Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 48.927
Filtrar
1.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211042177, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465251

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Postnatal hospital stay is decreased by 30% during COVID-19 in developed countries. However, there is paucity of data in developing countries. Hence, this study aims to assess the prevalence of early postnatal discharge during COVID-19 in Jimma Health Centers. METHODS: Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 February to 30 March 2021. Sample was calculated using single population proportion formula and allocated proportionally to the health centers. Data were interred into Epidata version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 22.0 for analysis. Multivariable regression was done to identify associating factors at p < 0.05. RESULT: Three hundred ninety women were included into study making a response rate of 96.8%. Early discharge prevalence was 316 (81.0%). Attending elementary school adjusted odds ratio = 0.26 (confidence interval = 0.087-0.798), plan for postnatal care within a week adjusted odds ratio = 0.410 (confidence interval = 0.221-0.760), knowing postnatal maternal danger sign adjusted odds ratio = 0.258 (confidence interval = 0.141-0.473), women adjusted odds ratio = 0.421 (confidence interval = 0.211-0.838), or husband adjusted odds ratio = 0.051 (confidence interval = 0.014-0.186) made decision of discharge were negatively and distance on foot <30 min adjusted odds ratio = 3 (confidence interval = 1.121-8.058) was positively associated with early discharge significantly. CONCLUSION: This study has identified early postnatal discharge is high which can contribute to reduce the risk of acquiring COVID-19. However, the authors recommend further study to differentiate whether early discharge is due to COVID-19 or other reasons.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Emprego , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(2): e00514, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the secondary attack rate (SAR) and its determinants to describe the clinical features and epidemiological aspects of patients and determine the risk factors of COVID-19 among household contacts in Hamadan Province, west of Iran. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study. METHODS: In this cohort study, a total of 323 index cases and 989 related close contacts ages more than 15 years old (family members, relatives, and co-workers) were enrolled using a manual contact tracing approach, and all participants were tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test. In this research, the frequency of symptoms was assessed, the SAR among contacts of index cases was calculated, and the risk factors of COVID-19 were evaluated by the logistic regression model. RESULTS: The secondary attack rate for total household members of index cases was estimated at 31.7% (95% CI: 28.8-34.7). It was found that among household contacts, the highest SARs were related to spouses 47.1% (95% CI: 38.7-55.7) and grandparents/parents 39.3% (95% CI: 29.4, 49.9) of index cases, who had also higher risks to become secondary cases (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=2.98, 95% CI: 1.31-6.75 and adjusted OR=2.76, 95% CI: 1.18-6.44, respectively). Considering the occupation of contacts, unemployed and retired people and housewives were most susceptible for transmission of COVID-19. It was revealed that cough was the most prevalent symptom among index and secondary cases. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that spouses and grandparents/parents of index cases were the most susceptible individuals for COVID-19 transmission. Prolonged exposure with index case before COVID-19 diagnosis raised the chance of infection among secondary cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Busca de Comunicante , Características da Família , Família , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Tosse/etiologia , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20190042, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495194

RESUMO

Issue under consideration: existing legal resources to support gender equality in the workplace. We systematised the provisions of Kazakhstan labour law, which should guarantee the prohibition of discrimination based on sex. The analysis resulted in five themes: "Characteristics of women's labour", "Analysis of labour laws differentiation", "Evaluation of labour rights discrimination" and "Characteristics of the new labour legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan", "Characteristics of workers with a special social status". We analysed the essence of the method of differentiation of labour legislation, which affects the establishment of special working conditions for women and workers with family responsibilities. We suggested a correlation between the content of legal norms and the level of guarantees of gender equality in the labour market. The results show that family circumstances, gender equality are factors influencing the formation of labour legislation, state policy in the field of wage labour. The creation of a favourable environment for labour relations of the considered categories of workers should be carried out through labour contracts, acts of the employer, social partnership agreements, collective agreements. However, priority should be given to normative acts of national action. Ensuring gender equality in fact always requires the implementation of special measures by the employer, which must be guaranteed by a coercive state mechanism. At least this thesis is true for the conditions of Kazakhstan, a country with a transition economy, when business does not have high social activity, and state power is in a period of transformation. Importance should be given to the monitoring and implementation of international obligations in the field of ensuring the prohibition of discrimination, the implementation of best practices and standards. The post-Soviet law of Kazakhstan recognises the priority of international law over national law, and this channel should be maximally used to promote the value of gender equality.


