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1.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104830, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Changes in memory can interfere with activities of daily living and may be indicative of serious health concerns such as mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia have been shown to cluster around inequalities, suggesting that minority groups may be at an increased risk for cognitive decline. We sought to clarify the relationship between social determinants and change in memory function over a 3-year follow-up period, after accounting for demographic and health variables. METHODS: We used baseline and first follow-up data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). Our primary analysis consisted of a multivariable linear regression model (n = 30,475). Demographic, health, education and occupation, social support, social identity, and social positioning variables (predictors) were measured at baseline. We computed a reliable change index (outcome) using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). RESULTS: Older age and some health considerations (e.g., higher body mass index, low hearing) were associated with a greater decline in memory over the three-year period. In contrast, some physical activity and better self-rated general health were associated with improvements in memory. Having a hobby and better perceived social standing were associated with greater memory improvement. Social identities who experience minority stress (sexual orientation, gender identity, and race) did not predict change in memory. DISCUSSION: Altogether, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence that points to older members of minoritized communities exhibiting initial differences in cognitive functioning (i.e., cross-sectional differences) but not more rapid cognitive aging.


Assuntos
Demência , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Transversais , Seguimentos , Atividades Cotidianas , Identidade de Gênero , Canadá/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia
2.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 436-441, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that depression may be a risk factor for dementia in older adults, but the link between depressive symptoms and brain health earlier in life is less understood. Our aim was to investigate the association between long-term depressive symptoms in young to mid-adulthood and a measure of brain age derived from structural MRI. METHODS: From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, we identified 649 participants (age 23-36 at baseline) with brain MRI and cognitive testing. Long-term depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD) six times across 25 years and analyzed as time-weighted averages (TWA). Brain age was derived using previously validated high dimensional neuroimaging pattern analysis, quantifying individual differences in age-related atrophy. Elevated depressive symptoms were defined as CES-D ≥16. Linear regression was used to test the association between TWA depressive symptoms, brain aging, and cognition. RESULTS: Each standard deviation (5-points) increment in TWA depression symptoms over 25 years was associated with one-year greater brain age (ß: 1.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.57 to 1.71). Participants with elevated TWA depressive symptoms had on average a 3-year greater brain age (ß: 2.75, 95 % CI: 0.43 to 5.08). Moreover, elevated depressive symptoms were associated with higher odds of poor cognitive function in midlife (OR: 3.30, 95 % CI: 1.37 to 7.97). LIMITATIONS: Brain age was assessed at one time, limiting our ability to evaluate the temporality of depressive symptoms and brain aging. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated depressive symptoms in early adulthood may have implications for brain health as early as in midlife.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Depressão , Humanos , Idoso , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Depressão/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Longitudinais
3.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104798, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After significant early interest in aging and dying, recent empirical studies have been few and theoretically fragmented. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this review were to map what is empirically known about the intersections between existential aging (a sense of passing years that evoke a sense of nearness-to-death) and dying identity and to describe the available evidence. METHOD: Articles were reviewed employing PRISMA guidelines. Seven data bases were searched resulted in 165 records. Of these 165 records a final selection of 24 studies that met the criteria were examined. RESULTS: Evidence from the review found that the formation of the identity of dying alongside existential aging was associated with personal changes related to self/gerotranscendence, self-concerns about the inevitability of death (mortality salience), self-concerns about the prospect of death (death anxiety), attitudes toward the older self as a moderator of attitudes to death (aging attitudes), or simply anticipating the death of self (the future). Collectively, these studies found that death and dying were threats or challenges to life as an increasingly aging identity and that this seems to require compensation or accommodation. CONCLUSION: These studies confirm the importance of nearness-to-death on identity formation and psychological change in older populations. However, most of the studies were quantitative and tested for pre-existing ideas and concepts. There is a need for more qualitative studies to search for wider or parallel meanings about identity change in the face of aging and death, more longitudinal designs, and greater attention to mixed methods approaches, especially for populations for whom talk or writing may be restrictive.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Atitude Frente a Morte , Idoso , Humanos , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Existencialismo
4.
Behav Brain Res ; 437: 114151, 2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216142

