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1.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221121511, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062304

RESUMO

The implications of population aging for economic growth is not only the shrinking working-age population, but also the increasing health care burden of the elderly population. It is difficult to explain clearly the relationship between a country's aging population and its economy without considering health effects. Based on the Solow economic growth model, the aims of this study are to estimate the economic effects of the health care burden for elderly population, and to access whether reducing effective labor input for economic production. The analysis employs a set of econometric approaches including fixed effects, generalized method of moments, instrumental variable, and mediation regression analyses using a multinational multi-database covering the years 2000-2019. The empirical evidence indicates that the health care burden was negatively correlated with economic growth during the study period, with every 1% increase in the health care burden leading to a 0.083% decrease in the GDP growth rate. The results of heterogeneity analysis and mediating analysis further confirmed that worsening health in the elderly population could be associated with the deceleration in economic development through the indirect pathway that lowering the employment rate of working-age population. This study provides new empirical evidence on the economic impact of population aging that the poor health of elderly population can be one critical factor of limiting economic growth, for the reason the labor inputs in household production are likely crowded out by family caregiving.


Assuntos
Fardo do Cuidador , Países em Desenvolvimento , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Emprego , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455057221122618, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was done to determine the overall estimate of decision-making autonomy on maternal health services and associated factors in low- and middle-income countries. METHOD: PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, and the Ethiopian University online library were searched. Data were extracted using Microsoft Excel and analyzed using STATA statistical software (version 14). Publication bias was checked by forest plot, Begg's rank test, and Egger's regression test. To look for heterogeneity, I2 was computed, and an overall estimated analysis was carried out. Subgroup analysis was done by country, year, and publication. Joanna Briggs Institute quality assessment tool was used to check the quality of each study. We carried out a leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Out of 1305 articles retrieved, 19 studies (with 104,871 study participants) met eligibility criteria and were included in this study. The pooled prevalence of women's decision-making autonomy on maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries was 55.15% (95% confidence interval: 44.11-66.19; I2 = 98.6%, P < 0.001). Based on subgroup analysis, decision-making autonomy in maternal health services was the highest in Ethiopia at 61.36% (95% confidence interval: 50.58-72.15) and the lowest in Nigeria at 36.16% (95% confidence interval: 12.99-43.39). It was 32.16% (95% confidence interval: 32.72-39.60) and 60.18% (95% confidence interval: 47.92-72.44) before and after 2016, respectively. It was also 54.64% (95% confidence interval: 42.51-66.78) in published studies and 57.91% (95% confidence interval: 54.80-61.02) in unpublished studies. Age (adjusted odds ratio = 2.67; 95% confidence interval: (1.29-5.55), I2 = 90.1%), primary level of education (adjusted odds ratio = 1.75; 95% confidence interval: (1.39-2.21), I2 = 63.8%), secondary education level (adjusted odds ratio = 2.09; 95% confidence interval: (1.32-3.32), I2 = 87.8%), being urban resident (adjusted odds ratio = 1.80; 95% confidence interval: (1.22-2.66), I2 = 73%), and monthly income (adjusted odds ratio = 3.23; 95% confidence interval: (1.85-5.65), I2 = 97%) were positively associated with decision-making autonomy on maternal health service. CONCLUSION: Decision-making autonomy on maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries was low. Sociodemographic factors also influenced it. Educational accessibility and income generation should have been recommended, enabling women to decide for themselves.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Países em Desenvolvimento , Escolaridade , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 370, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071050

