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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180422, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059153

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the meaning of work activities for young women with breast cancer. Method: a qualitative study that used as a theoretical framework the Symbolic Interactionism and, as the methodological framework, the Discourse of the Collective Subject. It was developed in a mastology outpatient clinic and a mastectomized rehabilitation center whose data collection took place between February 2014 and January 2015. Twelve women between 18 and 40 years old with up to one year of diagnosis of breast cancer participated, being excluded those with metastasis; interviewed from the guiding question: how is it for you to be young with breast cancer, in relation to work? Thematic content analysis was applied. Results: the following theoretical categories emerged: young women's feelings about having to stop working due to breast cancer and its treatments; quitting work meant annoyance and discouragement; change in income and collection by herself raised concern about the financial contribution; physical changes changing work activities, meaning limitation and impairment; work as an opportunity to live a better life, as a meaning of freedom; lack of collaboration of colleagues in the work environment whose significance was difficulties in the work environment; solidarity and positivity at work and family support that provided them with encouragement to cope with the disease. Conclusion: it was difficult to experience and accept changes in work activities. The support of family, friends and coworkers was paramount to cope with this process, which should also be taken into account by the health team, especially nursing.


RESUMO Objetivo: compreender o significado das atividades de trabalho para mulheres jovens com câncer de mama. Método: estudo qualitativo que utilizou como referencial teórico o Interacionismo Simbólico e, metodológico, o Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Desenvolvido em um ambulatório de mastologia e em um núcleo de reabilitação de mastectomizadas cuja coleta de dados ocorreu entre fevereiro de 2014 e janeiro de 2015. Participaram 12 mulheres entre 18 e 40 anos com até um ano de diagnóstico do câncer de mama, sendo excluídas aquelas com metástase; entrevistadas a partir da questão norteadora: Como é para você ser jovem com câncer de mama, em relação ao trabalho? Foi aplicada a análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: emergiram as seguintes categorias teóricas: sentimentos das mulheres jovens por terem que parar de trabalhar devido ao câncer de mama e a seus tratamentos; parar de trabalhar significou chateação e desânimo; modificação na renda e cobrança por parte de si mesma gerou preocupação com o aporte financeiro; modificações físicas mudando as atividades laborais, significando limitação e prejuízo; trabalho como oportunidade de viver uma vida melhor, como significado de liberdade; ausência de colaboração dos colegas no ambiente laboral cujo significado foi dificuldades no ambiente laboral; solidariedade e positividade no trabalho e apoio familiar que lhes forneceram encorajamento para enfrentar a doença. Conclusão: foi difícil vivenciar e aceitar as alterações nas atividades de trabalho. O apoio de familiares, amigos e colegas de trabalho foi primordial para o enfrentamento desse processo, a que também deve atentar-se a equipe de saúde, especialmente, a enfermagem.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama , Saúde da Mulher , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Emprego , Adulto Jovem , Relações Interpessoais
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158180

RESUMO

This study evaluates the psychological impact (PI) of the COVID-19 pandemic in frontline workers in Spain. Participants were 546 workers (296 healthcare workers, 105 media professionals, 89 grocery workers, and 83 protective service workers). They all completed online questionnaires assessing PI, sadness, concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and demographic and work-related variables. All groups but protective services workers showed higher PI levels than the general population. Healthcare and grocery workers were the most affected, with 73.6% and 65.2% of the participants, respectively, showing a severe PI. Women showed a higher PI level. Healthcare workers in the regions with higher COVID-19 incidences reported greater PI levels. The main concerns were being infected by COVID-19 or infecting others. Levels of concern correlated with higher PI levels. The protection equipment was generally reported as insufficient, which correlated with higher PI levels. Professionals reporting to overwork during the crisis (60% mass-media, 38% of healthcare and grocery and 21.7% of protective service) showed higher PI levels. In the healthcare group, taking care of patients with COVID-19 (77%) or of dying patients with COVID-19 (43.9%) was associated with higher PI levels. The perceived social recognition of their work was inversely related to PI. Most of the sample had not received psychological support. We suggest some organizational measures for frontline institutions, such as the periodical monitoring or inclusion of psychologists specialized in crisis-management to prevent negative symptoms and provide timely support.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Ocupações , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1446-1456, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135433

