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1.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 3383-3396, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622645

RESUMO

Accurately understanding the features and connotations of complex engineering problems is an important prerequisite for setting graduation requirements, constructing curriculum and designing teaching contents. By discussing the characteristics of complex engineering problems in the biological industry, this paper explored the demands for undergraduates in Yangtze river delta region, summarized the typical jobs and their requirements, and expounded the connotation of complex engineering problems contained in various typical tasks. On this basis, a gradual curriculum system was constructed, which included multiple stages of conceiving, formation and application, to cultivate the ability to solve complex engineering problems in the major of bioengineering. The curriculum coordinated the implementation of deep integration of industry and education, research feed back course construction, course team and advanced courses building up, professional associations covered all crews and students, supporting the ability training of solving complex engineering problems.


Assuntos
Currículo , Engenharia , Biotecnologia , Humanos , Indústrias , Resolução de Problemas
2.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 8456736, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630555

RESUMO

In actual product development, the cognitive differences between users and designers make it difficult for the designed products to be recognized by users. To reduce the cognitive differences between these two design subjects, this paper proposes a method of cognitive matching of the design subjects. First, we use the relevant methods of Kansei engineering to quantify the Kansei image cognition of the two design subjects and construct a cognitive matching model of the design subjects with information entropy and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). Second, according to the Kansei image, the Kansei image prototype cluster is constructed, and the representative Kansei image prototype is obtained. Then, we combine an artificial neural network (ANN) with a cognitive matching model of the design subjects to construct a product Kansei image evaluation system; this is used to evaluate the evolved forms. Finally, a product Kansei image form evolution system is constructed based on the genetic algorithm (GA). To some extent, the system simulates the cognitive matching process between designers and users in product design, helps designers to more accurately understand the cognitive trends of the two design subjects, and provides a theoretical basis for the intelligent design of product forms through the cognitive balance of multiple design subjects. This paper takes a beverage bottle as an example to verify the feasibility of the model through a comparative study.


Assuntos
Cognição , Redes Neurais de Computação , Engenharia , Humanos
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640851

RESUMO

Individual products and models on the market must be specifically differentiated from the rest to meet user demand. In terms of consumer purchasing behaviour, consumers increasingly base their decisions on subjective terms or the impression that the product leaves on them, both in terms of functionality, usability, safety, and price adequacy, and regarding the emotions and feelings that it triggers in them. This demand has lead both Asia and Europe to implement new methodologies to develop new products, such as "emotional design" or Kansei engineering. This paper presents a systematic literature review (SLR) on the most relevant methodologies based on Kansei engineering and their relevant results in the specific discipline of product design, addressing these five questions: (RQ1) How many studies on KE and emotional design are there in the Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) databases from 1995 to February 2021? (RQ2) Which research topics and types of KE are addressed? (RQ3) Who is leading the research on KE and emotional design? (RQ4) What are the benefits and drawbacks of using and applying the methodology? (RQ5) What are the limitations of the current research? We analysed 87 studies focusing on the Kansei methodology used for product design and device technologies (e.g., shape design, actuators, sensors, structure) and aesthetic aspects (e.g., Kansei words selection, the quantification of measured emotions of results, and detected shortcomings), and provided the database with all the collected information. One identified and highlighted sector in the results is the electronic-technological-device sector. Results confirm that this type of methodology has a majority and direct application in these sectors, and they are widely represented in the automotive and electronics industries. Lastly, this SLR provides researchers with a guide for comparative emotional-design work, and facilitates future designers who want to implement emotional design in their work by selecting the specific type according to the results of the SLR.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Engenharia , Emoções , Europa (Continente) , Tecnologia
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502646

RESUMO

The electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique has been applied successfully to detect minor damage in engineering structures including reinforced concrete (RC). However, in the presence of temperature variations, it can cause false alarms in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. This paper has developed an innovative approach that integrates the EMI methodology with multilevel hierarchical machine learning techniques and the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature and strain sensors to evaluate the mechanical performance of RC beams strengthened with near surface mounted (NSM)-fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) under sustained load and varied temperatures. This problem is a real challenge since the bond behavior at the concrete-FRP interface plays a key role in the performance of this type of structure, and additionally, its failure occurs in a brittle and sudden way. The method was validated in a specimen tested over a period of 1.5 years under different conditions of sustained load and temperature. The analysis of the experimental results in an especially complex problem with the proposed approach demonstrated its effectiveness as an SHM method in a combined EMI-FBG framework.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Polímeros , Impedância Elétrica , Aprendizado de Máquina , Temperatura
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502685

