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1.
Gastroenterol Nurs ; 43(5): 375-381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003024

RESUMO

Elective surgical and endoscopic procedures were suspended nationwide during the March 2020 COVID-19 pandemic to minimize exposure and healthcare resource utilization. This resulted in an unprecedented backlog of procedures in most clinical practices including pediatrics. Our group developed an internal process toward the rational development of an algorithm prioritizing elective procedures. This was based on patient disease severity defined by the presence of alert symptoms, symptom severity for dysphagia and abdominal pain, and diagnostic investigation findings. The underlying rationale is to prioritize patients in whom suspected disease course would be greatest impacted by endoscopy. We developed a nurse phone call-based process utilizing REDCap®, identifying relevant symptoms categorized by severity, and a validated functional impairment questionnaire for abdominal pain. We abstracted key laboratory and radiological findings also categorized by severity. The order of priority of procedures was established on the basis of a 4-tiered system factoring both presence and severity of symptoms or prior diagnostic testing results. We present the framework that we have adopted toward prioritizing procedures with the assumption that it offers an objective methodology and that can be efficiently and more broadly applied to other similar practice scenarios. Our tool may have wide-ranging implications both in the current COVID-19 pandemic and in other scenarios of limited resource allocation and deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Avaliação de Sintomas , Triagem
2.
Arch Esp Urol ; 73(8): 689-698, 2020 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025914

RESUMO

Endoscopic enucleation of the prostate was first described by Hiraoka in 1986, using a monopolar resectoscope. His contribution was largely ignored until Gilling and Fraundorfer published their three-lobe enucleation technique with the Holmium laser in 1998 ,that ended establishing itself as a reliable option for the treatment of HBP, backed by ample scientific evidence. Later on, enucleation performed with other lasers, as well as bipolar energy, have shown concordance in their clinical results. As a result, the term AEEP (anatomic endoscopic enucleation of the prostate) emerged to encompass all these techniques. During the last few years there have been significant advances in two areas: first, technology, with the development of pulse modulation for Holmium generators (MOSES) as well as high-speed morcellators. Second, the development of new surgical techniques that recognize the importance of the early release of the sphincter from the apex of the adenoma during the operation as well as the careful preservation of the external sphincter's mucosa, to avoid early stress incontinence. In this paper,we review the recent evolution of both technology and surgical technique. AEEP has been risen to a new level, reducing operative time significantly, usually under one hour, and radically reducing the incidence of early temporary stress incontinence, and maybe also facilitating the learning curve of AEEP.


Assuntos
Lasers de Estado Sólido , Hiperplasia Prostática , Endoscopia/instrumentação , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Prostatectomia , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia
3.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1190-1195, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027444

RESUMO

Tubulovillous adenomas of the duodenal ampulla are rare neoplasms. The present report describes a case with radiological-endoscopic and pathological correlation in which the patient underwent duodenal pancreatectomy with good postoperative progression. With advanced imaging methods, especially magnetic resonance and endoscopic ultrasound, locoregional aspects and extraluminal, lymphovascular, and metastatic invasion have been increasingly discussed as contributors to therapeutic decision making. This progression improves lesion staging and is especially useful in selecting eligible candidates for endoscopic treatment.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Adenoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Duodenais , Endoscopia , Endossonografia , Humanos , Radiografia
4.
Rozhl Chir ; 99(8): 364-367, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032442

RESUMO

Our case report describes a patient with recurrent stenoses in both the right and left hepaticojejunoanastomoses due to an injury to the bile ducts during cholecystectomy several years ago. The anastomoses could not be reached endoscopically.  EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy would be a solution only for the left hepatic duct anastomosis. As the patient refused percutaneous transhepatic drainage (PTD) of both intrahepatic ducts and dilation of both anastomoses, endoscopic ultrasound-guided jejunoduodenostomy was performed using a lumen apposing metal stent (LAMS). This method provides repeated endoscopic access to the anastomoses of both hepatic ducts, allowing for their treatment.


Assuntos
Drenagem , Endossonografia , Constrição Patológica , Endoscopia , Humanos , Stents
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040515

RESUMO

Endoscopic ear surgery has been applied in therapy of chronic suppurative otitis media and middle ear cholesteatoma these years. Offering a minimally invasive approach, it requires more experience and skills. The comparative outcomes of endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty remains unclear. Therefore, this article summarizes clinical research results of two surgical approaches, hoping to provide references for choice of endoscopy on treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media and middle ear cholesteatoma.


