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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1340075, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628549

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the effects of EV-A71 (Enterovirus A71) infection on ocular surface and its mechanism. Methods: AG6 mice aged two to three weeks were randomly divided into control and EV-A71 infected groups. Slit-lamp observation, fluorescein staining, and phenol red thread test were used to assess symptoms of ocular surface at 4 dpi (days post infection). The pathological changes of cornea and lacrimal gland were observed by H&E staining, PAS staining, TUNEL assay, IHC staining and qRT-PCR. Corneas and lacrimal glands from mice were obtained and processed for RNA sequencing analysis. Newly diagnosed HFMD patients caused by EV-A71 were recruited and ensured they met the inclusion criteria. Ocular surface parameters (TMH and NIKBUT) were measured using the OCULUS Keratograph 5M. Tear samples were taken to examine Cxcl1 and IL-6 levels through the ELISA method. Results: Mice studies revealed that EV-A71 infection caused tear film instability, decreased tear secretions, decreased in lacrimal gland size, and distinct goblet cell loss. It also resulted in increased large vacuoles within acinar cells and structural damage in lacrimal gland. Apart from minor damage to the epidermis, there was no obvious inflammatory changes or apoptosis in the cornea. However, there were significant inflammatory injury and apoptosis in the lacrimal gland. RNA-seq analysis showed IL-17 and NF-κB signaling pathways were activated in the lacrimal glands of mice infected with EV-A71. In HFMD patients, the THM was in a low range and NITBUT was significantly shorter than the control group by Oculus Keratograph 5M. ELISA assay showed a higher tear Cxcl1 and IL-6 level in them. Conclusion: EV-A71 infection affected lacrimal gland structure and function and induced dry eye-like symptoms.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco , Enterovirus Humano A , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Aparelho Lacrimal , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Interleucina-6 , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia
3.
J Water Health ; 22(4): 717-720, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678424

RESUMO

The measurement of the enterovirus and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sewage water is relevant in the early detection of the introduction or disappearance of these viruses in the ecosystem. We evaluated the co-circulation of the enteroviruses and SARS-CoV-2 in 81 sewage water samples collected between September 2021 and April 2023 from different regions of north and southeast Romania, at the border with Ukraine. We used, for the molecular detection of the pathogens, the multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay produced for respiratory samples and the Respiratory 2.1 Plus panel Biofire Film array. The isolation of enteroviruses was performed on cell culture lines, in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. By molecular investigations, we detected the SARS-CoV-2 in 22 (27%) samples, and the human rhinovirus/enterovirus in 64 (79%) samples. By isolation on cell culture lines, 27 samples (33,33%) were positive for non-polio enteroviruses, and no poliovirus strains were isolated, proving the maintenance of the polio-free status in Romania. In an emergency situation, the molecular detection of the pathogens in sewage water using a PCR system integrating sample preparation, amplification, detection, and analysis in 1 h could be implemented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enterovirus , Poliomielite , SARS-CoV-2 , Esgotos , Humanos , Esgotos/virologia , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Enterovirus/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Poliomielite/virologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Romênia/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(4): e1012159, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662650

RESUMO

Human enteroviruses are the most common human pathogen with over 300 distinct genotypes. Previous work with poliovirus has suggested that it is possible to generate antibody responses in humans and animals that can recognize members of multiple enterovirus species. However, cross protective immunity across multiple enteroviruses is not observed epidemiologically in humans. Here we investigated whether immunization of mice or baboons with inactivated poliovirus or enterovirus virus-like-particles (VLPs) vaccines generates antibody responses that can recognize enterovirus D68 or A71. We found that mice only generated antibodies specific for the antigen they were immunized with, and repeated immunization failed to generate cross-reactive antibody responses as measured by both ELISA and neutralization assay. Immunization of baboons with IPV failed to generate neutralizing antibody responses against enterovirus D68 or A71. These results suggest that a multivalent approach to enterovirus vaccination is necessary to protect against enterovirus disease in vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Reações Cruzadas , Infecções por Enterovirus , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado , Animais , Camundongos , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/imunologia , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Papio/imunologia , Humanos , Poliovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Enterovirus/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Enterovirus Humano D/imunologia
5.
Virulence ; 15(1): 2333562, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622757

