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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130885, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461516

RESUMO

The formation of biogenic amines (BAs) is an important potential danger in traditional fermented fish (Suan yu), and Enterobacteriaceae play an important role in the formation of BAs. The amine production abilities of 97 strains of Enterobacteriaceae screened from traditional fermented Suan yu were analyzed by reversed-phased high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The genotypic diversity of amino acid decarboxylase on 23 strains of high-yield BAs was verified by PCR. Enterobacteriaceae with the highest production of amines was determined by analysis of the effects of physicochemical factors (pH, NaCl, temperature, and aerobic/anaerobic) on BA production and principal component analysis (PCA). The adaptability of the strains was examined using surimi simulation fermentation system, and the correlations among the indicators were analyzed using Cytoscape. Results showed that 97 strains of Enterobacteriaceae had strong amine-producing ability. Furthermore, 23 strains producing high yields of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine were identified. All of the strains carried Idc, odc, speA, speB, and adiA, and five strains carried hdc. pH mainly affected the BA production of amine-producing bacteria. Three strains (Enterobacter asburiae 26C3, Klebsiella pneumoniae 47C2, and Morganella morganii 45C3) had the best amine-producing ability and used as the inoculated group. In this group, the values of BA (228.70-290.05 mg/kg) and the total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N, 173.87-221.87 mg/100 g) exceeded the limit. Moreover, myofibrillar protein degradation was significant as indicated by the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and decreased FAA content. Cytoscape software and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that Enterobacteriaceae and pH were related to BA formation in Suan yu. These results provide a theoretical basis for controlling the BA of fermented fish products.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas , Enterobacteriaceae , Animais , China , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Fermentação
2.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(23): 8615-8627, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731280

RESUMO

There has been a growing interest in traditional dairy (such as raw milk cheeses) and meat products, in recent years. However, these products are suitable and nutrient medium and may be easily contaminated by microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae. Enterobacteriaceae are considered to be the indicator bacteria for microbiological quality of food and hygiene status of a production process. Additionally, the food contaminated by Enterobacteriaceae poses a microbiological risk for consumers. In fact, the contamination of raw milk and meat by Enterobacteriaceae amid manufacturing may easily occur from various environmental sources, and this group of bacteria is frequently detected in dairy and meat products. Therefore, monitoring the microbiological quality of the used raw material and maintaining high standards of hygiene in the production process are mandatory for a high quality of traditional products and the safety of the potential consumers. The goal of this review is to present the most recent survey on Enterobacteriaceae growth, number, and distribution in raw milk cheeses and meat, as well as to discuss the sources of contamination and methods of control. KEY POINTS: • Enterobacteriaceae: role and importance in milk and meat products, EU legal regulations • Dynamics, distribution, and survival of Enterobacteriaceae in milk and meat • Mechanisms of control of Enterobacteriaceae in dairy products.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae , Leite , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Carne
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605760

RESUMO

The options available for treating infections with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are limited; with the increasing threat of these infections, new treatments are urgently needed. Biapenem (BIPM) is a carbapenem, and limited data confirming its in vitro killing effect against CPE are available. In this study, we examined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of BIPM for 14 IMP-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from the Okayama region in Japan. The MICs against almost all the isolates were lower than 0.5 µg ml-1, indicating susceptibility to BIPM, while approximately half of the isolates were confirmed to be bacteriostatic to BIPM. However, initial killing to a 99.9 % reduction was observed in seven out of eight strains in a time-kill assay. Despite the small data set, we concluded that the in vitro efficacy of BIPM suggests that the drug could be a new therapeutic option against infection with IMP-producing CPE.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tienamicinas/farmacologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605763

