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1.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 68(7): e2300616, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430210

RESUMO

SCOPE: Endocannabinoid signaling regulates energy homeostasis, and is tightly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study previously finds that supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has superior function to ameliorate NAFLD compared with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The present study aims to investigate whether DHA intervention alleviates NAFLD via endocannabinoid system. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a case-control study, the serum endocannabinoid ligands in 60 NAFLD and 60 healthy subjects are measured. Meanwhile, NAFLD model is established in mice fed a high-fat and -cholesterol diet (HFD) for 9 weeks. DHA or EPA is administrated for additional 9 weeks. Serum primary endocannabinoid ligands, namely anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidoniylglycerol (2-AG), are significantly higher in individuals with NAFLD compared with healthy controls. NAFLD model shows that serum 2-AG concentrations and adipocyte cannabinoid receptor 1 expression levels are significantly lower in DHA group compared with HFD group. Lipidomic and targeted ceramide analyses further confirm that endocannabinoid signaling inhibition has exerted deletion of hepatic C16:0-ceramide contents, resulting in down-regulation of de novo fatty acid synthesis and up-regulation of fatty acid ß-oxidation related protein expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: This work elucidates that DHA has improved NAFLD by suppressing endocannabinoid system.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fígado/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
2.
Cells ; 13(5)2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474425

RESUMO

Cannabis use stimulates calorie intake, but epidemiological studies show that people who regularly use it are leaner than those who don't. Two explanations have been proposed for this paradoxical finding. One posits that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cannabis desensitizes adipose CB1 cannabinoid receptors, stopping their stimulating effects on lipogenesis and adipogenesis. Another explanation is that THC exposure in adolescence, when habitual cannabis use typically starts, produces lasting changes in the developing adipose organ, which impacts adult systemic energy use. Here, we consider these possibilities in the light of a study which showed that daily THC administration in adolescent mice produces an adult metabolic phenotype characterized by reduced fat mass, partial resistance to obesity and dyslipidemia, and impaired thermogenesis and lipolysis. The phenotype, whose development requires activation of CB1 receptors in differentiated adipocytes, is associated with overexpression of myocyte proteins in the adipose organ with unchanged CB1 expression. We propose that adolescent exposure to THC causes lasting adipocyte dysfunction and the consequent emergence of a metabolic state that only superficially resembles healthy leanness. A corollary of this hypothesis, which should be addressed in future studies, is that CB1 receptors and their endocannabinoid ligands may contribute to the maintenance of adipocyte differentiation during adolescence.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Endocanabinoides , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Adolescente , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Adiposidade
3.
Adv Nutr ; 15(4): 100196, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432590

RESUMO

Cannabis use has increased sharply in the last 20 y among adults, including reproductive-aged women. Its recent widespread legalization is associated with a decrease in risk perception of cannabis use during breastfeeding. However, the effect of cannabis use (if any) on milk production and milk composition is not known. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge related to maternal cannabis use during breastfeeding and provides an overview of possible pathways whereby cannabis might affect milk composition and production. Several studies have demonstrated that cannabinoids and their metabolites are detectable in human milk produced by mothers who use cannabis. Due to their physicochemical properties, cannabinoids are stored in adipose tissue, can easily reach the mammary gland, and can be secreted in milk. Moreover, cannabinoid receptors are present in adipocytes and mammary epithelial cells. The activation of these receptors directly modulates fatty acid metabolism, potentially causing changes in milk fatty acid profiles. Additionally, the endocannabinoid system is intimately connected to the endocrine system. As such, it is probable that interactions of exogenous cannabinoids with the endocannabinoid system might modify release of critical hormones (e.g., prolactin and dopamine) that regulate milk production and secretion. Nonetheless, few studies have investigated effects of cannabis use (including on milk production and composition) in lactating women. Additional research utilizing robust methodologies are needed to elucidate whether and how cannabis use affects human milk production and composition.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Lactação , Leite Humano/química , Aleitamento Materno , Endocanabinoides/análise , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Leite/química , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Canabinoides/análise , Canabinoides/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia
4.
Reprod Toxicol ; 125: 108575, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462211