RESUMO

AIMS: Gender bias and sexual discrimination (GBSD) have been widely recognized across a range of fields and are now part of the wider social consciousness. Such conduct can occur in the medical workplace, with detrimental effects on recipients. The aim of this review was to identify the prevalence and impact of GBSD in orthopaedic surgery, and to investigate interventions countering such behaviours. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, EMCARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library Database in April 2020, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to which we adhered. Original research papers pertaining to the prevalence and impact of GBSD, or mitigating strategies, within orthopaedics were included for review. RESULTS: Of 570 papers, 27 were eligible for inclusion. These were published between 1998 and 2020. A narrative review was performed in light of the significant heterogeneity displayed by the eligible studies. A total of 13 papers discussed the prevalence of GBSD, while 13 related to the impact of these behaviours, and six discussed mitigating strategies. GBSD was found to be common in the orthopaedic workplace, with all sources showing women to be the subjects. The impact of this includes poor workforce representation, lower salaries, and less career success, including in academia, for women in orthopaedics. Mitigating strategies in the literature are focused on providing female role models, mentors, and educational interventions. CONCLUSION: GBSD is common in orthopaedic surgery, with a substantial impact on sufferers. A small number of mitigating strategies have been tested but these are limited in their scope. As such, the orthopaedic community is obliged to participate in more thoughtful and proactive strategies that mitigate against GBSD, by improving female recruitment and retention within the specialty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1446-1456.


Assuntos
Ortopedia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Emprego/economia , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Ortopedia/economia , Ortopedia/educação , Ortopedia/normas , Papel do Médico , Prevalência , Sexismo/economia , Mudança Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions can reach a large part of the population. They are designed to improve work organisation and conditions and to promote the personal competencies of employees. Here the aim was to describe the use of WHP interventions based on individual factors and factors related to the size and branch of the companies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the representative population-based study "German Health Update" (GEDA 2014/15-EHIS) conducted by the Robert Koch Institute, 14,389 employees aged between 18 and 64 years were asked about their knowledge and use of workplace measures in their companies during the last 12 months regarding back health, stress management/relaxation and a canteen with healthy food. In addition to socio-demographic factors, health awareness and self-rated health on the use of WHP interventions was analysed. RESULTS: A canteen with healthy food is used by 64.6% of women (F) and 66.2% of men (M); offers for back health (F: 26.2%; M: 18.7%) and stress/relaxation (F: 35.2%; M: 25.6%) are used significantly less. Employees with more pronounced health awareness use the offers more frequently than employees with a less pronounced awareness of health. Men with poor self-rated health make more use of offers for back health and stress/relaxation than men with good self-rated health. CONCLUSIONS: In order to reach a larger part of the working population, WHP measures should take the needs of specific target groups into account including sex/gender and age aspects as well as the extent of employment, health awareness and self-rated health status.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Local de Trabalho , Pré-Escolar , Emprego , Feminino , Alemanha , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202624