RESUMO

The emergence of metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacterales, mainly New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM), represents a clinical threat due to the limited therapeutic alternatives. Aztreonam (AZT) is stable to MBLs, but most MBL-producing Enterobacterales isolates usually co-harbour other ß-lactamases that confer resistance to AZT and, consequently, its use is restricted in these isolates. We compared the ability of sulbactam (SUL), tazobactam (TAZ), clavulanic acid (CLA) and avibactam (AVI) to restore the AZT activity in MBL-producing AZT-resistant Enterobacterales isolates. A collection of 64 NDM-producing AZT-resistant Enterobacterales from five hospitals in Buenos Aires city, Argentina, were studied during the period July-December 2020. MICs were determined using the agar dilution method with Mueller-Hinton agar according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. AVI, SUL and TAZ were used at a fixed concentration of 4 mg l-1, whereas CLA was used at a fixed concentration of 2 mg l-1. A screening method based on disc diffusion to evaluate this synergy was also conducted. Detection of bla KPC, bla OXA, bla NDM, bla VIM, bla CTXM-1, bla PER-2 and bla CIT was performed by PCR. The AZT-AVI combination restored the AZT activity in 98.4 % of AZT-resistant strains, whereas CLA, TAZ and SUL did so in 70.3, 15.6 and 12.5 %, respectively, in isolates co-harbouring extended-spectrum ß-lactamases, but were inactive in isolates harbouring AmpC-type enzymes and/or KPC. The synergy screening test showed an excellent negative predictive value to confirm the absence of synergy, but positive results should be confirmed by a quantitative method. The excellent in vitro performance of the AZT-CLA combination represents a much more economical alternative to AZT-AVI, which could be of use in the treatment of MBL-producing, AZT-resistant Enterobacterales.


Assuntos
Aztreonam/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de beta-Lactamases/farmacologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Aztreonam/administração & dosagem , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Inibidores de beta-Lactamases/administração & dosagem , beta-Lactamases/química , beta-Lactamases/genética
5.
Euro Surveill ; 26(39)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596014

RESUMO

BackgroundWhile 20-80% of regular visitors to (sub)tropical regions become colonised by extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), those hospitalised abroad often also carry other multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria on return; the rates are presumed to be highest for interhospital transfers.AimThis observational study assessed MDR bacterial colonisation among patients transferred directly from hospitals abroad to Helsinki University Hospital. We investigated predisposing factors, clinical infections and associated fatalities.MethodsData were derived from screening and from diagnostic samples collected between 2010 and 2019. Risk factors of colonisation were identified by multivariable analysis. Microbiologically verified symptomatic infections and infection-related mortality were recorded during post-transfer hospitalisation.ResultsColonisation rates proved highest for transfers from Asia (69/96; 71.9%) and lowest for those within Europe (99/524; 18.9%). Of all 698 patients, 208 (29.8%) were colonised; among those, 163 (78.4%) carried ESBL-PE, 28 (13.5%) MDR Acinetobacter species, 25 (12.0%) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 25 (12.0%) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, 14 (6.7%) carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and 12 (5.8%) MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 46 strains tested carbapenemase gene-positive. In multivariable analysis, geographical region, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic use abroad proved to be risk factors for colonisation. Clinical MDR infections, two of them fatal (1.0%), were recorded for 22 of 208 (10.6%) MDR carriers.ConclusionsColonisation by MDR bacteria was common among patients transferred from foreign hospitals. Region of hospitalisation, ICU treatment and antibiotic use were identified as predisposing factors. Within 30 days after transfer, MDR colonisation manifested as clinical infection in more than 10% of the carriers.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Enterobacteriaceae , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1061, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has reduced the clinical utility of carbapenems. Plasmids often play an important role in the spread of genes encoding drug-resistance factors, especially in the horizontal transfer of these genes among species of Enterobacteriaceae. This study describes a patient infected with three species of CPE carrying an identical transferrable IncL/M plasmid. METHODS: Clinical isolates of CPE were collected at St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, from 2015 to 2019. Three species of CPE isolates, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella aerogenes and Serratia marcescens, were isolated from a patient who developed severe gallstone pancreatitis associated with bloodstream infection, with all three isolates producing IMP-1 metallo-ß-lactamase. The complete sequences of the plasmids of the three isolates were determined by both MiSeq and MinION. The medical chart of this patient was retrospectively reviewed conducted to obtain relevant clinical information. RESULTS: The three CPE species carried an IncL/M plasmid, pSL264, which was 81,133 bp in size and harbored blaIMP-1. The genetic environment surrounding blaIMP-1 consisted of int1-blaIMP-1-aac(6')-IIc-qacL-qacEdelta1-sul1-istB-IS21. Conjugation experiments showed that S. marcescens could transmit the plasmid to E. cloacae and K. aerogenes. In contrast, pSL264 could not transfer from E. cloacae or K. aerogenes to S. marcescens. CONCLUSION: The IncL/M plasmid pSL264 harboring blaIMP-1 was able to transfer among different species of Enterobacteriaceae in a patient receiving long-term antimicrobial treatment. The worldwide emergence and spread of IncL/M plasmids harboring carbapenemase-encoding genes among species of Enterobacteriaceae is becoming a serious public health hazard.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Enterobacteriaceae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterobacter cloacae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inosina Monofosfato , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , beta-Lactamases/genética
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1095, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Raoultella ornithinolytica is a Gram-negative bacillus that resembles Klebsiella. This bacterium is present in many soil and aquatic environments and is a major causative agent of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in medical staff. Clinically, it has been reported to contribute to nosocomial infections in patients that include but are not limited to gastrointestinal, skin, and genitourinary tract infections. These complications are most common in hospitalized patients with underlying immunodeficiency, multiple comorbidities, or those receiving invasive surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 25-year-old patient with a R. ornithinolytica infection. The patient had no history of any disease. Her main complaints were high fever, a scattered maculopapular rash, and superficial lymph node enlargement (SLNE). Peripheral blood samples were collected for high-throughput sequencing analysis to identify pathogenic microorganisms. The results confirmed a R. ornithinolytica infection, which was treated successfully using meropenem. Loratadine was also administered to treat the patient's compromised skin condition caused by an allergic reaction. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first case of a systemic maculopapular rash and superficial lymphadenopathy caused by a R. ornithinolytica infection acquired at the community level. Based on this case, we recommend a combination of antibiotic and antiallergic drugs to treat a R. ornithinolytica infection and associated allergic reaction to the bacteria.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Enterobacteriaceae , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Klebsiella , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 360: 109437, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673328