RESUMO

The generally undesired effects of exocannabinoids on male reproduction include alterations in testicular cell proliferation and function, as well as apoptosis induction. However, this paradigm has been challenged by the ability of endocannabinoids to regulate reproductive function. The present study addresses these paradoxical facts by investigating the effects of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) on mouse Sertoli cells' survival and apoptosis, with a mechanistic insight into Sertoli cell-based growth factors' production. The Mus musculus Sertoli cell line (TM4) was exposed to different concentrations of 2-AG, and cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Growth factors' gene and protein expressions were analyzed through RT-PCR and western blotting. 2-AG concentration dependently increased TM4 viability, with a slight increase starting at 0.0001 µM, a peak of 190% of the control level at 1 µM, and a decrease at 3 µM. Moreover, 2-AG paradoxically altered mRNA expression of caspase-3 and growth factors. Caspase-3 mRNA expression was down-regulated, and growth factors mRNA and protein expression were up-regulated when using a low concentration of 2-AG (1 µM). Opposite effects were observed by a higher concentration of 2-AG (3 µM). These paradoxical effects of 2-AG can be explained through the concept of hormesis. The results indicate the pivotal role of 2-AG in mediating Sertoli cell viability and apoptosis, at least in part, through altering growth factors secretion. Furthermore, they suggest the involvement of endocannabinoids in Sertoli cell-based physiological and pathological conditions and reflect the ability of abnormally elevated 2-AG to mimic the actions of exocannabinoids in reproductive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Endocanabinoides , Camundongos , Animais , Masculino , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Células de Sertoli , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Glicerol/farmacologia , Hormese , Sobrevivência Celular , Apoptose , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fertilidade , Células Cultivadas
5.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1331210, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38464529

RESUMO

Introduction: Microglia and macrophages can influence the evolution of myelin lesions through the production of extracellular vesicles (EVs). While microglial EVs promote in vitro differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), whether EVs derived from macrophages aid or limit OPC maturation is unknown. Methods: Immunofluorescence analysis for the myelin protein MBP was employed to evaluate the impact of EVs from primary rat macrophages on cultured OPC differentiation. Raman spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to define the promyelinating lipid components of myelin EVs obtained in vitro and isolated from human plasma. Results and discussion: Here we show that macrophage-derived EVs do not promote OPC differentiation, and those released from macrophages polarized towards an inflammatory state inhibit OPC maturation. However, their lipid cargo promotes OPC maturation in a similar manner to microglial EVs. We identify the promyelinating endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in EVs released by both macrophages and microglia in vitro and circulating in human plasma. Analysis of OPC differentiation in the presence of the endocannabinoid receptor antagonists SR141716A and AM630 reveals a key role of vesicular endocannabinoids in OPC maturation. From this study, EV-associated endocannabinoids emerge as important mediators in microglia/macrophage-oligodendrocyte crosstalk, which may be exploited to enhance myelin repair.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Microglia , Ratos , Animais , Humanos , Microglia/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Macrófagos , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo
6.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 57: e12857, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381881

RESUMO

MCH1 is a synthetic macamide that has shown in vitro inhibitory activity on fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an enzyme responsible for endocannabinoid metabolism. This inhibition can modulate endocannabinoid and dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), potentially having an antidepressant-like effect. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the in vivo administration of MCH1 (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, ip) in 2-month-old BALB/c male mice (n=97) on forced swimming test (FST), light-dark box (LDB), and open field test (OFT) and on early gene expression changes 2 h after drug injection related to the endocannabinoid system (Cnr1 and Faah) and dopaminergic signaling (Drd1 and Drd2) in the NAc core. We found that the 10 mg/kg MCH1 dose reduced the immobility time compared to the vehicle group in the FST with no effect on anxiety-like behaviors measured in the LDB or OFT. However, a 10 mg/kg MCH1 dose increased locomotor activity in the OFT compared to the vehicle. Moreover, RT-qPCR results showed that the 30 mg/kg MCH1 dose increased Faah gene expression by 2.8-fold, and 10 mg/kg MCH1 increased the Cnr1 gene expression by 4.3-fold compared to the vehicle. No changes were observed in the expression of the Drd1 and Drd2 genes in the NAc at either MCH1 dose. These results indicated that MCH1 might have an antidepressant-like effect without an anxiogenic effect and induces significant changes in endocannabinoid-related genes but not in genes of the dopaminergic signaling system in the NAc of mice.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases , Endocanabinoides , Núcleo Accumbens , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Dopamina/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338960