RESUMO

Because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the public is unable to maintain a proper balance between work and leisure, and an increase in community-based infections is causing severe phobic anxiety. Therefore, the present study investigated the differences in phobic anxiety between work and leisure activities according to optimistic bias among 533 South Korean citizens. Frequency analysis, descriptive statistical analysis, t-tests, and a one-way analysis of variance were conducted to examine the data. The results showed that for leisure activities, women showed a higher perception of phobic anxiety. In addition, the group showing high optimistic bias had a higher perception of phobic anxiety in both work and leisure activity situations. Therefore, support measures to lower phobic anxiety among women are needed at the government level, while support and interest from family members are needed at home. Moreover, local governments must ensure active involvement to mitigate phobic anxiety among individuals, and measures are needed to more actively implement infectious disease prevention behaviors.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Otimismo , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22835, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential workers have been shown to present a higher prevalence of positive screenings for anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Individuals from countries with socioeconomic inequalities may be at increased risk for mental health disorders. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety, and their comorbidity among essential workers in Brazil and Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A web survey was conducted between April and May 2020 in both countries. The main outcome was a positive screening for depression only, anxiety only, or both. Lifestyle was measured using a lifestyle multidimensional scale adapted for the COVID-19 pandemic (Short Multidimensional Inventory Lifestyle Evaluation-Confinement). A multinomial logistic regression model was performed to evaluate the factors associated with depression, anxiety, and the presence of both conditions. RESULTS: From the 22,786 individuals included in the web survey, 3745 self-reported to be essential workers. Overall, 8.3% (n=311), 11.6% (n=434), and 27.4% (n=1027) presented positive screenings for depression, anxiety, and both, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the multinomial model showed that an unhealthy lifestyle increased the likelihood of depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.00, 95% CI 2.72-5.87), anxiety (AOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.80-3.20), and both anxiety and depression (AOR 8.30, 95% CI 5.90-11.7). Living in Brazil was associated with increased odds of depression (AOR 2.89, 95% CI 2.07-4.06), anxiety (AOR 2.81, 95%CI 2.11-3.74), and both conditions (AOR 5.99, 95% CI 4.53-7.91). CONCLUSIONS: Interventions addressing lifestyle may be useful in dealing with symptoms of common mental disorders during the strain imposed among essential workers by the COVID-19 pandemic. Essential workers who live in middle-income countries with higher rates of inequality may face additional challenges. Ensuring equitable treatment and support may be an important challenge ahead, considering the possible syndemic effect of the social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emprego/economia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Up to 10% of Bladder Cancers may arise following occupational exposure to carcinogens. We hypothesised that different cancer phenotypes reflected different patterns of occupational exposure. METHODS: Consecutive participants, with bladder cancer, self-completed a structured questionnaire detailing employment, tasks, exposures, smoking, lifestyle and family history. Our primary outcome was association between cancer phenotype and occupational details. RESULTS: We collected questionnaires from 536 patients, of whom 454 (85%) participants (352 men and 102 women) were included. Women were less likely to be smokers (68% vs. 81% Chi sq. p<0.001), but more likely than men to inhale environmental tobacco smoke at home (82% vs. 74% p = 0.08) and use hair dye (56% vs. 3%, p<0.001). Contact with potential carcinogens occurred in 282 (62%) participants (mean 3.1 per worker (range 0-14)). High-grade cancer was more common than low-grade disease in workers from the steel, foundry, metal, engineering and transport industries (p<0.05), and in workers exposed to crack detection dyes, chromium, coal/oil/gas by-products, diesel fumes/fuel/aircraft fuel and solvents (such as trichloroethylene). Higher staged cancers were frequent in workers exposed to Chromium, coal products and diesel exhaust fumes/fuel (p<0.05). Various workers (e.g. exposed to diesel fuels or fumes (Cox, HR 1.97 (95% CI 1.31-2.98) p = 0.001), employed in a garage (HR 2.19 (95% CI 1.31-3.63) p = 0.001), undertaking plumbing/gas fitting/ventilation (HR 2.15 (95% CI 1.15-4.01) p = 0.017), undertaking welding (HR 1.85 (95% CI 1.24-2.77) p = 0.003) and exposed to welding materials (HR 1.92 (95% CI 1.27-2.91) p = 0.002)) were more likely to have disease progression and receive radical treatment than others. Fewer than expected deaths were seen in healthcare workers (HR 0.17 (95% CI 0.04-0.70) p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: We identified multiple occupational tasks and contacts associated with bladder cancer. There were some associations with phenotype, although our study design precludes robust assessment.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Idoso , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Fenótipo , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
10.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(11): 920-930, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049791

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this article was to present key results of the graduates' survey VAMOS. The study examined the professional status of the graduates of 12 model study courses in the health professions in North Rhine-Westphalia. The focus of the article was on the employment characteristics of the current main jobs and the application of the academic competencies in everyday professional life. METHODS: In the early summer of 2018 (April to June), 515 graduates of the model study courses in nursing (N=244), physiotherapy (N=97), speech therapy (N=95), occupational therapy (N=47), and midwifery (N=32) were included in an online cross-sectional survey. Graduating classes between the winter semester 2013/2014 and the summer semester 2017 were included. In addition, employers (N=109) were interviewed who hired graduates from the model study courses. RESULTS: The main jobs of the graduates were mostly located in hospitals and outpatient therapy practices. Eight out of ten graduates (84%) performed tasks in direct contact with patients as the main part of their employment. In 71% of these cases, the regular tasks were combined with extended activities in comparison to colleagues without an academic degree. On average, the graduates felt confident in all competency dimensions examined in this study. In all dimensions, employers perceived a "competence advantage" for graduates compared to colleagues without an academic degree. CONCLUSION: The results of this graduate survey support the current recommendation to have the study programs in the five health care professions governed by professional laws and to enable the programs to be carried out at universities.


