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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190013.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze social inequalities in the prevalence of indicators of active aging in the Brazilian older adult population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 11,177 older adults who participated in the Brazilian National Health Survey in 2013. We estimated the prevalence of five domains of active aging (social activities, civic engagement, leisure-time physical activity, paid work, and volunteer work) according to gender, ethnicity, schooling, income, and private health insurance. Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were calculated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The percentage of involvement in organized social activities, civic engagement, and physical activity was 25.1, 12.4, and 13.1%, respectively. Regarding work, 20.7% of the sample had a paid job, and 9.7% participated in volunteer work. Women had a higher prevalence of participation in organized social activities and volunteer work; while civic engagement and paid work were more frequent among men. White people were more likely to participate in social activities, volunteer work, and leisure-time physical activity, explained by their schooling. The strata with a higher level of schooling, income, and who had private health insurance showed a greater incidence of participation in all activities studied. CONCLUSION: The five activities analyzed are challenging for the proposed policy of active aging, as they are marked by considerable social inequality.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Classe Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trabalho/fisiologia , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(8): e201900803, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618403

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in the quantity of elastic fibers in the corpora cavernosa of rats during the natural aging process, and to assess the degree of this change by determining volumetric density (Vv) at different ages via stereological analysis. METHODS: Forty-eight rats, raised under similar conditions, were subjected to the natural aging process and divided into four groups (G1 to G4), according to age at the time of penectomy (6, 9, 12, and 24 months, respectively). Histological sections of the middle segment of the penis were stained with Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin, and the volumetric density (Vv) of elastic fibers of the corpora cavernosa were determined via stereological analysis. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in Vv among groups G1, G2, and G3. These three groups were therefore considered as a single group. The mean Vv of this group showed a statistically significant reduction compared to that of G4 (0.16 vs. 0.11, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Natural aging in rats was responsible for a reduction in volumetric density of elastic fibers of the corpora cavernosa (approximately 30% decrease in Vv) during senescence.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Tecido Elástico/ultraestrutura , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Pênis/citologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Colágeno/fisiologia , Colágeno/ultraestrutura , Tecido Elástico/patologia , Tecido Elástico/fisiologia , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Pênis/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1178: 39-56, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493221

RESUMO

The aging population worldwide is expanding at an increasing rate. By 2050, approximately a quarter of the world population will consist of the elderly. To slow down the aging process, exploration of aging biomarkers and the search for novel antiaging targets have attracted much interest. Nonetheless, because aging research is costly and time-consuming and the aging process is complicated, aging research is considered one of the most difficult biological fields. Here, providing a broader definition of aging biomarkers, we review cutting-edge research on aging biomarkers at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels, thus shedding light on the relations between aging and telomeres, longevity proteins, a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, the gut microbiota and metabolic patterns. Furthermore, we evaluate the suitability of these aging biomarkers for the development of novel antiaging targets on the basis of the most recent research on this topic. We also discuss the possible implications and some controversies regarding these biomarkers for therapeutic interventions in aging and age-related disease processes. We have attempted to cover all of the latest research on aging biomarkers in our review but there are countless studies on aging biomarkers, and the topic of aging interventions will continue to deepen even further. We hope that our review can serve as a reference for better characterization of aging and as inspiration for the screening of antiaging drugs as well as give some clues to further research into aging biomarkers and antiaging targets.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores , Longevidade , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Humanos
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1178: 113-127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493225

RESUMO

Both morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) elevate with age. The elevated prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors with age and cardiovascular aging contribute to the relationship between aging and CVDs. Dietary restriction (DR) consisting of calorie restriction (CR) and alternate-day fasting (ADF) is an approved nutritional intervention and shows anti-aging impacts. Recent studies demonstrate that DR makes an active defense response in stressful states. At the core of this response are cardiovascular protective signals, which consist of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AMP-activated kinase, sirtuins and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. These make a network with positive and negative feedback regulation. Hence, DR is a hopeful intervention for controlling cardiovascular aging and managing individuals with CVDs.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Jejum , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Humanos
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1178: 247-264, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493231