RESUMO

The lipid endocannabinoid system has recently emerged as a novel therapeutic target for several inflammatory and tissue-damaging diseases, including those affecting the cardiovascular system. The primary targets of cannabinoids are cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) receptors. The CB2 receptor is expressed in the cardiomyocytes. While the pathological changes in the myocardium upregulate the CB2 receptor, genetic deletion of the receptor aggravates the changes. The CB2 receptor plays a crucial role in attenuating the advancement of myocardial infarction (MI)-associated pathological changes in the myocardium. Activation of CB2 receptors exerts cardioprotection in MI via numerous molecular pathways. For instance, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol attenuated the progression of MI via modulation of the CB2 receptor-dependent anti-inflammatory mechanisms, including suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß. Through similar mechanisms, natural and synthetic CB2 receptor ligands repair myocardial tissue damage. This review aims to offer an in-depth discussion on the ameliorative potential of CB2 receptors in myocardial injuries induced by a variety of pathogenic mechanisms. Further, the modulation of autophagy, TGF-ß/Smad3 signaling, MPTP opening, and ROS production are discussed. The molecular correlation of CB2 receptors with cardiac injury markers, such as troponin I, LDH1, and CK-MB, is explored. Special attention has been paid to novel insights into the potential therapeutic implications of CB2 receptor activation in MI.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Infarto do Miocárdio , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide , Humanos , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/genética , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/genética , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Dronabinol/farmacologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339171

RESUMO

Resistant migraine characterizes those patients who have failed at least three classes of migraine prophylaxis. These difficult-to-treat patients are likely to be characterized by a high prevalence of psychological disturbances. A dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), including alteration in the levels of endocannabinoid congeners, may underlie several psychiatric disorders and the pathogenesis of migraines. Here we explored whether the peripheral gene expression of major components of the ECS and the plasma levels of endocannabinoids and related lipids are associated with psychological disorders in resistant migraine. Fifty-one patients (age = 46.0 ± 11.7) with resistant migraine received a comprehensive psychological evaluation according to the DSM-5 criteria. Among the patients, 61% had personality disorders (PD) and 61% had mood disorders (MD). Several associations were found between these psychological disorders and peripheral ECS alterations. Lower plasma levels of palmitoiletanolamide (PEA) were found in the PD group compared with the non-PD group. The MD group was characterized by lower mRNA levels of diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) and CB2 (cannabinoid-2) receptor. The results suggest the existence of peripheral dysfunction in some components of the ECS and an alteration in plasma levels of PEA in patients with resistant migraine and mood or personality disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética
9.
Neurochem Res ; 49(5): 1278-1290, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368587

RESUMO

Social isolation is a state of lack of social connections, involving the modulation of different molecular signalling cascades and associated with high risk of mental health issues. To investigate if and how gene expression is modulated by social experience at the central level, we analyzed the effects of 5 weeks of social isolation in rats focusing on endocannabinoid system genes transcription in key brain regions involved in emotional control. We observed selective reduction in mRNA levels for fatty acid amide hydrolase (Faah) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (Cnr1) genes in the amygdala complex and of Cnr1 in the prefrontal cortex of socially isolated rats when compared to controls, and these changes appear to be partially driven by trimethylation of Lysine 27 and acetylation of Lysine 9 at Histone 3. The alterations of Cnr1 transcriptional regulation result also directly correlated with those of oxytocin receptor gene. We here suggest that to counteract the effects of SI, it is of relevance to restore the endocannabinoid system homeostasis via the use of environmental triggers able to revert those epigenetic mechanisms accounting for the alterations observed.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases , Endocanabinoides , Lisina , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide , Isolamento Social , Animais , Ratos , Amidoidrolases/genética , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/genética , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo
10.
Physiol Rep ; 12(4): e15947, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408761

