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1.
Gastrointest. endosc ; 94(2): P222-P234.E22, Aug. 1, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1255062

RESUMO

This clinical guideline from the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) provides an evidence-based approach for the management of patients with malignant hilar obstruction (MHO). This document was developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework and addresses primary drainage modality (percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage [PTBD] vs endoscopic biliary drainage [EBD]), drainage strategy (unilateral vs bilateral), and stent selection (plastic stent [PS] vs self-expandable metal stent [SEMS]). Regarding drainage modality, in patients with MHO undergoing drainage before potential resection or transplantation, the panel suggests against routine use of PTBD as first-line therapy compared with EBD. In patients with unresectable MHO undergoing palliative drainage, the panel suggests PTBD or EBD. The final decision should be based on patient preferences, disease characteristics, and local expertise. Regarding drainage strategy, in patients with unresectable MHO undergoing palliative stent placement, the panel suggests placement of bilateral stents compared with a unilateral stent in the absence of liver atrophy. Finally, regarding type of stent, in patients with unresectable MHO undergoing palliative stent placement, the panel suggests placing SEMSs or PSs. However, in patients who have a short life expectancy and who place high value on avoiding repeated interventions, the panel suggests using SEMSs compared with PSs. If optimal drainage strategy has not been established, the panel suggests placing PSs. This document clearly outlines the process, analyses, and decision processes used to reach the final recommendations and represents the official ASGE recommendations on the above topics.


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico , Colangiocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Endoscopia/métodos
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(744-2): 1269-1272, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219422

RESUMO

The field of interventional pulmonology is expanding rapidly with increasingly complex endoscopic procedures. Pulmonologists and anesthesiologists are both airway specialists. When they cooperate in performing flexible bronchoscopies, they must share a common anatomical space. A close and dynamic collaboration helps to optimize patient management by enhancing safety, facilitating the procedures and improving patient satisfaction. Several challenges are to be taken up, notably managing frail and often polymorbid patients, working outside the usual operating-room area, and the need to be quickly available, given the frequently semi-urgent setting of these procedures. In this context, the optimization of collaborative procedures is essential.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Pneumologia , Endoscopia , Humanos , Pneumologistas
5.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(5): 1765-1769, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of navigation-guided sinus endoscopy to remove the cavernous vascular malformation of the orbital apex through the sphenoid approach. METHODS: A retrospective series of non-control cases were collected. From May 2012 to December 2019, patients with imaging findings of cavernous venous malformation in the orbital apex were collected at the Eye Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University. All patients underwent navigation guided sinusoscopy through the sphenoid approach to remove the cavernous venous malformation of the orbital apex. Analyze the changes of visual function and postoperative complications before and after operation. RESULTS: Twelve patients were collected, including 3 males and 9 females aged between 32 and 59. In 3 patients without visual impairment, the postoperative visual function was still normal. The remaining 9 patients all had visual impairment. Among them, 3 patients had fully recovered normal visual function after operation, 2 patients had improved visual function compared with preoperative, and 4 patients had no change in postoperative visual acuity. There were no complications in 3 of the 12 patients, and 9 patients had transient limited intraocular rotation with mild limitation of diplopia after operation, and all returned to normal within 1 month after surgery. CONCLUSION: Navigation-guided sinus endoscopy through the sphenoid approach to remove the cavernous venous malformation of the orbital apex is an effective and feasible surgical method.


