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1.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 253-264, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202549

RESUMO

Ambivalent sexism is a multidimensional construct composed of two elements: hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. The main aim of this study is to analyse the acceptance of ambivalent sexist attitudes in a sample of future teachers from Spain and Latin America. The research is based on a quantitative methodological strategy. The sample is composed of 2798 trainee teachers, and their mean age is 22.62 years (SD = 6.23), they were residing in seven countries: Spain, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina and Mexico. The data collection technique was the structured questionnaire. The results show that ambivalent sexist attitudes exist to a varying degree in future teachers of every country. The assumption of sexism varies significantly between men and women and among countries. There seems to be a relationship between levels of sexism with indices of gender inequality and human development. Education institutions are not exempt from obstacles and gender bias that impede the attainment of equality between women and men. Sexist attitudes of teachers can be transmitted through the education system and the socialization process, so including gender issues in initial and in service teacher training plans is essential


El sexismo ambivalente es un constructo multidimensional compuesto por dos componentes: el sexismo hostil y el sexismo benévolo. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar la aceptación de las actitudes sexistas ambivalentes en una muestra de futuros y futuras docentes de España y Latinoamérica. En la investigación participaron 2798 docentes en formación con una edad media de 22.62 años (DE = 6.23) que residían en siete países: España, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina y México. Los resultados muestran que las actitudes sexistas están presentes, con diferentes grados de aceptación, en el profesorado en formación de todos los países. La aceptación del sexismo varía significativamente entre hombres y mujeres y entre los países de la muestra. Parece existir una relación entre los niveles de sexismo y los índices de desigualdad de género y desarrollo humano. Las actitudes sexistas del profesorado pueden transmitirse a través del sistema educativo y de los procesos de socialización, por lo que es fundamental incluir la perspectiva de género en los planes de formación inicial y continua del profesorado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Capacitação de Professores , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Sexuais , Sexismo/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Valores de Referência , Hostilidade , Empatia , Espanha , América Latina
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199315

RESUMO

Expanding on the literature on rapport-building behavior within the airline industry, this study analyzed the influence of rapport-building behaviors (uncommonly attentive behavior, common-grounding behavior, courteous behavior, connecting behavior, and information-sharing behavior) on cabin crew members' empathy toward their colleagues. We also analyzed the effect of empathy on variables such as team performance, organizational atmosphere, and instances of irregularity. We analyzed 230 samples obtained from an online questionnaire and convenience sampling of full-service domestic and international carriers in South Korea. A structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that uncommonly attentive behavior, courteous behavior, connecting behavior, and information-sharing behavior showed a positive effect on empathy among colleagues, which in turn positively influenced team performance, organizational atmosphere, and possible irregularities. Moreover, we found that the presence of participants' closest colleagues within the same team did not moderate the relationship between rapport-building and empathic behavior between airline crew members. Our study has important implications for crew members' dignity and protection from emotional labor while working in high-pressure environments. Our findings can be used to revise the airline industry's crew management guidelines and improve the crew's psychological health and quality of life.


Assuntos
Empatia , Qualidade de Vida , Atmosfera , Humanos , Saúde Mental , República da Coreia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201236

RESUMO

The emotions that human beings experience have a key role in the environments in which they operate. In art education, creative processes are influenced by the emotions and experiences lived by the individual, enabling a more emotional and creative design to make life more pleasant. The aim was to examine the research during the period 1917-2020 on the development of emotional creativity in art education. Mathematical and statistical techniques were applied to 984 articles carried from Elsevier's Scopus database. The findings yielded data on the scientific productivity of the journal, authors, research institutions, and countries/territories that promoted this field. The data showed an exponential trend, mostly in the last decade. Five lines of research stand out: emotion, higher education, education, art, and leadership. Moreover, five future research directions related to visual art education, affective paradigm, metacompetency, expressive arts therapy group, and cognitive empathy were detected. This study establishes the link between psychology, neuroscience, and artistic education to constitute the decision-making of the promoters of this topic of research. The analysis of international research allowed us to focus the future publications of academics and researchers, in addition to guaranteeing an adequate approach to the objectives of the institutions and funding centers.