RESUMO

Although human life expectancy has increased significantly over the last two centuries, this has not been paralleled by a similar rise in healthy life expectancy. Thus, an important goal of anti-aging research has been to reduce the impact of age-associated diseases as a way of extending the human healthspan. This review will explore some of the potential avenues which have emerged from this research as the most promising strategies and drug targets for therapeutic interventions to promote healthy aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores , Longevidade , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Humanos , Longevidade/fisiologia , Pesquisa/tendências
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 489-495, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559809

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Deficits of vitamin resources constitute a significant public health problem, especially among the elderly population. The aim of the research was to determine the level of vitamin 25 (OH) D and vitamins from group B in the chronically ill elderly in domiciliary care, depending on functional capacity and coexisting diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The pilot study included 137 patients staying in long-term domiciliary care. Samples of the participants' venous blood was obtained for laboratory tests. Centrifuged serum was used to determine the level of the following biochemical parameters: vitamin 25 (OH)D, B12, folic acid and total protein, albumin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Assessment of the functional status of patients was made by using the Barthel scale. RESULTS: More than ¾ of the patients with functional deficit (according to Barthel's score 0-85 points) were deficient in vitamin 25 (OH)D, while folic acid values were below the reference values in more than half of the patients. Respondents with lower functional efficiency were characterised by a reduced average value of vitamin 25 (OH)D and folic acid. CONCLUSIONS: The studied group of the chronically ill elderly was characterised by a deficiency of vitamin D3 and folic acid. Subjects with a functional impairment deficit show a reduced mean value of vitamin 25 (OH)D and folic acid in the blood serum, compared to the group of patients with higher mobility.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Doença Crônica/terapia , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Locomoção , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Projetos Piloto , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9820-9830, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411471

RESUMO

Brain aging is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but the ameliorative effect of krill oil and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, the components of krill oil were measured, and the antiaging effects of krill oil were investigated in mice with d-galactose (d-gal)-induced brain aging via proteomics and gut microbiota analysis. Krill oil treatment decreased the expression of truncated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteins and proteins involved in the calcium signaling pathway. In addition, the concentrations of dopamine were increased in the serum (p < 0.05) and brain (p > 0.05) due to the enhanced expressions of tyrosine-3-monooxygenase and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Moreover, krill oil alleviated gut microbiota dysbiosis, decreased the abundance of bacteria that consume the precursor tyrosine, and increased the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and short-chain fatty acid producers. This study revealed the beneficial effect of krill oil against d-gal-induced brain aging and clarified the underlying mechanism through proteomics and gut microbiota analysis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Euphausiacea/química , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos/administração & dosagem , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos/isolamento & purificação
12.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8392, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411315

RESUMO

The term inflammaging is now widely used to designate the inflammatory process of natural aging. During this process, cytokine balance is altered, presumably due to the loss of homeostasis, thus contributing to a greater predisposition to disease and exacerbation of chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between pro-inflammatory markers and age in the natural aging process of healthy individuals. One hundred and ten subjects were divided into 5 groups according to age (22 subjects/group). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were quantified using the ELISA method. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was analyzed by turbidimetry according to laboratory procedures. The main findings of this study were: a positive correlation between hsCRP and IL-6 as a function of age (110 subjects); women showed stronger correlations; the 51-60 age group had the highest values for hsCRP and IL-6; women presented higher values for hsCRP in the 51-60 age group and higher values for IL-6 in the 61-70 age group; and men showed higher values in the 51-60 age group for hsCRP and IL-6. In conclusion, the natural aging process increased IL-6 and hsCRP levels, which is consistent with the inflammaging theory; however, women presented stronger correlations compared to men (IL-6 and hsCRP) and the 51-60 age range seems to be a key point for these increases. These findings are important because they indicate that early preventive measures may minimize the increase in these inflammatory markers in natural human aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Inflamação/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Laryngol Otol ; 133(8): 640-649, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding screening for vestibular schwannoma in the context of demographic changes leading to increasing numbers of elderly patients presenting with asymmetric auditory symptoms. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed, with narrative synthesis and statistical analysis of data where appropriate. RESULTS: Vestibular schwannomas diagnosed in patients aged over 70 years exhibit slower growth patterns and tend to be of smaller size compared to those tumours in younger age groups. This fact, combined with reduced life expectancy, renders the probability of these tumours in the elderly requiring active treatment with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy to be extremely low. Vestibular schwannomas in the elderly are much more likely to be managed by serial monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging. The weighted yield of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma in all age groups is 1.18 per cent, with almost 85 scans required to diagnose 1 tumour. CONCLUSION: An evidence-based approach to the investigation of asymmetric hearing loss and tinnitus in the elderly patient can be used to formulate guidelines for the rational use of magnetic resonance imaging in this population.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Neuroma Acústico/diagnóstico por imagem , Zumbido/etiologia , Idoso , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vigilância da População
14.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 780-790, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380666

