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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105547, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194901

RESUMO

Emotional helping-that is, helping based on others' emotional distress-has been suggested to be a central prosocial response to others in need. Developmental theorizing proposed that emotional helping has social origins. Whereas research indeed demonstrated a link between maternal sensitivity and children's emotional helping, developmental theories stress different mediating processes. Emotion-sharing theories claim empathic concern to be the crucial link for helping, whereas internalization theories base children's helping on children's compliance. To investigate these hypotheses, the current study explored empathy and compliance as two possible mediators for the relation between maternal sensitivity and children's emotional helping at 18 months of age. Overall, maternal sensitivity was positively related to children's empathy, children's compliance, and children's emotional helping. Interestingly, children's empathy-but not children's compliance-mediated the link between maternal sensitivity and children's emotional helping. These findings deepen our understanding of the psychological processes subserving emotional helping during infancy and support theories that stress the socioemotional origins of children's prosocial behavior.


Assuntos
Emoções , Empatia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Altruísmo , Comportamento de Ajuda
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105561, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202013

RESUMO

Justice sensitivity (JS), the tendency to perceive and adversely respond to injustice, was related to prosocial behavior in different age groups and to distributive preferences in adults. To test influences of JS on sharing and distributive preferences, middle childhood as an important phase for moral development may be particularly interesting. We asked 1320 5- to 12-year-old children (M = 8.05 years, SD = 1.02; 51.2 % girls, 1.3 % transgender and gender-nonconforming) to read five vignettes that made salient the different principles of distributive justice (equality, merit, and need) and to distribute imaginary sweets between themselves and one described child (sharing) or between two described children (distributing). Children also rated their JS, and parents rated children's theory of mind (ToM) abilities and empathy. More concerns for justice for the self (victim JS) predicted distributions following the merit principle and a preference for need over equality and merit when forced to choose among the three. Caring for justice for others (altruistic JS) predicted more sharing, equal distributions, less distributions according to the merit principle, and a preference for equal distributions over merit and need when forced to choose among the three. These associations prevailed when ToM and empathy were included as control variables. The findings underline the importance of justice-related personality traits, such as JS, for moral development in middle childhood.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Moral , Justiça Social , Adulto , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Empatia
3.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 49(1): 3-19, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459413

RESUMO

Like adults, children experience less empathy toward some groups compared with others. In this investigation, we propose that mothers differ in how much empathy they want their children to feel toward specific outgroups, depending on their political ideology. We suggest that how mothers want their children to feel (i.e., the motivation for their child's empathy), in turn, is correlated with children's actual experience of empathy toward the outgroup. Across four studies in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (NTotal = 734), the degree of empathy mothers wanted their children to experience in the intergroup context varied as a function of their political ideology. Mothers' motivation for their child's empathy toward the outgroup (but not in general) was further associated with how they chose to communicate messages to their children in a real-life context and how children actually felt toward the outgroup. We discuss implications for the socialization of intergroup empathy.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho , Socialização , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Empatia
4.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116612, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323122

RESUMO

This study conducted randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of an environmental education class and the impacts of nudges and boosts implemented in this program on high school students' basic knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding environmental issues in Japan. This environmental education class consisted of a lecture on reducing the use of plastic products for energy conservation in daily life, a board game for learning how to reduce plastic waste, and a worksheet for reflection. Four types of worksheets were randomly distributed: nudges, in which students were asked to set a goal regarding their level of effort in not throwing away plastic products such as plastic bags, wet wipes, and plastic bottles; boosts, in which participants were asked to write an essay to help increase their empathy for the parties impacted by environmental issues; both nudges and boosts; and none (neither nudges nor boosts). After environmental education, an end-line survey was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this class. This study found that the environmental education class significantly improved students' basic environmental knowledge and promoted their concerns about plastic waste. Although there was no evidence that nudges and boosts amplify the effects of the environmental education class on the students' knowledge, nudges were successful in making them more concerned about plastic waste. The results showed that students who received nudges or boosts were more likely to refuse free wet wipes offered at convenience stores but were not more likely to refuse plastic bottles. These results also indicated that interventions through environmental education can change students' pro-environmental behaviors only if the cost of behavioral change is low. The environmental education class not only increased students' environmental knowledge and attitudes, but the use of worksheets in administering nudges and boosts ensured the effectiveness of environmental education.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes , Humanos , Conhecimento , Empatia , Plásticos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Behav Brain Res ; 436: 114099, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084814