Assuntos
Emprego , Ocupações em Saúde , Prática Profissional , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E119, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006541

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the social needs of low-income households with children during the coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Our objective was to conduct a cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis of a rapid-response survey among low-income households with children on social needs, COVID-19-related concerns, and diet-related behaviors. METHODS: We distributed an electronic survey in April 2020 to 16,435 families in 4 geographic areas, and 1,048 responded. The survey asked families enrolled in a coordinated school-based nutrition program about their social needs, COVID-19-related concerns, food insecurity, and diet-related behaviors during the pandemic. An open-ended question asked about their greatest concern. We calculated descriptive statistics stratified by location and race/ethnicity. We used thematic analysis and an inductive approach to examine the open-ended comments. RESULTS: More than 80% of survey respondents were familiar with COVID-19 and were concerned about infection. Overall, 76.3% reported concerns about financial stability, 42.5% about employment, 69.4% about food availability, 31.0% about housing stability, and 35.9% about health care access. Overall, 93.5% of respondents reported being food insecure, a 22-percentage-point increase since fall 2019. Also, 41.4% reported a decrease in fruit and vegetable intake because of COVID-19. Frequency of grocery shopping decreased and food pantry usage increased. Qualitative assessment identified 4 main themes: 1) fear of contracting COVID-19, 2) disruption of employment status, 3) financial hardship, and 4) exacerbated food insecurity. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the compounding effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on households with children across the spectrum of social needs.


Assuntos
Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pobreza , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(13): 1050-1054, 2020.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050816

RESUMO

Working After Lung Transplantation Abstract. Whether patients return to work after a successful lung transplant depends on various factors. The best predictive factor for employment after transplantation is the employment status before transplantation. Currently, there is no internationally standardized procedure regarding the questions of when and according to what criteria patients should be reintegrated into the working environment after lung transplantation. The risk of infection at the workplace/during the work activity should definitely be assessed before resuming work: a detailed work history is mandatory, an additional workplace inspection a further option. Advice should be based on the medical literature and general recommendations, and psychosocial factors must also be taken into account. In case of ambiguities, an interdisciplinary discussion is recommended.


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão , Retorno ao Trabalho , Emprego , Humanos
14.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(9): 582-592, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041284

RESUMO

Objectives To build a healthy and safe community, it is important to provide direct services, such as health, medical, and social welfare services. However, it is also crucial to enhance the community's social capital by promoting self-help and mutual aid within the community. The development and utilization of resources/networks as well as community empowerment are possible methods to enhance social capital, but there is no conclusive method to facilitate effective coordination within the community. The purpose of this study is to clarify the community building process. This is achieved through qualitative research on community social coordinators (CSCs) who worked in an area that was significantly damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake.Methods A qualitative approach was employed to assess 10 individuals who worked as CSCs in a city within Miyagi Prefecture. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, which were between 40-90 minutes in length. A modified grounded theory approach (M-GTA) was used to analyze the data obtained from the interviews.Results The CSCs "built a relationship with the community," "assessed the community," and "intervened in the community." While assessing the community, they considered both its strengths and weaknesses, not limiting the fields it covered. To "solve the issues in the community," the CSCs "intervened in the community by themselves," "supported the autonomy of the residents," and "connected the residents to resources." This intervention was facilitated through "cooperation with the community" or "cooperation with other supporters."Conclusion Three stages were observed in the community building process. First, the CSCs built a relationship with the community. They then assessed the community, and intervened as required. It was found that the intervention-which was based on the CSCs' assessment of the community's strengths and weaknesses-was facilitated by the cooperation of the community or that of other supporters. Additionally, the CSCs aimed to promote the autonomy of the residents.