RESUMO

Temporal order memory refers to the ability to remember the order of occurrence of items across time. It is a critical feature of episodic memory that is often tested in rodents using spontaneous object recognition paradigms. However, impact of aging over performances of temporal order memory decline is barely known. Herein, we characterized here the effect of normal aging on the temporal order memory performances in NMRI mice between 3 and 19months of age, with an inter-session interval of 24h.We found that temporal order memory was impaired as soon as7 months of age. These results provide strong evidence that temporal order memory is particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effect of normal aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Transtornos da Memória , Animais , Camundongos , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
5.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 20(3): 341-348, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322801

RESUMO

The reliability of our memories is of crucial importance, both in extraordinary situations (e.g. court testimony) and in everyday life (e.g., when a person must take medication on a regular basis). To address these issues, numerous studies documented the conditions under which false memories emerge. Research clearly demonstrated that memory distortions are a normal and frequent phenomenon in the general population, but greatly accentuated in aging. Here, we review studies that documented age-related impact on memory distortions in the DRM and misinformation paradigms. Next, we examine the factors that underlie false memory susceptibility, with a focus on socio-emotional factors, and in particular aging stereotypes. We present recent results that highlighted the way negative age-related stereotypes might threaten older adults' and influence false memory susceptibility. Importantly, we also demonstrate that older adult's memory distortions can easily be reduced when taking into account tasks' characteristics and participants' motivation. Finally, we discuss the implications of age-related stereotypes when older adults' memory is evaluated, both from a theoretical and an applied perspective.


La fiabilité de nos souvenirs est d'une importance cruciale, qu'il s'agisse de situations exceptionnelles (e.g., témoignages judiciaires), ou du quotidien (e.g., lorsqu'une personne doit prendre régulièrement des médicaments). Pour répondre à ces enjeux, de nombreuses recherches se sont attachées à déterminer les conditions d'émergence des faux souvenirs. Ces travaux ont clairement démontré que si les distorsions de mémoire sont un phénomène normal et fréquent dans la population générale, elles sont largement accentuées par le vieillissement. Dans cette revue, nous proposons un état des lieux des recherches ayant documenté l'impact du vieillissement sur la sensibilité aux faux souvenirs dans le paradigme DRM et le paradigme de désinformation. Nous examinons ensuite les facteurs à l'origine de la production des faux souvenirs, en nous centrant sur les facteurs socio-émotionnels, et en particulier les stéréotypes sociaux. À cette fin, nous présentons des résultats récents qui éclairent les conditions dans lesquelles les stéréotypes du vieillissement peuvent constituer une menace, et influencer la sensibilité aux faux souvenirs. Nous discutons enfin des implications de ce phénomène lorsque la véracité des souvenirs est évaluée chez les personnes âgées, dans une perspective théorique mais également appliquée.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Idoso , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória , Memória
6.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 20(3): 372-380, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322805

RESUMO

Aging is a complex process characterized by physical, psychological, and social changes. The interactions between these different aspects are naturally explained by embodied and situated approaches to cognition that offer a global, integrated, and unified understanding of aging. They propose a dynamic cognition emerging from the interaction of sensory-motor perceptions (embodied aspect) and the context of the present situation (situated aspect). However, very few studies have focused on this situated aspect of cognition in the study of cognitive aging. Yet, aging is also a social process, associated with many representations, often negative, that have effects on health and cognition. Stereotype embodiment theory proposes that representations of aging are internalized by everyone over time, gradually modifying intrapersonal behaviors. This article proposes that the cognitive changes observed in aging are partly the result of physical changes, related to repeated behavioral changes, caused by the effect of representations of aging. However, unlike other forms of stigmatization, the factors of belonging to the social group of the elderly are neither clear nor static. Only the transition to retirement seems to constitute a key stage in social aging. Therefore, the transition to retirement represents a unique situation to study the impact of a major social and physical context change on cognitive functioning. It would act as a catalyst for the effect of representations of aging by marking the social transitions toward aging and retirement. Different perspectives of applied research are also discussed, around prevention interventions and preparation for retirement.


