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1.
J Environ Manage ; 256: 109894, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989973

RESUMO

Despite the wide variety of variables commonly employed to measure the success of rehabilitation, the assessment and subsequent definition of indicators of environmental rehabilitation status are not simple tasks. The main challenges are comparing rehabilitated sites with target ecosystems as well as integrating individual environmental and eventually collinear variables into a single tractable measure for the state of a system before effective indicators that track rehabilitation may be modeled. Furthermore, a consensus is lacking regarding which and how many variables need to be surveyed for a reliable estimation of rehabilitation status. Here, we propose a multivariate ordination to integrate variables related to ecological processes, vegetation structure, and community diversity into a single estimation of rehabilitation status. As a case, we employed a curated set of 32 environmental variables retrieved from nonrevegetated, rehabilitating and reference sites associated with iron ore mines from the Urucum Massif, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. By integrating this set of environmental variables into a single estimation of rehabilitation status, the proposed multivariate approach is straightforward and able to adequately address collinearity among variables. The proposed methodology allows for the identification of biases towards single variables, surveys or analyses, which is necessary to rank environmental variables regarding their importance to the assessment. Furthermore, we show that bootstrapping permitted the detection of the minimum number of environmental variables necessary to achieve reliable estimations of the rehabilitation status. Finally, we show that the proposed variable integration enables the definition of case-specific environmental indicators for more rapid assessments of mineland rehabilitation. Thus, the proposed multivariate ordination represents a powerful tool to facilitate the diagnosis of rehabilitating sites worldwide provided that sufficient environmental variables related to ecological processes, diversity and vegetation structure are gathered from nonrehabilitated, rehabilitating and reference study sites. By identifying deviations from predicted rehabilitation trajectories and providing assessments for environmental agencies, this proposed multivariate ordination increases the effectiveness of (mineland) rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Brasil , Emprego , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mineração
2.
Ambio ; 49(1): 281-298, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852779

RESUMO

The main determinants of agricultural employment are related to households' access to private assets and the influence of inherited social-economic stratification and power relationships. However, despite the recommendations of rural studies which have shown the importance of multilevel approaches to rural poverty, very few studies have explored quantitatively the effects of common-pool resources and household livelihood capitals on agricultural employment. Understanding the influence of access to both common-pool resources and private assets on rural livelihoods can enrich our understanding of the drivers of rural poverty in agrarian societies, which is central to achieving sustainable development pathways. Based on a participatory assessment conducted in rural communities in India, this paper differentiates two levels of livelihood capitals (household capitals and community capitals) and quantifies them using national census data and remotely sensed satellite sensor data. We characterise the effects of these two levels of livelihood capitals on precarious agricultural employment by using multilevel logistic regression. Our study brings a new perspective on livelihood studies and rural economics by demonstrating that common-pool resources and private assets do not have the same effect on agricultural livelihoods. It identifies that a lack of access to human, financial and social capitals at the household level increases the levels of precarious agricultural employment, such as daily-wage agricultural labour. Households located in communities with greater access to collective natural capital are less likely to be agricultural labourers. The statistical models also show that proximity to rural centres and access to financial infrastructures increase the likelihood of being a landless agricultural labourer. These findings suggest that investment in rural infrastructure might increase livelihood vulnerability, if not accompanied by an improvement in the provisioning of complementary rural services, such as access to rural finance, and by the implementation of agricultural tenancy laws to protect smallholders' productive assets.


Assuntos
Pobreza , População Rural , Agricultura , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia , Emprego , Características da Família , Humanos , Índia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Waste Manag ; 101: 283-290, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648169

RESUMO

Recycling solid waste not only produces environmental and health benefits, but also generates economic benefit. This paper empirically evaluates the employment impact of Florida county recycling programs from 2000 through 2011, applying a fixed effects regression model. The results indicate that a one percentage point increase of county recycling rate leads to a 0.4% job growth in overall solid waste and recycling industry. However, the impact of recycling programs on green jobs are not uniform across the recycling subsectors: the effect is concentrated in the recycling processing sector while the solid waste collection sector and scrap materials businesses are unlikely to be influenced by county's recycling performance.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Emprego , Florida , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos
5.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(1): 146-156, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521718