Assuntos
Terapia pela Arte , Arte , Criatividade , Emoções , Empatia , Humanos
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 709, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare work is known to be stressful and challenging, and there are recognised links between the psychological health of staff and high-quality patient care. Schwartz Center Rounds® (Rounds) were developed to support healthcare staff to re-connect with their values through peer reflection, and to promote more compassionate patient care. Research to date has focussed on self-report surveys that measure satisfaction with Rounds but provide little analysis of how Rounds 'work' to produce their reported outcomes, how differing contexts may impact on this, nor make explicit the underlying theories in the conceptualisation and implementation of Rounds. METHODS: Realist evaluation methods aimed to identify how Rounds work, for whom and in what contexts to deliver outcomes. We interviewed 97 key informants: mentors, facilitators, panellists and steering group members, using framework analysis to organise and analyse our data using realist logic. We identified mechanisms by which Rounds lead to outcomes, and contextual factors that impacted on this relationship, using formal theory to explain these findings. RESULTS: Four stages of Rounds were identified. We describe how, why and for whom Schwartz Rounds work through the relationships between nine partial programme theories. These include: trust safety and containment; group interaction; counter-cultural/3rd space for staff; self-disclosure; story-telling; role modelling vulnerability; contextualising patients and staff; shining a spotlight on hidden stories and roles; and reflection and resonance. There was variability in the way Rounds were run across organisations. Attendance for some staff was difficult. Rounds is likely to be a 'slow intervention' the impact of which develops over time. We identified the conditions needed for Rounds to work optimally. These contextual factors influence the intensity and therefore degree to which the key ingredients of Rounds (mechanisms) are activated along a continuum, to produce outcomes. Outcomes included: greater tolerance, empathy and compassion for self and others; increased honesty, openness, and resilience; improved teamwork and organisational change. CONCLUSIONS: Where optimally implemented, Rounds provide staff with a safe, reflective and confidential space to talk and support one another, the consequences of which include increased empathy and compassion for colleagues and patients, and positive changes to practice.


Assuntos
Empatia , Visitas com Preceptor , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional , Assistência ao Paciente
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 378, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among Chinese medical students, there is a high prevalence of mental health-related issues and low empathy. Effective strategies to improve this situation are lacking. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of the intervention courses designed to enhance the mental health and empathy of senior Chinese medical students. METHODS: A total of 146 3rd - and 4th -year medical students were randomized to an intervention group (n = 74) and a control group (n = 72). A pilot study including 5 pre-clinical students and 5 interns was first carried out to determine the themes and content of the intervention courses. The designed courses were delivered in the intervention group once a month three times, while the control group had no specific intervention. Five self-assessment questionnaires, including the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) scale, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 8 (SF-8), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Care Provider Student version (JSE-HPS), were completed by the students before and one month after the courses to evaluate their levels of self-efficacy (SE), quality of life (QoL), depression, burnout, and empathy, respectively. Qualitative data were collected via e-mail two years after the intervention. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed significantly higher scores for empathy (111.0 [IQR 102.0, 118.0] vs. 106.0 [IQR 93.0, 111.5]; P = .01) and QoL (32.0 [IQR 28.0, 35.0] vs. 29.5 [IQR 26.0, 34.0]; P = .04). The rate of depression was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (13.5 % vs. 29.2 %; chi-square test, P = .02). However, no significant differences in self-efficacy (25.6 ± 4.8 vs. 24.3 ± 6.3; P = .16) or burnout (27.0 % vs. 34.7 %; Chi-square test, P = .31) were observed between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention courses had a positive impact on mental well-being and empathy in senior Chinese medical students, which might help provide novel information for their incorporation into the medical school curriculum. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02645643; Date of registration: 05/01/2016.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Estudantes de Medicina , China , Empatia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Projetos Piloto
6.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(6): 499-513, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP program in reducing psychopathic traits among male detained youth. METHOD: In this controlled trial, a treatment group (n = 58) and a control group (n = 61) answered the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short (YPIS) and the Proposed Specifiers for Conduct Disorder (PSCD) at baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Treatment participants attended the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP; controls only received Treatment As Usual (TAU). Treatment effects were tested with latent growth curve models (LGCM). RESULTS: At baseline, no significant differences between groups were found. Results from LGCM showed that condition was a significant predictor of change over time observed in almost all outcome measures. Concerning the YPIS, treatment participants presented a significant decrease both in the total score and in the YPIS factors scores when compared with the controls (medium/large effect sizes; growth modeling analysis-GMA d ranging from .58 to 1.12). Considering the PSCD, treatment participants also showed a significant decrease both in the total score and in the PSCD factors scores (except for the grandiose-manipulative factor) when compared with controls (medium effect sizes; GMA d ranging from .53 to .72). Results also showed that treatment effects were maintained 6 months after the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP completion. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP is a promising treatment approach to reduce psychopathic traits among male detained youth, suggesting that interventions targeting these traits should be considered in their rehabilitation, as the absence of tailored interventions may increase the levels of psychopathic traits and their associated risks. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Empatia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 48(3): 241-249, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286934