RESUMO

Mental disorders pose a worldwide growing public health burden. One of the major challenges for healthcare systems remains to respond to the need of patients with mental disorders for continuous and flexible treatment. The EVA64 study evaluates novel programs of flexible and integrative treatment (FIT) in hospitals. This manuscript presents results from the evaluation of FIT hospitals in comparison to hospitals from regular routine care. In addition to data from adult patients, we also present data from affiliated child and adolescent psychiatric wards employing FIT programs. Using comprehensive claims data, primary outcomes are the utilization of inpatient care and sick leave for a priori defined clusters of mental disorders. We stratify between patients already under treatment (ongoing treatment) and patients with incident treatment cases (initial treatment) at the point of inclusion in the study. In the initial treatment group, we found a significant reduction in the length of inpatient stay of 4.1 days in FIT hospitals compared to routine care. While patients with mood affective disorders (-1.8 days) and patients with neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders (-3.6 days) showed an even stronger effect of the reduction of inpatient lengths of stay, the effect was significantly weaker in patients with mental and behavioral disorders due to use of alcohol (+3.3 days). Regarding the duration of sick leave, we found no significant treatment effect of FIT programs compared to routine care. In the ongoing treatment group of adult patients, we found a significantly lower utilization of inpatient treatment by 1.3 days as well as a shorter duration of sick leave by 4.3 days in FIT hospitals compared to routine care. In the cohort of children and adolescent patients, we also did not observe a significant treatment effect in either the initial treatment group or the ongoing treatment group. Registration: this study was registered in the database "Health Services Research Germany" (trial number: VVfD_EVA64_15_003713).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Emprego , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Licença Médica
4.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(9): e775-e786, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057276

RESUMO

Globally, billions of hours are spent on unpaid labour every year, a burden that is disproportionately carried by women. However, the potential health effects of unpaid labour have largely been unexplored. This Review examines the gendered association between unpaid labour and mental health among employed adults. We did a search of six databases and examined the association between different forms of unpaid labour and mental health. 19 studies (totalling 70 310 participants) were included. We found substantial heterogeneity, and low-to-moderate methodological quality, in the existing research. Our Review indicates substantial gender differences in exposure to unpaid labour and confirms persistent inequities in the division of unpaid work. Overall, our findings indicate that, among employed adults, unpaid labour is negatively associated with women's mental health, with effects less apparent for men. Globally, women spend a greater number of hours on unpaid labour; this review suggests that inequities in the division of unpaid labour expose women to greater risk of poorer mental health than men.


Assuntos
Emprego , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
5.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 1663120, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060872

RESUMO

Teachers' management effectiveness can reflect the comprehensive ability and effective evaluation of the teaching management objectives of the school and can also reflect the effectiveness management of the school to a certain extent. In the environment of sustainable and innovative development, the rapid development of education has made improving the management efficiency and motivation of university teachers became the key direction of university management. In order to study the impact of teachers' management efficacy and motivation on college students' academic achievement and postemployment social responsibility cognition under sustainable innovation, this study compares the impact of teachers in different periods on students and analyzes the changes of teachers in different periods on students. Finally, it is concluded that teachers' management efficiency and motivation under sustainable innovation can promote students' employment achievement and social responsibility cognition, improve the teaching quality of colleges and universities, and provide high-quality talents for the country. The educational concept of sustainable innovation is conducive to improving teachers' independent innovation and realizing the educational function of cultivating students' personalized development in colleges and universities.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Motivação , Cognição , Emprego , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social , Estudantes
6.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 60(5): 487-494, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048571

RESUMO

Background: Returning to work and performing housework tasks (HWT) is the final step in overcoming breast cancer (BC). Objective: To assess whether clinical characteristics and type of treatment impact employment status and performance of HWT. Material and methods: A total of 119 patients diagnosed with early BC were enrolled. Occupational and HWT-related variables were measured. Results: At diagnosis, most of the patients were employed and performed HWT. Two years after the end of treatment, 50% of the patients who were working continued to work and 68.6% of these had issues returning to work. Patients who did not return to work were diagnosed at more advanced stages and had more postoperative complications (p < 0.005). Regarding the execution of HWT, 83.3% had some degree of difficulty to perform them. Patients who underwent axillary nodal removal, those who received more frequent psychological support, and those who had more postoperative complications performed HWT with greater difficulty (p < 0.005). Conclusions: Once treatment had finished, 50% of patients did not come back to their work. In this case, the stage negative effect and the postoperative complications materialized. These data reveal that returning to work after BC diagnosis and treatment is complicated.