RESUMO

An influential account of normative aging effects on reading holds that older adults make greater use of contextual predictability to facilitate word identification. However, supporting evidence is scarce. Accordingly, we used measures of eye movements to experimentally investigate age differences in word predictability effects in Chinese reading, as this nonalphabetic language has characteristics that may promote such effects. Word-skipping rates were higher and reading times lower for more highly predictable words for both age groups. Effects of word predictability on word skipping did not differ across the 2 adult age groups. However, word predictability effects in reading time measures sensitive to both lexical identification (i.e., gaze duration) and contextual integration (i.e., regression-path reading times) were larger for the older than younger adults. Our findings therefore reveal that older Chinese readers make greater use of a word's predictability to facilitate both its lexical identification and integration with the prior sentence context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Linguagem , Leitura , Adolescente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 766-779, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393145

RESUMO

Hearing impairment is associated with poorer cognitive function in later life. We tested for the potential contribution of childhood cognitive ability to this relationship. Childhood cognitive ability is strongly related to cognitive function in older age, and may be related to auditory function through its association with hearing impairment risk factors. Using data from the Lothian Birth Cohort, 1936, we tested whether childhood cognitive ability predicted later-life hearing ability then whether this association was mediated by demographic or health differences. We found that childhood cognitive ability was negatively associated with hearing impairment risk at age 76 (odds ratio = .834, p = .042). However, this association was nonsignificant after subsequent adjustment for potentially mediating demographic and health factors. Next, we tested whether associations observed in older age between hearing impairment and general cognitive ability level or change were accounted for by childhood cognitive ability. At age 76, in the minimally adjusted model, hearing impairment was associated with poorer general cognitive ability level (ß = -.119, p = .030) but was not related to decline in general cognitive ability. The former association became nonsignificant after additional adjustment for childhood cognitive ability (ß = -.068, p = .426) suggesting that childhood cognitive ability contributes (potentially via demographic and health differences) to the association between levels of hearing and cognitive function in older age. Further work is needed to test whether early life cognitive ability also contributes to the association (documented in previous studies) between older-age hearing impairment and cognitive decline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(3): 288-297, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and MAC-awake decrease with age. We hypothesised that, in clinical practice, (i) end-tidal MAC fraction in older patients would decline by less than the predicted age-dependent MAC decrease (i.e. older patients would receive relatively excessive anaesthetic concentrations), and (ii) bispectral index (BIS) values would therefore be lower in older patients. METHODS: We examined the relationship between end-tidal MAC fraction, BIS values, and age in 4699 patients > 30 yr in age at a single centre using unadjusted local regression (locally estimated scatterplot smoothing), Spearman's correlation, stratification, and robust univariable and multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: The end-tidal MAC fraction in older patients declined by 3.01% per decade (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.56-3.45; P<0.001), less than the 6.47% MAC decrease per decade that we found in a meta-regression analysis of published studies of age-dependent changes in MAC (P<0.001), and less than the age-dependent decrease in MAC-awake. The BIS values correlated positively with age (ρ=0.15; 95% CI: 0.12-0.17; P<0.001), and inversely with the age-adjusted end-tidal MAC (aaMAC) fraction (ρ= -0.13; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.11; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The age-dependent decline in end-tidal MAC fraction delivered in clinical practice at our institution was less than the age-dependent percentage decrease in MAC and MAC-awake determined from published studies. Despite receiving higher aaMAC fractions, older patients paradoxically showed higher BIS values. This most likely suggests that the BIS algorithm is inaccurate in older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Eletroencefalografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2732, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266956