RESUMO

Nephrology nurses are not immune to the effects of a stressful work environment. As a result, their emotional and psychological health can be at risk. In addition, there has been unprecedented stress and uncertainty working as nephrology nurses during the pandemic. These stressors can have negative effects on nurses' health, resulting in burnout and/or compassion fatigue, which can lead to nurses leaving nephrology or the nursing profession. Mindfulness has been suggested as a strategy to mitigate work-related stressors and build a more resilient workforce. Our experience suggests that combining self-compassion practices with mindfulness is also effective. Mindfulness may be beneficial for nephrology nurses, but its use does not negate the need for organizations to address the structural system issues that also contribute to burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Atenção Plena , Nefrologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Resiliência Psicológica , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Empatia , Humanos
8.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(4): 368-370, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264845

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, medical students were removed from clinical clerkships. During this time of uncertainty, 4 clinical medical students at the University of Michigan returned to the community to support their neighbors experiencing homelessness. They did so by making brown bag lunches for people sleeping on the streets and acting as community volunteers in temporary shelters. Though formal education was stalled, they reconnected with the initial desire that led them to pursue medical education in the first place and developed key skills in communication, relating to others, and compassion that they believe will enable them to become better physicians in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Estudantes de Medicina , Voluntários , Comunicação , Empatia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Almoço , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254501, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Two randomized controlled experiments investigated if writing a narrative text about a fictional person who shows disapproved of behavior in the Covid-19 pandemic influenced empathy, perspective-taking, attitude, and attribution of causes regarding that person's behavior. METHODS: In both studies, a fictional scenario was described, and participants answered questions regarding empathy, perspective-taking, attitude, and attribution regarding a fictional person's disapproved of behavior (pre-post-measurement). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the experimental condition, they wrote a narrative text about the fictional person. In the control condition, they wrote about an unrelated topic. RESULTS: We found that writing a narrative text increased empathy more strongly than writing about an unrelated topic; Study 1: p = 0.004, part.η2 = 0.06, Study 2: p < .001, part.η2 = 0.19. This did not apply to perspective-taking; Study 1: p = 0.415; Study 2: p = 0.074. We also found that writing a narrative text about a fictional person resulted in a more positive attitude toward this person; Study 1: p = 0.005, part.η2 = 0.06; Study 2: p<0.001, part.η2 = 0.10. Finally, in Study 2 we found that participants who wrote a narrative text attributed the person's behavior to internal causes to a lesser degree; p = 0.007, part.η2 = 0.05. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that empathy and attitude are positively modifiable through narrative writing tasks. Empathy training could potentially prevent discrimination related to Covid-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The studies presented in this article were pre-registered on the pre-registration platform AsPredicted (aspredicted.org) before we began data collection; registration numbers and URL: #44754 https://aspredicted.org/vx37t.pdf (Study 1), and #44753 https://aspredicted.org/ig7kq.pdf (Study 2).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Empatia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Narração , Redação , Humanos
11.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 39(2): [e07], 15 junio 2021. table 1, table 2, table 3, table 4, table 5
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1254615

RESUMO

Objective. This research sets out the effects of a training method based on peer tutoring, aimed at developing empathy among nursing students at the University of Barcelona (Spain). Methods. After initial training, students are matched in pairs with similar level of empathy, exchanging the role of tutor and tutee in every session, during 12 sessions. Before the session, the tutor prepares the activities to work with his or her tutee, following this structure: exploration of prior knowledge, explanation, practical activities, feedback, and reflection. Jefferson Scale of Empathy was administered as pre-test and post-test to 76 nursing students, 40 in the intervention group, and 36 in the comparison group. Following a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design, a quantitative study (a quasi-experimental design with a comparison group) was combined with a qualitative study (interaction analysis of the 12 videotaped sessions). Results. The results revealed statistically significant improvements in empathy in the intervention group. Subsequent analysis of the peer tutoring interaction highlighted the specific actions that had resulted in these improvements and generated a context in which the tutee was able to understand complex concepts, while enabling both students to participate, reflect and discuss. Conclusion. Peer tutoring is an effective method for the development of empathy in nursing students.