RESUMO

Using event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study tested whether state empathy for pain of experienced physicians could resist the influences of repeated exposure to depictions of people experiencing pain. We employed a three-phase paradigm which integrated a classical pain empathy measurement procedure and a multi-block free-view habituation procedure. In this paradigm, 18 experienced physicians with reduced empathy traits (clinical experience > 5 years) and 18 non-physician controls completed a pre-test phase of pain empathy, followed by a phase of repeated emotional exposure, and a post-test phase of pain empathy. Behavioral pain intensity rating and critical ERP components associated with pain empathy (i.e., N1, N2, and LPP) were measured and compared across participant groups, stimulus types, and experimental phases. Experienced physicians differed from controls in neural processes related to pain empathy, but their pain intensity ratings did not. Specifically, for early ERP components related to empathic arousal such as N1 and N2, we replicated and extended previous findings that physicians can inhibit these bottom-up processes of empathic arousal. In contrast, the P3 didn't reflect a distinctive empathy process for the physicians. For the later reappraisal-related LPP component, however, we found a significant three-way interaction among participant groups, stimulus types, and experimental phases. This interaction provided the first evidence that pain empathy of experienced physicians with low empathic traits can resist repeated exposure to pain. Based on this evidence, the characteristics of pain empathy for experienced physicians and the relative adaptability of pain empathy for human beings are discussed.


Assuntos
Empatia , Potenciais Evocados , Nível de Alerta , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Humanos , Dor/psicologia
6.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 37(1): 6-14, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378087

RESUMO

Integral to holistic "big picture" nursing care is an empathy that strives for social justice. Social empathy requires more than technical skills or even interpersonal empathy or other-focus; it also requires a perspective that appreciates the impact of social determinants and seeks action to address them. This study sought to measure social empathy and potentially associated demographic, personal, and work-related factors among nurses. This cross-sectional, observational study used online survey methods to collect data from 614 registered nurses employed in a faith-based health care system in the northwestern United States. Constructs measured included social empathy, social advocacy, self-compassion, emotional exhaustion, and trust/mistrust in God. Parametric statistical tests, including multiple logistic regression, allowed analyses. Findings indicated that social empathy was high in this sample. Younger nurses, those more inclined to advocate, those more self-compassionate, those less burned out, those working part-time (in contrast only with those working overtime), and those with at least a baccalaureate degree in nursing were more socially empathic. Findings highlight further rationale for creating healthy work environments that foster self-compassion and minimize burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Humanos , Empatia , Estudos Transversais , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277496, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395201

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obstetricians describe feeling shocked and isolated following stillbirth. Few receive adequate training in how to care for bereaved parents or themselves. We developed a novel workshop for trainee obstetricians using applied drama techniques-in collaboration with the National Theatre of Ireland, the national training body for obstetricians and gynaecologists, and patient support groups-to teach obstetricians skills in communication and self-care around the time of stillbirth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five workshops, delivered January-May 2018, are the focus of this evaluation. Senior trainees in Obstetrics attended and completed a post-workshop evaluation questionnaire. Five-point Likert scales were used to assess participants' communication and support skills pre- and post- the workshop, and their views on pre-specified attributes needed when caring for families experiencing stillbirth and aspects of the workshop. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis, respectively. RESULTS: 39/59 (66%) workshop participants completed the questionnaires. Most had received no prior training in caring for families experiencing antenatal (31/39, 80%) or intrapartum (34/39, 87%) stillbirth. Following the workshop there was a significant improvement in trainee's level of confidence in breaking bad news, communicating clearly with the family when breaking bad news, recognising the emotional needs of the family, recognising their own emotional responses, and supporting their colleagues. Trainees were positive about the workshop content and delivery; 90% stated they would recommend it to a colleague. DISCUSSION: Adequate, appropriate, and stimulating education and training in stillbirth care and self-care is clearly needed to improve patient care. Our findings demonstrate that this novel educational workshop using applied drama techniques-developed in collaboration with diverse stakeholders and underpinned by the views of parents and obstetricians who had experience of stillbirth-is an acceptable and appropriate way of training obstetricians in how to care for bereaved parents and/or to engage in self-care.


Assuntos
Empatia , Médicos , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Natimorto/psicologia , Autocuidado , Comunicação
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e067157, 2022 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400732

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies suggest that medical student empathy declines throughout medical school. However, no studies have systematically investigated why. The objective of our proposed review is to conduct a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies investigating the reasons empathy may change throughout medical school. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review protocol follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We have searched MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, ERIC and APA PsycINFO for relevant studies. We will also search reference lists of included studies and contact experts to identify additional studies. We will include any qualitative study investigating the reasons why empathy changes throughout medical school. We will use the Joanna Briggs Institute tool to evaluate the risk of bias in the included studies. We will use thematic analysis to synthesise our results. For all included studies, we will summarise the main characteristics including the number of participants, medical school year, country and gender. In our discussion, we will summarise the limitations of the evidence (including the risk of bias and inconsistency), and provide a general interpretation of the results and important implications. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will not require ethical approval since no original data will be collected. The results of this review will be published through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Additionally, this review will inform changes to the enhanced empathy curriculum at the Leicester Medical School.