Assuntos
Colesteatoma da Orelha Média , Otite Média Supurativa , Colesteatoma da Orelha Média/cirurgia , Endoscopia , Humanos , Otite Média Supurativa/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otológicos , Timpanoplastia
6.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47892

RESUMO

Videos dos congressos ENEO


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Neoplasias
7.
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am ; 32(4): 639-648, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891537

RESUMO

Endoscopic surgery on the maxillary sinus has experienced significant advances in technique and approaches since the maxillary antrostomy was introduced in the 1980s. Disease processes that previously required open surgical approaches to the maxillary sinus can now be treated endoscopically while preserving form and function of the sinus and without injuring the maxillary sinus mucosa or disrupting normal mucociliary clearance. Understanding the techniques described in this article will allow surgeons to appropriately plan treatment strategies for patients with a variety of maxillary sinus diseases from dentoalveolar origin.


Assuntos
Seio Maxilar/cirurgia , Sinusite Maxilar/cirurgia , Doença Crônica , Endoscopia , Humanos
8.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 253: 133-140, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866856

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has raised some important interrogations on minimally invasive gynaecological surgery. The International Society for Gynecologic Endoscopy (ISGE) has taken upon itself the task of providing guidance and best practice policies for all practicing gynaecological endoscopists. Factors affecting decision making processes in minimal invasive surgery (MIS) vary depending on factors such as the phase of the pandemic, policies on control and prevention, expertise and existing infrastructure. Our responsibility remains ensuring the safety of all health care providers, ancillary staff and patients during this unusual period. We reviewed the current literature related to gynecological and endoscopic surgery during the Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) crisis. Regarding elective surgery, universal testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection should be carried out wherever possible 40 h prior to surgery. In case of confirmed positive case of SARS-CoV-2, surgery should be delayed. Priority should be given to relatively urgent cases such as malignancies. ISGE supports medical optimization and delaying surgery for benign non-life-threatening surgeries. When possible, we recommend to perform cases by laparoscopy and to allow early discharges. Any procedure with risk of bowel involvement should be performed by open surgery as studies have found a high amount of viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) in stool. Regarding urgent surgery, each unit should create a risk assessment flow chart based on capacity. Patients should be screened for symptoms and symptomatic patients must be tested. In the event that a confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 is found, every attempt should be made to optimize medical management and defer surgery until the patient has recovered and only emergency or life-threatening surgery should be performed in these cases. We recommend to avoid intubation and ventilation in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients and if at all possible local or regional anesthesia should be utilized. Patients who screen or test negative may have general anesthesia and laparoscopic surgery while strict protocols of infection control are upheld. Surgery in screen-positive as well as SARS-CoV-2 positive patients that cannot be safely postponed should be undertaken with full PPE with ensuring that only essential personnel are exposed. If available, negative pressure theatres should be used for patients who are positive or screen high risk. During open and vaginal procedures, suction can be used to minimize droplet and bioaerosol spread. In a patient who screens low risk or tests negative, although carrier and false negatives cannot be excluded, laparoscopy should be strongly considered. We recommend, during minimal access surgeries, to use strategies to reduce production of bioaerosols (such as minimal use of energy, experienced surgeon), to reduce leakage of smoke aerosols (for example, minimizing the number of ports used and size of incisions, as well as reducing the operating pressures) and to promote safe elimination of smoke during surgery and during the ports' closure (such as using gas filters and smoke evacuation systems). During the post-peak period of pandemic, debriefing and mental health screening for staff is recommended. Psychological support should be provided as needed. In conclusion, based on the existent evidence, ISGE largely supports the current international trends favoring laparoscopy over laparotomy on a case by case risk evaluation basis, recognizing the different levels of skill and access to minimally invasive procedures across various countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Endoscopia/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Sociedades Médicas
10.
Value Health ; 23(9): 1171-1179, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cost-effectiveness of a novel screening strategy using a microRNA (miRNA) blood test as a screen, followed by endoscopy for diagnosis confirmation in a 3-yearly population screening program for gastric cancer. METHODS: A Markov cohort model has been developed in Microsoft Excel 2016 for the population identified to be at intermediate risk (Singaporean men, aged 50-75 years with Chinese ethnicity). The interventions compared were (1) initial screening using miRNA test followed by endoscopy for test-positive individuals and a 3-yearly follow-up screening for test-negative individuals (proposed strategy), and (2) no screening with gastric cancer being diagnosed clinically (current practice). The model was evaluated for 25 years with a healthcare perspective and accounted for test characteristics, compliance, disease progression, cancer recurrence, costs, utilities, and mortality. The outcomes measured included incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, cancer stage at diagnosis, and thresholds for significant variables. RESULTS: The miRNA-based screening was found to be cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $40 971/quality-adjusted life-year. Key drivers included test costs, test accuracy, cancer incidence, and recurrence risk. Threshold analysis highlights the need for high accuracy of miRNA tests (threshold sensitivity: 68%; threshold specificity: 77%). A perfect compliance to screening would double the cancer diagnosis in early stages compared to the current practice. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis reported the miRNA-based screening to be cost-effective in >95% of iterations for a willingness to pay of $70 000/quality-adjusted life-year (approximately equivalent to 1 gross domestic product/capita) CONCLUSIONS: The miRNA-based screening intervention was found to be cost-effective and is expected to contribute immensely in early diagnosis of cancer by improving screening compliance.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Endoscopia/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , MicroRNAs/economia , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , MicroRNAs/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Singapura/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia
11.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 142-144, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874051