Assuntos
Desastres , Capital Social , Planejamento Social , Seguridade Social , Serviço Social , Assistentes Sociais , Adulto , Terremotos , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Autonomia Relacional
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239291, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007781

RESUMO

Many persons living with HIV (PLWH) either reduced their employment capacity or stopped work completely due to disease progression. With the advent of effective antiretroviral therapy, some PLWH were able to return to the workforce and many are now transitioning into retirement. We examined the histories of employment, retirement and disability status on depression among 1,497 Participants living with HIV from 1997 to 2015 in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Data were collected on depressive symptoms, employment, retirement, disability status as well as HIV-related and sociodemographic characteristics. Employment, retirement and disability status were lagged 2 years to assess whether the risk of depression at a given observation were temporally predicted by each respective status, adjusting for prior depressive symptoms and covariates. Being employed (aOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.71-0.82) had lower odds of depression risk two years later compared to those unemployed. There were higher odds of depression risk associated with disability (aOR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.32-1.54) versus those not on disability. Retirement status was not associated with the risk of depressive symptoms. These findings could help inform policies and employment programs to facilitate the return to work for PLWH who are willing and able to work.


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
16.
Public Health ; 188: 4-7, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Governments and health policymakers are now looking for strategies to lift the COVID-19 lockdown, while reducing risk to the public. METHODS: We propose the population attributable risk (PAR) as an established epidemiological tool that could support decision-making through quickly estimating the main benefits and costs of various exit strategies. RESULTS: We demonstrate the feasibility of use of PAR using pandemic data, that were publicly available in mid-May 2020 from Scotland and the US, to estimate the proportion of COVID-19 hospital admissions which might be avoided, and the proportion of adverse labour market effects - for various scenarios - based on maintaining the lockdown for those of certain ages with and without comorbidities. CONCLUSION: These calculations could be refined and applied in different countries to inform important COVID-19 policy decisions, using routinely collected data.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emprego/economia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Escócia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 58(229): 690-695, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068093

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection is caused by a new strain of SARS CoV-2 virus, which transmits directly from person-to-person and has become a pandemic. To counteract this, actions related to mass quarantines or stay-at-home orders have been used termed as lockdown. This study aims to study lifestyle, behaviour, perception and practice of people regarding during the lockdown. METHODS: An online survey was conducted with structured questionnaire in Google forms after ethical approval from Nepal Health Research Council (Ref-2631). The attributes of knowledge, attitude and practices were explored using multiple-choice questions and results were statistically analysed using Microsoft excel. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty-five respondents completed the survey with 280 (50.5%) males and 275 (49.5%) female. The knowledge regarding viral pandemic was increased in 496 (89.3%) respondents. 424 (76.4%) people developed stress due to pandemic. Three hundred fifty three (63.6%) were adversely affected by professional works or suffered economic loss in business. More than 42% participants are using their time for study in personal development, online classes etc. Conclusions: The knowledge of viral pandemic as well as personal hygiene habits have improved in majority of people but many also developed stress. They were convinced that lockdown lowered transmission of infection which in turn affected lifestyle behaviour and practices. Practicing social distancing becomes too difficult for the poor in the absence of proper social security system and government support. E-Learning has become more acceptable due to lockdown. Further studies with in-person interviews are warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Status Econômico , Educação a Distância , Emprego , Feminino , Luvas Protetoras , Higiene das Mãos , Higienizadores de Mão , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Quarentena , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240009, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Brighter Bites is a school-based health promotion program that delivers fresh produce and nutrition education to low-income children and families. Due to COVID-19-related school closures, states were under "shelter in place" orders, and Brighter Bites administered a rapid assessment survey to identify social needs among their families. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the methodology used to identify those with greatest social needs during this time ("high risk"), and to describe the response of Brighter Bites to these "high risk" families. METHODS: The rapid assessment survey was collected in April 2020 across Houston, Dallas, Washington DC, and Southwest Florida. The survey consisted of items on disruption of employment status, financial hardship, food insecurity, perceived health status and sociodemographics. The open-ended question "Please share your greatest concern at this time, or any other thoughts you would like to share with us." was asked at the end of each survey to triage "high risk" families. Responses were then used to articulate a response to meet the needs of these high risk families. RESULTS: A total of 1048 families completed the COVID-19 rapid response survey, of which 71 families were triaged and classified as "high risk" (6.8% of survey respondents). During this time, 100% of the "high risk" participants reported being food insecure, 85% were concerned about their financial stability, 82% concerned about the availability of food, and 65% concerned about the affordability of food. A qualitative analysis of the high-risk group revealed four major themes: fear of contracting COVID19, disruption of employment status, financial hardship, and exacerbated food insecurity. In response, Brighter Bites pivoted, created, and deployed a framework to immediately address a variety of social needs among those in the "high risk" category. Administering a rapid response survey to identify the immediate needs of their families can help social service providers tailor their services to meet the needs of the most vulnerable.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Betacoronavirus , Criança , District of Columbia , Emprego , Florida , Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Pandemias , Serviço Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2026064, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104209