Assuntos
Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Empatia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(46): e31673, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401377

RESUMO

Patient-centered nursing holistic care is of utmost important to the nursing profession, and humanistic care cultivation has become a global nursing education concern. This study aimed to examine the relationship among emotional intelligence, empathy and humanistic care ability in nursing students, and to determine whether positive emotional intelligence could mediate the relationship between empathy and humanistic care ability. This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive design. A total of 323 nursing students was enrolled from one medical university in Heilongjiang Province, China. The emotional intelligence questionnaires, empathy scale and humanistic care ability scale were used to quantify participants' responses. There was no significant difference in gender, residence, single-child family and leader experience of nursing students' humanistic care ability. However, the significant differences were found in grade (t = 4.55, P < .01) and major interests (t = 7.06, P < .01). Obviously, there was positive correlation between positive emotional intelligence and empathy (R = 0.37, P < .01), and positive correlation between humanistic care ability and emotional intelligence (R = 0.62, P < .01), and empathy (R = 0.57, P < .01). Furthermore, emotional intelligence (ß = 0.21, P < .01) had a significant mediating effect on the relationship between humanistic care ability and empathy. Nurse educators should improve the empathy of nursing students by developing and implementing emotional intelligence programs, in order to improve their humanistic care ability.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Empatia , Estudos Transversais , Inteligência Emocional , Humanismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18951, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347950

RESUMO

Empathy enables human beings to understand and share the internal states of others. Studies show that empathy for pain is higher for in-group compared to out-group members. This might be driven by attitudes and biases towards out-groups. In a between subject design, N = 621 participants filled in questionnaires measuring xenophobia and trait empathy and were presented with photos of suffering individuals either from the in-group or an out-group, which had to be rated with respect to negative affect and the willingness to help the depicted persons. Results do not show more compassion with members of the in-group in general, but a negative effect of xenophobia on state empathy in the out-group condition. Additional moderation analyses show that this effect is less evident in presence of high trait empathy scores. Our results highlight the importance of empathy trainings to attenuate the effects of xenophobic attitudes on social cohabitation in our increasingly polarized and culturally diverse societies.


Assuntos
Empatia , Xenofobia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Atitude
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277264, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of people seeking care for symptoms of exhaustion and stress is a major concern in several countries. The condition is a challenging and life-changing experience, and a deeper understanding of support to help people on sick leave due to stress-related exhaustion in their early stages is needed to facilitate recovery. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore experiences of support in people with stress-related exhaustion being on sick-leave less than six months. METHOD: A qualitative interview study was conducted with 12 participants (7 women and 5 men; aged 25-46 years) who were on sick leave that had not exceeded six months due to stress-related exhaustion. The participants were recruited from public healthcare centres in the western part of Sweden, and the intention was to reach them early in their ongoing sick leave period. The interviews were performed face-to-face and analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. RESULTS: The findings show that people affected by stress-related exhaustion struggle to maintain their dignity and define support in terms of allies who acknowledge their personhood and provide them helpful guidance. Participants expressed their needs to be taken seriously by professionals, family, and friends willing to engage in their situation. Lack of empathy and professional knowledge in the clinical encounter induced additional stress. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that people affected by stress-related exhaustion need allies from their surrounding networks in their struggle to maintain their dignity. Our findings highlight that it is essential to acknowledge them as persons and establish an alliance to provide appropriate support based on each person's specific situation, needs and resources. This approach can be facilitated in a partnership, as emphasized in person-centred care (PCC). PCC emphasizes the co-creation of care in partnership between the patient (often with relatives) and health care professionals which may imply a more collaborative view of health care in which patients are engaged as active partners in planning their care.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Licença Médica , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pessoal de Saúde , Empatia
13.
BMJ ; 379: o2696, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351680
14.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(6): 422-428, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374069

RESUMO

In order to explore whether there is a correlation between the learning climate (LC) and the selfperception of empathy by medical residents, we conducted an observational, cross sectional study in a teaching hospital using the D-RECT (Dutch Residency Educational Climate Test) and the Jefferson scale (empathy) in 140 residents from 9 specialties during 2019 and 2020. We documented a low to moderate and statistically significant correlation (Spearman's Rho: 0.34, p<0.0001) between both scores, with an acceptable reliability for both instruments (> 0.7). For every 10-point difference in the D-RECT scale, an average difference of 1.80 points in the Jefferson Scale was observed. This study provides new evidence regarding the correlation between the learning climate and self-perceived medical empathy during the residency program. Our findings suggest a trend that should be further studied in the future.