Objetivo. Esta investigación evaluó los efectos de un método de formación basado en la tutoría entre iguales, destinado al desarrollo de la empatía en estudiantes de enfermería de la universidad de Barcelona (España). Métodos. Después de la formación inicial, los estudiantes son emparejados con compañeros con un nivel similar de empatía, intercambiando el papel de tutor y tutorado en cada sesión, durante 12 sesiones. Antes de cada sesión, el tutor prepara las actividades para trabajar con su tutorado, siguiendo esta estructura: exploración de conocimientos previos, explicación, actividades prácticas, retroalimentación y reflexión. Se administró la Escala de Empatía de Jefferson, en forma de pre y postest a 76 estudiantes de enfermería: 40 en el grupo de intervención y 36 en el grupo de comparación. Siguiendo el método mixto de diseño explicativo secuencial, se combinó un estudio cuantitativo (un diseño cuasiexperimental con grupo de comparación) con un estudio cualitativo (análisis de interacción de las 12 sesiones grabadas en video). Resultados. Los resultados revelaron mejoras estadísticamente significativas en la empatía en el grupo de intervención. El análisis posterior de la interacción en las parejas de tutoría entre iguales puso de relieve las acciones específicas que habían dado lugar a estas mejoras y generando un contexto en el que el tutorado era capaz de entender conceptos complejos, al tiempo que permitía a ambos estudiantes participar, reflexionar y discutir. Conclusión. La tutoría entre iguales es un método eficaz para el desarrollo de la empatía en los estudiantes de enfermería.


Objetivo. Esta pesquisa avaliou os efeitos de um método de treinamento baseado em tutoria entre pares, com o objetivo de desenvolver empatia em estudantes de enfermagem da Universidade de Barcelona (Espanha). Métodos. Após a formação inicial, os alunos são colocados em pares com pares com um nível de empatia semelhante, trocando o papel de tutor e estudante em cada sessão, durante 12 sessões. Antes de cada sessão, o tutor prepara as atividades para trabalhar com o seu estudante, seguindo esta estrutura: exploração dos conhecimentos anteriores, explicação, atividades práticas, feedback e reflexão. A Escala de Empatia de Jefferson foi administrada em forma de pré e pós-teste a 76 estudantes de enfermagem: 40 no grupo de intervenção e 36 no grupo de comparação. Seguindo o método misto de desenho explicativo sequencial, um estudo quantitativo (um desenho quase experimental com um grupo de comparação) foi combinado com um estudo qualitativo (análise de interação das 12 sessões gravadas em vídeo). Resultados. Os resultados revelaram melhorias estatisticamente significativas na empatia no grupo de intervenção. A análise subsequente da interação nos pares de tutoria de pares destacou as ações específicas que levaram a essas melhorias e gerou um contexto em que o estudante foi capaz de compreender conceitos complexos, permitindo que ambos os alunos participassem, refletissem e discutissem. Conclusão. A tutoria entre pares é um método eficaz para desenvolver empatia em estudantes de enfermagem.


Assuntos
Humanos , Grupo Associado , Psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem , Empatia , Aprendizagem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067852

RESUMO

Empathy is a concept associated with various positive outcomes. However, to measure such a multifaceted concept, valid and reliable tools are needed. Negatively worded items (NWIs) are suspected to decrease some psychometric parameters of assessment instruments, which complicates the research of empathy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the factor structure and validity of the TEQ on the Czech population, including the influence of the NWIs. Data were collected from three surveys. In total, 2239 Czech participants were included in our study. Along with socio-demographic information, we measured empathy, neuroticism, spirituality, self-esteem, compassion and social desirability. NWI in general yielded low communalities, factor loadings and decreased internal consistency. Therefore, in the next steps, we tested the model consisting of their positively reformulated versions. A higher empathy was found in females, married and religious individuals. We further found positive associations between empathy, compassion and spirituality. After the sample was split in half, exploratory factor analysis of the model with reformulated items was followed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), which supported a unidimensional solution with good internal consistency: Cronbach's α = 0.85 and McDonald's ω = 0.85. The CFA indicated an acceptable fit χ2 (14) = 83.630; p < 0.001; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.995; RMSEA = 0.070; SRMR = 0.037. The Czech version of the TEQ is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of empathy. The use of NWIs in Czech or in a similar language environment seems to be questionable and their rewording may represent a more reliable approach.