RESUMO

Importance: An immediate research priority is to investigate and monitor the psychological well-being among high-risk groups during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Objective: To examine levels of severity of depressive symptoms over time among individuals with high risk in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study is part of an ongoing large panel study of adults aged 18 years and older residing in the UK, the COVID-19 Social Study, established on March 21, 2020. Data analysis was conducted in May 2020. Exposures: Sociodemographic risk factors included belonging to the Black, Asian, and minority racial/ethnic communities, low socioeconomic position (SEP), and essential worker roles (eg, workers in health and social care, education, childcare, or key public services). Health-related and psychosocial risk factors included preexisting physical and mental health conditions, experience of psychological or physical abuse, and low social support. Main Outcomes and Measures: Depressive symptoms were measured on 7 occasions from March 21 to April 2, 2020, using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Group-based depressive symptom trajectories were derived using latent growth mixture modeling. Results: The analytical sample comprised 51 417 adults aged 18 years and older (mean [SD] age, 48.8 [16.8] years; 26 276 [51.1%] women; 6145 members [12.0%] of Black, Asian, and minority racial/ethnic communities). Among these, 17 143 participants (33.3%) were in the lowest SEP quartile, and 11 342 participants (22.1%) were classified as essential workers. Three levels of severity of depressive symptoms were identified: low (30 850 participants [60.0%]), moderate (14 911 participants [29.0%]), and severe (5656 participants [11.0%]). After adjusting for covariates, experiences of physical or psychological abuse (odds ratio [OR], 13.16; 95% CI, 12.95-13.37; P < .001), preexisting mental health conditions (OR, 12.99; 95% CI, 12.87-13.11; P < .001), preexisting physical health conditions (OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 3.29-3.54; P < .001), low social support (OR, 12.72; 95% CI, 12.57-12.86; P < .001), and low SEP (OR, 5.22; 95% CI, 5.08-5.36; P < .001) were significantly associated with severe depressive symptoms. No significant association was found for race/ethnicity (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85-1.28; P = .56). Participants with essential worker roles were less likely to experience severe depressive symptoms (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53-0.80; P < .001). Similar patterns of associations were found for the group of participants with moderate depressive symptoms (abuse: OR, 5.34; 95% CI, 5.15-5.54; P < .001; mental health condition: OR, 4.24; 95% CI, 4.24-4.24; P < .001; physical health condition: OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.80-1.98; P < .001; low social support: OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 4.60-4.82; P < .001; low SEP: OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.87-2.08; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of UK adults participating in the COVID-19 Social Study, people with psychosocial and health-related risk factors, as well as those with low SEP, were at the most risk of experiencing moderate or severe depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo , Nível de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Emprego , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Grupos Populacionais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095814

RESUMO

Understanding the influence of COVID-19 on China's agricultural economy and the Chinese government's emergency measures to ease the economic impacts of viral spread can offer urgently-needed lessons while this virus continues to spread across the globe. Thus, this study collected over 750,000 words upon the topic of COVID-19 and agriculture from the largest two media channels in China: WeChat and Sina Weibo, and employed web crawler technology and text mining method to explore the influence of COVID-19 on agricultural economy and mitigation measures in China. The results show that: (1) the impact of COVID-19 on China's agricultural economy at the very first phase is mainly reflected in eight aspects as crop production, agricultural products supply, livestock production, farmers' income and employment, economic crop development, agricultural products sales model, leisure agriculture development, and agricultural products trade. (2) The government's immediate countermeasures include resuming agricultural production and farmers' work, providing financial support, stabilizing agricultural production and products supply, promoting agricultural products sale, providing subsidies, providing agricultural technology guidance and field management, and providing assistance to poor farmers to reduce poverty. (3) The order of government's immediate countermeasures is not all in line with the order of impact aspects, which indicates that more-tailored policies should be implemented to mitigate the strikes of COVID-19 on China's agricultural economy in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Produção Agrícola/economia , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Fazendas/economia , Regulamentação Governamental , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Produção Agrícola/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Econômico/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Fazendeiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Fazendas/legislação & jurisprudência , Apoio Financeiro , Humanos , Gado , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mídias Sociais
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