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) commonly affects people of working age, yet there is limited data regarding the return-to-work experience in this cohort. This study aimed to investigate the proportion of survivors currently working after completion of radiation therapy and to explore potential facilitators and barriers to working after treatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional, single-institutional study was undertaken at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, a comprehensive cancer center in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Eligible participants were 18 to 65 years old at diagnosis, were employed at or within the 3 months before diagnosis, and had completed curative treatment for HPV-associated OPC ≥4 months before enrollment. Participants completed a paper-based survey to assess baseline demographics, employment status, and quality of life (QOL; Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Head and Neck). Open-ended questions explored factors affecting return to work. Associations between current employment status and various disease, treatment, and demographic variables and with QOL were examined. Free-text items were analyzed by summarizing content analysis. RESULTS: Of 93 participants approached, 68 responded (73.1%). Mean age was 54.1 years (range, 39-64 years), and 89.7% were male. Most participants (67.6%) had stage II disease and were treated with chemoradiation (85.3%). Mean time after treatment was 2.6 years (range, 0.3-9.1 years). Fifty-eight of 68 participants (85.3%) were working at enrollment; median time to return to work was 6.0 months (interquartile range, 4-10 months); 45 (77.6%) were in the same role and 35 (60.3%) worked the same number of hours. Ten participants were not working, 3 had retired, 5 reported persistent and significant treatment toxicity preventing employment. Survivors currently working reported higher physical, functional, and global QOL scores. Access to leave and support from treating doctors were facilitators for return to work, whereas fatigue was frequently reported as a barrier to returning to work. CONCLUSION: With time, the majority of participants with HPV-associated OPC will return to work after radiation therapy. Attention to symptom management and support from the workplace may enable more successful return to work.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/terapia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Fadiga/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Papillomaviridae , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Vitória , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Local de Trabalho
6.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(1): 134-145, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568813

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the employment status in working-age survivors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and explore clinical, treatment, and sociodemographic factors that may facilitate or impede successful return to work (RTW). METHODS AND MATERIALS: This Canadian study was part of a larger cross-sectional study assessing late toxicities in 107 disease-free survivors of NPC who received curative-intent intensity modulated radiation therapy ≥4 years earlier. For this substudy, eligible participants were employed at diagnosis and were of working age (<65 years) at study enrollment. Patient-reported work status (modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Work Status Questionnaire), quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck questionnaire), symptom burden (MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for head and neck cancer), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), neurobehavioral functioning (Frontal Systems Behavior Scale), and neurocognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) were assessed. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore the impact of variables on RTW status. RESULTS: Among 73 eligible patients, the median age was 53 years (range, 32-64) and median time from intensity modulated radiation therapy completion was 7.3 years (range, 4.2-11.1). At enrollment, 45 (62%) were working, of whom 14 (31%) had reduced work hours from diagnosis by a median of 12 h/wk (range, 4-30). Overall, mean work hours decreased from 41.6 to 37.8 h/wk (P = .005). Currently employed (vs unemployed) patients were younger (P = .017) and reported better performance status (P = .013). They had higher quality of life (P = .044), lower symptom burden (P = .03), less significant change from their baseline neurobehavioral function (P = .008), and disability (P = .0025) or private health benefits (P = .035). Anxiety, depression, occupation type, income, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score were not significantly associated with RTW in the univariable analysis. Age, change in baseline neurobehavioral function, and having private health benefits were all independent predictors of RTW. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of long-term survivors of NPC do RTW, although almost one-third report working fewer hours. Prospective research is needed to better understand and facilitate successful RTW in survivors of NPC.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Retorno ao Trabalho , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Canadá , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/psicologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/psicologia , Ocupações , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Qualidade de Vida , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
7.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(1): 157-166, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies have found that patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) with a higher relative hazard for recurrence versus competing mortality (ω+ ratio) are more likely to benefit from intensive therapy. Nomograms to predict this ratio (ω scores) can be useful to guide clinical management; however, comorbidity and other risk factors are frequently lacking from trial samples. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study of 7117 US veterans, we evaluated the ability of a ω score nomogram developed from clinical trial data to stratify patients with HNC treated with radiation therapy by their relative risk of cancer progression versus competing mortality. We then fit generalized competing event models to determine the effect of comorbidity and other covariates on the ω+ ratio. RESULTS: The ω score was effective in stratifying patients with HNC according to their risk for cancer recurrence relative to competing mortality, especially among patients aged >70 years. Patients with ω score ≥0.80 were more likely to receive intensive therapy compared with patients with a ω score <0.80 (66 vs. 54%; P < .001). On multivariable generalized competing event regression, T2-4 category (relative hazard ratio [RHR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.16), N2-3 category (RHR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15), and being employed (RHR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.20) were associated with increased ω+ ratio, and increasing age (RHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.78-0.89), Charlson comorbidity index ≥2 (RHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.91), being a current smoker (RHR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.96), and lower body mass index (RHR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.95) were associated with a decreased ω+ ratio. CONCLUSIONS: The ω scores are effective in stratifying patients with HNC and are correlated with the intensity of treatment given. The ω scores incorporating comorbidity and other risk factors could help identify patients with HNC most likely to benefit from intensive therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Nomogramas , Seleção de Pacientes , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Comorbidade , Intervalos de Confiança , Progressão da Doença , Emprego , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/classificação , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/classificação , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Magreza/complicações , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(6): 758-766, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784009