Le vieillissement est un processus complexe caractérisé par des changements physiques, psychologiques et sociaux. Les interactions entre ces différents aspects sont naturellement expliquées par l'approche incarnée et située de la cognition qui offre une compréhension globale, intégrée et unifiée du vieillissement. Elle propose une cognition dynamique émergente de l'interaction des composants sensori-moteurs (aspect incarné) et du contexte de la situation présente (aspect situé). Cependant, très peu d'études se sont intéressées à cet aspect situé de la cognition dans l'étude du vieillissement cognitif. Pourtant, le vieillissement est aussi un processus social, associé à de nombreuses représentations souvent négatives ayant des effets sur les comportements de santé et la cognition. Cet article propose que les variations cognitives observées au cours du vieillissement résultent en partie de modifications physiques, liées à des changements comportementaux répétés, provoqués par l'effet des représentations du vieillissement. Dans cette perspective, le passage à la retraite représente une situation unique pour étudier les répercussions d'un changement de contexte social et physique majeur sur le fonctionnement cognitif. Il agirait comme un catalyseur de l'effet des représentations du vieillissement en marquant les transitions sociales vers le vieillissement et la retraite. Différentes possibilités de recherches appliquées sont également discutées.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Aposentadoria , Humanos , Idoso , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Cognição , Envelhecimento/psicologia
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 831, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of factors that specifically influence pathological and successful cognitive aging is a prerequisite for implementing disease prevention and promoting successful aging. However, multi-domain behavioral factors that characterize the difference between successful and pathological cognitive aging are not clear yet. METHODS: A group of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1347, aged 70-88 years) in Beijing was recruited in this cross-sectional study, and a sub-cohort was further divided into successful cognitive aging (SCA, N = 154), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, N = 256), and cognitively normal control (CNC, N = 173) groups. Analyses of variance, regression models with the Shapley value algorithm, and structural equation model (SEM) analyses were conducted to determine specific influencing factors and to evaluate their relative importance and interacting relationships in altering cognitive performance. RESULTS: We found that abundant early-life cognitive reserve (ECR, including the level of education and occupational attainment) and reduced late-life leisure activity (LLA, including mental, physical, and social activities) were distinct characteristics of SCA and MCI, respectively. The level of education, age, mental activity, and occupational attainment were the top four important factors that explained 31.6% of cognitive variability. By SEM analyses, we firstly found that LLA partially mediated the relationship between ECR and cognition; and further multi-group SEM analyses showed ECR played a more direct role in the SCA group than in the MCI group: in the SCA group, only the direct effect of ECR on cognition was significant, and in the MCI group, direct effects between ECR, LLA and cognition were all significant. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this large-sample community-based study suggest it is important for older adults to have an abundant ECR for SCA, and to keep a high level of LLA to prevent cognitive impairment. This study clarifies the important rankings of behavioral characteristics of cognitive aging, and the relationship that ECR has a long-lasting effect on LLA and finally on cognition, providing efficient guidance for older adults to improve their cognitive function and new evidence to explain the heterogeneity of cognitive aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Disfunção Cognitiva , Reserva Cognitiva , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Atividades de Lazer , Cognição , Envelhecimento/psicologia
8.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 251, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emotional stimuli used as targets of working memory (WM) tasks can moderate age-related differences in WM performance, showing that aging is associated with reductions in negativity bias. This phenomenon is referred to as the positivity effect. However, there is little research on whether emotional distractors have a similar moderating effect. Moreover, the underlying neural mechanism of this effect has not been studied. In this study, we examined the behavioral and neurophysiological basis for age differences in resistance to emotional distractors within WM. METHODS: Older adults (n = 30, ages 60-74) and young adults (n = 35, ages 19-26) performed a 2-back task in which a digit was superimposed on a face with a happy, angry, or neutral expression as a distractor. Event-related potential (ERP) was simultaneously recorded to assess P2, N2, and later positive potential (LPP) amplitudes. RESULTS: Older adults were less accurate and slower than young adults on the WM task. Moreover, the results demonstrated a significant interaction between age and emotional valence on response accuracy, young adults' performance was worse when the distractor was neutral or positive than when it was negative, but there was no effect of the emotional valence of distractors on older adults' WM performance. ERP analyses revealed greater P2 amplitude in older adults than young adults, regardless of the emotional valence of distractors. However, older adults and young adults did not differ on N2 or LPP amplitude, and negative distractors elicited greater N2 than positive distractors in both age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The behavioral findings provided evidence of age-related reductions in negativity bias. Thus, the behavioral measures indicated a positivity effect in WM. However, the ERP results did not show this same interaction. These discrepant results raise questions about whether and to what extent older and young adults differ in controlling the effect of emotional distractors in WM.