Introducción: la reinserción laboral y la reanudación de las tareas del hogar suponen el último paso en la superación del cáncer de mama (CM). Objetivo: evaluar si las características clínicas y el tipo de tratamiento afectan de forma negativa el desempeño en el puesto de trabajo y en el hogar. Material y métodos: se incluyeron 119 pacientes diagnosticadas de CM precoz. Se midieron las variables laborales y las relacionadas con las tareas del hogar. Resultados: al ser diagnosticadas, la mayoría de las pacientes tenía trabajo y realizaba las tareas del hogar. A los dos años de finalizado el tratamiento, el 50% de las pacientes que trabajaban continuaba trabajando y el 68.6% de estas tuvieron dificultades para retomar su trabajo. Las pacientes que no retomaron su actividad laboral fueron diagnosticadas en estadios más avanzados y tuvieron más complicaciones postoperatorias (p < 0.005). En cuanto a la ejecución de las tareas del hogar, el 83.3% tuvieron algún grado de dificultad para llevarlas a cabo. Las pacientes que fueron sometidas a vaciamiento axilar ganglionar, las que recibieron más frecuentemente apoyo psicológico y las que tuvieron más complicaciones postoperatorias realizaron las tareas del hogar con mayor esfuerzo (p < 0.005). Conclusiones: una vez terminado el tratamiento, el 50% de las pacientes no se reincorporó a su actividad laboral. En este caso, se objetivó el efecto negativo del estadio y de las complicaciones postoperatorias (p < 0.005). Estos datos revelan que la reinserción laboral tras el diagnóstico y tratamiento del CM es complicada.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14898, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050384

RESUMO

Job loss is a stressful event that increases the risk of experiencing depression and anxiety, especially during the initial months of unemployment. This study examined differences in psychological symptoms and resilient functioning accounted by employment status. The results pointed out that recently unemployed compared to currently employed individuals had lower levels of perceived controllability and resilience as well as higher levels of depression and anxiety. Path analyses showed that lower controllability appraisals at wave 1 of recently unemployed compared to employed individuals, in turn, predicted a lower use of active coping and reappraisal at wave 2, with the latter further accounting for lower levels in resilience. Higher use of distraction further mediated the relation between employment status and higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Our findings demonstrate the importance of controllability appraisals and coping strategies used to promote adaptive psychological functioning following job loss.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Humanos , Desemprego/psicologia
8.
Wiad Lek ; 75(8 pt 1): 1839-1844, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The aim of the article is to empirically study the features of tolerance to uncertainty in late adulthood in groups of working and retired people and test the hypothesis of the impact of communication in social networks as one of the possible ways to increase mental well-being in this category of people. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study was conducted in 2021 in the Lviv region of Ukraine. Forty people aged 60 - 75 were interviewed. Among them there were 20 people with a 40-hour working week and 20 retired people. To assess the level of tolerance to uncertainty, the tolerance scale by D. L. McLain (modified by E.M. Osin) has been used; to determine the level of dependence on social networks, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (having tested 20 people who are retired in the age group 60-75 ) has been applied. RESULTS: Results: The results of the study showed that: (1) the level of the integrated indicator of "tolerance to uncertainty" is higher among people who work than among those who are retired; (2) people of the age group of 60-75 who work have higher values in all components of the uncertainty tolerance indicator; (3) there is a high interdependence between the expansion of the communication environment through communication in social networks and the level of tolerance to uncertainty among retired people in the age group of 60-75. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: People in the age group of 60-75 who work have a greater potential for successful aging due to the higher value of the components of tolerance to uncertainty and their connection to personality traits on which mental well-being depends. The increase in the level of mental well-being of retired people of late adulthood can be achieved through influencing the uncertainty factor: either by employing these people or by actively involving them in communication in social networks.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Idoso , Comunicação , Emprego , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Incerteza
9.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 9686998, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089961

RESUMO

With in-depth development of industrialization and urbanization in China, improving the professional skills and quality of migrant workers in the construction industry has become an important measure to optimize the labor force structure and promote the industry upgrading. Numerous studies have been carried out on this topic, and construction industrial workers with high skills level and professional quality have replaced the professional identity of migrant workers. However, the psychological cognitive mechanism of migrant workers' occupational role enhancement behavior has not been fully revealed. This study aims to construct a theoretical model of the intention to influence the industrialization of migrant workers in the construction industry based on the frameworks of the theory of planned behavior and risk perception theory, and to explore the key factors and cognitive mechanisms in their transformation into industrial workers in the construction industry. Empirical study using structural equation modeling through field collection of 383 questionnaires from migrant construction workers shows that perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, and behavioral attitude all have significant positive effects on behavioral intention, with decreasing direct effects in descending order of magnitude. Perceived behavioral control also predicts professionalization through the mediation of behavioral intentions, and the newly introduced risk perception factor in the model has a negative inhibitory effect on behavioral intentions and actual behavior. This study validates the important role of psychological intention on the industrialization of migrant workers in the construction industry, providing a new perspective to promote their transformation into industrial workers, and laying the foundation for the modern transformation and sustainable industry development.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Migrantes , Atitude , Emprego , Humanos , Intenção
12.
J Environ Manage ; 321: 115896, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104878

