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1.
Trials ; 25(1): 99, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303019

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Most cardiac arrest survivors are classified with mild to moderate cognitive impairment; roughly, 50% experience long-term neurocognitive impairment. Postarrest challenges complicate participation in society and are associated with social issues such as failure to resume social activities and impaired return to work. The effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors are sparsely described, but the body of evidence describes high probabilities of survivors not returning to work, returning to jobs with modified job descriptions, returning to part-time employment, and often in combination with extensive unmet rehabilitation needs. Hence, there is a need to develop and test a pragmatic individual targeted intervention to facilitate return to work (RTW) in survivors of OHCA. The overall aim of the ROCK trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive individually tailored multidisciplinary rehabilitation intervention for survivors of OHCA on RTW compared to usual care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The ROCK trial is a two-arm parallel group multicentre investigator-initiated pragmatic randomized controlled superiority trial with primary endpoint measured 12 months after the cardiac arrest. Adult survivors who were part of the labour force prior to the OCHA and had at least 2 years until they are qualified to receive retirement state pensions are eligible for inclusion. Survivors will be randomized 1:1 to usual care group or usual care plus a comprehensive tailored rehabilitation intervention focusing on supporting RTW. After comprehensive assessment of individual rehabilitation needs, the intervention is ongoingly coordinated within a multidisciplinary rehabilitation team, and the intervention can be delivered for up until 12 months. Data for the primary outcome will be obtained from the national register on social transfer payments. The primary outcome will be analysed using logistic regression assessing RTW status at 12 months adjusting for the intervention and age at OHCA, sex, marital status, and occupation prior to OHCA. DISCUSSION: The ROCK trial is the first RCT to investigate the effectiveness of a rehabilitation intervention focusing on return to work after cardiac arrest. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05173740. Registered on May 2018.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Retorno ao Trabalho , Adulto , Humanos , Emprego , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reabilitação Vocacional/métodos , Sobreviventes/psicologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 372, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incorporating multiple perspectives and contexts in knowledge mobilisation for return-to-work after sick leave due to common mental disorders can promote interprofessional and organisational strategies for facilitating the return-to-work process. This study aimed to explore the facilitators of and barriers to return-to-work after common mental disorders. This exploration considered the perspectives of employees and managers and the realms of work and private life. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used with data from 27 semi-structured telephone interviews. The strategic sample consisted of employees who returned to work after sick leave due to common mental disorders (n = 17) and managers responsible for their return-to-work process (n = 10). Thematic analysis conducted in a six-step process was used to generate themes in the interview data. RESULTS: The analysis generated three main themes with subthemes, illustrating experiences of barriers to and facilitators of return-to-work positioned in the employees' private and work contexts: (1) Getting along: managing personal difficulties in everyday life; (2) Belonging: experiencing social connectedness and support in work and private life; and (3) Organisational support: fostering a supportive work environment. The results contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the return-to-work process, including the challenges individuals face at work and in private life. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that return-to-work after sick leave due to CMDs is a dynamic and ongoing process embedded in social, organisational, and societal environments. The results highlight avenues for an interprofessional approach and organisational learning to support employees and managers, including space for the employee to recover during the workday. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study recruited employees from a two-armed cluster-randomised controlled trial evaluating a problem-solving intervention for reducing sick leave among employees sick-listed due to common mental disorders (reg. NCT3346395).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Retorno ao Trabalho , Humanos , Licença Médica , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Emprego , Local de Trabalho
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 135, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321402