Assuntos
Osso Esfenoide , Malformações Vasculares , Adulto , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nariz , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(25): 3877-3887, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are at increased risk for recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) and repeat endoscopic procedures. We assessed the frequency of endoscopy for GIB in patients with LVADs and the impact of endoscopic intervention on preventing a subsequent GIB. AIM: To evaluate for an association between endoscopic intervention and subsequent GIB. Secondary aims were to assess the frequency of GIB in our cohort, describe GIB presentations and sources identified, and determine risk factors for recurrent GIB. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients at a large academic institution who underwent LVAD implantation from January 2011 - December 2018 and assessed all hospital encounters for GIB through December 2019. We performed a descriptive analysis of the GIB burden and the outcome of endoscopic procedures performed. We performed multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the association between endoscopic intervention and subsequent GIB. RESULTS: In the cohort of 295 patients, 97 (32.9%) had at least one GIB hospital encounter. There were 238 hospital encounters, with 55.4% (132/238) within the first year of LVAD implantation. GIB resolved on its own by discharge in 69.8% (164/235) encounters. Recurrent GIB occurred in 55.5% (54/97) of patients, accounting for 59.2% (141/238) of all encounters. Of the 85.7% (204/238) of encounters that included at least one endoscopic evaluation, an endoscopic intervention was performed in 34.8% (71/204). The adjusted odds ratio for subsequent GIB if an endoscopic intervention was performed during a GIB encounter was not significant (odds ratio 1.18, P = 0.58). CONCLUSION: Patients implanted with LVADs whom experience recurrent GIB frequently undergo repeat admissions and endoscopic procedures. In this retrospective cohort study, adherence to endoscopic guidelines for performing endoscopic interventions did not significantly decrease the odds of subsequent GIB, thus suggesting the uniqueness of the LVAD population. A prospective study is needed to identify patients with LVAD at risk of recurrent GIB and determine more effective management strategies.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Endoscopia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198683

RESUMO

We noted recently that the injection of cells with a needle through a cystoscope in the urethral sphincter muscle of pigs failed to deposit them nearby or at the intended target position in about 50% of all animals investigated (n > 100). Increasing the chance for precise cell injection by shotgun approaches employing several circumferential injections into the sphincter muscle bears the risk of tissue injury. In this study, we developed and tested a novel needle-free technique to precisely inject cells in the urethral sphincter tissue, or other tissues, using a water-jet system. This system was designed to fit in the working channels of endoscopes and cystoscopes, allowing a wide range of minimally invasive applications. We analyze key features, including the physical parameters of the injector design, pressure ranges applicable for tissue penetration and cell injections and biochemical parameters, such as different compositions of injection media. Our results present settings that enable the high viability of cells post-injection. Lastly, the method is suitable to inject cells in the superficial tissue layer and in deeper layers, required when the submucosa or the sphincter muscle of the urethra is targeted.


Assuntos
Células/metabolismo , Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Endoscopia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Suínos , Água
8.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 86(3): 46-51, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269023

RESUMO

Worldwide, there is a constant increase in mortality from malignant neoplasms, which is largely due to late diagnosis. One of the reasons for late detection is the lack of conditions for conducting a detailed examination at the outpatient level, since the routine method of examining ENT organs today remains examination using mirrors, but in recent decades, endoscopic methods of examination have become widespread - indirect endoscopy, fibrolaryngoscopy, contact endoscopy, NBI-endoscopy, endoscopy using light filters of the SPIES system, as well as diagnostics using fluorescent technologies. Also, a promising and new direction is the diagnosis of malignant neoplasms at the preclinical stage and precancerous conditions, for which molecular diagnostic methods are used - SCCA and microRNA. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effectiveness of various methods of endoscopic and molecular diagnostics of malignant neoplasms of the larynx and pharynx. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study was conducted In the Department of ENT Oncology of the National State Research Center of Otorhinolaryngology of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia, which involved 46 patients with suspected malignant neoplasms of the larynx and pharynx. All patients underwent direct laryngoscopy under endotracheal anesthesia with simultaneous NBI-endoscopy, spies examination, contact endoscopy, and fluorescence testing, followed by biopsy and tissue sampling for microRNA concentration analysis, as well as blood sampling for SCCA concentration.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Laríngeas , Laringe , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Endoscopia , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/diagnóstico , Laringoscopia , Laringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Faringe , Federação Russa
9.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 86(3): 110-117, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269034

RESUMO

Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses significantly reduces the quality of life of people and causes marked economic damage to society. The striking clinical picture of sinusitis has always forced doctors to study the disease, as evidenced by the first records of the anatomy and diseases of the paranasal sinuses by doctors in ancient Egypt more than 3.000 years BC. Sinusitis has been treated in different ways in different historical periods. Effective medication treatment appeared relatively recently and began to steadily replace the older instrumental methods, to which many people had a preconceived notion of invasiveness. However, many studies are showing the positive effect of active drainage methods and, moreover, there is data showing that the discomfort during such procedures is slightly higher than during dental treatment under local anesthesia. This article presents a review of the available scientific literature on the use of different treatments for bacterial rhinosinusitis at different historical stages, ranging from the first publications on puncture techniques to balloon dilatation and the modern approach to conservative treatment.