RESUMO

The Picornaviridae are a large group of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses, and most research has focused on the Enterovirus genus, given they present a severe health risk to humans. Other picornaviruses, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and senecavirus A (SVA), affect agricultural production with high animal mortality to cause huge economic losses. The 3Dpol protein of picornaviruses is widely known to be used for genome replication; however, a growing number of studies have demonstrated its non-polymerase roles, including modulation of host cell biological processes, viral replication complex assembly and localization, autophagy, and innate immune responses. Currently, there is no effective vaccine to control picornavirus diseases widely, and clinical therapeutic strategies have limited efficiency in combating infections. Many efforts have been made to develop different types of drugs to prohibit virus survival; the most important target for drug development is the virus polymerase, a necessary element for virus replication. For picornaviruses, there are also active efforts in targeted 3Dpol drug development. This paper reviews the interaction of 3Dpol proteins with the host and the progress of drug development targeting 3Dpol.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Animais , Humanos , Produtos do Gene pol/metabolismo , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , RNA Viral/genética
6.
Virus Res ; 344: 199367, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561065

RESUMO

Coxsackieviruses-induced infections, particularly in infants and young children, are one of the most important public health issues in low- and middle-income countries, where the surveillance system varies substantially, and these manifestations have been disregarded. They are widespread throughout the world and are responsible for a broad spectrum of human diseases, from mildly symptomatic conditions to severe acute and chronic disorders. Coxsackieviruses (CV) have been found to have 27 identified genotypes, with overlaps in clinical phenotypes between genotypes. In this review, we present a concise overview of the most recent studies and findings of coxsackieviruses-associated disorders, along with epidemiological data that provides comprehensive details on the distribution, variability, and clinical manifestations of different CV types. We also highlight the significant roles that CV infections play in the emergence of neurodegenerative illnesses and their effects on neurocognition. The current role of CVs in oncolytic virotherapy is also mentioned. This review provides readers with a better understanding of coxsackieviruses-associated disorders and pointing the impact that CV infections can have on different organs with variable pathogenicity. A deeper knowledge of these infections could have implications in designing current surveillance and prevention strategies related to severe CVs-caused infections, as well as encourage studies to identify the emergence of more pathogenic types and the etiology of the most common and most severe disorders associated with coxsackievirus infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coxsackievirus , Genótipo , Humanos , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/virologia , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/patogenicidade
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 73(13): 278-285, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573841

RESUMO

The reliable and timely detection of poliovirus cases through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), supplemented by environmental surveillance of sewage samples, is a critical component of the polio eradication program. Since 1988, the number of polio cases caused by wild poliovirus (WPV) has declined by >99.9%, and eradication of WPV serotypes 2 and 3 has been certified; only serotype 1 (WPV1) continues to circulate, and transmission remains endemic in Afghanistan and Pakistan. This surveillance update evaluated indicators from AFP surveillance, environmental surveillance for polioviruses, and Global Polio Laboratory Network performance data provided by 28 priority countries for the program during 2022-2023. No WPV1 cases have been detected outside of Afghanistan and Pakistan since August 2022, when an importation into Malawi and Mozambique resulted in an outbreak during 2021-2022. During 2022-2023, among 28 priority countries, 20 (71.4%) met national AFP surveillance indicator targets, and the number of environmental surveillance sites increased. However, low national rates of reported AFP cases in priority countries in 2023 might have resulted from surveillance reporting lags; substantial national and subnational AFP surveillance gaps persist. Maintaining high-quality surveillance is critical to achieving the goal of global polio eradication. Monitoring surveillance indicators is important to identifying gaps and guiding surveillance-strengthening activities, particularly in countries at high risk for poliovirus circulation.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Poliomielite , Poliovirus , Humanos , alfa-Fetoproteínas , Saúde Global , Vigilância da População/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/diagnóstico , Programas de Imunização
9.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543842