RESUMO

This study examines the link from the stringency of environmental regulation to facility level employment. Much of the literature examining the effects of regulation on employment finds no significant links. However, this literature fails to distinguish between production labor and environmental labor. Our study contributes to this literature by (1) distinguishing workers based on their purpose, jointly estimating these separate outcomes (while controlling for facility heterogeneity), and using cross-equation tests to assess the need for separation, (2) theoretically identifying causal mechanisms linking environmental regulation to employment, and (3) examining the effects of the enforcement of environmental regulation, rather than its imposition, while exploring the heterogeneity of effects by specific enforcement tool. Empirical results reveal that greater enforcement of environmental regulation reduces both production employment and environmental employment. Despite this commonality, cross-equation tests reveal that environmental enforcement differentially affects production and environmental employment, implying that the estimation of overall employment appears misspecified.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Emprego , Humanos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1744, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both perceived job insecurity and unemployment has been associated with an increased risk of developing mental ill health. It has, moreover, been proposed that an insecure employment may be as detrimental as unemployment itself. OBJECTIVE: To estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) of (i) redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic drugs and (ii) psychiatric hospital treatment due to mood, anxiety, or stress-related disease, among fixed-term contract workers (as an operationalization of insecure job) vs. unemployed, in the general population of Denmark. METHODS: Data on baseline employment status were drawn from the Danish Labor Force Surveys in the years 2001-2013. Participants (10,265 fixed-term contract workers and 7926 unemployed) were followed for up to 5 years in national registers (2439 cases of psychotropic drug use, 71,516 person years; 311 cases of psychiatric hospital treatment, 86,790 person years). Adjusted RRs were obtained by Poisson regression. We aspired to minimize health selection effects by (i) exclusion of survey participants who received sickness benefits, social security cash benefits, psychiatric hospital treatment or a prescription for psychotropic drugs, within 1-year prior to baseline (n = 11,693), (ii) adjustment for age, gender, level of education, calendar year, disposable family income and maternity/paternity benefits within 1-year prior to baseline. RESULTS: The adjusted RR for fixed-term contract workers vs. unemployed was 0.98 (99.5% CI: 0.87-1.11) for psychotropic drugs and 0.93 (99.5% CI: 0.67-1.30) for psychiatric hospital treatment. CONCLUSION: The present study did not find significant differences in the risk of developing mental ill health between fixed-term contract workers and unemployed, and thus suggests that fixed-term contracts may be as detrimental as unemployment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): DERR2-10.2196/24392.


Assuntos
Emprego , Desemprego , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Gravidez
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30167, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107615

RESUMO

We aimed to shorten the working hours of pediatricians who are regularly experiencing overwork in Japan, recommended tasks for task shifting must be identified, and the impact of promoting task shifting on both the quality of medical care and working hours must be examined. Characteristics of the pediatric department must also be considered. A questionnaire survey was conducted with pediatricians working in hospitals across Japan. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with pediatricians who did not recommend task shifting in the workplace as the explained variable and the attributes of the responding pediatricians (gender, age, primary workplace, number of pediatricians, pediatric medical management fee) as the explanatory variables. Details about the tasks recommended for task shifting and the impact of recommending task shifting on the quality of medical care and working hours were described. Questionnaires were sent nationwide to 848 hospitals that calculated pediatric inpatient medical management fees and received responses from 1539 pediatricians in 416 hospitals (response rate: 49%). As a characteristic of 231 (15%) doctors who thought that the task shift had not progressed at all at their place of employment, significant positive associations were found in men, working at national and public university hospitals, private university hospitals, and private hospitals and pediatric inpatient medical care management fee 1 hospitals. Task shifting was not recommended overall, as the task items that a majority of pediatricians marked as "transferred" were limited to "medication instructions" and "intravenous injection of antibiotics, etc" More than half of the respondents (60%, a total of 921 doctors) reported that the quality of medical care improved slightly or significantly when task shifting was promoted. The most frequent response to survey items querying the number of work hours that could be shortened through task shifting was "1 to 2 hours." The tasks suitable for task shifting were identified based on the characteristics of participants' pediatric departments. Results suggest that task shifting was not recommended in university hospitals and that promotion of task shifting could improve the quality of medical care and reduce the working hours of pediatricians.