Assuntos
Seios Paranasais , Rinite , Sinusite , Doença Crônica , Endoscopia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Rinite/diagnóstico , Rinite/terapia , Sinusite/diagnóstico , Sinusite/terapia , Irrigação Terapêutica
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208169

RESUMO

The increasing number of endoscopic procedures performed and their increasing invasiveness mean that endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract is associated with the risk of transmitting pathogenic microorganisms through infected equipment or contact with other patients and medical staff. In order to ensure protection of the health of both patients and medical staff, endoscopy laboratories should meet high hygiene standards. The results of tests of the microbiological cleanliness of surfaces and equipment of an endoscopic examination laboratory performed in the period from January to December 2019 at the Provincial Clinical Hospital No. 2 in Rzeszow were assessed retrospectively. Samples for testing were collected by swabbing from places where microbiological contamination was the most likely and cleaning was the most difficult. In the analyzed period, a total of 86 samples were collected for microbiological tests, of which positive results accounted for 6.9%. Positive results were obtained mainly from swabs collected from wet surfaces (66.7%). Most of the isolated microorganisms were Gram-negative bacteria (66.7% of all positive tests) and they were: Acinetobacter junii, Ralstonia pickettii, and Achromobacter denitrificans. The condition of the microbiological cleanliness of the surfaces and equipment of the endoscopic examination laboratory was satisfactory. A very low level of microbiological contamination of the tested items indicates occasional shortcomings in the decontamination processes. Since microorganisms isolated from the collected samples may be the cause of infection in patients and medical personnel, it is necessary to verify the decontamination procedures applied and to continue periodic microbiological monitoring of their effectiveness.


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Laboratórios , Acinetobacter , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Humanos , Polônia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Clin Neurosci ; 90: 262-267, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275561

RESUMO

Cavernous sinus invasion (CSI) by pituitary tumors is associated with subtotal resection and persistent endocrinopathy. The Knosp classification is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tool used to define CSI in the 2017 World Health Organization Classification. However, alternative criteria may have superior diagnostic performance. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of four MRI criteria, using a combination of endoscopy and day 1 MRI as the reference standard for CSI. A cross-sectional study was conducted including patients treated with endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas, recruited from a tertiary pituitary multidisciplinary center in Sydney, Australia between September 2013, and February 2021. The diagnostic performances of four MRI criteria were assessed: the Knosp criteria, percentage encasement of the internal carotid (PEICA), venous compartment obliteration (VCO), and the Fernandez-Miranda classification. Reference CSI was defined using a combination of intraoperative endoscopy and day 1 MRI. A total of 210 cavernous sinuses (105 patients), were analyzed, (51.7 ±â€¯16.3yrs, 43% female), of which 18% had CSI. CSI was best diagnosed by Knosp ≥ 2 (63% sensitivity and 89% specificity), PEICA ≥ 28% (84% sensitivity and 77% specificity) and VCO of ≥ 3 compartments (65% sensitivity and 89% specificity). CSI was unlikely if any of the following signs were present: Knosp < 1, PEICA < 28%, preservation of the medial or superior compartments or sparing of the superior Fernandez-Miranda compartment (negative predictive value 95%, 95%, 94%, 91% and 92% respectively). In conclusion, alternatives to the Knops criteria including PEICA and VCO can aid CSI diagnosis.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Seio Cavernoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Endoscopia/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cavidade Nasal/cirurgia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Osso Esfenoide/cirurgia
12.
J Clin Neurosci ; 90: 302-310, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275567