Assuntos
Emprego , Equidade de Gênero , Feminino , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 361-370, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202559

RESUMO

El enfoque psicológico en torno a la actividad emprendedora contribuye a explicar por qué las personas deciden o no emprender. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar diferentes perfiles de personalidad emprendedora, así como identificar las variables de personalidad que puedan explicar el convertirse en trabajador por cuenta propia. Empleando una muestra de 586 participantes (Medad= 39,31; DTedad = 14,66), se analizaron diferentes perfiles de personalidad emprendedora mediante técnicas de análisis de perfiles latentes. Además, se analizó si había diferencias en otras variables psicológicas en función del perfil de personalidad emprendedora. Finalmente, se estudió, mediante un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, si la responsabilidad, el autocontrol, el grit y la personalidad emprendedora ayudan a explicar que las personas se conviertan en trabajadores por cuenta propia. Los resultados apoyan la existencia de tres perfiles latentes de personalidad emprendedora (baja, media y alta), siendo el perfil alta personalidad emprendedora el que muestra mayores puntuaciones en otras variables psicológicas, así como mayor proporción de trabajadores por cuenta propia. El modelo de ecuaciones estructurales planteado explica un 2,6% de la varianza de la variable ser trabajador autónomo, por lo que las variables de personalidad ayudan a explicar una pequeña parte de la actividad emprendedora


The psychological approach to entrepreneurial activity helps to explain why people decide or not to undertake. The objective of this study is to analyze different entrepreneurial personality profiles, as well as to identify the personality variables that can explain becoming a self-employed. Using a sample of 586 participants (Mage = 39.31; SDage = 14.66), different entrepreneurial personality profiles were analyzed using la-tent profile analysis techniques. In addition, it was analyzed whether there were differences in other psychological variables based on the entrepreneurial personality profile. Finally, it was studied, using a structural equation model, if conscientiousness, self-control, grit and entrepreneurial personality help to explain why people become self-employed. The results support the existence of three latent profiles of entrepreneurial personality (low, medium and high), being high entrepreneurial personality the one profile that shows higher scores in other psychological variables, as well as a higher proportion of self-employed. The proposed structural equation model explains 2.6% of the variance of the variable being self-employed, so the personality variables help to explain a small part of entrepreneurial activity


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Empreendedorismo , Conscientização , Autocontrole/psicologia , Motivação , Emprego/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Valores de Referência
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 338, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There are limited studies on the psychological issues and sleep problems among the Iranian people living with HIV (HIV). In this study, we aimed to assess sleep disorders, psychiatric characteristics, and employment status among Iranian PLWH. RESULTS: In total, 304 PLWH with a mean age of 40.01 (SD = 9.60) years participated in the study. About 72% of the participants had a global PSQI score of more than 5, with a mean score of 7.71 (SD = 3.31). About 55.6%, 50%, and 67.4% of subjects had abnormal scores for depression, anxiety, and stress. Unemployed participants had 2.13 times more chance (95% CI 1.01-4.53) of having poor sleep quality compared to employed patients, and stress increased its likelihood by 3.18 times (95% CI 1.47-5.88).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emprego , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444369