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) has emerged as the predominant causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. Since the declaration of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a global pandemic, the incidence of infectious diseases, including HFMD, has decreased markedly. When social mitigation was relaxed during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2022, the re-emergence of HFMD was observed in Gwangju, South Korea, and seasonal characteristics of the disease appeared to have changed. To investigate the molecular characteristics of enterovirus (EV) associated with HFMD during 2022, 277 specimens were collected. Children aged younger than 5 years accounted for the majority of affected individuals. EV detection and genotyping were performed using real-time RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR followed by sequence analysis. The EV detection rate was found to be 82.3%, and the main genotype identified was CV-A6. Sixteen CV-A6 samples were selected for whole genome sequencing. According to phylogenetic analysis, all CV-A6 strains from this study belonged to the sub-genotype D3 clade based on VP1 sequences. Analysis of 3D polymerase phylogeny showed that only the recombinant RF-A group was identified. In conclusion, circulating EV types should be continuously monitored to understand pathogen emergence and evolution during the post-pandemic era.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Pandemias , Enterovirus/genética , Antígenos Virais/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Genótipo , China/epidemiologia
10.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 125(4): 219-222, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526857

RESUMO

Clinical swabs with suspected viral infection are usually transported in virus transport medium (VMT). During epidemics/pandemics, tampons without VTM would be more suitable for saving space and cost. This study was conducted to verify the applicability of throat swabs without VTM in the diagnosis/screening of enteroviral infections by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a volunteer study group. Three different swab types were used in 40 volunteers: swabs with two different tips (cotton- or synthetic-tipped) without VTM and standard synthetic tips with VTM. The swabs were processed immediately or after 12 days of storage at either -80°C or +4°C. The molecular analysis included viral RNA extraction, and combination of reverse transcriptase PCR and nested PCR. Enteroviral RNA was detected in 15% (6/40) of the studied volunteers. When processed immediately, the results for all three swab types were compatible. Swabs without VTM may be used for collection of clinical samples in the diagnosis of suspected enteroviral infections or as potential screening tools for enteroviruses (Tab. 2, Ref. 15). Keywords: enterovirus infection, swab, transport medium, PCR, molecular diagnostics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Humanos , Infecções por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Enterovirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/análise , Manejo de Espécimes
11.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(3): e13271, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although influenza viruses cause only one-fifth of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in Burkina Faso, the other viral causes of SARI remain poorly investigated to inform clinical and preventive decision making. METHODS: Between 2016 and 2019, we prospectively enrolled inpatients meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of SARI in Burkina Faso. Results of viral etiologies among inpatients tested negative for influenza using the Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory Kits (FTD-33) were reported. RESULTS: Of 1541 specimens tested, at least one respiratory virus was detected in 76.1% of the 1231 specimens negative for influenza virus. Human rhinoviruses (hRVs) were the most detected pathogens (476; 38.7%), followed by human adenoviruses (hAdV) (17.1%, 210/1231), human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) (15.4%, 189/1231), enterovirus (EnV) (11.2%, 138/1231), human bocavirus (hBoV) (7.9%, 97/1231), parainfluenza 3 (hPIV3) (6.1%, 75/1231), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) (6.0%,74/1321), parainfluenza 4 (hPIV4) (4.1%, 51/1231), human coronavirus OC43 (hCoV-OC43) (3.4%, 42/1231), human coronavirus HKU1(hCoV-HKU1) (2.7%, 33/1231), human coronavirus NL63 (hCoV-NL63) (2.5%, 31/1231), parainfluenza 1 (hPIV1) (2.0%, 25/1231), parainfluenza 2 (hPIV2) (1.8%, 22/1231), human parechovirus (PeV) (1.1%, 14/1231), and human coronavirus 229E (hCoV-229E) (0.9%, 11/1231). Among SARI cases, infants aged 1-4 years were mostly affected (50.7%; 622/1231), followed by those <1 year of age (35.7%; 438/1231). Most detected pathogens had year-long circulation patterns, with seasonal peaks mainly observed during the cold and dry seasons. CONCLUSION: Several non-influenza viruses are cause of SARI in Burkina Faso. The integration of the most common pathogens into the routine influenza surveillance system might be beneficial.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Influenza Humana , Orthomyxoviridae , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Pneumonia , Infecções Respiratórias , Vírus , Lactente , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia
12.
J Med Virol ; 96(3): e29514, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488486