RESUMO

BAKGROUND: Worldwide, older people were more severely affected during the COVID-19 pandemic than others. In Sweden, those living in residential care facilities had the highest mortality rate, followed by those receiving home care services. The Swedish and international literature on the working environment for assistant nurses and care aides during the pandemic shows an increase in stress, anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress syndromes. Care organisations were badly prepared to prevent the virus from spreading and to protect the staff from stress. In order to be better prepared for possible future pandemics, the health and well-being of the staff, the care of older people and the experiences of the staff both during and after a pandemic are important aspects to take into account. Therefore, this study aims to describe the experiences of assistant nurses and care aides working in the care of older people during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden, their working conditions and the impact all this had on their lives. METHODOLOGY: The study has a qualitative, descriptive design. The data was collected in four focus group interviews with 21 participants and analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The results revealed the theme, Being used for the greater good while fighting on the frontline, which was then divided into three categories: portrayed as a risk for older people, not being valued and being burnt out. The worsening working conditions that the pandemic contributed to resulted in a high degree of stress and risk of burnout, with staff members both wanting to and actually leaving their employment. After the pandemic they felt forgotten again and left to cope in an even worse situation than before. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic had a major effect on assistant nurses and care aides in terms of their working environment and their private lives. To be better prepared for future pandemics or disasters, organisations with responsibility for the care of older people will need to ensure that their staff have the necessary competencies and that there is adequate staffing in place. This also means that adequate government funding and multiple interventions will be needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Idoso , Pandemias , Suécia , Emprego , Emoções , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 83, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the challenge of having single child is spreading in many countries. Only- child family is prevalent in 26% of families in Canada, 21% in the United States, 47.5% in Europe and 20% in Iran, which can lead to fertility below replacement level. Therefore, the current review was conducted to identify the needs of single-child couples. METHODS: The PRISMA checklist was used to prepare this systematic review report. English and Persian articles published between 2000 and April 2023 were searched in the English databases of ISI, PubMed, Cochrane library and Google Scholar search engine as well as Persian databases of SID and Magiran using keywords of only child, needs assessment and Reproductive behavior. All cross-sectional and correlational studies that addressed the needs of single-child couples were included in the study. The quality assessment of the articles was done by the STROBE checklist. Data extraction was done by two independent researchers using a self-structured checklist. To analyze the data, following tabulating the extracted data, the process of qualitative synthesis was done for systematic review taking into account ethical considerations. RESULTS: Out of 1,581 articles found, 17 articles were included in the systematic review. The needs of single-child couples were divided into four general areas included 1) Financial needs, 2) Cultural needs, 3) Educational needs, and 4) Supportive needs. The support needs included two kinds of social and family support. CONCLUSION: Solving financial needs, creating a culture of positive values of childbearing and men's participation in household affairs, considering women's preferences in order to increase education and employment, childbearing training and counseling and creating social and family support in line with work and family harmony and quality care of children, as the most important needs of single-child couples, should be incorporated in the formulation of childbearing incentive programs.


Assuntos
Emprego , Características da Família , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Fertilidade
5.
Inquiry ; 61: 469580241229613, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297888

RESUMO

The global shipping industry, responsible for delivering over 70% of the world's goods (in volume), has increasingly adopted cost minimization policies, contributing to precarious employment practices that adversely affect seafarers' wellbeing. This study focuses on the intricate relationship between employment precarity and food provision on cargo ships. By presenting seafarers' perspectives, we aim to understand how precarious employment practices and cost minimization in the industry influence power dynamics related to food and impact seafarers' wellbeing. Drawing on empirical data collected through shipboard observations and interviews with seafarers, this study examines the often-overlooked experiences and perspectives of seafarers. The research sheds light on the precarity of employment in shipping and its inherent impact on the provision of food on board and its implications for seafarers' physical and emotional health, including the availability of nutritious and sufficient food and its impact on their daily lives. Through in-depth interviews, seafarers' insights into their experiences of food including the quality, availability, and cultural appropriateness of food on board are explored, as well as the standard of training for cooks. Through this research, we found substandard conditions on some of the ships, cost-focused decision-making, and lack of standardized food preparation practices on board. These findings underline the need for improved regulations, better training opportunities, and increased consideration for seafarers' wellbeing. These changes are essential to ensure the provision of adequate and nutritious meals that promote the physical and mental health of seafarers on board ships. Specifically, the research underscores the need for policy and advocacy initiatives to improve seafarers' lives and promote fair working conditions in the global shipping industry. By amplifying the voices of seafarers and providing evidence-based insights, this study contributes to the larger discourse on workers' rights and the importance of decent working conditions. It calls for greater attention to the provision of adequate, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food on board cargo ships, recognizing its significance for seafarers' physical and mental wellbeing, as well as a call for standardized training for ship's cooks.