RESUMO

We aimed to systematically identify and evaluate all studies of good quality that compared the occurrence of mental disorders in the self-employed versus employees. Adhering to the Cochrane guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and searched three major medical databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase), complemented by hand search. We included 26 (three longitudinal and 23 cross-sectional) population-based studies of good quality (using a validated quality assessment tool), with data from 3,128,877 participants in total. The longest of these studies, a Swedish national register evaluation with 25 years follow-up, showed a higher incidence of mental illness among the self-employed compared to white-collar workers, but a lower incidence compared to blue-collar workers. In the second longitudinal study from Sweden the self-employed had a lower incidence of mental illness compared to both blue- and white-collar workers over 15 years, whereas the third longitudinal study (South Korea) did not find a difference regarding the incidence of depressive symptoms over 6 years. Results from the cross-sectional studies showed associations between self-employment and poor general mental health and stress, but were inconsistent regarding other mental outcomes. Most studies from South Korea found a higher prevalence of mental disorders among the self-employed compared to employees, whereas the results of cross-sectional studies from outside Asia were less consistent. In conclusion, we found evidence from population-based studies for a link between self-employment and increased risk of mental illness. Further longitudinal studies are needed examining the potential risk for the development of mental disorders in specific subtypes of the self-employed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256598, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Internationally, countries have reacted to the COVID-19 outbreak by introducing key public health non-pharmaceutical interventions to protect vulnerable population groups. In response to COVID-19, the Government of Ethiopia has been taking a series of policy actions beyond public health initiatives alone. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the applicability of basic preventive measures of the pandemic COVID-19 and associated factors among the residents of Guraghe Zone from 18th to 29th September, 2020. METHODS: Community based cross sectional study was conducted at Guraghe Zone from 18th to 29th September, 2020. Systematic random sampling method was applied among the predetermined 634 samples. Variables which had p-value less than 0.25 in bivariate analysis were considered as candidate for multivariable logistic regression model. P-value <0.05 was used as a cutoff point to determine statistical significance in multiple logistic regressions for the final model. RESULT: In this study, 17.7% (95% CI: 14.7, 20.5) of the respondents apply the basic preventive measures towards the prevention of the pandemic COVID-19. In addition, being rural resident (AOR: 4.78,; 95%CI: 2.50, 8.90), being studied grade 1-8 (AOR: 3.70; 95%CI: 1.70, 7.90), being a farmer (AOR: 4.10; 95%CI: 1.25, 13.35), currently not married (AOR: 2.20, 95%CI: 1.24, 4.06), having family size 1-3(AOR: 6.50; 95%CI: 3.21, 3.35), have no diagnosed medical illness (AOR: 6.40; 95%CI: 3.85, 10.83) and having poor knowledge (AOR: 3.50; 95%CI: 1.60, 7.40) were factors which are statistically significant in multivariable logistic regression model. CONCLUSION: Despite the application of preventive measures and vaccine delivery, the applicability of the pandemic COVID-19 preventive measures was too low, which indicate that the Zone is at risk for the infection. Rural residents, those who have lower educational level, farmers, non-marrieds, those who have lower family size, those who have diagnosed medical illnesses and those who have poor knowledge were prone to the infection with the pandemic COVID-19 due to the lower practice of applying the basic preventive measures. In addition, awareness creation should be in practice at all levels of the community especially lower educational classes and rural residents.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Emprego , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444104

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the market environment for the information technology (IT) industry changed dramatically, presenting companies with numerous obstacles in day-to-day management activities and changing business needs. Previous studies found that job insecurity due to COVID-19 significantly impacted millennials. Our research explored the effect of job insecurity on counterproductive work behavior among millennial employees during the COVID-19 period, using moral disengagement as a mediating variable, and psychological capital and negative emotions as moderating variables. In this study, 298 employees working in Chinese IT companies completed the questionnaire survey. We collected data from employees over three different time intervals (baseline, three weeks later, and six weeks later) to mitigate the issues of common method bias and single-source data. We analyzed the collected data using SPSS25.0 and Amos24.0 for structural modeling. Our research results indicate that job insecurity is positively associated with counterproductive work behavior, and moral disengagement plays a mediating role. In addition, psychological capital moderates the relationship between job insecurity, moral disengagement, and counterproductive work behavior. Negative emotions also moderate the mediating effect of moral disengagement between job insecurity and CWB.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Emprego , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Princípios Morais , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12259, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between the status of infection control efforts against COVID-19 in the workplace and workers' mental health using a large-scale Internet-based study. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet monitoring survey conducted during the third wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Japan. Of the 33 302 people who participated in the survey, 27 036 were included in the analyses. Participants answered whether or not each of 10 different infection control measures was in place at their workplace (eg, wearing masks at all times during working hours). A Kessler 6 (K6) score of ≥13 was defined as mild psychological distress. The odds ratios (ORs) of psychological distress associated with infection control measures at the workplace were estimated using a multilevel logistic model nested in the prefectures of residence. RESULTS: The OR of subjects working at facilities with 4 or 5 infection control measures for psychological distress was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.34, P = .010), that in facilities with 2 or 3 infection control measures was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.25-1.64, P < .001), and that in facilities with 1 or no infection control measures was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.63-2.14, P < .001) compared to subjects whose workplaces had ≥6 infection control measures. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that proactive COVID-19 infection control measures can influence the mental health of workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego/psicologia , Controle de Infecções , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Aging Stud ; 58: 100954, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425986