RESUMO

Attempts in digital management of structures are among the most popular topics in the trend of Information of Things (IoT). However, the implementation lags behind. This work recognized that Computer Aided Design (CAD) comprises the core of modern engineering; thus, most digital information can be available if CAD is used not only in design but also for life cycle structural health monitoring (SHM). Based on this concept, the newly designed method utilizes the isogeometric analysis (IGA) tool to include the Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing (DFOS) information by proposing a fiber mesh model. The IGA model can be obtained directly from CAD, and the boundary conditions can be provided directly or indirectly from DFOS in real time and remotely. Hence a practical method of SHM is able to achieve highly efficient and accurate numerical model creation, which can even accommodate non-linear constitutive property of materials. The proposed method was applied to a pipe deformation model as an example. The inverse analysis method is also shown to determine the contact force for loading on the pipe, which shows the potential for many engineering applications.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica
7.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(4): ar54, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546099

RESUMO

Evidence-based teaching practices (EBPs) foster college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students' engagement and performance, yet our knowledge of what contributes to the effectiveness of these practices is less established. We propose a framework that links four social-cognitive variables-students' trust in their instructors, growth mindset, buy-in to instructional practices, and course engagement-to long-standing desired student outcomes of academic performance and intent to persist in science. This framework was tested in classrooms identified as having a high level of EBP implementation with a multi-institutional sample of 2102 undergraduates taught by 14 faculty members. Results indicate that the buy-in framework is a valid representation of college students' learning experiences within EBP contexts overall as well as across underrepresented student groups. In comparison to students' level of growth mindset, students' trust in their instructors was more than twice as predictive of buy-in to how the course was being taught, suggesting that students' views of their instructors are more associated with thriving in a high-EBP course environment than their views of intelligence. This study contributes to the dialogue on transforming undergraduate STEM education by providing a validated student buy-in framework as a lens to understand how EBPs enhance student outcomes.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Confiança , Engenharia , Humanos , Matemática , Ensino , Tecnologia
8.
Biomater Sci ; 9(20): 6691-6717, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494042

RESUMO

Engineering cellular membranes with functional molecules provides an attractive strategy to manipulate cellular behaviors and functionalities. Currently, synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has emerged as a promising molecular tool to engineer cellular membranes for biomedical applications due to its molecular recognition and programmable properties. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in anchoring DNA on the cellular membranes and their applications. The strategies for anchoring DNA on cell membranes were summarized. Then their applications, such as immune response activation, receptor oligomerization regulation, membrane structure mimicking, cell-surface biosensing, and construction of cell clusters, were listed. The DNA-enabled intelligent systems which were able to sense stimuli such as DNA strands, light, and metal ions were highlighted. Finally, insights regarding the remaining challenges and possible future directions were provided.


Assuntos
DNA , Engenharia , Membrana Celular , Íons
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577511

RESUMO

Engineering education benefits from the application of modern technology, allowing students to learn essential Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related concepts through hands-on experiences. Robotic kits have been used as an innovative tool in some educational fields, being readily accepted and adopted. However, most of the time, such kits' knowledge level requires understanding basic concepts that are not always appropriate for the student. A critical concept in engineering is the Cartesian Coordinate System (CCS), an essential tool for every engineering, from graphing functions to data analysis in robotics and control applications and beyond. This paper presents the design and implementation of a novel Two-Dimensional Cartesian Coordinate System Educational Toolkit (2D-CACSET) to teach the two-dimensional representations as the first step to construct spatial thinking. This innovative educational toolkit is based on real-time location systems using Ultra-Wide Band technology. It comprises a workbench, four Anchors pinpointing X+, X-, Y+, Y- axes, seven Tags representing points in the plane, one listener connected to a PC collecting the position of the Tags, and a Graphical User Interface displaying these positions. The Educational Mechatronics Conceptual Framework (EMCF) enables constructing knowledge in concrete, graphic, and abstract levels. Hence, the students acquire this knowledge to apply it further down their career path. For this paper, three instructional designs were designed using the 2D-CACSET and the EMCF to learn about coordinate axes, quadrants, and a point in the CCS.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Aprendizagem , Criatividade , Humanos , Estudantes , Tecnologia
10.
J Agric Saf Health ; 27(3): 177-201, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350742