Assuntos
Pediatras , Médicos , Criança , Emprego , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274923, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112606

RESUMO

Housing and employment are key factors in the health and wellbeing of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States. Approximately 14% of low-income PLWH report housing instability or temporary housing, and up to 70% report being unemployed. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of an intervention to improve housing and employment for PLWH in the Midwest. Participants (N = 87) were recruited from the Kansas City metropolitan area to participate in a one-year intervention to improve housing and employment. All individuals were living with HIV and were not stably housed, fully employed, nor fully engaged in HIV medical care. A series of generalized estimating equations were conducted using client-level longitudinal data to examine how housing, employment, viral load, and retention in care changed over time. Housing improved from baseline to follow-up, with more individuals reporting having stable housing (OR = 23.5; p < 0.001). Employment also improved from baseline to follow-up, with more individuals reporting full-time employment (OR = 1.9; p < 0.001). Viral suppression improved from baseline to follow-up, with more individuals being virally suppressed (OR = 1.6; p < 0.05). Retention in care did not change significantly from baseline to follow-up (OR = 0.820; p = 0.370). Client navigation seems to be a promising intervention to improve housing and employment for PLWH in the Midwest. Additional research is needed on the impact of service coordination on client-level outcomes. Future studies should be conducted on the scalability of client navigation interventions to improve the lives of low-income, underserved PLWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Habitação , Emprego , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Carga Viral
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 947478, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117605

RESUMO

Introduction: New technologies enable universities to incorporate innovative teaching-learning strategies into their curricula. Therefore, this research investigates the effect of mobile learning on promoting the awareness of faculty members of the universities of medical sciences of Iran about their employment regulations. Materials and methods: The statistical population of this research included all faculty members of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in southwestern Iran. One hundred and fourteen people entered the quasi-experimental study through convenience sampling. First, we sent the designed mobile app to them through social networks to install on their phone. We measured their awareness about the app and M-Learning through a researcher-constructed questionnaire. Results: M-Learning and App was able to increase the awareness of faculty members, which was significant according to their academic rank and work experience. Faculty members who were professor and instructor, as well as those who had e under 5 years or 11-20 years of experience gained more awareness (P = 0.00). It was not significant in other variables. Ninety eight percent of the faculty members considered the technical capabilities of the designed app appropriate. Ninety seven percentage of the faculty members suggested M-Learning for teaching similar subjects in their profession. Discussion and conclusion: The faculty members had a positive attitude toward this designed educational app and M-Learning. Designing similar mobile training apps can improve their professional performance.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador , Emprego , Docentes , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Universidades
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078221

RESUMO

Despite an increasing trend of working life prolongation, little is known about the risk factors for financial reasons for working beyond the statutory retirement age (SRA), and how these reasons relate to health. The present study examined (1) the determinants of working beyond the SRA, (2) the workers' self-reported reasons for working beyond the SRA, and (3) the association between these reasons and health in late life. Cross-sectional data of 1241 individuals from the Swiss survey "Vivre/Leben/Vivere" were analyzed. The results showed that people with a low level of education and with a low income have an 80% higher risk of working beyond the SRA for financial reasons than for other reasons (p < 0.001). Moreover, self-rated health was not significantly associated with working beyond the SRA for financial reasons but was significantly associated with education and income (p < 0.01). In conclusion, while previous studies have already identified financial difficulties as one important reason for working beyond the SRA, the present study indicated the socioeconomic factors that are crucial for increasing the risk for working beyond the SRA. Thus, our results help to guide the adaptation of social policies for better maintaining and promoting the health of particularly vulnerable older workers.


Assuntos
Emprego , Aposentadoria , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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