Assuntos
Emprego , Navios , Humanos , Saúde Mental
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1260337, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317801

RESUMO

Introduction: The objective of this paper is to investigate whether an aging workforce is associated with an increase in work-related non-fatal injuries and to explore the underlying reasons for this potential increase. Methods: Aged workers were defined as those who were at least 55-years-old. Work-related non-fatal injuries were assessed in aged and young workers who were registered with the workers' compensation system from 2017 to 2021 of South Korea. Results: The mean estimated rate of work-related non-fatal injuries of aged workers (0.88/100) was about 2.5-times higher than that of younger workers (0.35/100). Most work-related non-fatal injuries in the older adults were in individuals working in the "construction sector" (36.0%), those with "elementary occupations (unskilled workers)" (45.0%), and those with employment status of "daily worker" (44.0%). "Trip & slip" (28.7%) and "falling" (19.6%) were more frequent types of work-related non-fatal injuries in aged workers relative to young workers. The category of "buildings, structures, and surfaces" was a more frequent cause of work-related non-fatal injuries in aged workers than young workers. Discussion: The incidence of non-fatal work-related injuries is higher among aged workers compared to their younger counterparts. The increased occurrence of aged workers participating in precarious employment and jobs, along with the greater physical vulnerability, is likely the cause of their higher rate of work-related non-fatal injuries.


Assuntos
Emprego , Ocupações , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Incidência
7.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 87(2): 219-225, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increasing number of individuals with dementia, families have hired an increasing number of live-in migrant caregivers (LIMCs). Currently, limited evidence is available regarding the influence of long-term care resource utilization on the hiring of LIMCs for caring for individuals with dementia in Taiwan. METHODS: We recruited individuals with dementia who did not hire LIMCs and their primary family caregivers from nine hospitals in Taiwan as baseline. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the utilization of long-term care resources for individuals with dementia and other factors that may affect the decision to hire LIMCs. RESULTS: The users of non-long-term care resources had the highest likelihood of hiring LIMCs (odds ratio [OR] = 4.24, 95% CI, 2.30-7.84). Compared with spouses, nonimmediate family caregivers (OR = 3.40, 95% CI, 1.16-9.90) were significantly more likely to hire LIMCs. A higher likelihood of hiring LIMCs was observed for those with Lewy body dementia compared with other individuals (OR = 2.31, 95% CI, 1.03-5.14). Compared with individuals who did not hire LIMCs, those who hired LIMCs exhibited higher scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and higher severity of individual NPI items. CONCLUSION: Hiring LIMCs is strongly correlated with the utilization of non-long-term care resources and is influenced by the dynamics between individuals with dementia and their primary family caregivers. A higher likelihood of hiring LIMCs was observed for individuals with Lewy body dementia and individuals with elevated NPI scores compared with their counterparts. Given these observations, various support strategies and interventions should be tailored to the specific requirements of individuals with dementia and their families.


Assuntos
Demência , Doença por Corpos de Lewy , Migrantes , Humanos , Cuidadores/psicologia , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/psicologia , Taiwan , Emprego
9.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606739, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38384747

RESUMO

Objectives: We aimed to map and synthesize evidence about social inequalities in long-term health effects after COVID-19 (LTHE), often referred to as "long COVID" or "post-COVID-19 conditions." Methods: We conducted a scoping review of peer-reviewed articles by searching the databases Embase and Scopus. According to predefined inclusion criteria, titles/abstracts and full texts were screened for eligibility. Additionally, reference lists of all included studies were hand-searched for eligible studies. This study followed the PRISMA guidelines for scoping reviews. Results: Nineteen articles were included. LTHE were analysed according to ethnicity, education, income, employment and deprivation indices. The studies varied significantly in their definitions of LTHE. Eighty-two analyses showed no statistically significant associations. At least 12 studies had a high risk of type II errors. Only studies associating deprivation indices and long COVID tended to show a higher prevalence of LTHE in deprived areas. Conclusion: Although some studies indicated social inequalities in LTHE, evidence was generally weak and inconclusive. Further studies with larger sample sizes specifically designed to detect social inequalities regarding LTHE are needed to inform future healthcare planning and public health policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Renda , Emprego
10.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 497, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated a research project that provided employment in an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community-based setting and supported participants to identify and achieve their goals and aspirations. The evaluation examined changes in personal, relationship, community and cultural strengths and resources and explored empowerment and resilience, in terms of promoting wellbeing. METHODS: Ten Aboriginal people employed as life coaches and peer researchers participated in semi-structured interviews and also completed the Aboriginal Resilience and Recovery Questionnaire at the beginning of their employment and 6-months after employment. Interviews with the 10 participants explored changes in their wellbeing, relationships, resilience, opportunity to lead, aspirations, goal setting skills, connection to culture and community, and empowerment. RESULTS: Participants personal strengths, and cultural and community strengths, sub-scale scores showed improvements across the 6-month period, however these changes were not statistically significant. Using reflexive thematic analysis, we generated five themes including Aspirations; Personal capabilities; Constraints to wellbeing; Community engagement and cultural connection; and Employment facilitators. Overall, participants identified that despite the challenges of their work and the additional challenges posed by the COVID-19 lockdowns, they were able to develop their skills to set and achieve goals. They reported feeling empowered and proud of their work, and engaged more frequently with their communities and culture. CONCLUSIONS: The study outcomes evidence the role of employment in an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community-based project in strengthening wellbeing, enhancing resilience, and supporting participants to advance their personal goals and aspirations. These findings reinforce the importance of supporting the aspirations and employment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples through employment.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Resiliência Psicológica , Humanos , Povos Aborígenes Australianos e Ilhéus do Estreito de Torres , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emprego
11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 53(2)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365967