RESUMO

A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a rare complication after orbital surgery. We reported a 49-year-old man who presented with CSF leakage after transcaruncular medial wall decompression for proptosis due to thyroid eye disease. He underwent an endoscopic endonasal approach to surgical repair of the defect with nasoseptal flap. Rhinorrhea was stopped immediately after endoscopic repair.


Assuntos
Descompressão Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Oftalmopatia de Graves/cirurgia , Pneumocefalia/etiologia , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/diagnóstico por imagem , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/etiologia , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/cirurgia , Endoscopia , Exoftalmia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/efeitos adversos , Pneumocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumocefalia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 43(7): 389-407, ago.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188817

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha conllevado la suspensión de la actividad programada en la mayoría de las Unidades de Endoscopia de nuestro medio. El objetivo del presente documento es facilitar el reinicio de la actividad endoscópica electiva de forma eficiente y segura. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se formularon una serie de preguntas consideradas de relevancia clínica y logística. Para la elaboración de las respuestas, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica estructurada en las principales bases de datos y se revisaron las recomendaciones de las principales instituciones de Salud Pública y de endoscopia digestiva. Las recomendaciones finales se consensuaron por vía telemática. RESULTADOS: Se han elaborado un total de 33 recomendaciones. Los principales aspectos que se discuten son: 1) La reevaluación y priorización de la indicación, 2) La restructuración de espacios, agendas y del personal sanitario, 3) El cribado de la infección, 4) Las medidas de higiene y los equipos de protección individual. CONCLUSIÓN: La AEG y la SEED recomiendan reiniciar la actividad endoscópica de forma escalonada, segura, adaptada a los recursos locales y a la situación epidemiológica de la infección por SARS-CoV-2


INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the suspension of programmed activity in most of the Endoscopy Units in our environment. The aim of this document is to facilitate the resumption of elective endoscopic activity in an efficient and safe manner. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A series of questions considered to be of clinical and logistical relevance were formulated. In order to elaborate the answers, a structured bibliographic search was carried out in the main databases and the recommendations of the main Public Health and Digestive Endoscopy institutions were reviewed. The final recommendations were agreed upon through telematic means. RESULTS: A total of 33 recommendations were made. The main aspects discussed are: 1) Reassessment and prioritization of the indication, 2) Restructuring of spaces, schedules and health personnel, 3) Screening for infection, 4) Hygiene measures and personal protective equipment. CONCLUSION: The AEG and SEED recommend restarting endoscopic activity in a phased, safe manner, adapted to local resources and the epidemiological situation of SARS-CoV-2 infection


Assuntos
Humanos , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Endoscopia/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Programas de Triagem Diagnóstica/normas , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Comissão Para Atividades Profissionais e Hospitalares/normas , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/normas , Gastroscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia , Cápsulas Endoscópicas , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 501-506, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish a system for control of cross-infection and workflow for preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spread and ensuring the safety of medical staffs and patients in endoscopy center during the pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Based on the national publication of relevant documents and relevant guidance of Digestive Endoscopy Branch of Chinese Medical Association, we explored and optimized the workflow, staff protection and sterilization of endoscope in digestive endoscopy center during the pandemic of the COVID-19. RESULTS: The prevention system of cross-infection and workflow in endoscopy during the pandemic of the COVID-19 were developed. The optimized workflow in endoscopy was conducted in 106 patients with necessary endoscopy from the Department of Gastroenterology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University between January 24, 2020 and February 26, 2020, and no case of cross-infection was presented among the medical staffs, patients and family members. CONCLUSIONS: Measures on control of cross-infection and workflow in digestive endoscopy center during the pandemic of the COVID-19 are effective, which are beneficial to preventing cross-infection in hospital and provide a scientific guidance for the general work in the digestive endoscopy centers during the pandemic of the COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Endoscopia , Gastroenterologia/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fluxo de Trabalho , Betacoronavirus , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
14.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 85(4): 80-84, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885643