RESUMO

The endocannabinoid system is widely expressed throughout the body and is comprised of receptors, ligands, and enzymes that maintain metabolic, immune, and reproductive homeostasis. Increasing interest in the endocannabinoid system has arisen due to these physiologic roles, policy changes leading to more widespread recreational use, and the therapeutic potential of Cannabis and phytocannabinoids. Rodents have been the primary preclinical model of focus due to their relative low cost, short gestational period, genetic manipulation strategies, and gold-standard behavioral tests. However, the potential for lack of clinical translation to non-human primates and humans is high as cross-species comparisons of the endocannabinoid system have not been evaluated. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we evaluate the relative gene expression of 14 canonical and extended endocannabinoid receptors in seven peripheral organs of C57/BL6 mice, Sprague-Dawley rats, and non-human primate rhesus macaques. Notably, we identify species- and organ-specific heterogeneity in endocannabinoid receptor distribution where there is surprisingly limited overlap among the preclinical models. Importantly, we determined there were no receptors with identical expression patterns among mice (three males and two females), rats (six females), and rhesus macaques (four males). Our findings demonstrate a critical, yet previously unappreciated, contributor to challenges of rigor and reproducibility in the cannabinoid field, which has implications in hampering progress in understanding the complexity of the endocannabinoid system and development of cannabinoid-based therapies.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Endocanabinoides , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Ratos , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Macaca mulatta/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Canabinoides/metabolismo , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais
11.
Neuropharmacology ; 248: 109870, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401791

RESUMO

Delayed therapeutic responses and limited efficacy are the main challenges of existing antidepressant drugs, thereby incentivizing the search for new potential treatments. Cannabidiol (CBD), non-psychotomimetic component of cannabis, has shown promising antidepressant effects in different rodent models, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Herein, we investigated the antidepressant-like effects of repeated CBD treatment on behavior, neuroplasticity markers and lipidomic profile in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), a genetic animal model of depression, and their control counterparts Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. Male FSL animals were treated with CBD (10 mg/kg; i.p.) or vehicle (7 days) followed by Open Field Test (OFT) and the Forced Swimming Test (FST). The PFC was analyzed by a) western blotting to assess markers of synaptic plasticity and cannabinoid signaling in synaptosome and cytosolic fractions; b) mass spectrometry-based lipidomics to investigate endocannabinoid levels (eCB). CBD attenuated the increased immobility observed in FSL, compared to FRL in FST, without changing the locomotor behavior in the OFT. In synaptosomes, CBD increased ERK1, mGluR5, and Synaptophysin, but failed to reverse the reduced CB1 and CB2 levels in FSL rats. In the cytosolic fraction, CBD increased ERK2 and decreased mGluR5 expression in FSL rats. Surprisingly, there were no significant changes in eCB levels in response to CBD treatment. These findings suggest that CBD effects in FSL animals are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity markers involving mGluR5, ERK1, ERK2, and synaptophysin signaling in the PFC, without increasing the levels of endocannabinoids in this brain region.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Depressão , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/genética , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Sinaptofisina/metabolismo , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Plasticidade Neuronal , Modelos Animais de Doenças
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 323: 117681, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163557

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf is a well-known herbal medicine and has been used to treat diabetes in China for thousands of years. Our previous studies have proven mulberry leaf water extract (MLWE) could improve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, it is still unclear whether MLWE could mitigate T2D by regulating gut microbiota dysbiosis and thereof improve intestinal permeability and metabolic dysfunction through modulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and endocannabinoid system (eCBs). AIM OF STUDY: This study aims to explore the potential mechanism of MLWE on the regulation of metabolic function disorder of T2D mice from the aspects of gut microbiota, LPS and eCBs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gut microbiota was analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LPS, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-ararchidonylglycerol (2-AG) contents in blood were determined by kits or liquid phase chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The receptors, enzymes or tight junction protein related to eCBs or gut barrier were detected by RT-PCR or Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: MLWE reduced the serum levels of AEA, 2-AG and LPS, decreased the expressions of N-acylphophatidylethanolamine phospholipase D, diacylglycerol lipase-α and cyclooxygenase 2, and increased the expressions of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA), alpha/beta hydrolases domain 6/12 in the liver and ileum and occludin, monoacylglycerol lipase and cannabinoid receptor 1 in the ileum of T2D mice. Furthermore, MLWE could change the abundances of the genera including Acetatifactor, Anaerovorax, Bilophila, Colidextribacter, Dubosiella, Gastranaerophilales, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Oscillibacter and Rikenella related to LPS, AEA and/or 2-AG. Moreover, obvious improvement of MLWE treatment on serum AEA level, ileum occludin expression, and liver FAAH and NAAA expression could be observed in germ-free-mimic T2D mice. CONCLUSION: MLWE could ameliorate intestinal permeability, inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolism imbalance of T2D by regulating gut microbiota, LPS and eCBs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Morus , Camundongos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Morus/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Ocludina , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
13.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 49, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216984