Assuntos
Atenção , Memória de Curto Prazo , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18756, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335225

RESUMO

Deciphering the human spatial cognition system involves the development of simple tasks to assess how our brain works with shapes and forms. Prior studies in the mental rotation field disclosed a clockwise rotation bias on how basic stimuli are perceived and processed. However, there is a lack of a substantial scientific background for complex stimuli and how factors like sex or aging could influence them. Regarding the latter point, it is well known that our spatial skills tend to decline as we grow older. Hence, the hippocampal system is especially sensitive to aging. These neural changes underlie difficulties for the elderly in landmark orientation or mental rotation tasks. Thus, our study aimed to check whether the effect of clockwise and anticlockwise rotations in the spatial recognition of complex environments could be modulated by aging. To do so, 40 young adults and 40 old adults performed the ASMRT, a virtual spatial memory recognition test. Results showed that young adults outperformed old adults in all difficulty conditions (i.e., encoding one or three boxes positions). In addition, old adults were affected more than young adults by rotation direction, showing better performance in clockwise rotations. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that aging is particularly affected by the direction of rotation. We suggest that clockwise bias could be linked with the cognitive decline associated with aging. Future studies could address this with brain imaging measures.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Percepção Espacial
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 837, 2022 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With an increasingly ageing population worldwide, the predominant attitude towards ageing is still negative. Negative stereotypes have detrimental effects on individuals' physical and mental health. Evidence is required about factors that may predict and change these views. This study aimed to investigate if an older person's attitude towards dementia, their belief in a just world and sense of coherence is associated with their attitudes to ageing. METHODS: A 25-min online survey was completed by 2,675 participants aged 50 or over who were current residents of the United Kingdom (UK). Questions included demographics, overall health, dementia carer, dementia relative status and retirement status. Standardised scales used were the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ), Dementia Attitudes Scale (DAS), Just World Scale (JWS) and Sense of Coherence Scale-13 (SOC). Data was analysed with descriptive, two-tailed bivariate Pearson's correlations, simple, and hierarchical regression analyses. RESULTS: Attitudes to dementia, just world beliefs, and sense of coherence were all significantly positively correlated with AAQ-Total, with SOC sub-scale "Meaningfulness" showing the strongest correlation. In a hierarchical regression model, higher scores on SOC-Meaningfulness, DAS-Total and belief in a just world for oneself all predicted more positive attitudes to ageing. CONCLUSIONS: The more positive an individual's attitude to dementia and the stronger they hold the belief that the world is just and coherent, the more likely they are to display positive attitudes to ageing. This initial evidence helps create a greater understanding of the factors that drive attitudes and stigma and may have implications for public health messaging.


Assuntos
Demência , Psicologia Positiva , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Atitude , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia
11.
J Emerg Nurs ; 48(6): 637-641, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357121

RESUMO

With aging, physical and cognitive changes can affect driving safety. Emergency nurses can provide education for seniors that can create awareness of these changes and ways to mitigate the changes, allowing the older driver to remain independent and a safer driver.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Segurança , Condução de Veículo/educação , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia
12.
Exp Gerontol ; 169: 111981, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270545