RESUMO

Peanuts and peanut products are significant revenue sources for smallholder farmers in the Senegalese peanut basin. However, microbial contamination during production and storage can greatly affect market access for producers. Peanut products have emerged as possible sources of foodborne illness, encouraging discussions on international standards for peanuts. In this study, we interviewed 198 households throughout the Senegalese peanut basin to assess current production practices, storage methods, and producers' prior knowledge of microbial contamination using a 162-question survey. A member of each household orally completed the survey with a trained enumerator and the results were compared to microbiological results obtained from peanut samples collected at the time of the interview using linear regression and an analysis of variance model. Samples were collected from stored peanuts at each household; peanuts were shelled and total Enterobacteriaceae, coliform, and yeast and mold populations were enumerated. Of the 198 samples analyzed, 13.0% and 13.6% were greater than the upper detection limits for Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms, respectively. A total of 21.2% of samples were above the detection limit for yeast and mold populations. Only 22.7% and 18.7% of producers were aware of pathogenic bacteria or aflatoxins, respectively; there were no significant differences in observed microbial populations between household who took preventative measures against microbial contamination and those who did not. Additionally, four households reported washing their kitchen utensils before using them to eat and 60.1% reported always washing their hands before eating. Enumerators were asked to report peanut storage container type and if the containers were stored off the ground at the time of collection. While the interaction between storage container type and if the container was stored off the ground was significant for Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms, it was not significant for yeast and mold. Additionally, when storage container type and if peanuts were stored off the ground were included in the regression model, these methods were predictive of contamination levels for Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the relationship among Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and mold contamination and producer knowledge of Senegalese peanuts. These results provide preliminary data to inform future studies to determine pathogen prevalence and impactful preventative measures to minimize microbial contamination of peanuts produced in Senegal.