Con el objetivo de explorar si existe correlación entre el clima de aprendizaje (CA) y la propia empatía percibida por residentes médicos, realizamos en un hospital universitario un estudio observacional de corte transversal, utilizando las escalas D-RECT (evaluación del clima educacional) y Jefferson (empatía), en el que participaron 140 residentes de 9 especialidades durante 2019 y 2020. Documentamos una correlación baja-moderada y estadísticamente significativa (Spearman´s rho: 0,34 p<0,0001) entre ambos puntajes, con una confiabilidad aceptable de ambos instrumentos (>0,7). Por cada 10 puntos de diferencia en la escala D-RECT, observamos una diferencia promedio de 1,80 puntos en la escala Jefferson. Este trabajo aporta nuevos indicios respecto a la correlación entre el clima de aprendizaje y la empatía médica autopercibida durante la residencia. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren una tendencia que debería ser investigada con mayor profundidad en el futuro.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Empatia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Hospitais de Ensino , Autoimagem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361086

RESUMO

Several studies on helping professionals showed the protective role of compassion among colleagues and leaders. Despite this, studies on well-being factors at school, both preventive and protective, usually focus on teachers' personal resources and study compassion in the teacher-student relationship. This study explores the role of received compassion at work on teachers' life satisfaction while considering perceived school collective performance and burnout conditions as mediators in this link. One hundred and eighty-six Italian teachers (female = 85.4%, mean age = 48.5, SD = 9.46) completed a questionnaire on received compassion at work, perceived school collective performance, burnout, and life satisfaction. Through a structural equation model (χ2(21) = 30.716, p = 0.08, CFI = 0.989, TLI = 0.981, RMSEA = 0.050 (90% CI = 0.000-0.080, p = 0.465), SRMR = 0.038), it emerged that only perceived school collective performance mediated the association between received compassion and life satisfaction. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have addressed the role of compassion received from colleagues and supervisors at school and its effect on teachers' work-related beliefs and personal well-being.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Professores Escolares , Local de Trabalho , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361429

RESUMO

Studies have shown that nature exposure is associated with a more positive body image, but field studies remain relatively infrequent. Here, we examine the impact of a woodland walk on an index of state positive body image (i.e., state body appreciation), as well as dispositional and environmental determinants of body image improvements. Eighty-seven Polish women went for a walk in Cyganski Las, an ancient woodland, and completed a measure of state body appreciation before and after the walk. As hypothesised, state body appreciation was significantly higher post-walk compared to pre-walk (d = 0.56). Additionally, we found that the trait of self-compassion-but not the traits of connectedness to nature, perceived aesthetic qualities of the woodland, or subjective restoration-was significantly associated with larger improvements in state body appreciation. These results suggest that even relatively brief exposure to nature results in elevated state body appreciation, with the dispositional trait of self-compassion being associated with larger effects.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Autoimagem , Feminino , Humanos , Caminhada , Autocompaixão , Florestas , Empatia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361497

RESUMO

Empathy is a phenomenon that brings together both emotions and an understanding of another person. Recent studies have disentangled the mechanisms of empathy into emotional and cognitive aspects. Event-related potential (ERP) studies suggest that emotional empathy is related to the modulation of the amplitude of early ERPs, and cognitive empathy is linked to later ERPs. In the current study, we examined the influences of facial attractiveness on empathic response and the effect of cognitive strategies with setting the participants' attention to attractiveness or pain. Participants (N= 19) viewed photos of physically attractive and unattractive men and women receiving painful stimulation. The amplitude of the N2 component measured at the frontal regions was more negative in painful stimulation compared to the non-painful, but only for attractive faces. There were no differences between painful and non-painful stimulation for unattractive faces. The amplitude of the P3 measured at the central-parietal region component was more positive in the painful condition compared to the non-painful one, but only when participants performed a pain judgment task. There were no differences in the attractiveness judgment task. This study showed that the attractiveness of a model and drawing the participants' attention to pain constitute an essential modulator of pain empathy.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Empatia , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Dor/psicologia , Cognição
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277793, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399451