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate mid-life employment trajectories in relation to later-life memory function and rate of decline in rural South Africa. METHODS: Data from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System were linked to the 'Health and Ageing in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa' (HAALSI) in rural Agincourt, South Africa (N = 3133). Employment was assessed every 4 years over 2000-12 as being employed (0, 1, 2 and ≥3 time points), being employed in a higher-skill occupation (0, 1, 2 and ≥3 time points) and dynamic employment trajectories identified using sequence analysis. Latent memory z-scores were assessed over 2014-22. Mixed-effects linear regression models were fitted to examine the associations of interest. RESULTS: Sustained mid-life employment from 2000-12 (ß = 0.052, 95% CI: -0.028 to 0.132, 1 vs 0 time points; ß = 0.163, 95% CI: 0.077 to 0.250, 2 vs 0 time points; ß = 0.212, 95% CI: 0.128 to 0.296, ≥3 vs 0 time points) and greater time spent in a higher-skill occupation (ß = 0.077, 95% CI: -0.020 to 0.175, 1 vs 0 time points; ß = 0.241, 95% CI: 0.070 to 0.412, 2 vs 0 time points; ß = 0.361, 95% CI: 0.201 to 0.520, ≥3 vs 0 time points) were associated with higher memory scores in 2014/15, but not subsequent rate of memory decline. Moving from a lower-skill to higher-skill occupation was associated with higher memory function, but a faster rate of decline over 2014-22. CONCLUSIONS: Sustained mid-life employment, particularly in higher-skill occupations, may contribute to later-life memory function in this post-Apartheid South African setting.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Cognição , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Emprego , População Rural
12.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0294333, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381749

RESUMO

China's rural revitalization strategy has expanded non-agricultural employment opportunities for rural residents. This has directly raised farmers' incomes and household expenditures, which in turn has contributed to the upgrading of industrial structure. Using provincial data for 2012-2021, our study investigates how this employment transition affects industrial development. The effect of rural residents' consumption expenditures on this relationship is also explored through a linkage model to help measure the extent of the impact. This study further explores the regional differences in this effect and its robustness. The findings suggest that non-farm employment significantly contributes to industrial structural upgrading. However, this effect is not consistent across regions. Moreover, rural residents' consumption plays a pivotal role in this relationship. Governments should therefore encourage more non-farm jobs, stimulate domestic demand and use rural consumption as a key growth catalyst, especially after the demographic dividend disappears. It is also important to take into account regional nuances in policy formulation and make adjustments to cater for these differences to prevent any potential imbalances.


Assuntos
Emprego , Renda , Humanos , Características da Família , População Rural , Fazendeiros , China
13.
Psychol Bull ; 150(1): 1-26, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376909