RESUMO

Enteroviruses cause a wide range of neurological illnesses such as encephalitis, meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis. Two types of enteroviruses, echovirus E4 and E9, have recently been detected in South Africa and are known to be associated with meningitis and encephalitis. The objective of this study was to characterize enterovirus strains detected in cerebrospinal fluid specimens of hospitalized patients in the private and public sector to identify genotypes associated with meningitis and encephalitis. From January 2019 to June 2021 enterovirus positive nucleic acid samples were obtained from a private (n = 116) and a public sector (n = 101) laboratory. These enteroviruses were typed using a nested set of primers targeting the VP1 region of the enterovirus genome, followed by Sanger sequencing and BLASTn analysis. Forty-two percent (91/217) of the strains could be genotyped. Enterovirus B species was the major species detected in 95% (86/91) of the specimens, followed by species C in 3% (3/91) and species A in 2% (2/91) of the specimens. Echovirus E4 and E9 were the two major types identified in this study and were detected in 70% (64/91) and in 10% (9/91) of specimens, respectively. Echovirus E11 has previously been identified in sewage samples from South Africa, but this study is the first to report Echovirus E11 in cerebrospinal fluid specimens from South African patients. The genotypes identified during this study are known to be associated with encephalitis and meningitis. The predominant detection of echovirus E4 followed by E9 corresponds with other studies conducted in South Africa.


Assuntos
Encefalite , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Meningite , Humanos , Lactente , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Setor Público , Enterovirus/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Meningite/epidemiologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Filogenia
13.
Epidemics ; 46: 100754, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428358

RESUMO

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region, particularly in Vietnam. To develop effective interventions and efficient vaccination programs, we inferred the age-time-specific transmission patterns of HFMD serotypes enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6), coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10), coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam from a case data collected during 2013-2018 and a serological survey data collected in 2015 and 2017. We proposed a catalytic model framework with good adaptability to incorporate maternal immunity using various mathematical functions. Our results indicate the high-level transmission of CV-A6 and CV-A10 which is not obvious in the case data, due to the variation of disease severity across serotypes. Our results provide statistical evidence supporting the strong association between severe illness and CV-A6 and EV-A71 infections. The HFMD dynamic pattern presents a cyclical pattern with large outbreaks followed by a decline in subsequent years. Additionally, we identify the age group with highest risk of infection as 1-2 years and emphasise the risk of future outbreaks as over 50% of children aged 6-7 years were estimated to be susceptible to CV-A16 and EV-A71. Our study highlights the importance of multivalent vaccines and active surveillance for different serotypes, supports early vaccination prior to 1 year old, and points out the potential utility for vaccinating children older than 5 years old in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Benzenoacetamidas , Enterovirus , Febre Aftosa , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Piperidonas , Criança , Lactente , Animais , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , China/epidemiologia
14.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 18(2): 291-298, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484358

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poliovirus (PV) and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) belong to the Picornaviridae family. They are found worldwide and are responsible for a wide range of diseases such as acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). This study aimed to evaluate the detection rate of PV and NPEV in stool samples from children under fifteen years of age presenting with AFP in Cameroon and their distribution over time. METHODOLOGY: Stool samples were collected as part of poliovirus surveillance throughout Cameroon from 2015 to 2020. Virus isolation was performed using RD and L20B cells maintained in culture. Molecular methods such as intratypic differentiation were used to identify PVs serotypes and analysis of the VP1 genome was performed. RESULTS: A total of 12,354 stool samples were analyzed. The EV detection rate by virus isolation was 11.42% (1411/12354). This rate varied from year to year with a mean distribution of 11.41 with a 95% confidence interval [11.37; 11.44]. Of the viruses detected, suspected poliovirus accounted for 31.3% (442/1411) and NPEV 68.67% (969/1411). No wild poliovirus (WPV) was isolated. Sabin types 1 and 3 were continuously isolated. Surprisingly, from February 2020, vaccine-derived PV type 2 (VDPV2) was detected in 19% of cases, indicating its resurgence. CONCLUSIONS: This study strongly supports the successful elimination of WPV in Cameroon and the resurgence of VDPV2. However, as long as VDPV outbreaks continue to be detected in Africa, it remains essential to monitor how they spread.