RESUMO

HIGHLIGHTS Rollovers are the leading cause of injury and fatality in farm all-terrain vehicle (ATV) incidents. Engineering technologies to prevent rollovers or protect the operator in ATV crashes were reviewed in this study. The advances in safety for ATVs are correlated with improvements in stability, handling, and crashworthiness. Operator protection devices and crash notification systems can protect the operator in ATV rollover incidents. ABSTRACT. All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are the second most common source of injury, following tractors, in U.S. agriculture. Rollovers are the leading cause of death in farm ATV incidents, constituting about 85% of ATV-related deaths. There is neither a significant practical solution for ATV rollover crashes in the U.S. nor standards and rules for implementing such a solution. Behavior-based control methods have been used for several decades but have reached their limit of success. Hence, engineering controls are needed to significantly decrease the severity of injuries in ATV rollover incidents (as in tractor incidents). In this study, engineering technologies to protect the operator in agricultural ATV crashes were reviewed. The discussion includes improving crash testing and stability ratings, evaluating static stability of ATVs, dynamic handling tests of ATVs, using automatic systems to notify first responders of a crash, and testing and applying operator protection devices. The available standards, rules, and recommendations related to these technologies around the world are also discussed.


Assuntos
Veículos Off-Road , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Agricultura , Engenharia , Fazendas , Humanos , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
11.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(3): ar43, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388005

RESUMO

A primary goal of science and engineering (S&E) education is to produce good problem solvers, but how to best teach and measure the quality of problem solving remains unclear. The process is complex, multifaceted, and not fully characterized. Here, we present a detailed characterization of the S&E problem-solving process as a set of specific interlinked decisions. This framework of decisions is empirically grounded and describes the entire process. To develop this, we interviewed 52 successful scientists and engineers ("experts") spanning different disciplines, including biology and medicine. They described how they solved a typical but important problem in their work, and we analyzed the interviews in terms of decisions made. Surprisingly, we found that across all experts and fields, the solution process was framed around making a set of just 29 specific decisions. We also found that the process of making those discipline-general decisions (selecting between alternative actions) relied heavily on domain-specific predictive models that embodied the relevant disciplinary knowledge. This set of decisions provides a guide for the detailed measurement and teaching of S&E problem solving. This decision framework also provides a more specific, complete, and empirically based description of the "practices" of science.


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Estudantes , Engenharia , Humanos
12.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(3): ar48, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424757

RESUMO

Community colleges are a pathway in higher education for many students, including students who are pursuing baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Because of the increased demand for professionals in the STEM workforce, a successful transition from community colleges to the university setting is essential for increasing the number of transfer students who complete STEM degree programs. Fostering a stabilized academic transition for transfer students requires an understanding of how different academic and sociocultural backgrounds can influence students' identity trajectories during their undergraduate education. In this study, Holland et al.'s framework of figured worlds was used to examine how transfer students pursuing STEM degrees negotiated their identities in their transition to the university. Because identity is a complex construct that can influence student experiences in STEM, this study examined areas of compatible and incompatible expectations of what constitutes success across the university, community college, and high school learning environments, and among students, families, and faculty. Inconsistent expectations across these figured worlds provide insight into the challenges associated with the community college to university transition that can affect transfer students' experiences and identity production at the university.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Estudantes , Humanos , Matemática , Tecnologia , Universidades
13.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(9): 1213-1223, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373620

RESUMO

Racial and ethnic discrimination persist in science, technology, engineering and mathematics fields, including ecology, evolution and conservation biology (EECB) and related disciplines. Marginalization and oppression as a result of institutional and structural racism continue to create barriers to inclusion for Black people, Indigenous people and people of colour (BIPOC), and remnants of historic racist policies and pseudoscientific theories continue to plague these fields. Many academic EECB departments seek concrete ways to improve the climate and implement anti-racist policies in their teaching, training and research activities. We present a toolkit of evidence-based interventions for academic EECB departments to foster anti-racism in three areas: in the classroom; within research laboratories; and department wide. To spark restorative discussion and action in these areas, we summarize EECB's racist and ethnocentric histories, as well as current systemic problems that marginalize non-white groups. Finally, we present ways that EECB departments can collectively address shortcomings in equity and inclusion by implementing anti-racism, and provide a positive model for other departments and disciplines.