RESUMO

The incidence of aging-related cognitive decline is increasing with population aging. It is urgent to explore ways to ameliorate aging-related cognitive decline. Cognitive-exercise dual-task intervention has shown beneficial effects on improving cognition in aging cohorts, but the mechanisms of the effects remain unclear. In this study, 18-month-old Sprague Dawley rats served as a model of natural aging. First, the performance in the Morris water maze test and the change in synaptophysin content in the hippocampus were used to investigate the cognitive decline of 18-month-old rats. Then, a batch of 18-month-old rats was treated with cognitive, exercise, or cognitive-exercise dual-task intervention for 12 weeks. The novel object recognition test was used to assess cognitive ability. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting were used to detect the levels of oxidative stress molecules and synaptic plasticity-related proteins. We found that cognitive-exercise dual-task intervention improved the discrimination index of natural aging rats. After dual-task intervention, the expression levels of synaptophysin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were increased, and the expression level of lipid peroxide malondialdehyde was decreased. Furthermore, the effect of dual-task intervention on synaptic plasticity-related proteins and oxidative stress indicators was greater than that of single cognitive or exercise intervention. In conclusion, cognitive-exercise dual-task intervention can significantly ameliorate aging-related cognitive decline, and the improvement might be related to the reduction of oxidative stress and the enhancement of synaptic plasticity. The effect of cognitive-exercise dual-task intervention may be better than that of single cognitive or exercise intervention.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Plasticidade Neuronal , Ratos , Animais , Sinaptofisina/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Cognição
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies in Canada have focused on the relationship between immigrant status and successful aging. The concept of successful aging used in this study includes the ability to accomplish both activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), freedom from mental illness, memory problems and disabling chronic pain, adequate social support and older adults' self-reported happiness and subjective perception of their physical health, mental health and aging process as good. METHODS: The present study analyzed the first two waves of data from the comprehensive cohort of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). The sample includes 7651 respondents aged 60+ at time 2, of whom 1446 respondents were immigrants. Bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Canadian-born older adults had a slightly higher prevalence and age-sex adjusted odds of achieving successful aging than their immigrant counterparts (aOR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34, p < 0.001). After adjusting for 18 additional factors, immigrant status remained statistically significant (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.41, p < 0.001). Significant baseline factors associated with successful aging among immigrants included being younger, having higher income, being married, not being obese, never smoking, engaging in moderate or strenuous physical activities, not having sleeping problems and being free of heart disease or arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Immigrant older adults had a lower prevalence of successful aging than their Canadian-born peers. Further research could investigate whether policies and interventions supporting older immigrants and promoting a healthy lifestyle enhance older adults achieve successful aging in later life.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Longitudinais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232259

RESUMO

The aging-based digital divide has gained increased research attention in recent years. This research focused on two important aspects of the aging society, the digital divide and the intergenerational differences, with regard to social media usage in China. The data were collected through a household interview, using a nationally representative sample (n= 3790) from 58 cities in mainland China. The present study investigated the association between differentiated social media usage with demographic characteristics, social economic status, physical and mental health, and social media perceptions. The results show a significant digital divide and generational differences. The existing socio-economic inequalities and demographic variance largely explained older adults' social media access and diversity of social media engagement. Social media perceptions play more essential roles in the intensity of social media engagement for each generation group. This study contributes a better understanding of the manner in which different factors are associated with different generations' social media engagement. A discussion is included regarding the necessity to close the aging-based digital gap in order to cope with the issue of rapid aging.


Assuntos
Exclusão Digital , Mídias Sociais , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , China , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 9(4): 743-751, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36281679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Slow gait speed has recently emerged as a potential prodromal feature of cognitive decline and dementia. Besides objective measurements, subjective motor function (SMF) difficulties might be present prior to the manifestation of gait disorders. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of walking time and the presence of SMF with future cognitive decline in cognitively normal individuals. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTINGS: Athens and Larissa, Greece. PARTICIPANTS: 931 cognitively normal individuals over the age of 64 with longitudinal follow-up from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD). MEASUREMENTS: We used a simple chronometer for recording objective walking time (OWT) and SMF was assessed using a self-reported physical functioning questionnaire. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were deployed to explore the associations between baseline OWT and SMF difficulties and the rate of change of performance scores on individual cognitive domains over time. Models were adjusted for age, years of education and sex. RESULTS: Each additional second of OWT was associated with 1.1% of a standard deviation more decline per year in the composite z-score, 1.6% in the memory z-score, 1.1% in the executive z-score and 1.8% in the attention-speed z-score. The presence of SMF difficulties was not associated with differential rates of decline in any cognitive domain. CONCLUSION: Gait speed can be indicative of future cognitive decline adding credence to the notion that gait speed might serve as a simple and easily accessible clinical tool to identify a larger pool of at risk individuals and improve the detection of prodromal dementia.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Demência , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Dieta
16.
Psychol Aging ; 37(7): 800-815, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222646