RESUMO

Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are chemically classified as psychoactive substances that target the endocannabinoid system in many body organs. SCs can initiate pathophysiological changes in many tissues which can be severe enough to damage the normal functionality of our body systems. The majority of SCs-related side effects are mediated by activating Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1R) and Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2R). The activation of these receptors can enkindle many downstream signalling pathways, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis that ultimately can produce deleterious changes in many organs. Besides activating the cannabinoid receptors, SCs can act on non-cannabinoid targets, such as the orphan G protein receptors GPR55 and GPR18, the Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors (PPARs), and the Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), which are broadly expressed in the brain and the heart and their activation mediates many pharmacological effects of SCs. In this review, we shed light on the multisystem complications found in SCs abusers, particularly discussing their neurologic, cardiovascular, renal, and hepatic effects, as well as highlighting the mechanisms that intermediate SCs-related pharmacological and toxicological consequences to provide comprehensive understanding of their short and long-term systemic effects.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Humanos , Canabinoides/toxicidade , Canabinoides/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Exp Neurol ; 373: 114679, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190933

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We studied spatiotemporal features of acute transcriptional inflammatory response induced by a focal brain injury in distant uninjured neuronal tissue and a role of endocannabinoid (eCB) system in its control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A focal excitotoxic lesion was induced by a unilateral injection of kainate in the dorsal hippocampus of awake Wistar rats. During acute post-injury period (3 h and 24 h post-injection), mRNA levels of genes associated with neuroinflammation (Il1b, Il6, Tnf, Ccl2; Cx3cl1, Zc3 h12a, Tgfb1) and eCB receptors of CB1 and CB2 types (Cnr1 and Cnr2) in intact regions of the hippocampus and neocortex were measured using qPCR. Occurrence of acute symptomatic seizures was controlled electrographically. To modulate eCB signaling during injury and acute post-injury period, antagonists (AM251, AM630) and agonist (WIN55-212-2) of eCB receptors were administered before the injury induction. RESULTS: Local intrahippocampal injury triggered widespread time- and region-dependent neuroinflammation in undamaged brain regions remote from the lesion site. The distant areas of the hippocampus and hippocampal meninges exhibited early (3 h) transient upregulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines simultaneously with occurrence of acute symptomatic seizures. The neocortex and its meninges showed minor neuroinflammation early after injury (3 h) but later (24 h) significantly upregulated several genes, mainly with anti-inflammatory properties. Focal lesion also changed expression of eCB receptors in the distant extra-lesional regions - CB1 receptors at 3 h and both CB1 and CB2 receptors at 24 h. Within the hippocampus, significant regional differences in constitutive and post-injury expression CB1 receptors were found. Pharmacological blockade of eCB receptors during injury and early post-injury period lengthened hippocampal neuroinflammation and reversed upregulation of anti-inflammatory molecules in the neocortex. CONCLUSION: The findings show that focal brain injury rapidly triggers widespread parenchymal and extraparenchymal neuroinflammation. The early injury-induced response is likely to represent neurogenic neuroinflammation produced by network hyperexcitability (acute symptomatic seizures). Activation of eCB signaling during acute phase of the brain injury is important for initiation of adaptive anti-inflammatory processes and prevention of chronic pathologic neuroinflammation in distant uninjured structures. However, the beneficial role of injury-induced eCB activity appears to depend on many factors including time, brain region, eCB tone etc.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Endocanabinoides , Ratos , Animais , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Convulsões , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo
15.
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res ; 9(1): 12-20, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38174983