RESUMO

Segregation of objects from their backgrounds is a fundamental visual function and one that is particularly effective when objects are in motion. Theoretically, suppressive center-surround mechanisms are well suited for accomplishing motion segregation. This longstanding hypothesis, however, has received limited empirical support. We report converging correlational and causal evidence that spatial suppression of background motion signals is critical for rapid segmentation of moving objects. Motion segregation ability is strongly predicted by both individual and stimulus-driven variations in spatial suppression strength. Moreover, aging-related superiority in perceiving background motion is associated with profound impairments in motion segregation. This segregation deficit is alleviated via perceptual learning, but only when motion segregation training also causes decreased sensitivity to background motion. We argue that perceptual insensitivity to large moving stimuli effectively implements background subtraction, which, in turn, enhances the visibility of moving objects and accounts for the observed link between spatial suppression and motion segregation.


Assuntos
Percepção de Movimento , Navegação Espacial , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento (Física) , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nature ; 571(7764): 205-210, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270459

RESUMO

The mammalian brain contains neurogenic niches that comprise neural stem cells and other cell types. Neurogenic niches become less functional with age, but how they change during ageing remains unclear. Here we perform single-cell RNA sequencing of young and old neurogenic niches in mice. The analysis of 14,685 single-cell transcriptomes reveals a decrease in activated neural stem cells, changes in endothelial cells and microglia, and an infiltration of T cells in old neurogenic niches. T cells in old brains are clonally expanded and are generally distinct from those in old blood, which suggests that they may experience specific antigens. T cells in old brains also express interferon-γ, and the subset of neural stem cells that has a high interferon response shows decreased proliferation in vivo. We find that T cells can inhibit the proliferation of neural stem cells in co-cultures and in vivo, in part by secreting interferon-γ. Our study reveals an interaction between T cells and neural stem cells in old brains, opening potential avenues through which to counteract age-related decline in brain function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/citologia , Movimento Celular , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese , Análise de Célula Única , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Animais , Sangue , Proliferação de Células , Células Clonais/citologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/citologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin ; 22(13): 1093-1102, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268350

RESUMO

Osteoporosis (OP) is common with advancing age. Several studies have shown a strong correlation between OP and otosclerosis. However, no studies have investigated OP of the malleus, incus or stapes in the human middle ear, its effect on middle ear transfer function. Here, we investigate whether these three ossicles develop OP, and how this affects middle ear transfer function. The effect of OP on middle ear transfer function was investigated in simulations based on a finite element (FE) method. First, the FE model used in our previous study was refined, and optimized by introducing viscoelastic properties to selected soft tissues of the middle ear. Then, the FE model was used to simulate OP of the three ossicles and assess its influence on middle ear transfer function. Other possible age-related changes, such as stiffness of the joints or ligaments in the middle ear, were also investigated. The results indicated that OP of the ossicles could increase the high frequency displacement of both the umbo and stapes footplate (FP). However, the stiffness of the middle ear soft tissue can lead to the decrease of middle ear gain at lower frequencies. Furthermore, loosening of these joints or ligaments could increase displacement of the umbo and stapes FP. In conclusion, although age-related hearing loss is most commonly conceived of as sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), we found that age-related changes may also include OP and changes in joint stiffness, but these will have little effect on middle ear transfer function in elderly people.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Orelha Média/fisiologia , Idoso , Simulação por Computador , Módulo de Elasticidade , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Ligamentos/fisiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Estribo/fisiologia , Viscosidade
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