, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018824

RESUMO

In this paper, a perception-empathy biofeedback (PEBF) system is proposed that supplements the foot pressure status of a paralyzed foot with a wearable vibrotactile biofeedback (BF) vest to the back. Improvements in the ankle dorsiflexion and push-off movement in the swing phase and pre-swing phase, respectively, can be expected after using the proposed system. However, the results of the 3 week pilot clinical tests suggest that significant improvement is only observed for the push-off movement. It is assumed that the attention required to recognize the BF was beyond the ability of the patients. In this paper, a dual task (40 s walking and performing mental arithmetic at the same time) was conducted with the following conditions: no vibrations and providing BF to the lower back and the entire back. According to the results, the ankle joint angle of the paralyzed side at push-off under the entire back condition is statistically significant (p = 0.0780); however, there are no significant changes under the lower back condition (p = 0.4998). Moreover, the ankle joint angle of the paralyzed side at the initial contact is statistically significant with respect to the lower back condition (p = 0.0233) and shows a significant trend for the entire back condition (p = 0.0730). The results suggest that the limited attention capacity of hemiplegic patients fails to improve both dorsiflexion and push-off movements; moreover, ankle motion can be promoted if attention is concentrated on recognizing focalized vibratory feedback patterns.


Assuntos
Empatia , Vibração , Atenção , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Humanos , Caminhada
13.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1275-1284, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999206

RESUMO

In April 2018, as part of their fifth-year pre-clinical education curriculum, pharmacy students at Setsunan University attended a lecture presented by hepatitis B patients and their lawyer entitled "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients". This lecture was intended to help the students to understand the circumstances and difficulties encountered by hepatitis B patients on a daily basis. For this study, we conducted questionnaire surveys of the pharmacy students before and after the lecture. The survey items pertained to students' knowledge about hepatitis B (e.g., its spread and infection possibility in daily life). Students' responses before and after the lecture varied depending on the survey topic. Hepatitis B knowledge acquired by the students in their junior year increased after the lecture; moreover, attitudes to hepatitis B patients and understanding of the difficulties and prejudice that they experienced showed a significant change. For example, responses to the items, "Feel sympathy for patients suffering from discrimination and prejudice" and "Hard to work…" were much more sympathetic after the lecture; additionally, students were less likely to "Fear infection when near patients" and more likely "… to associate with patients". Thus, the "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients" had a significant impact on the pharmacy students' perceptions of these patients, allowing them to cultivate greater empathy. From an educational standpoint, it is of the utmost importance for pharmacy/medical students to develop their humanity as members of healthcare teams. Educational real-world experiences, such as the "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients", provide opportunities for this development.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Empatia , Hepatite B/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Pacientes/psicologia , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Currículo , Humanos , Conhecimento , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 865-876, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880405

RESUMO

Levels of personal anxiety are inevitably escalating in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including individual fear of infection, grief at the loss of loved ones and reactive depression related to loss of employment and livelihood. This article considers the importance of compassion in a range of contemporary and emerging contexts during a time of pandemic. These include: exposure of medical and care professionals to the acute demands of overstretched institutions resulting in adverse mental health outcomes and compassion fatigue; attitudes towards the burgeoning cohort of welfare recipients; and particularly vulnerable groups such as the elderly, and those who are homeless. The article considers how we ought to conceive of compassion in these contexts and makes some suggestions for building future compassion interventions and training.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Empatia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933019

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychological impact of confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic, considering any protective factors, such as the practice of meditation or self-compassion, and their relationship with different lifestyles and circumstances of adults residing in Spain. A cross-sectional study was done using an anonymous online survey in which 412 participants filled out the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-2; the Impact of Events Scale; and the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form, reporting severe symptomatology of posttraumatic stress and mild anxiety and depression. Quality of cohabitation and age were found to be key variables in the psychological impact of confinement. The impact of confinement was more negative for those who reported very poor cohabitation as opposed to very good (F (3, 405) = 30.75, p ≤ 0.001, d = 2.44, r = 0.054) or for those under 35 years of age compared to those over 46 (F (2, 409) = 5.14, p = 0.006, d = 0.36). Practicing meditation was not revealed as a protective factor, but self-compassion was related to better cohabitation during confinement (F (3, 403) = 11.83, p ≤ 0.001, d = 1.05). These results could be relevant in designing psychological interventions to improve coping and mental health in other situations similar to confinement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Meditação , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Empatia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Espanha
18.
Rev Infirm ; 69(263): 30-31, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993902

RESUMO

The body at the boundaries of care and ethics. The body is the site of a variety of explorations, from the most basic to the most sophisticated imaging examinations, to provide a diagnosis, monitor the evolution of a pathology or decide on a therapy. For the patient, the examination is an ordeal, as is the wait for the results. In their role in providing images for clinicians, medical imaging professionals must ensure that they adopt an ethical approach showing compassion towards the person whose body is undergoing investigation.


Assuntos
Empatia , Corpo Humano , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886710

RESUMO

The present study focuses on an analysis of the efficacy of the online intervention program called "Hero" for promoting prosociality and other socioemotional variables related to prosocial behavior, such as empathy, positive emotions, and forgiveness, in two Latin American countries: Argentina and Uruguay. The final Argentinean sample consisted of 579 adolescents (experimental group = 319 and control group = 260), and the Uruguayan sample consisted of 330 adolescents (experimental group = 140 and control group = 169), aged 12 to 15 years old. The 'Hero' program provided evidence of efficacy for the promotion of prosociality, empathy, positive emotions, and attitudes of forgiveness. It impacted each of the dimensions comprising these variables differently depending on the country where it was applied. We discuss the differences found in each country.


Assuntos
Empatia/ética , Perdão/ética , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/tendências , Adolescente , Argentina , Atitude , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Resultado do Tratamento , Uruguai
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872244

RESUMO

In the last decade, we have seen a growth of Compassionate Communities and Cities (CCC) at the end of life. There has been an evolution of organizations that help construct Community-Based Palliative Care programs. The objective is to analyze the implementation, methodology and effectiveness of the CCC models at the end of life. We conducted a systematic review following PRISMA ScR Guideline. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42017068501). Five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) were searched for studies (from 2000 to 2018) using set eligibility criteria. Three reviewers screened full-texts articles and extracted study data. Outcomes were filled in a registration form which included a narrative synthesis of each article. We screened 1975 records. We retrieved 112 articles and included 31 articles for the final analysis: 17 descriptive studies, 4 interventions studies, 4 reviews and 6 qualitative studies. A total of 11 studies regard the development models of CCC at the end of life, 15 studies were about evaluation of compassionate communities' programs and 5 studies were about protocols for the development of CCC programs. There is poor evidence of the implementation and evaluation models of CCC at the end of life. There is little and low-/very low-quality evidence about CCC development and assessment models. We found no data published on care intervention in advance disease and end of life. A global model for the development and evaluation of CCC at the end of life seems to be necessary.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias , Empatia , Cuidados Paliativos , Cidades , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Assistência Terminal/organização & administração
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