Assuntos
Arachis , Enterobacteriaceae , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Senegal
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258690, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Institution-specific guidelines (ISGs) within the framework of antimicrobial stewardship programs offer locally tailored decision support taking into account local pathogen and resistance epidemiology as well as national and international guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of ISGs for antimicrobial therapy on antibiotic consumption and subsequent changes in resistance rates and Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs). METHODS: The study was conducted at the Leipzig University Hospital, a 1,451-bed tertiary-care medical center, and covered the years 2012 to 2020. Since 2014, ISGs were provided to optimize empirical therapies, appropriate diagnostics, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. We used interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) and simple linear regression to analyze changes in antimicrobial consumption, resistance and CDIs. RESULTS: Over the study period, 1,672,200 defined daily doses (DDD) of antibiotics were dispensed, and 85,645 bacterial isolates as well as 2,576 positive C. difficile cultures were collected. Total antimicrobial consumption decreased by 14% from 2012 to 2020, without clear impact of the deployment of ISGs. However, implementation of ISGs was associated with significant decreases in the use of substances that were rarely recommended (e.g., fluoroquinolones). Over the whole study period, we observed declining resistance rates to most antibiotic classes of up to 25% in Enterobacterales, staphylococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Switching from ceftriaxone to cefotaxime was associated with reduced resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The number of CDI cases fell by 65%, from 501 in 2012 to 174 in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Well-implemented ISGs can have a significant, immediate, and lasting impact on the prescription behavior. ISGs might thereby contribute to reduce resistance rates and CDI incidences in the hospital setting.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos/organização & administração , Clostridioides difficile/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clostridioides difficile/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Alemanha , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Modelos Lineares , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
10.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 15(5): 492-504, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694754

RESUMO

Eco-friendly synthesis of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has a number of advantages like simplicity, biocompatibility, low toxicity in nature over their physical and chemical methods. In the present study, the authors report biosynthesized AgNPs using the root extract of the perennial plant 'Spiny gourd' (Momordica dioica) and investigated their anti-bacterial application with mechanistic approaches. Different biophysical techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, SAED, and DLS were employed for AgNPs characterization. The synthesized AgNPs were polydispersed, crystalline in nature, with anionic surface (-22.3 mV), spherical in shape with an average size of 13.2 nm. In addition, the AgNPs were stable in room temperature and in different biological buffers. The anti-bacterial activities of AgNPs were studied with respect to the pathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella planticola (Gram-negative), and Candida albicans. Also, mechanistic studies of AgNPs such as protein leakage assay, nucleic acid leakage assay, ATP leakage assay, ROS accumulation, determination of biofilm degrading activity, measurement of potassium, showing that the synthesized AgNPs are capable of containing a potential application in the antimicrobial therapeutic agents and the pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis , Morte Celular , Enterobacteriaceae , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Prata/farmacologia
13.
J Water Health ; 19(5): 705-723, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665765

RESUMO

Wastewater is considered a hotspot niche of multi-drug and pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae-producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL-E). Thus, the aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the prevalence of ESBL-E in different wastewater sources. Different databases (Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) were searched from inception to March 2021. Data were analyzed using random-effects modeling, and subgroup and meta-regression analyses were used to ascertain heterogeneity among the subgroups. Fifty-seven observational studies were selected, and the pooled prevalence of ESBL-E in wastewater was 24.81% (95% CI, 19.28-30.77). Escherichia coli had the highest ESBL prevalence. The blaCTX-M genes were the most prevalent in the selected studies (66.56%). The pooled prevalence of ESBL was significantly higher in reports from America (39.91%, 95% CI, 21.82-59.51) and reports studying hospital and untreated wastewaters (33.98%, 95% CI, 23.82-44.91 and 27.36%, 95% CI, 19.12-36.42). Overall, this meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of ESBL-E in wastewater is increasing over time and that hospital wastewater is the most important repository of ESBL-E. Therefore, there is a need for developing new sewage treatment systems that decrease the introduction of resistant bacteria and antibiotic residues.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , beta-Lactamases , Antibacterianos , Enterobacteriaceae , Prevalência
14.
Infectio ; 25(3): 193-196, jul.-set. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250092