RESUMO

We aimed to retrospectively analyze the surgical and clinical outcomes of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for tumors in the third ventricle or invading the third ventricle. In total, 82 patients who had undergone surgical treatment using the EEA for tumors involving the third ventricle were enrolled in this study. This cohort study comprised 46 male and 36 female patients. The median age was 37 years (range, 5-76), and the median follow-up duration was 56.5 months (range, 6-117). Seventy-six patients had craniopharyngiomas, and 6 had gangliocytomas, gangliogliomas, astrocytomas, diffuse midline gliomas and lymphomas. Gross total removal was performed in 71 (86.5%) of the 82 patients, subtotal tumor removal in 7 patients and partial removal or biopsy in 4 patients. The pituitary stalk was preserved in 20 cases. Visual function improved in 40 (81.6%) of 49 patients. Endocrine function worsened in 41 (50%) of 82 patients. Hypothalamic function improved in 16 (72.7%) of 22 cases. Postoperative obesity occurred in 3 (20.0%) of 15 children and 11 (23.9%) of 46 adult patients. The postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage rate was 3.6%. Postoperative meningitis occurred in 18 (21.9%) cases. Permanent diabetes insipidus was identified in 73 (89.0%) of 82 patients. Tumor recurrence was observed in 10 patients (12%). The EEA appears to be a safe and effective treatment modality for tumors in the third ventricle or involving the third ventricle. However, more cases and long-term follow-up outcomes are required to confirm the clinical efficacy of the EEA.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ventrículo Cerebral/cirurgia , Endoscopia/métodos , Cavidade Nasal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Terceiro Ventrículo/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias do Ventrículo Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terceiro Ventrículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(24): 3543-3555, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239268

RESUMO

Recently, studies in many medical fields have reported that image analysis based on artificial intelligence (AI) can be used to analyze structures or features that are difficult to identify with human eyes. To diagnose early gastric cancer, related efforts such as narrow-band imaging technology are on-going. However, diagnosis is often difficult. Therefore, a diagnostic method based on AI for endoscopic imaging was developed and its effectiveness was confirmed in many studies. The gastric cancer diagnostic program based on AI showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy and could differentially diagnose non-neoplastic lesions including benign gastric ulcers and dysplasia. An AI system has also been developed that helps to predict the invasion depth of gastric cancer through endoscopic images and observe the stomach during endoscopy without blind spots. Therefore, if AI is used in the field of endoscopy, it is expected to aid in the diagnosis of gastric neoplasms and determine the application of endoscopic therapy by predicting the invasion depth.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Inteligência Artificial , Endoscopia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem de Banda Estreita , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257131

RESUMO

Boerhaave's syndrome or spontaneous perforation of the oesophagus is a life-threatening condition that carries high mortality. Delayed diagnosis has a mortality rate of 20%-50%. While surgical intervention has been the mainstay of treatment, advancements in endoscopy and oesophageal stenting have allowed for alternative management. Our case involves a 33-year-old man with self-induced emesis and DKA. After 10 days in the ICU, he developed a large right pleural effusion, which was treated with chest tube placement. Upper GI study confirmed delayed Boerhaave's syndrome. A self-expanding stent was inserted followed by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for decompression and jejunal extension for nutrition. He developed empyema and underwent right thoracotomy for washout and lung decortication. Stent was exchanged once due to recurrent leak following migration and removed after 40 days. Endoscopic stent placement with PEG with jejunal extension followed by thoracotomy is a viable alternative to primary repair of delayed oesophageal perforation.


Assuntos
Perfuração Esofágica , Doenças do Mediastino , Adulto , Endoscopia , Perfuração Esofágica/diagnóstico por imagem , Perfuração Esofágica/etiologia , Perfuração Esofágica/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças do Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Mediastino/cirurgia , Ruptura Espontânea , Stents
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300626

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) shape acquisition has been widely introduced to enrich quantitative analysis with the combination of object shape and texture, for example, surface roughness evaluation in industry and gastrointestinal endoscopy in medicine. Shape from focus is a promising technique to measure substance surfaces in 3D space because no occlusion problem appears in principle, as does with stereo shape measurement, which is another commonly used option. We have been developing endoscopic shape measurement devices and shape reconstruction algorithms. In this paper, we propose a mechanism for driving an image sensor reciprocated for the shape from focus of 3D shape measurement in monocular endoscopy. It uses a stepping motor and a planar-end cam, which transforms the motor rotation to imaging sensor reciprocation, to implement the shape from focus of 3D shape measurement in endoscopy. We test and discuss the device in terms of its driving accuracy and application feasibility for endoscopic 3D shape measurement.