Assuntos
Empatia , Idioma , República Tcheca , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 315, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of oral diseases in people with dementia has increased, and patients with dementia have worse oral health than people without dementia. However, in the provision of oral care, these patients often exhibit care-resistant behaviours. Empathy is important for health care professionals who provide dental care for people with dementia. A study was conducted to assess whether a multimodal comprehensive care methodology training programme, Humanitude™, was associated with an improvement in empathy for people with dementia among oral health care professionals. METHODS: This research was a pre-post prospective study. A total of 45 dentists and dental hygienists participated in a 7-h multimodal comprehensive care methodology training programme. Participants' empathy for their patients was evaluated with the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Health Professionals Version (JSPE-HP) before the training and 1 month after the training (primary outcome). Each participant listed 3 patients with poor oral health due to the refusal of usual oral care or dental treatment from his or her clinical practice. The oral health of the 3 care-resistant patients listed by each participant was evaluated by the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT) before the training and 1 month after the training (secondary outcome). RESULTS: The post-training response rate was 87% (21 dentists and 18 dental hygienists). From pre-training to post-training, the multimodal comprehensive care methodology training significantly increased the mean empathy score (from 113.97 to 122.95, P < 0.05, effect size = 0.9). Regardless of gender, profession and years of clinical experience, all post-training subgroup scores were higher than the pre-training subgroup scores. The tongue, natural teeth, and oral hygiene scores of patients with dementia who resisted usual oral care or dental treatment, as assessed by the OHAT, were significantly improved compared with those before the training. CONCLUSIONS: The multimodal comprehensive care methodology training was associated with an improvement in oral health professionals' empathy for patients with dementia. These findings suggest that randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes will be needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR), UMIN000041687 . Registered 4 September 2020 - Retrospectively registered, https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000047586.


Assuntos
Demência , Empatia , Demência/terapia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 316, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empathy, which involves understanding another person's experiences and concerns, is an important component for developing physicians' overall competence. This longitudinal study was designed to test the hypothesis that medical students' empathy can be enhanced and sustained by Humanitude Care Methodology, which focuses on perception, emotion and speech. METHODS: This six-year longitudinal observational study examined 115 students who entered Okayama University Medical School in 2013. The study participants were exposed to two empathy-enhancing programs: (1) a communication skills training program (involving medical interviews) and (2) a Humanitude training program aimed at enhancing their empathy. They completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) seven times: when they entered medical school, before participation in the first program (medical interview), immediately after the first program, before the second program (Humanitude exercise), immediately after the second program, and in the 5th and 6th year (last year) of medical school. A total of 79 students (69% of the cohort) completed all seven test administrations of the JSE. RESULTS: The mean JSE scores improved significantly after participation in the medical interview program (p < 0.01) and the Humanitude training program (p = 0.001). However, neither program showed a sustained effect. CONCLUSIONS: The Humanitude training program as well as medical interview training program, had significant short-term positive effects for improving empathy among medical students. Additional reinforcements may be necessary for a long-term sustained effect.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Empatia , Humanos , Japão , Estudos Longitudinais , Faculdades de Medicina
16.
Orv Hetil ; 162(23): 897-904, 2021 06 06.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091436

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. A járvánnyal szembeni védekezés során mindennapossá vált a maszkhasználat, amely jelentos kihívást jelent a hétköznapi kommunikációs helyzetekben. Az egészségügy bizonyos területein korábban is jelen volt ez a probléma, azonban a most általános érvényu, folyamatos maszkviselés és védoruha-használat szimbolikus és gyakorlati értelemben is akadályként jelenik meg az orvos és a páciens között, ami több szinten nehezíti a hatékony kapcsolatteremtést és kommunikációt. Ezért szükségessé vált olyan egységes kommunikációs protokollok kidolgozása, amelyek segítik a bizalmi kapcsolat kiépítését az egészségügyben úgy, hogy az ellátók érzelmi elérhetosége és a biztonságos fizikai távolságtartás egyszerre valósuljon meg. Tanulmányunk célja, hogy a kurrens szakirodalom áttekintése révén összefoglaljuk a maszkviselés és a védoruha-használat hatásait az orvos-beteg kommunikációra és a kapcsolatban megjeleno bizalomra és empátiás folyamatokra, valamint fel kívánjuk hívni a figyelmet az egészségügyi személyzetet éro hatásokra is. Célunk továbbá, hogy a hazai és nemzetközi tapasztalatokat figyelembe véve olyan ajánlásokat fogalmazzunk meg, melyek segítségével javítható az egészségügyi dolgozók kommunikációja, azon keresztül pedig az ellátás legfontosabb szereploinek, a betegeknek és az ellátóknak az elégedettsége a kapcsolattal. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(23): 897-904. Summary. In the fight against the epidemic, the use of masks has become commonplace, which is a significant challenge in everyday communication situations. This problem has been present in some areas of healthcare in the past, but today's universal use of masks and personal protective equipment (PPE) is both a symbolic and practical barrier between doctor and patient, making it difficult to establish an effective communication and connectivity on several levels. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop unified communication protocols that help building a relationship of trust in healthcare so that emotional availability of providers and safe physical distance are achieved simultaneously. The aim of our study is to summarize the effects of mask wearing and PPE usage on the physician-patient communication and also the trust and empathy processes that emerge within the relationship through the review of the current literature. We would also like to draw attention to the effects on healthcare staff. Our goal is also to formulate recommendations, taking into account domestic and international experience, that can be used to improve the communication of healthcare professionals, and through that, the satisfaction of the most important actors in care, patients and caregivers. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(23): 897-904.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Comunicação , Empatia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Confiança
17.
J Christ Nurs ; 38(3): E25-E27, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085664