RESUMO

Resumen El constante aumento de Enterobacterales productores de carbapenemasas (CPE) se constituye en un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial, por el impacto generado en la mortalidad de los pacientes. El tracto gastrointestinal es el principal reservorio de este tipo de microorganismos, por lo cual, la colonización rectal se convierte en un importante factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de posteriores infecciones. Una de las estrategias de vigilancia epidemiológica activa, es la búsqueda de pacientes colonizados, a través de cultivos de tamización para detectar estos microrganismos multirresistentes. Reportamos el caso de un paciente, con historia de sepsis de origen pulmonar, colonizado por Klebsiella pneumoniae con coproducción de carbapenemasas NDM + KPC y Escherichia coli con carbapenemasa NDM. Este hallazgo es cada vez más frecuente, lo cual implica un reto en su detección y diagnóstico. Se describen características del paciente, procedimientos realizados y hallazgos microbiológicos.


Abstract The constant increase in carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) constitutes a public health problem worldwide, due to the impact generated on the mortality of patients. The gastrointestinal tract is the main reservoir for this microorganism, which is why, rectal colonization becomes an important risk factor for the development of subsequent infections. One of the active epidemiological surveillance strategies is the search for colonized patients through screening cultures, to detect these multi-resistant microorganisms. We report the case of a patient, with a history of sepsis of pulmonary origin, colonized by Klebsiella pneumoniae with co-production of NDM + KPC carbapenemases and NDM carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli. This finding is more and more frequent, which implies a challenge in its detection and diagnosis. Patient characteristics, procedures performed and microbiological findings are described.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enterobacteriaceae , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos , Sepse , Trato Gastrointestinal , Escherichia coli , Infecções , Klebsiella pneumoniae
15.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(2): 302-307, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468580

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the presence of beta-lactamase- (bla) producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospital effluent samples from two level II and III hospitals in Lima, Peru. The resistance profile of the isolated bacteria was identified and characterized using the MicroScan system for 18 antimicrobials, and the presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) (blaCTX-M ,bla SHV bla TEM ,bla PER) and carbapenemases (bla KPC ,bla NDM ,bla VIM ,bla IMP) resistance genes was determined by conventional PCR. Thirty-two isolates were identified (20 Enterobacteriaceae and 12 gram-negative bacteria). All the isolated bacteria showed multidrug resistance. ESBL (bla TEM) and carbapenemase (blaKPC, blaIMP) genes were found in samples from the hospitals that we evaluated. The release of these microorganisms to public areas and the lack of treatment of the hospital effluents could be an important public health problem.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Esgotos/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Hospitais , Humanos , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , beta-Lactamases/genética
16.
Water Res ; 204: 117593, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482094

RESUMO

Reconditioning of food processing water streams for reuse is an increasingly common water management practice in the food industry and UV disinfection is often employed as part of the water treatment. Several factors may impact the effect of UV radiation. Here, we aim to assess the impact of cell aggregation on UV inactivation kinetics and investigate if UV exposure induces aggregation. Three strains, isolated from food processing water reuse lines (Raoultella ornithinolytica, Pseudomonas brenneri, Rothia mucilaginosa) and both an aggregating and a non-aggregating strain of Staphylococcus aureus were exposed to UVC light at 255 nm using UV LED equipment. Total Viable Count and phase-contrast microscopy, coupled with image analysis, were used to compare the UV inactivation kinetics with the average particle size for a range of UV doses. Tailing effect, seen as a strong reduction in inactivation rate, was observed for all strains at higher UV doses (industrial strains ≥ 50 or 120 mJ/cm2, S. aureus strains  ≥ 40 or 60 mJ/cm2). The naturally aggregating strains were more UV tolerant, both within and between species. When aggregates of S. aureus were broken, UV tolerance decreased. For the processing water isolates, the lowest applied UV dose (25 mJ/cm2) significantly increased the average particle size. Application of higher UV doses obtained with longer exposure times did not further increase the particle size compared with untreated samples. For the S. aureus strains, however, no consistent change in average particle size was observed due to UV. Our results demonstrate that aggregating strains have a higher degree of protection and that UV radiation induces aggregation in some, but not all bacteria. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing microbial aggregation and survival during UV treatment could help to improve UV applications and predictions of microbial inactivation.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus , Raios Ultravioleta , Bactérias , Desinfecção , Enterobacteriaceae , Cinética , Micrococcaceae , Pseudomonas
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(9): 5755-5761, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499216