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Algoritmos
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304469

RESUMO

Objective:To explore and analyze the imaging examinations, clinical presentation, operative methods complication and the surgical outcomes of fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx (hFVP). Methods:The clinical data of 10 patients with hFVP were analyzed retrospectively from January 2015 to June 2020 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University.Results: All the 10 cases were sporadic. The locations of pedicle: 5 cases were found in pyriform sinus (4 on the left side, 1 on the right side) ,3 cases were found in lateral pharyngeal wall (on the right side),and 2 cases were found in postcricoid space. Among 10 cases, 8 cases were treated with endoscopic coblation cauterization,1 case had excision of endoscopic laryngeal forcep, and 1 case for endoscopic CO2 laser treatment as well as coblation cauterization. Follow up for 5.9-71.4 (30.9) months showed that 7 cases had no recurrence, 2 cases had no connection, 1 cases had recurrence once. One patient recurred once underwent the last operation with transcervical approach as well as tracheotomy,and no recurrence was found in the follow up of 13.2 months. Conclusion:Fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx is rare benign submucosal neoplasm clinically, and endoscopic coblation cauterization is a good choice. Recurrent fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx can be treated by endoscopic coblation cauterization again, so that patients with multiple recurrences whose polyps are giant or euangiotic can consider the transcervical approach, if necessary, the tracheotomy will also be given.


Assuntos
Hipofaringe , Pólipos , Cauterização , Endoscopia , Humanos , Hipofaringe/cirurgia , Pólipos/diagnóstico , Pólipos/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304494

RESUMO

Objective:To evaluate the clinical effect of endoscopic repair for the treatment of children with bilateral congenital choanal atresia. Methods:A retrospective analysis was conducted in our department that six children who were diagnosed as bilateral congenital choanal atresia by nasopharyngeal endoscopy and nasal CT scanning. All cases underwent endoscopic repair and placed the silicone stent to support the enlarged nostrils for six months, and these patients were followed up to observe re-atresia rate after taking out of the supporting tube. Results:Six cases' nasal ventilation were effectively improved after operation without serious complications, 5 cases showed a satisfactory curative effect after taking out of the supporting tube, only 1 case with bony atresia found choanal re-atresia during follow-up. Conclusion:The clinical effect of using endoscopic repair for children with bilateral congenital choanal atresia showed remarkable efficacy with a low re-atresia.


Assuntos
Atresia das Cóanas , Criança , Atresia das Cóanas/cirurgia , Endoscopia , Humanos , Nariz , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304506

RESUMO

Objective:To investigate the role of the supraorbital ethmoidal cell(SOEC) in identifying the frontal sinus ostium(FO) and the anterior ethmoidal artery(AEA) in endoscopic sinus surgery, and to evaluate the clinical significance of a proposed endoscopic classification of AEA. Methods:The clinical data of 116 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were collected. Thirty-six patients(47 sides) with SOEC and DraftⅡA frontal sinusotomy were included. The radiological-anatomical relationship between SOECs and FO, AEAs were recorded. Endoscopic classification of AEA was proposed according to the relationship between the AEA and the ethmoidal roof(EF): type 1, the AEA prominence did not extend beyond the lateral one-third of the EF; type 2, that exceed the lateral one-third but not beyond two-thirds of the EF; type 3, that exceed the lateral two-thirds of the EF. Results:The incidence of SOECs was 26.1%(47/180) of the DraftⅡA operating sides. On computed tomography images, seven sides of FO were occupied by supra agger frontal cells or supra bulla frontal cells; the other 40 sides(85.1%) were immediately anterior to the SOECs. The AEAs were 100% located near the posterior margins of SOECs with 6(12.8%) running under the EF and 41(87.2%) low-lying distant from the EF. Under endoscopy, the identification rate of SOECs was 89.4%(42/47), and five(10.6%) SOECs were not confirmed due to edematous mucosa, bleeding, and other reasons. The identification rate of the AEA was 76.6%(36/47), of which type 1, type 2 and type 3 accounted for 41.7%(15/36), 38.9%(14/36) and 19.4%(7/36) respectively. After removing the frontoethmoidal cells, all the FO were located anteriorly or anteromedially to the SOECs. All the identified AEAs were located in the posterior boundary of the SOEC openings at the level of the anterior ethmoidal foramen. Conclusion:The SOEC is a reliable landmark for locating the FO and the AEA in endoscopic sinus surgery. The new endoscopic classification of AEA helps the surgeon dissect the frontoethmoidal region precisely.


Assuntos
Seio Etmoidal , Seio Frontal , Artérias , Endoscopia , Osso Etmoide , Seio Etmoidal/cirurgia , Humanos
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