RESUMO

This article presents the clinical case of a woman aged 61 years with massive bilateral synechial obstruction of the nasal cavity after anterior tamponade with clinical manifestations in the form of a significant deterioration in nasal breathing, nasal congestion, postnasal nasal congestion and recurrent sinusitis. The stages of diagnosis of pathology, including differential, are presented and the most rational method of surgical treatment is selected.


Assuntos
Obstrução Nasal , Sinusite , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cavidade Nasal , Nariz
16.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 55-57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965357

RESUMO

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, endoscopy services must adopt preventive measures to maintain proper functioning due to a high risk of disease contagion. Triage protocols before and after the procedure, personal protective equipment, and environmental contamination control are some of the endoscopy society's recommendations. However, the risk of infection may remain high due to poor control over the source of contamination.Using a combination of standardized supplies and accessories in a hospital, a ventilation mask adapted to be used in endoscopic procedures is proposed to reduce COVID-19 contamination.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Endoscopia , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
18.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 319-325, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955209

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prion diseases are slow-acting, neurodegenerative diseases found in humans and many species of animals. Although they occur very rarely in humans, currently, an increase in this type of disease is being observed, probably as a result of exposure to infectious prions causing BSE disease in cows. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the procedures described in the article is to minimize the risk of human-to-human transfer of all forms of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, including variant CJD (vCJD) by contaminated medical equipment. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: All diseases caused by prions, referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are fatal. They are characterized by a long development period (up to several decades). Enormous problems are connected with the risk of transferring prions from patient to patient on the surface of instruments used in medical procedures. Laboratory tests indicate that standard disinfection and sterilization procedures may be insufficient to completely remove infectious proteins from contaminated instruments. One of the methods of infection prevention involves taking equipment used for surgery within the brain, tonsils or appendix, into quarantine until biopsy results of these organs have been received that exclude, as far as possible, asymptomatic carriage of prions. CONCLUSIONS: Whenever possible and justified, disposable-use instruments should be used for invasive surgery in patients with definite, clinically probable cases of CJD (vCJD). After use, these instruments should be incinerated.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/instrumentação , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Doenças Priônicas/etiologia , Humanos
20.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 905-912, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921660

RESUMO

There is little data on management and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients on direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) undergoing general surgery.We retrospectively assessed 98 surgeries in 85 nonvalvular AF patients aged 73 ± 8 (59 men) receiving DOACs. Cardiac, emergency, and minimally invasive surgeries were excluded.The CHA2DS2-VASc score ranged from 0 to 8. The DOACs being given were: dabigatran, 16; rivaroxaban, 25; apixaban, 28; and edoxaban, 16. While the DOACs were not suspended in 11 cases, they were interrupted for a median of 2.0 days before surgery and restarted at a median of 3.0 days after surgery. There were 9 complications (9.2%), 3 instances of thromboembolism and 6 bleeding. Thromboembolism occurred at a mean of 3.0 postoperative days, all of which occurred before resumption of DOACs, while bleeding events occurred at a mean of 4.0 postoperative days. Two of the 3 patients with thromboembolism went into cardiopulmonary arrest during the event, but were resuscitated. There were significantly more patients with congestive heart failure or combined antiplatelets in the patients with complications. The complication group had a significantly higher HAS-BLED score and lower preoperative hemoglobin level. There were no significant differences in the management of DOAC interruption between those with complications and without.The perioperative complication rate in nonvalvular AF patients undergoing elective surgery treating with DOACs was 9.2%. Patients with congestive heart failure, receiving combined therapy with antiplatelets, a higher HAS-BLED score, or lower preoperative hemoglobin level were at higher risk. Further studies evaluating the ideal perioperative DOAC protocol are warranted.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Embolia/epidemiologia , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
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