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent to which different types of orthodontic appliances influence the hiring process of an individual applying for a customer service position. METHODS: A total of 7 images were created for 2 adult models: 1 male and 1 female. One image was produced without orthodontic appliances, and 6 simulated the use of orthodontic appliances, including a conventional metallic appliance with a gray elastic ligature, a conventional metallic appliance with blue elastic ligature, a conventional appliance with a transparent elastic ligature, a self-ligating metal appliance, a self-ligating esthetic appliance, and a clear aligner. A photo album was designed for each model and delivered, along with a questionnaire, to individuals in charge of job interviews and hiring. These evaluators included 236 individuals, divided into 4 groups according to age and gender: males between 18-35 years (M), males over 35 years (M > 35), females between 18-35 years (F), and females over 35 years (F > 35). The evaluators quantified the chance of hiring the models using a Visual Analogue Scale. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the evaluators according to gender and age. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the models according to gender. The Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post hoc tests were used to compare the appliances according to design. A 5% significance level was used for all tests. RESULTS: The clear aligner group showed the highest likelihood of being hired, followed by the group without orthodontic appliances, the groups with esthetic appliances (ie, conventional appliance with a transparent elastic ligature, and self-ligating esthetic appliance), and the groups with metallic appliances (ie, self-ligating metal appliance, conventional metallic appliance with gray elastic ligature, and conventional metallic appliance with blue elastic ligature). CONCLUSIONS: Assuming all other qualifications of the applicants are equivalent, the use of an orthodontic appliance may influence job interviews. The better the esthetics of the appliance, the higher the likelihood of the individual being hired.


Assuntos
Emprego , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Seleção de Pessoal , Adolescente , Adulto , Estética Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 600-605, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was evaluation of the relationship between severity of symptoms of climacteric syndrome, depressive disorders and sleep problems, and the self-rated work ability of peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women in non-manual employment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 287 women aged 45-60 years, employed in various institutions as non-manual workers. Work Ability Index, Greene Climacteric Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Athens Insomnia Scale were used. RESULTS: The examined peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women in non-manual employment obtained good work ability on the Work Ability Index. The severity of menopausal syndrome, according to the Greene Climacteric Scale, was moderate, placing the examined women between results for the general population of women and the pattern for menopausal women. Depressive disorders ranked between low mood and moderate depression. No depression was observed in 59% of the women, whereas moderate depression was observed in 39%, and severe depression in only 2%. Sleep disorders were on the border of normal range. As many as 46% of the women had no sleep problems, which was on the border of normal range in 36%. Only 19% of the examined women suffered from insomnia. Work ability correlated negatively with depression and insomnia severity, as well as with psychological and vasomotor symptoms of climacteric syndrome, but not to its somatic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Preventing the occurrence and treatment of menopausal symptoms, sleep and mood disorders may contribute to maintaining the work ability of women in peri- and post-menopausal age.