RESUMO

Introduction: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) mediates the actions of cannabis and has been implicated in playing critical roles in key developmental events, including axon guidance. Although several recent studies have demonstrated ECS involvement in neurodevelopment, an emphasis on its putative role in axon guidance has not been reviewed comprehensively. Objective: The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the interrelationships between the ECS and axon guidance. Methodology: This literature review analyzes existing literature demonstrating the normal role of endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling in axon guidance, with evidence from diverse animal models. Studies were obtained from a search strategy involving terms related to the ECS and axon guidance, and cross-checking cited literature to ensure a complete evaluation. Discussion: Cannabinoid receptors, as well as eCB synthesis and degradation machinery, appear necessary for normal axon guidance during neurodevelopment. Genetic and/or pharmacological disruption of eCB signaling results in axon growth and guidance errors, implying high sensitivity to exogenous cannabinoids. Conclusion: Overall, this review highlights the intricate connections between the ECS and axon guidance in normal neurodevelopment. The mechanistic evidence discussed suggests that alterations of the ECS through genetic and pharmacological interference disrupt its normal functioning and by extension its normal role in regulating neural circuitry formation. A comprehensive understanding of this topic will be valuable in potentially uncovering the mechanisms responsible for the neurodevelopmental defects associated with pre-natal cannabis use.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Animais , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Orientação de Axônios , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides
16.
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res ; 9(1): 74-88, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265773

RESUMO

Introduction: Endocannabinoids and exogenous cannabinoids are potent regulators of feeding behavior and energy metabolism. Stimulating cannabinoid receptor signaling enhances appetite, particularly for energy-dense palatable foods, and promotes energy storage. To elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms, we investigate here the potential role of astrocytic endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Astrocytes provide metabolic support for neurons and contribute to feeding regulation but the effect of astrocytic 2-AG on feeding is unknown. Materials and Methods: We generated mice lacking the 2-AG synthesizing enzyme diacylglycerol lipase alpha (Dagla) in astrocytes (GLAST-Dagla KO) and investigated hedonic feeding behavior in male and female mice. Body weight and baseline water and food intake was characterized; additionally, the mice went through milk, saccharine, and sucrose preference tests in fed and fasted states. In female mice, the estrous cycle stages were identified and plasma levels of female sex hormones were measured. Results: We found that the effects of the inducible astrocytic Dagla deletion were sex-specific. Acute milk preference was decreased in female, but not in male mice and the effect was most evident in the estrus stage of the cycle. This prompted us to investigate sex hormone profiles, which were found to be altered in GLAST-Dagla KO females. Specifically, follicle-stimulating hormone was elevated in the estrus stage, luteinizing hormone in the proestrus, and progesterone was increased in both proestrus and estrus stages of the cycle compared with controls. Conclusions: Astrocytic Dagla regulates acute hedonic appetite for palatable food in females and not in males, possibly owing to a deregulated female sex hormone profile. It is plausible that endocannabinoid production by astrocytes at least partly contributes to the greater susceptibility to overeating in females. This finding may also be important for understanding the effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sex hormone profiles.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Endocanabinoides , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Hiperfagia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais
17.
Synapse ; 78(1): e22281, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37694983

RESUMO

In mouse motor synapses, the exogenous application of the endocannabinoid (EC) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) increases acetylcholine (ACh) quantal size due to the activation of CB1 receptors and the stimulation of ACh vesicular uptake. In the present study, microelectrode recordings of miniature endplate potentials (MEPP) revealed that this effect of 2-AG is independent of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling but involves the activation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors along with CB1 receptors. Potentiation of MEPP amplitude in the presence of 2-AG was prevented by blockers of CGRP receptors and ryanodine receptors (RyR) and by inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC) and Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Therefore, we suggest a hypothetical chain of events, which starts from the activation of presynaptic CB1 receptors, involves PLC, RyR, and CaMKII, and results in CGRP release with the subsequent activation of presynaptic CGRP receptors. Activation of CGRP receptors is probably a part of a complex molecular cascade leading to the 2-AG-induced increase in ACh quantal size and MEPP amplitude. We propose that the same chain of events may also take place if 2-AG is endogenously produced in mouse motor synapses, because the increase in MEPP amplitude that follows after prolonged tetanic muscle contractions (30 Hz, 2 min) was prevented by the blocking of CB1 receptors. This work may help to unveil the previously unknown aspects of the functional interaction between ECs and peptide modulators aimed at the regulation of quantal size and synaptic transmission.