Assuntos
Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Mielite , Doenças Neuromusculares , Poliomielite , Poliovirus , Criança , Humanos , Poliovirus/genética , Enterovirus/genética , Camarões/epidemiologia , alfa-Fetoproteínas , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 142: 106998, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Following the alert of echovirus 11 (E-11) infection in neonates in EU/EEA Member States, we conducted an investigation of E-11 circulation by gathering data from community and hospital surveillance of enterovirus (EV) in northern Italy from 01 August 2021 to 30 June 2023. METHODS: Virological results of EVs were obtained from the regional sentinel surveillance database for influenza-like illness (ILI) in outpatients, and from the laboratory database of ten hospitals for inpatients with either respiratory or neurological symptoms. Molecular characterization of EVs was performed by sequence analysis of the VP1 gene. RESULTS: In our ILI series, the rate of EV-positive specimens showed an upward trend from the end of May 2023, culminating at the end of June, coinciding with an increase in EV-positive hospital cases. The E-11 identified belonged to the D5 genogroup and the majority (83%) were closely associated with the novel E-11 variant, first identified in severe neonatal infections in France since 2022. E-11 was identified sporadically in community cases until February 2023, when it was also found in hospitalized cases with a range of clinical manifestations. All E-11 cases were children, with 14 out of 24 cases identified through hospital surveillance. Of these cases, 60% were neonates, and 71% had severe clinical manifestations. CONCLUSION: Baseline epidemiological data collected since 2021 through EV laboratory-based surveillance have rapidly tracked the E-11 variant since November 2022, alongside its transmission during the late spring of 2023.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Viroses , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Lactente , Enterovirus/genética , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Pacientes Internados , Infecções por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Itália/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Filogenia
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2330163, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544389

RESUMO

The Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) vaccine was introduced in China in December 2015 as a preventive measure against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by EV-A71. However, the effectiveness of the vaccine (VE) in real-world settings needs to be evaluated. We conducted a test-negative case-control study to assess the effectiveness of EV-A71 vaccines in preventing EV-A71-associated HFMD. Children aged 6-71 months with HFMD were enrolled as participants. The case group comprised those who tested positive for EV-A71, while the control group comprised those who tested negative for EV-A71. To estimate VE, a logistic regression model was employed, adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, and clinical severity. In total, 3223 children aged 6 to 71 months were included in the study, with 162 in the case group and 3061 in the control group. The proportion of children who received EV-A71 vaccination was significantly lower in the case group compared to the control group (p < .001). The overall VEadj was estimated to be 90.8%. The VEadj estimates for partially and fully vaccinated children were 90.1% and 90.9%, respectively. Stratified by age group, the VEadj estimates were 88.7% for 6 to 35-month-olds and 95.5% for 36 to 71-month-olds. Regarding disease severity, the VEadj estimates were 86.3% for mild cases and 100% for severe cases. Sensitivity analysis showed minimal changes in the VE point estimates, with most changing by no more than 1% point. Our study demonstrates a high level of vaccine effectiveness against EV-A71-HFMD, especially in severe cases. Active promotion of EV-A71 vaccination is an effective strategy in preventing EV-A71 infections.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Criança , Humanos , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , China/epidemiologia , Antígenos Virais
17.
Virulence ; 15(1): 2329569, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses (EV) are common and can cause severe diseases, particularly in young children. However, the information of EV infection in infants in China is limited due to the vast population size and extensive geographical area of the country. Here, we conducted a retrospective multicenter analysis of available EV data to assess the current epidemiological situation in the infant population in southern China. METHODS: The study enrolled infants with suspected EV infection from 34 hospitals across 12 cities in southern China between 2019 to 2022, and the confirmation of EV was done using RT-PCR and VP1 gene sequencing. RESULTS: Out of 1221 infants enrolled, 330 (27.03%) were confirmed as EV-infected. Of these, 260 (78.79%) were newborns aged 0-28 days. The EV belonged to three species: EV-B (80.61%), EV-A (11.82%), and human rhinovirus (7.58%). Newborns were more susceptible to EV-B than older infants (p < 0.001). Within EV-B, we identified 15 types, with coxsackievirus (CV) B3 (20.91%), echovirus (E) 11 (19.70%), and E18 (16.97%) being the most common. The predominant EV types changed across different years. EV infection in infants followed a seasonal pattern, with a higher incidence from May to August. Furthermore, perinatal mother-to-child EV transmission in 12 mother-newborn pairs were observed. CONCLUSION: Our study is the first to demonstrate the emergence and widespread circulation of EV-B species, mainly CVB3, E11, and E18, in southern China, primarily affecting young infants. This research provides valuable insights for future epidemic assessment, prediction, as well as the elimination of mother-to-child transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , China/epidemiologia , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Filogenia
18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471668