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Compassion fatigue has become a more significant concern as nurses have cared for patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of compassion fatigue are detrimental for both nurses and their patients. Both administrative and individual actions can be taken to assess, prevent, and deal with compassion fatigue. Spiritual facets of recognizing the potential for and managing the problem are presented.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Fadiga por Compaixão/psicologia , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , COVID-19/enfermagem , Empatia , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Qualidade de Vida
18.
Soins Psychiatr ; 42(334): 24-27, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144755

RESUMO

Empathy for patients is not only learned through reasoning, but also through sensitivity. Art, reflecting the human emotional dimension, has its place as an educational resource in the training of health professionals. Caregivers must be competent to collect the psychological pain associated with suicidal risk, which is a prerequisite for any preventive action. Since facilitating empathy also protects against burn-out, there is much to be gained by promoting educational programs of artistic observation.


Assuntos
Empatia , Suicídio , Cuidadores , Emoções , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
19.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 68: 181-189, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091136

RESUMO

Empathy is an essential function for humans as social animals. Emotional contagion, the basic form of afffective empathy, comprises the cognitive process of perceiving and sharing the affective state of others. The observational fear assay, an animal model of emotional contagion, has enabled researchers to undertake molecular, cellular, and circuit mechanism of this behavior. Such studies have revealed that observational fear is mediated through neural circuits involved in processing the affective dimension of direct pain experiences. A mouse can also respond to milder social stimuli induced by either positive or negative emotional changes in another mouse, which seems not dependent on the affective pain circuits. Further studies should explore how different neural circuits contribute to integrating different dimensions of affective empathy.


Assuntos
Empatia , Roedores , Altruísmo , Animais , Emoções , Medo , Camundongos , Comportamento Social
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e045988, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Compassion is a key indicator of quality care that is reportedly eroding from patients' care experience. While the need to assess compassion is recognised, valid and reliable measures are lacking. This study developed and validated a clinically informed, psychometrically rigorous, patient-reported compassion measure. DESIGN: Data were collected from participants living with life-limiting illnesses over two study phases across four care settings (acute care, hospice, long term care (LTC) and homecare). In phase 1, data were analysed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), with the final items analysed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in phase 2. The Schwartz Center Compassionate Care Scale (SCCCS), the revised Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS-r) and Picker Patient Experience Questionnaire (PPEQ) were also administered in phase 2 to assess convergent and divergent validity. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 633 participants were recruited over two study phases. In the EFA phase, a 54-item version of the measure was administered to 303 participants, with 330 participants being administered the final 15-item measure in the CFA phase. RESULTS: Both EFA and CFA confirmed compassion as a single factor construct with factor loadings for the 15-item measure ranging from 0.76 to 0.86, with excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.74-0.89) and excellent internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha of 0.96). The measure was positively correlated with the SCCCS (r=0.75, p<0.001) and PPEQ (r=0.60, p<0.001). Participants reporting higher experiences of compassion had significantly greater well-being and lower depression on the ESAS-r. Patients in acute care and hospice reported significantly greater experiences of compassion than LTC residents. CONCLUSIONS: There is strong initial psychometric evidence for the Sinclair Compassion Questionnaire (SCQ) as a valid and reliable patient-reported compassion measure. The SCQ provides healthcare providers, settings and administrators the means to routinely measure patients experiences of compassion, while providing researchers a robust measure to conduct high-quality research.


Assuntos
Empatia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Atenção à Saúde , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
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