RESUMO

Choosing to continue working after retirement eligibility can attract both negative and positive sentiments from the general public. Studies examining the motivations of older workers have so far been conducted in times of relative social and economic stability. However, little is known about what it means for older workers to work during a lockdown or pandemic situation. The present longitudinal study aimed to explore experiences of retirement-aged workers in Slovenia in relation to their motives for prolonged work activity amid the COVID-19 pandemic, using the theory of gerotranscendence as a theoretical framework. Nine workers were interviewed before and after the start of the pandemic. The qualitative analysis was based on 18 interviews and observations, juxtaposing two analytical methods in order to illustrate common themes across the data as well as tensions in specific situations within a narrative context. Four main themes are presented: Unchanged plans, Motive developments, Psychological preparation for retirement and Views of society. In addition, a narrative analysis is presented with a focus on self-transcending elements in some of the participants' narratives. The findings suggest that during a pandemic, older workers' individual experiences might be constructed more positively compared to other groups, especially if they develop agentic identity and pursue meaningful activities. We discuss an innovative approach to gerotranscendence, complementing this theory with concepts from occupational science to develop a clearer distinction from the now dated disengagement theory and examine the life trajectories of older workers in novel situations such as a pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego , Motivação , Pandemias , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Eslovênia/epidemiologia
13.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1953243, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, female sex workers (FSWs) are perceived to play a pivotal role in the country's HIV epidemic. Understanding their health status and risk factors for adverse health outcomes is foundational for developing evidence-based health care for this population. OBJECTIVE: Describe the methodology used to successfully implement a community-led study of social and employment circumstances, HIV and associated factors amongst FSWs in South Africa. METHOD: A community-centric, cross-sectional, survey of 3,005 adult FSWs was conducted (January-July 2019) on 12 Sex Work (SW) programme sites across nine provinces of South Africa. Sites had existing SW networks and support programmes providing peer education and HIV services. FSWs were involved in the study design, questionnaire development, and data collection. Questions included: demographic, sexual behaviour, HIV testing and treatment/PrEP history, and violence exposure. HIV rapid testing, viral load, CD4 count, HIV recency, and HIV drug resistance genotypic testing were undertaken. Partner organisations provided follow-up services. RESULTS: HIV Prevalence was 61.96%, the median length of selling sex was 6 years, and inconsistent condom use was reported by 81.6% of participants, 88.4% reported childhood trauma, 46.2% reported physical or sexual abuse by an intimate partner and 57.4% by a client. More than half of participants had depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (52.7% and 54.1%, respectively). CONCLUSION: This is the first national survey of HIV prevalence amongst FSWs in programmes in South Africa. The data highlight the vulnerability of this population to HIV, violence and mental ill health, suggesting the need for urgent law reform. Based on the unique methodology and the successful implementation alongside study partners, the outcomes will inform tailored interventions. Our rapid rate of enrolment, low rate of screening failure and low proportion of missing data showed the feasibility and importance of community-centric research with marginalised, highly vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360269