RESUMO

Class D ß-lactamases OXA-232 and OXA-48 hydrolyze penicillin, cephalosporins and carbapenems, limiting the pharmacological therapeutics in bacteraemia. OXA producer microorganisms are considered a great emergent threat, especially in nosocomial environments. To determine the resistance profile and genomic characterization of two isolates initially identified as potential carbapenemase-producer Klebsiella oxytoca in a third level hospital. Automated platform BD Phoenix-100 System was used to identify and to biochemically characterize both isolates. Furthermore, the resistance profile was determined through CLSI methods and the whole genome sequences were obtained using Next-Generation Sequencing. Resistance genes were analyzed, and the virtual fingerprinting was determined to corroborate the similarity with related bacteria. Both strains correspond to Raoultella ornithinolytica carrying OXA 232 and OXA-48 genes, confirming the class D ß-lactamases assay results. Here, we present the genetic and phenotypic analysis of multidrug resistance R. ornithinolytica, representing the first report in Mexico.


Assuntos
Klebsiella oxytoca , beta-Lactamases , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Genômica , Klebsiella oxytoca/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , beta-Lactamases/genética
19.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1127): 20210607, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of aerosol spread of infection. We have conducted a study to detect bacterial contamination of room surfaces and room air during CT colonography and confirm the efficacy of room disinfection procedures carried out between examinations. METHODS: Systematic sampling of the CT examination couch and horizontal surfaces 1 m and 3 m from the couch was performed before and after patient examinations. A 1 m3 sample of room air was obtained during patient examinations. Samples were processed using routine laboratory methods. A case-control study design was used (30 CT colonography and 30 routine body CT scans). RESULTS: Evidence of airborne dissemination of bacteria was detected in >30% of CT colonography examinations and <10% of control examinations (p = 0.01). No pathogenic bacteria were detected in surface samples taken before patient examinations. CONCLUSION: The room disinfection policy in use in our CT department is effective in eliminating pathogenic bacteria from surfaces in the patient environment. CT colonography causes contamination of room air with enteric bacteria in a significant proportion of cases. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: CT colonography may possibly be an aerosol-generating procedure. Larger-scale investigation is needed to fully evaluate this potential infection risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/isolamento & purificação , Colonografia Tomográfica Computadorizada/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Equipamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/microbiologia , Aerossóis , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Reino Unido
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049481, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580096

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alternatives to carbapenems are needed in the treatment of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales (3GCR-E). Temocillin is a suitable candidate, but comparative randomised studies are lacking. The objective is to investigate if temocillin is non-inferior to carbapenems in the targeted treatment of bacteraemia due to 3GCR-E. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, pragmatic phase 3 trial. Patients with bacteraemia due to 3GCR-E will be randomised to receive intravenously temocillin (2 g three times a day) or carbapenem (meropenem 1 g three times a day or ertapenem 1 g once daily). The primary endpoint will be clinical success 7-10 days after end of treatment with no recurrence or death at day 28. Adverse events will be collected; serum levels of temocillin will be investigated in a subset of patients. For a 10% non-inferiority margin, 334 patients will be included (167 in each study arm). For the primary analysis, the absolute difference with one-sided 95% CI in the proportion of patients reaching the primary endpoint will be compared in the modified intention-to-treat population. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study started after approval of the Spanish Regulatory Agency and the reference institutional review board. Data will be published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04478721.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Meropeném , Penicilinas , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Meropeném/uso terapêutico , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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