Assuntos
Climatério/fisiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Perimenopausa/psicologia , Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Climatério/psicologia , Depressão/economia , Depressão/psicologia , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perimenopausa/fisiologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/economia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho
12.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25014, jan.- dez. 2019. Quadros, Figura
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047792

RESUMO

Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo geral investigar as manifestações do fenômeno lazer entre trabalhadores docentes que integram o quadro funcional da Secretaria da Educação do Estado de São Paulo. Ao mesmo tempo, como objetivo específico, buscou identificar de que forma as oscilações relativas às distintas relações de trabalho, sobretudo a evidente condição de precariedade, influenciam o lazer da categoria em questão. É um estudo de caso, realizado com 29 trabalhadores docentes que atuam em escolas dessa rede de ensino. Utilizou-se da análise documental de legislações que versam sobre o trabalho docente, da aplicação do questionário sobre os usos do tempo e da realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Foi constatado que parte do tempo e espaço de lazer dos professores é permeada pelo trabalho. Ademais, foi possível identificar que condições mais precárias de trabalho tendem a refletir também em um lazer precário


The general goal of this study was to investigate leisure activities among teachers employed by the São Paulo State's Department of Education. At the same time, its specific goal was to find out how oscillations related to various employment relations, especially the clearly precarious working condition, influence their leisure. It is a case study conducted with 29 teachers from São Paulo public's schools. It conducted documentary analysis of laws on teaching work; it applied a questionnaire on use of time; and it conducted semi-structured interviews. It found that part of teachers' leisure time and space is pervaded by work. In addition, it was possible to see that more precarious working conditions tend to result in precarious leisure


Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo general investigar las manifestaciones del fenómeno ocio entre trabajadores docentes que integran el cuadro funcional de la Secretaría de Educación del Estado de São Paulo. Al mismo tiempo, como objetivo específico, buscó identificar de qué forma las oscilaciones relativas a las distintas relaciones de trabajo, principalmente la evidente condición de precariedad, influencian el ocio de la categoría investigada. Se trata de un estudio de caso, realizado con 29 trabajadores docentes que actúan en escuelas públicas del Estado de São Paulo. Se utilizó el análisis documental de legislaciones que versan sobre el trabajo docente, la aplicación del cuestionario sobre los usos del tiempo y la realización de entrevistas semiestructuradas. Se constató que parte del tiempo y espacio de ocio de los profesores está permeado por el trabajo. Además, fue posible identificar que condiciones más precarias de trabajo tienden a reflejar también un ocio precario