RESUMO

This paper outlines a research protocol to be undertaken with people with disability from Syrian and Iraqi refugee backgrounds settling in Australia. Since 2012, the numbers of people with disability arriving from these countries has increased with limited understanding about the impact of their refugee journeys on their settlement. The aim of this small-scale exploratory study is to learn about the journeys made by people with disability from Syrian and Iraqi refugee backgrounds from their countries of origin, through transit countries, to Australia in order to understand the impact of these journeys on inclusion and participation in Australian society. This participatory action research study employs a bilingual co-researcher with disability from a Syrian background to conduct life history interviews with up to five participants. Participants will recount their journeys with a focus on the impact of their disability on this experience. The study design is informed by BenEzer and Zetter's 2014 seminal paper on the importance of the refugee journey to settlement. This study has the potential to foreground the voices and experiences of people with disability from refugee backgrounds who are often absent, silenced or excluded in research and, in so doing, hopefully impact Australian refugee policy.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Refugiados , Austrália , Emprego , Humanos , Síria
15.
Epilepsy Behav ; 122: 108208, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Observational studies suggest that persons with seizure disorders are socially disadvantaged compared to the general population. There are scarce reports in the literature on the prevalence of employment and occupational safety among patients with seizure disorders in Saudi Arabia. We aimed to describe the occupational statuses of patients with seizure disorders and determine factors associated with unemployment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Five-hundred-and-forty patients with known seizure disorders or epilepsy who attended neurology and neurosurgery outpatient clinics between January and November 2018 completed a semi-structured questionnaire delivered by interview. RESULTS: Forty-four percent of participants were unemployed (27% of males and 64% of females). Fifteen percent of currently or previously employed participants reported that they had formerly resigned from their job due to their seizure disorder, most commonly as a result of their own fears or concerns. Almost half of the participants reported that their employer made arrangements in the workplace for their seizure disorder, while 18% reported that they did not disclose their diagnosis. Gender, age, and highest educational level were associated with employment status and reason for unemployment. Patients with seizures secondary to trauma were less than half as likely to be employed compared to other participants (aOR = 0.45 95%CI 0.21-0.97, p = 0.042). Holding a driving license increased the odds of being employed (aOR = 2.68 95%CI 1.32-5.46, p = 0.007). Participants on 4 or more antiepileptic medications were more likely to report not being well enough to work. SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with seizure disorders are at increased risk of unemployment, even though many desire work. Unemployment is linked to social factors rather than disease-specific characteristics. Employers in Saudi Arabia generally accommodate patients in the workplace; however, individuals should further be empowered with information on safety in the workplace and their rights to employment.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
16.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254722, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347821

RESUMO

Job security can never be taken for granted, especially in times of rapid, widespread and unexpected social and economic change. These changes can force workers to transition to new jobs. This may be because new technologies emerge or production is moved abroad. Perhaps it is a global crisis, such as COVID-19, which shutters industries and displaces labor en masse. Regardless of the impetus, people are faced with the challenge of moving between jobs to find new work. Successful transitions typically occur when workers leverage their existing skills in the new occupation. Here, we propose a novel method to measure the similarity between occupations using their underlying skills. We then build a recommender system for identifying optimal transition pathways between occupations using job advertisements (ads) data and a longitudinal household survey. Our results show that not only can we accurately predict occupational transitions (Accuracy = 76%), but we account for the asymmetric difficulties of moving between jobs (it is easier to move in one direction than the other). We also build an early warning indicator for new technology adoption (showcasing Artificial Intelligence), a major driver of rising job transitions. By using real-time data, our systems can respond to labor demand shifts as they occur (such as those caused by COVID-19). They can be leveraged by policy-makers, educators, and job seekers who are forced to confront the often distressing challenges of finding new jobs.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Emprego , Competência Profissional , Orientação Vocacional/métodos , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Demografia , Humanos , Indústrias/métodos , Indústrias/organização & administração , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Dinâmica Populacional , Competência Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Orientação Vocacional/organização & administração , Orientação Vocacional/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360222

RESUMO

The situation of labour inclusion of people with disabilities in Spain is still too negative, in spite of the different efforts carried out by public and private sector. Previous research points to social discrimination as one of the main causes of the situation. Ilunion Hotels is one of the most important hotel companies in Spain focused on labour inclusion of people with disabilities. The objective of this paper is to explore the social inclusion case of Ilunion Hotels of the Costa del Sol, the actions that they have developed to improve the labour integration of this collective, based on a behavioral economics theoretical model (with a high relevance of the influence of social stigma, stress theories and coping to stress responses). We look into the specific situation of two of the three hotels developed as Special Employment Centres (sheltered employment contexts defined by Spanish legislation) and the possible impact of their Support Units for Professional Activity. Case study methodology is considered the most appropriate, according to the research objective, supported by semi-structured interviews with the hotel managers. The results show that, although Special Employment Centres are effective in improving labour integration in the short term and could contribute to change the long-term social perspectives about workers with disabilities, they could be also reinforcing the social stigma existing in the ordinary market.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Economia Comportamental , Economia , Emprego , Humanos , Espanha , Recursos Humanos
18.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 673-688, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410742