Assuntos
Ácidos Araquidônicos , Endocanabinoides , Glicerídeos , Junção Neuromuscular , Camundongos , Animais , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Peptídeo Relacionado com o Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/farmacologia , Sinapses/metabolismo
18.
Behav Pharmacol ; 35(1): 26-35, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38085651

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to cocaine is known to have profound effects on the brain, leading to the dysregulation of inflammatory signalling pathways, the activation of microglia, and the manifestation of cognitive and motivational behavioural impairments. The endocannabinoid system has emerged as a potential mediator of cocaine's deleterious effects. In this study, we sought to investigate the therapeutic potential of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist, JWH-133, in mitigating cocaine-induced inflammation and associated motivational behavioural alterations in an in vivo model. Our research uncovered compelling evidence that JWH-133, a selective CB2 receptor agonist, exerts a significant dampening effect on the reinstatement of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. This effect was accompanied by notable changes in the neurobiological landscape. Specifically, JWH-133 administration was found to upregulate Δ-FOSB expression in the nucleus accumbens (Nac), elevate CX3CL1 levels in both the ventral tegmental area and prefrontal cortex (PFC), and concurrently reduce IL-1ß expression in the PFC and NAc among cocaine-treated animals. These findings highlight the modulatory role of CB2 cannabinoid receptor activation in altering the reward-seeking behaviour induced by cocaine. Moreover, they shed light on the intricate interplay between the endocannabinoid system and cocaine-induced neurobiological changes, paving the way for potential therapeutic interventions targeting CB2 receptors in the context of cocaine addiction and associated behavioural deficits.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cocaína , Camundongos , Animais , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide , Cocaína/farmacologia , Cocaína/metabolismo , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia
19.
Anesth Analg ; 138(1): 42-53, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100799

RESUMO

The cannabis plant has been used for centuries to manage the symptoms of various ailments including pain. Hundreds of chemical compounds have been identified and isolated from the plant and elicit a variety of physiological responses by binding to specific receptors and interacting with numerous other proteins. In addition, the body makes its own cannabinoid-like compounds that are integrally involved in modulating normal and pathophysiological processes. As the legal cannabis landscape continues to evolve within the United States and throughout the world, it is important to understand the rich science behind the effects of the plant and the implications for providers and patients. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the basic science of the cannabinoids by describing the discovery and function of the endocannabinoid system, pharmacology of cannabinoids, and areas for future research and therapeutic development as they relate to perioperative and chronic pain medicine.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Dor Crônica , Humanos , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo
20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 48(2): 188-201, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38114812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are the consequence of a sustained positive energy balance. Twin studies show high heritability rates pointing to genetics as one of the principal risk factors. By 2022, genomic studies led to the identification of almost 300 obesity-associated variants that could help to fill the gap of the high heritability rates. The endocannabinoid system is a critical regulator of metabolism for its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a key enzyme in the inactivation of one of the two endocannabinoids, anandamide, and of its congeners. The rs324420 variant within the FAAH gene is a nucleotide missense change at position 385 from cytosine to adenine, resulting in a non-synonymous amino acid substitution from proline to threonine in the FAAH enzyme. This change increases sensitivity to proteolytic degradation, leading to reduced FAAH levels and increased levels of anandamide, associated with obesity-related traits. However, association studies of this variant with metabolic parameters have found conflicting results. This work aims to perform a systematic review of the existing literature on the association of the rs324420 variant in the FAAH gene with obesity and its related traits. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. A total of 645 eligible studies were identified for the review. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: After the identification, duplicate elimination, title and abstract screening, and full-text evaluation, 28 studies were included, involving 28 183 individuals. We show some evidence of associations between the presence of the variant allele and higher body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, and waist-to-hip ratio levels and alterations in glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, this evidence should be taken with caution, as many included studies did not report a significant difference between genotypes. These discordant results could be explained mainly by the pleiotropy of the endocannabinoid system, the increase of other anandamide-like mediators metabolized by FAAH, and the influence of gene-environment interactions. More research is necessary to study the endocannabinoidomic profiles and their association with metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases , Ácidos Araquidônicos , Endocanabinoides , Obesidade , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Humanos , Endocanabinoides/genética , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo
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