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Condições de Trabalho , Professores Escolares , Atividades de Lazer , Emprego
13.
Global Health ; 15(1): 82, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recurring discussion in the literature relates to the possible contradictions among the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The focus has been on economic goals, such as economic growth and goals related to climate change. We explore the possible contradictions that may arise between economic goals and health goals, specifically, the goal on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) - SDG3.4. As a way to achieve SDG3.4, countries have been urged to introduce sin taxes, such as those on sugar. Yet others have argued that such taxes may affect employment (SDG 8.5), economic growth (SDG 8.1), and increase poverty (SDG1). However, there is limited or no reliable evidence, using actual experience, on the effect of sugar tax on health and economic outcomes. This makes it hard to assess the possible contradictions in SDGs that sugar taxes may generate. MAIN BODY: Using a conceptual framework on SDGs that views relationships among SDGs as either contradictory, reinforcing, or neutral, we carefully consider whether there are contradictions between SDG 3.4 on one hand and SDG 1, SDG 8.1, and SDG 8.5 on the other hand. We illustrate this using Zambia which recently introduced an equivalent 3% tax on non-alcoholic beverages, implicitly targeted at sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), given the stated goal of reducing NCDs. Concerns are that such a tax would be detrimental to the Zambia sugar value chain which contributes about 6% to GDP, in which case the achievement of SDG 3.4 (health) would be at odds with, or contradict, SDG 1, SDG 8.1, and SDG 8.5 (poverty eradication, economic growth, and creation of employment). We discuss that the existence of contradictions depend on a number of contextual factors, which allows us to make two conclusions about sugar taxation in Zambia. First, the current tax rate of 3% is likely neutral (no contradictions or reinforcing relationships) because it is too low to have any health or employment effects. However, the revenue raised can be reinvested to improve livelihoods. Secondly, the tax rate should be increased but care has to be exercised to ensure that the rate is not too high to generate contradictions. There will be need to carefully assess important parameters such as elasticities and explore alternative economic livelihoods. CONCLUSION: Without paying due consideration to important contextual factors, Zambia and many LMIC risk experiencing contradictions among SDGs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Emprego , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Impostos , Humanos , Zâmbia
14.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 64, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flourishing, defined as the coexistence of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, is the most favorable end of the mental health spectrum. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated the association between flourishing mental health and favorable work-related outcomes. However, epidemiology of flourishing mental health is scarce in Japan. Moreover, the relationship between flourishing mental health and occupational stress has not been elaborated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate (1) the prevalence of flourishing mental health and (2) the association between flourishing mental health and occupational stress among Japanese workers. METHODS: The present survey was conducted in from February to March 2017 via an anonymous, self-administered, and web-based questionnaire among workers in Tsukuba Science City, Japan. Mental Health Continuum Short Form was used to assess flourishing mental health. We performed binomial logistic regression analyses to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of occupational stress for flourishing mental health, controlling for sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: A total of 7012 respondents (4402 men, 2610 women) were analyzed. The overall prevalence of flourishing mental health among the respondents was 12.4%. Full-time (permanent) workers were less likely to be flourishing. Reward from work (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 2.04-2.68), support from colleagues and superiors (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.44-1.94), and workload (AOR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05-1.36) were positively associated with flourishing mental health, whereas mental workload (AOR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.57-0.75) was inversely associated with flourishing mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study shed light on the association between flourishing mental health and occupational stress.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1418, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early exit from paid employment is a notable public health and societal challenge. Previous research has largely focused on the relationships among variables instead of the relationships among individuals with different work participation history. Person-oriented methods enable to identify latent groups of individuals who are likely to follow similar development in their work participation over time. We thus aimed to identify work participation trajectories during early and midlife careers and their social determinants using large nationally representative data comprising over 1 million initially employed individuals and a 10-year follow-up for their work participation. A further aim was to determine the cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to key diagnostic groups, mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases within the trajectories. METHODS: Young (25-38 years at baseline, n = 495,663) and midlife (39-52 years at baseline, n = 603,085) Finnish people, all working in 2004, were followed up through 2013, with registers of the Social Insurance Institution, and the Statistics Finland. The registers provided data for work participation and its determinants, as well as for computing the cumulative incidence of sickness absence. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectories. RESULTS: Three distinctive trajectories were identified: temporary exit, permanent exit, and continuously employed people. As compared to the other trajectories, those belonging to the permanent exit trajectory were more likely men, manual workers and had a lower income. The cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to mental disorders was highest in the permanent exit trajectory group. For musculoskeletal diseases, the cumulative incidence of sickness absence increased in the permanent exit trajectory mainly in the older age groups. CONCLUSION: Distinct group-based trajectories of early work exit can be identified in a representative cohort of initially employed people. Focusing on the determinants of premature exit and early intervention to tackle increasing sickness absence may promote work participation particularly in the most vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Emprego , Renda , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Licença Médica , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1515, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Educational inequalities in health have been widely reported. A low educational level is associated with more adverse working conditions. Working conditions, in turn, are associated with health and there is evidence that this association remains after work exit. Because many countries are raising the statutory retirement age, lower educated workers have to spend more years working under adverse conditions. Therefore, educational health inequalities may increase in the future. This study examined (1) whether there were educational differences over time in health after work exit and (2) whether work characteristics mediate these educational inequalities in health. METHODS: Data from five prospective cohort studies were used: The Netherlands (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam), Denmark (Danish Longitudinal Study of Aging), England (English Longitudinal Study of Ageing), Germany (German Aging Study), and Finland (Finnish Longitudinal Study on Municipal Employees). In each dataset we used Generalized Estimating Equations to examine the relationship between education and self-rated health after work exit with a maximum follow-up of 15 years and possible mediation of work characteristics, including physical demands, psychosocial demands, autonomy, and variation in activities. RESULTS: The low educated reported significantly poorer health after work exit than the higher educated. Lower educated workers had a higher risk of high physical demands and a lower risk of high psychosocial demands, high variation in tasks, and high autonomy at work, compared to higher educated workers. These work characteristics were found to be mediators of the relationship between education and health after work exit, consistent across countries. CONCLUSION: Educational inequalities in health are still present after work exit. If workers are to spend an extended part of their lives at work due to an increase in the statutory retirement age, these health inequalities may increase. Improving working conditions will likely reduce these inequalities in health.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Aposentadoria , Trabalho , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca , Emprego , Inglaterra , Feminino , Finlândia , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Ocupações , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1511, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the transition to adulthood many young adults become obese for the first time in their lives, yet relatively little research has examined why people in this life phase become obese. This study examines what career and family life-course pathways during the transition to adulthood are related to developing obesity in young adulthood. METHODS: We use data from the NLSY97, a U.S. nationally representative panel survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics between 1997 to 2013 (N = 4688), and apply multichannel sequence analysis in order to identify clusters of typical career-family pathways during the transition to adulthood (age 17 to 27), and subsequently investigate whether these pathways are associated with becoming obese at the end of young adulthood (age 28), using logistic regression. We control for obesity at age 17 and family background factors (race, parental education, parental income, and family structure). To take into account the fact that the transition to adulthood has a different meaning for men and for women, we also interact career-family clusters with gender. RESULTS: For women, pathways characterized by college education, early home leaving, and postponement of family formation decrease the probability of becoming obese. For men, pathways characterized by early marriage increase the probability of becoming obese. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance of gender differences in how career and family pathways are related to becoming obese in young adulthood.