RESUMO

Decades of research conducted using field experiments and quasi-experiments have enabled us to accumulate causal evidence on the effectiveness of onboarding and socialization programs (SPs) across various contexts including employment, higher education, and military services. However, the literature is devoid of an integrated conceptual framework and a quantitative review evaluating the effect of such SPs on reducing newcomer turnover and its boundary conditions. In this study, we draw from a configurational approach to categorize strategic components of SPs, propose bundles of these components based on extant theories in the socialization literature, and examine the moderating effects of these bundles on the retention benefits of SPs. Combining 168 effect sizes from 83 field experiments, our meta-analysis reveals a significant overall effect size of OR = 1.46, suggesting that, on average, the odds of retention are 1.46 times higher for newcomers participating in a SP compared to newcomers in the control group. Our results also indicate that SPs' beneficial effects on newcomer retention are greater when they include the components of identifying effective task behaviors, encouraging proactivity, and facilitating social integration, a bundle aimed at satisfying key psychological needs identified by self-determination theory. We further demonstrate that the retention benefits associated with SP participation increase when the SPs are delivered in-person and in a staggered mode but remain intact across different sample types and study design features. We conclude by discussing how our study expands and develops theoretical understanding within the socialization literature and offers practical implications for managing newcomer retention that go beyond our current knowledge. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Socialização , Humanos , Emprego , Conhecimento , Autonomia Pessoal
14.
Rev Prat ; 74(1): 48-51, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329252

RESUMO

AFTER CANCER: AFTER-EFFECTS. RETURN TO WORK AND THE RIGHT TO FORGET. The ten-year strategy 2021-2030 against cancers makes staying at work or returning to work after cancer a major priority. A growing number of patients are on the job market at the time of their cancer diagnosis, with a potentially long career future. The after-effects of the disease, and the gap between them and the professional world, present them with numerous difficulties. French national cancer institute (INCa) has launched several initiatives to help people stay in work and return to work, in particular to complement the measures developed by the League against Cancer. INCa has set up the «Cancer and Employment¼ Business Club, a forum for the exchange of best practices and experiences between employers and researchers in the human and social sciences. The «Cancer aide info réseau entrepreneur¼ (CAIRE) scheme supports self-employed patients in their professional careers, and gives them a voice in their professional ecosystem. Research initiatives are also undertaken. The social repercussions of the disease also include its impact on borrowing capacity, for both personal and business loans. The "right to be forgotten" for cancer sufferers applies 5 years after the end of the therapeutic protocol. A grid completes the system, and in certain cases enables insurances for a loan can be obtained on standard or similar terms, even before this period has elapsed. It also includes other pathologies such as HIV, hepatitis C and cystic fibrosis. Last but not least, health questionnaires have been abolished for loans under €200,000. The role of the health professional is paramount, providing advice and facilitating the completion of documents requested by insurers.


APRÈS UN CANCER : SÉQUELLES, RETOUR À L'EMPLOI ET DROIT À L'OUBLI. La stratégie décennale de lutte contre les cancers 2021-2030 fait du maintien et/ou retour au travail ou en activité après un cancer une de ses priorités. Un nombre croissant de malades sont sur le marché du travail au moment de la survenue du cancer, avec un horizon de carrière potentiel assez long. Ces malades doivent faire face à de nombreuses difficultés du fait des séquelles de la maladie mais souvent également du décalage qui s'installe entre eux et le monde professionnel. Les entreprises se sentent fréquemment démunies. L'Institut national de cancer (INCa) a lancé plusieurs actions pour favoriser le maintien et le retour à l'emploi, notamment en complément de dispositifs développés par la Ligue contre le cancer ; l'INCa a ainsi créé un club d'entreprises « Cancer et emploi ¼, espace d'échanges de bonnes pratiques et d'expériences entre employeurs et chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales. Le dispositif « Cancer Aide Info Réseau Entrepreneur ¼ (CAIRE) accompagne les travailleurs indépendants malades dans leur parcours professionnel et porte leur voix auprès des acteurs de leur écosystème professionnel. Des actions de recherche sont également entreprises. Le retentissement social de la maladie concerne aussi la capacité d'emprunt, pour des prêts à caractère personnel ou professionnel. Le droit à l'oubli pour les personnes atteintes de cancer s'applique cinq ans après la fin du protocole thérapeutique. Une grille vient compléter ce dispositif et permet dans certains cas, avant même la survenue de ce délai, l'obtention d'une assurance pour un prêt aux conditions standard ou s'en rapprochant. Cette grille inclut également d'autres pathologies, comme le VIH, l'hépatite C ou la mucoviscidose. Enfin, les questionnaires de santé sont supprimés pour les assurances de prêts inférieurs à 200 000 €. La place du professionnel de santé est prépondérante, en apportant des conseils et en facilitant la complétion des documents demandés par les assureurs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Retorno ao Trabalho , Humanos , Emprego , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia
15.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 30(1): 6, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349578