RESUMO

AIMS: Enteroviruses are significant human pathogens associated with a range of mild to severe diseases. This study aims to understand the diversity and genetic characterization of enteroviruses circulated in southwest China's border cities by using environmental surveillance. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 96 sewage samples were collected in three border cities and a port located in Yunnan Province, China from July 2020 to June 2022. After cell culture and VP1 sequencing, a total of 590 enterovirus isolates were identified, belonging to 21 types. All PV strains were Sabin-like with ≤6 nucleotide mutations in the VP1 coding region. Echovirus 6, echovirus 21 (a rare serotype in previous studies), and coxsackievirus B5 were the predominant serotypes, which accounted for 21.19%, 18.31%, and 13.39% of the total isolates, respectively. The prevalence of the common serotypes varied across different border cities and periods. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of multiple evolutionary lineages for E21, E6, and E30, some of which formed distinct branches. CONCLUSIONS: High diversity of enteroviruses and distinct lineages of predominant serotypes circulated in southwest China's border cities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Humanos , Cidades , Filogenia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Antígenos Virais/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
19.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543718

RESUMO

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection typically causes mild illnesses, such as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), but occasionally leads to severe or fatal neurological complications in infants and young children. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment available for EV-A71 infection. Thus, the development of an effective anti-EV-A71 drug is required urgently. Cordycepin, a major bioactive compound found in Cordyceps fungus, has been reported to possess antiviral activity. However, its specific activity against EV-A71 is unknown. In this study, the potency and role of cordycepin treatment on EV-A71 infection were investigated. Results demonstrated that cordycepin treatment significantly reduced the viral load and viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) level in EV-A71-infected Vero cells. In addition, EV-A71-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly inhibited in the presence of cordycepin in a dose-dependent manner. The protective effect can also be extended to Caco-2 intestinal cells, as evidenced by the higher median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) values in the cordycepin-treated groups. Furthermore, cordycepin inhibited EV-A71 replication by acting on the adenosine pathway at the post-infection stage. Taken together, our findings reveal that cordycepin could be a potential antiviral candidate for the treatment of EV-A71 infection.


Assuntos
Desoxiadenosinas , Enterovirus Humano A , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Células Vero , Adenosina/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Replicação Viral , Infecções por Enterovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos Virais , Antivirais/farmacologia
20.
J Med Virol ; 96(3): e29503, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38445750

RESUMO

Enterovirus C116 (EV-C116) is a new member of the enterovirus C group which is closely associated with several infectious diseases. Although sporadic studies have detected EV-C116 in clinical samples worldwide, there is currently limited information available. In this study, two EV-C-positive fecal specimens were detected in apparently healthy children, which harbored low abundance, through meta-transcriptome sequencing. Based on the prototypes of several EV-Cs, two lineages were observed. Lineage 1 included many types that could not cause EV-like cytopathic effect in cell culture. Three genogroups of EV-C116 were divided in the maximum likelihood tree, and the two strains in this study (XZ2 and XZ113) formed two different lineages, suggesting that EV-C116 still diffuses worldwide. Obvious inter-type recombination events were observed in the XZ2 strain, with CVA22 identified as a minor donor. However, another strain (XZ113) underwent different recombination situations, highlighting the importance of recombination in the formation of EV-Cs biodiversity. The EV-C116 strains could propagate in rhabdomyosarcoma cell cultures at low titer; however, EV-like cytopathic effects were not observed. HEp-2, L20B, VERO, and 293T cell lines did not provide an appropriate environment for EV-C116 growth. These results challenge the traditional recognition of the uncultured nature of EV-C116 strains and explain the difficulty of clinical detection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Criança , Humanos , Enterovirus/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Antígenos Virais , Células HEK293
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