RESUMO

Model minority stereotypes of Asian Americans as high educational and occupational achievers are perpetuated by conceptual and methodological issues in career development research that aggregate across Asian ethnicities and oversample high achievers. These issues render those marginalized, such as working-class immigrants with limited English proficiency, as well as their children, as invisible within research, practice, and policy. A new theoretical framework, entitled the Asian American Intergenerational Model of Psychology of Working (AAIM), questions the mainstream career development assumptions of linearity, stability, and upward mobility that reveal inherent classism. Building on the Psychology of Working Theory (Duffy et al., 2016); the AAIM broadens the scope and definition of work beyond career, and acknowledges the significance of structural and cultural forces on people's work and life. An expanded qualitative analysis of interviews with 17 low-income, working-class, Chinese immigrant parents (Tu et al., 2019) provides an empirical illustration of the intergenerational and coethnic dynamics of vocational experiences central to the AAIM. The working-class immigrants relied on coethnic networks to secure employment within a narrow range of options, many straddling helplessly between arduous manual labor and family demands. Though they had immigrated primarily to provide a better future for their children, many parents struggled to participate meaningfully in their children's development. These findings highlight the need to expand Asian American psychology of working to incorporate systems and social justice perspectives. Research, practice, and policy implications of AAIM advocate for maximal inclusivity and offer directions to address invisibility of the most marginalized and disenfranchised Asian American workers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Logro , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Classe Social , Justiça Social , Marginalização Social , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(8): 1103-1117, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423997

RESUMO

Employers have increasingly turned to virtual interviews to facilitate online, socially distanced selection processes in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is little understanding about the experience of job candidates in these virtual interview contexts. We draw from Event System Theory (Morgeson et al., 2015) to advance and test a conceptual model that focuses on a high-stress, high-stakes setting and integrates literatures on workplace stress with literatures on applicant reactions. We predict that when applicants ruminate about COVID-19 during an interview and have higher levels of COVID-19 exhaustion, they will have higher levels of anxiety during virtual interviews, which in turn relates to reduced interview performance, lower perceptions of fairness, and reduced intentions to recommend the organization. Further, we predict that three factors capturing COVID-19 as an enduring and impactful event (COVID-19 duration, COVID-19 cases, COVID-19 deaths) will be positively related to COVID-19 exhaustion. We tested our propositions with 8,343 job applicants across 373 companies and 93 countries/regions. Consistent with predictions, we found a positive relationship between COVID-19 rumination and interview anxiety, and this relationship was stronger for applicants who experienced higher (vs. lower) levels of COVID-19 exhaustion. In turn, interview anxiety was negatively related to interview performance, fairness perceptions, and recommendation intentions. Moreover, using a relevant subset of the data (n = 6,136), we found that COVID-19 duration and deaths were positively related to COVID-19 exhaustion. This research offers several insights for understanding the virtual interview experience embedded in the pandemic and advances the literature on applicant reactions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19 , Emprego/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Adulto , Aspirações Psicológicas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444937

RESUMO

Breakfast skipping and nighttime snacking have been identified as risk factors for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of irregularity of meal timing on health and daily quality of life are still unclear. In this study, a web-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted involving 4490 workers (73.3% males; average age = 47.4 ± 0.1 years) in Japan to investigate the association between meal habits, health, and social relationships. This study identified that irregular meal timing was correlated with higher neuroticism (one of the Big Five personality traits), lower physical activity levels, and higher productivity loss. Irregular meal timing was also associated with a higher incidence of sleep problems and lower subjective health conditions. Among health outcomes, a high correlation of irregular meal timing with mental health factors was observed. This study showed that irregularity of meal timing can be explained by unbalanced diets, frequent breakfast skipping, increased snacking frequency, and insufficient latency from the last meal to sleep onset. Finally, logistic regression analysis was conducted, and a significant contribution of meal timing irregularity to subjective mental health was found under adjustment for other confounding factors. These results suggest that irregular meal timing is a good marker of subjective mental health issues.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Refeições , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Desjejum , Relógios Circadianos , Dieta/métodos , Emprego , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Sono , Lanches , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...