RESUMO

In the research integrity literature, funding plays two different roles: it is thought to elevate questionable research practices (QRPs) due to perverse incentives, and it is a potential actor to incentivize research integrity standards. Recent studies, asking funders, have emphasized the importance of the latter. However, the perspective of active researchers on the impact of competitive research funding on science has not been explored yet. Here, I address this issue by conducting a series of group sessions with researchers in two different countries with different degrees of competition for funding, from three scientific fields (medical sciences, natural sciences, humanities), and in two different career stages (permanent versus temporary employment). Researchers across all groups experienced that competition for funding shapes science, with many unintended negative consequences. Intriguingly, these consequences had little to do with the type of QRPs typically being presented in the research integrity literature. Instead, the researchers pointed out that funding could result in predictable, fashionable, short-sighted, and overpromising science. This was seen as highly problematic: scientists experienced that the 'projectification' of science makes it more and more difficult to do any science of real importance: plunging into the unknown or addressing big issues that need a long-term horizon to mature. They also problematized unintended negative effects from collaboration and strategizing. I suggest it may be time to move away from a focus on QRPs in connection with funding, and rather address the real problems. Such a shift may then call for entirely different types of policy actions.


Assuntos
Emprego , Médicos , Humanos , Políticas , Pesquisadores
16.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296855, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359072

RESUMO

This study aims to enhance governmental decision-making by leveraging advanced topic modeling algorithms to analyze public letters on the "People Call Me" online government inquiry platform in Zhejiang Province, China. Employing advanced web scraping techniques, we collected publicly available letter data from Hangzhou City between June 2022 and May 2023. Initial descriptive statistical analyses and text mining were conducted, followed by topic modeling using the BERTopic algorithm. Our findings indicate that public demands are chiefly focused on livelihood security and rights protection, and these demands exhibit a diversity of characteristics. Furthermore, the public's response to significant emergency events demonstrates both sensitivity and deep concern, underlining its pivotal role in government emergency management. This research not only provides a comprehensive landscape of public demands but also validates the efficacy of the BERTopic algorithm for extracting such demands, thereby offering valuable insights to bolster the government's agility and resilience in emergency responses, enhance public services, and modernize social governance.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Governo , Humanos , China , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Emprego
17.
Sante Publique ; 35(HS2): 49-53, 2024.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360773

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Professional activity represents an injunction to participate in the collective and sustains our identity. Being deprived of it can lead to social exclusion. At the same time, the injunction to autonomy is prevalent in our society. The disabled person can suffer from social stigmatization and find himself in tension between disability/autonomy/work. Work is then essential to identify oneself as a worker and not as a dependent person. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: The participatory research presented has a dual objective: to give a voice to a stigmatized population - disabled workers - and their families; to understand and analyze with them the strategies used to work or remain in employment and the impact of these strategies on health at work and the relationship to risks. RESULTS: Exchanges between the peer Group and the scientific team enabled us to refine the initial questions, to reformulate analyses, to modify communication supports, to make them more acceptable and accessible. This participatory approach has modified our research practices by guaranteeing that the people concerned by the research become actors in it. CONCLUSIONS: For populations suffering from symbolic domination, participatory research makes it possible to restore the confidence of individuals and the legitimacy of experiential knowledge.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Emprego , Ocupações
18.
JAMA Health Forum ; 5(2): e235386, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363559

RESUMO

This Viewpoint describes key provisions of the Pregnant Workers Fairness Act and discuss the proposed Equal Employment Opportunity Commission rule, as well as its application to health care employment in particular.


Assuntos
Emprego , Preconceito , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino
20.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0295859, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335197

RESUMO

The Keen model is designed to represent an economy as a dynamic system governed by the interactions between private debt, wage share, and employment rate. When certain conditions are met, the model can lead to a debt spiral, which accurately mimics the impact of a financial crisis on an economy. This manuscript presents a recipe for breaking this spiral by expressing Keen's model as an affine nonlinear system that can be modified through policy interventions. We begin by considering critical initial conditions that resemble a financial crisis to achieve this goal. We then locate a desired point within the system's vector field that leads to a desirable equilibrium and design a path towards it. This path is later followed using one-step-ahead optimal control. We illustrate our approach by presenting simulated control scenarios.


Assuntos
Políticas , Salários e Benefícios , Retroalimentação , Emprego
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