RESUMO

Vicarious learning, i.e. learning through observing others rather than through one's own experiences, is an integral skill of social species. The aim of this study was to assess the causal role of affect sharing, an important aspect of empathy, in vicarious fear learning. N = 39 participants completed a vicarious Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm. In the learning stage, they watched another person-the demonstrator-responding with distress when receiving electric shocks to a color cue (conditioned stimulus; CS+; a different color served as CS-). In the subsequent test stage, an increased skin conductance response (SCR) to the CS+ presented in the absence of the demonstrator indexed vicarious fear learning. Each participant completed this paradigm under two different hypnotic suggestions, which were administered to induce high or low affect sharing with the demonstrator in the learning stage, following a counterbalanced within-subject design. In the learning stage, high affect sharing resulted in stronger unconditioned SCR, increased eye gaze toward the demonstrator's face, and higher self-reported unpleasantness while witnessing the demonstrator's distress. In the test stage, participants showed a stronger conditioned fear response (SCR) when they had learned under high, compared to low, affect sharing. In contrast, participants' declarative memory of how many shocks the demonstrator had received with each cue was not influenced by the affect sharing manipulation. These findings demonstrate that affect sharing is involved in enhancing vicarious fear learning, and thus advance our understanding of the role of empathy, and more generally emotion, in social observational learning.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico , Medo , Humanos , Medo/psicologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Empatia , Fixação Ocular
19.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(6): 2770-2788, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332141

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness and acceptability of an initial module (1.1; active listening skills) of the Simulated Training in Evidence-Based Practice for Stuttering (STEPS) program, a theory-driven, multimodule, content and learning platform designed to advance knowledge and skills in working with culturally and linguistically diverse persons who stutter of all ages. METHOD: Fifteen preservice speech-language pathologists (SLPs) were randomly assigned to complete either the STEPS 1.1 module or a control module. In both conditions, all participants engaged in pre- and post-clinical interviews with a standardized patient portraying a parent of a child who stutters. Prior to participation, all participants provided self-ratings on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Health Profession Student. Post participation, trained observers rated all participants' active listening behaviors using the Active Listening Observation Scale-Modified. Post participation, the STEPS 1.1 participants also completed an intervention acceptability questionnaire. RESULTS: No differences between groups were found in self-perceived clinical empathy prior to participation. Participants who completed the STEPS 1.1 condition utilized paraphrasing and client-directed eye gaze significantly more frequently at posttest than at pretest and significantly more than the control group at posttest. Quantitative and qualitative responses from the participants who completed STEPS 1.1 indicated high acceptability of its content, structure, duration, and perceived impact. CONCLUSION: Preliminary data from the present pilot study support use of the STEPS 1.1 module to improve preservice SLPs' use of skills that have been shown to predict perceived clinical empathy and increase assessment and treatment effectiveness.


Assuntos
Gagueira , Criança , Humanos , Gagueira/diagnóstico , Gagueira/terapia , Competência Clínica , Projetos Piloto , Empatia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências
20.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 276, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the association between cognitive and affective empathy and aggression in a sample of Iranian athletes. METHODS: We designed a cross-sectional study. The participants were selected by multistage random sampling among six colleges in Tehran, Iran's capital. We used the interpersonal reactivity index (IRI) to evaluate empathy, and Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, and the Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire to evaluate aggression. RESULTS: In total, 492 athletes with a mean age of 27.42 years (SD = 7.72) participated in the study, of which 298 (60.6%) were male, and 194 (39.4%) were female. IRI's fantasy and personal distress subscales scores were positively associated with proactive and reactive aggression scores (p < 0.05). The score of the perspective-taking subscale of IRI was negatively associated with proactive and reactive aggression scores (p < 0.05). The score of the empathic concern subscale of IRI had a negative association with the proactive aggression score (p < 0.001). The score of the perspective-taking subscale of IRI had negative associations with all Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire subscales' scores (p < 0.05). The score of the personal distress subscale of IRI had positive associations with all Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire subscales' scores (p < 0.05), except with the verbal aggression subscale score. The score of the fantasy subscale of IRI was positively associated with the score of the hostility subscale of the Buss-Perry questionnaire (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Perspective-taking is negatively associated with all kinds of aggression in athletes. Future studies can be conducted to determine the possible role of perspective-taking in preventive aggression, which can be a target for interventions. On the other hand, the score of the personal distress subscale of IRI is positively associated with all types of aggression scores, indicating that not all types of empathy inhibit aggression in athletes.


Assuntos
Agressão , Empatia , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Irã (Geográfico) , Agressão/psicologia , Atletas
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