Assuntos
Racismo , Afro-Americanos , Ecologia , Engenharia , Humanos , Grupos Populacionais
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 799: 149469, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375866

RESUMO

Grade control structures (GCSs) are one of the most often used hydraulic structures in a river regulation in mountain catchments. The purpose of their use is to reduce the river bed gradient and prevent downcutting. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of GCS on changes in river bed morphology. The study was conducted in a downstream stretch (5.66 km long) of the Carpathian river - the Mszanka, regulated with 25 GCSs. Research has shown that erosion is here a predominant process despite the use of GCSs. The river bed has been cut into bedrock along approximately 40% of a studied stretch. A total of 56 scour holes were identified, which vary substantially in terms of their depth, length, and mechanism of formation. The erosion depth depends mainly on the length of reaches between GCSs and on the water surface gradient. A surprising research discovery was scour holes found upstream of the crests of the GCSs - 16 such scour holes were found. The formation of these scour holes is explained through the drawdown profile characterized by the increasing of the velocity that favored the bed erosion. The studied river is characterized by deficit of sediment. The insufficient sediment supply and imbalance between the river's load and sediment transport are two of the greatest problems affecting the most Carpathian rivers. The novelty of this research is the analysis of such a long and complex reach of mountain river engineered with GCSs in terms of variances in erosion processes. Also a new knowledge presented here is an information about scour holes located upstream of GCSs and explanation of the mechanism of their formation. Results from this research could serve geomorphologists, engineers and ecologists as well as help river managers in decision-making processes when river regulation is planned.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Engenharia
15.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(3): es8, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460293

RESUMO

This essay describes the concept of access needs as a tool for improving accessibility in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education broadly, from the classroom, to research group meetings, to professional conferences. The normalization of stating access needs and creating access check-ins is a regular practice used in disability justice activist circles, but it has not yet been normalized in STEM education spaces. Just as normalizing the use of pronouns has been an important step for supporting gender justice, we argue that normalizing access talk is an important step for advancing disability justice in STEM fields. Moreover, we argue that all individuals have access needs, regardless of whether they are disabled or nondisabled. We provide concrete suggestions and techniques that STEM educators can use today.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Estudantes , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Matemática , Tecnologia
16.
Biomed Eng Online ; 20(1): 82, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on higher education has been felt worldwide. There are many lessons to be learned about teaching and learning in the digital age. While we evaluate the full impact and prepare ourselves for the new normal, it is worth reflecting on some of the positive aspects of online teaching and learning and understanding how students, teachers and the wider faculty have been able to support each other through the challenges of the pandemic. In this article, we offer a perspective on teaching an online Global Health course to engineering students. RESULTS: The course, taught by a physician, provides a grounding in basic medical, scientific and engineering principles and is available to students of diverse engineering specialties. Students developed skills and gained confidence in active listening, sourcing and critical appraisal of information, interdisciplinary teamwork, needs assessment, problem analysis, problem-solving, effective communication, and organisation and delivery of information (in English). Students learned the importance of engineering in landmark historical public health projects, the delivery of modern health care, and the pressing need to develop engineering solutions to current global health problems. Course assessment was formative: 20% attendance and active participation in online classes, 30% problem-solving, 30% student presentations, and 20% written abstracts for two class projects: historical innovations and medicine in the future. CONCLUSIONS: We show how, through conversion from a classroom to an online format, we were able to deliver a rich curriculum with sound assessment where students were able to innovate together and discover the importance of engineering in health and well-being as we all experience an unprecedented global health pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação à Distância , Engenharia , Saúde Global/educação , Pandemias , Humanos
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450910