Assuntos
Emprego , Família , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Casamento , Obesidade/etiologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pais , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1534, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since Nepali cross-border migrants can freely enter, work and stay in India, they are largely undocumented. The majority is involved in semi-skilled or unskilled jobs with limited labour rights and social security, a fact which predisposes them to psychological distress. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with psychological morbidity among Nepali migrants upon their return from India. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in six districts of Nepal between September 2017 and February 2018. A total of 751 participants who had worked at least six months in India and returned to Nepal were interviewed from 24 randomly selected clusters. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 was used to measure the psychological morbidity. Data were analysed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: The majority was younger than 35 years (64.1%), male (96.7%), married (81.8%), had at least a primary education (66.6%), and belonged to Dalit, Janajati and religious minorities (53.7%). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 13.5% (CI: 11.2-16.1%). Participants aged 45 years and above (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2.74), from the Terai (aPR = 3.29), a religious minority (aPR = 3.64), who received no sick leave (aPR = 2.4), with existing health problems (aPR = 2.0) and having difficulty in accessing health care (aPR = 1.88) were more likely than others to exhibit a psychological morbidity. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that psychological morbidity was prevalent in the study participants and varied significantly with individual characteristics, work conditions and health. Multifaceted approaches including psychological counselling for returnees and protection of labour and health rights in the workplace are recommended to help reduce psychological morbidity.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
19.
Br J Nurs ; 28(21): 1424-1425, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778328

RESUMO

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses a new initiative from NHS England that plans to introduce NHS passports to help staff work more flexibly across different organisations.


Assuntos
Emprego , Pessoal de Saúde , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Registros , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Inglaterra , Humanos
20.
J Nurs Adm ; 49(11): 538-542, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651613

RESUMO

A strong culture rooted in excellent nursing practice is essential to the future success of healthcare organizations. Nursing leaders face the challenge of establishing and retaining this culture with the exodus of nursing knowledge and clinical reasoning expertise from retirements of experienced nurses. This article presents a novel plan to mitigate this looming problem by rehiring and reengaging recently retired nurses to return to practice for an emeritus RN program.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Aposentadoria , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos
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