RESUMO

Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are generally considered to be the next generation of engineered systems. However, the actual application of CPSs in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is still at a low level. The sensing method in the construction process plays a very important role in the establishment of CPSs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the application potential of computer vision-based sensing methods and provide practical suggestions through a literature review. This paper provides a review of the current application of CPSs in the AEC industry, summarizes the current knowledge gaps, and discusses the problems with the current construction site sensing approach. Considering the unique advantages of the computer vision (CV) method at the construction site, the application of CV for different construction entities was reviewed and summarized to achieve a CV-based construction site sensing approach for construction process CPSs. The potential of CPS can be further stimulated by providing rich information from on-site sensing using CV methods. According to the review, this approach has unique advantages in the specific environment of the construction site. Based on the current knowledge gap identified in the literature review, this paper proposes a novel concept of visual-based construction site sensing method for CPS application, and an architecture for CV-based CPS is proposed as an implementation of this concept. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a CPS architecture using computer vision as the main information acquisition method based on the literature review. This architecture innovatively introduces computer vision as a sensing method of construction sites, and realizes low-cost and non-invasive information acquisition in complex construction scenarios. This method can be used as an important supplement to on-site sensing to further promote the automation and intelligence of the construction process.


Assuntos
Computadores , Engenharia , Automação
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372263

RESUMO

A real-time fault diagnosis method utilizing an adaptive genetic algorithm to optimize a back propagation (BP) neural network is intended to achieve real-time fault detection of a liquid rocket engine (LRE). In this paper, the authors employ an adaptive genetic algorithm to optimize a BP neural network, produce real-time predictions regarding sensor data, compare the projected value to the actual data collected, and determine whether the engine is malfunctioning using a threshold judgment mechanism. The proposed fault detection method is simulated and verified using data from a certain type of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen rocket engine. The experiment results show that this method can effectively diagnose this liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen rocket engine in real-time. The proposed method has higher system sensitivity and robustness compared with the results obtained from a single BP neural network model and a BP neural network model optimized by a traditional genetic algorithm (GA), and the method has engineering application value.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Engenharia , Reprodução
19.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 658-672, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410741

RESUMO

The overrepresentation of Asian Americans in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) occupations can render invisible the early experiences of Asian Americans in other fields. In this study, we provide a national and longitudinal portrait of the occupational expectations of Asian Americans (n = 2,340) in high school and their postsecondary years. Multinomial logistic regression models confirm Asian Americans hold high occupational expectations in STEM fields overall. However, longitudinal results also reveal high occupational expectations in arts and sports in Grade 9 that decrease and occupational expectations in business and management that begin low but increase after high school. These longitudinal trends are similar for other students but reveal career trajectories of Asian Americans that receive less attention among researchers. Results show little evidence of misalignment between Asian American occupational expectations and academic subject interests in high school. Gaps in occupational expectations between students categorized as English Learner (EL) and those who are not (non-EL) are also mostly attenuated when accounting for individual and parent backgrounds. The study has implications for supporting Asian American youth interested in non-STEM fields, complicating a characterization of Asian Americans as model minorities uniformly predisposed for STEM fields, and improving Asian American career visibility beyond STEM. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Arte , Americanos Asiáticos , Escolha da Profissão , Comércio , Ocupações , Esportes , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Engenharia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Matemática , Motivação , Pais/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ciência , Estudantes/psicologia , Tecnologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148726, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328124

RESUMO

The current linear "take-make-waste-extractive" model leads to the depletion of natural resources and environmental degradation. Circular Economy (CE) aims to address these impacts by building supply chains that are restorative, regenerative, and environmentally benign. This can be achieved through the re-utilization of products and materials, the extensive usage of renewable energy sources, and ultimately by closing any open material loops. Such a transition towards environmental, economic and social advancements requires analytical tools for quantitative evaluation of the alternative pathways. Here, we present a novel CE system engineering framework and decision-making tool for the modeling and optimization of food supply chains. First, the alternative pathways for the production of the desired product and the valorization of wastes and by-products are identified. Then, a Resource-Task-Network representation that captures all these pathways is utilized, based on which a mixed-integer linear programming model is developed. This approach allows the holistic modeling and optimization of the entire food supply chain, taking into account any of its special characteristics, potential constraints as well as different objectives. Considering that typically CE introduces multiple, often conflicting objectives, we deploy here a multi-objective optimization strategy for trade-off analysis. A representative case study for the supply chain of coffee is discussed, illustrating the steps and the applicability of the framework. Single and multi-objective optimization formulations under five different coffee-product demand scenarios are presented. The production of instant coffee as the only final product is shown to be the least energy and environmental efficient scenario. On the contrary, the production solely of whole beans sets a hypothetical upper bound on the optimal energy and environmental utilization. In both problems presented, the amount of energy generated is significant due to the utilization of waste generated for the production of excess energy.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Programação Linear , Engenharia
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