RESUMO

The need to learn new concepts and categories persists through the lifespan, yet little is known about how aging affects the concept learning and generalization. Here, we trained young and older adults to classify typical and boundary category members, and then tested category generalization to new stimuli. During training, older adults had increased difficulty compared to young adults learning category labels for boundary items, but not typical items. At test, categorization performance that included new items at all levels of typicality was comparable across age groups, but formal categorization models indicated that older adults relied to a greater degree on generalized (prototype) category representations than young adults. These findings align with the proposal that older adults are able to form category representations based on central tendency even when they have difficulty learning and remembering individual category members. More broadly, the results contribute to our understanding of multiple categorization strategies and the limited strategy flexibility in older adults. They also highlight how reliance on preserved cognitive functions may sometimes help older adults maintain performance. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Formação de Conceito , Rememoração Mental , Cognição
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(44): e2203682119, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282912

RESUMO

Aging is associated with gradual changes in cognition, yet some individuals exhibit protection against age-related cognitive decline. The topological characteristics of brain networks that promote protection against cognitive decline in aging are unknown. Here, we investigated whether the robustness and resilience of brain networks, queried via the delineation of the brain's core network structure, relate to age and cognitive performance in a cross-sectional dataset of healthy middle- and old-aged adults (n = 478, ages 40 to 90 y). First, we decomposed each subject's functional brain network using k-shell decomposition and found that age was negatively associated with robust core network structures. Next, we perturbed these networks, via attack simulations, and found that resilience of core brain network nodes also declined in relationship to age. We then partitioned our dataset into middle- (ages 40 to 65 y, n = 300) and old- (ages 65 to 90 y, n = 178) aged subjects and observed that older individuals had less robust core connectivity and resilience. Following these analyses, we found that episodic memory was positively related to robust connectivity and core resilience, particularly within the default node, limbic, and frontoparietal control networks. Importantly, we found that age-related differences in episodic memory were positively related to core resilience, which indicates a potential role for core resilience in protection against cognitive decline. Together, these findings suggest that robust core connectivity and resilience of brain networks could facilitate high cognitive performance in aging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Cognição , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Vias Neurais , Rede Nervosa
18.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 26(12): 1079-1089, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195539

RESUMO

We propose that older adults' ability to retrieve episodic autobiographical events, although often viewed through a lens of decline, reveals much about what is preserved and prioritized in cognitive aging. Central to our proposal is the idea that the so-called gist of an autobiographical event is not only spared with normal aging but also well adapted to serve memory-guided behavior in older age. To support our proposal, we review cognitive and brain evidence indicating an age-related shift toward gist memory. We then discuss why this shift likely arises from more than age-related decline and instead partly reflects a natural, arguably adaptive, outcome of experience, motivation, and mode-of-thinking factors. Our proposal reveals an upside of age-related memory changes and identifies important research questions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Memória Episódica , Humanos , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Motivação , Encéfalo , Rememoração Mental
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e063336, 2022 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the confounding effects of depressive symptoms and the role of gender in the association between social engagement and cognitive functioning among older Indian adults. DESIGN: Large-scale cross-sectional survey data were analysed. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (2017-2019) were used in the analysis. The sample included 23 584 individuals aged 60 years and above (11 403 men and 12 181 women). OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome variable was cognitive functioning, which was based on various measures including immediate and delayed word recall, orientation, executive functioning, arithmetic ability and object naming. Social engagement measure consists of marital status, living arrangement, availability of confidant, and participation in indoor games, and social and cultural functions. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Significant gender differences in mean cognition scores (men: 25.8, women: 21.1; on a scale of 0-43) were observed. Two-way stratification between social engagement and depressive symptoms was significantly associated with cognitive functioning after controlling for selected explanatory factors. Older men with a low level of social engagements had significantly poor cognitive functioning (ß=-1.12; 95% CI: -1.53 to -0.72) compared with men with a high level of social engagements. On the other hand, women with a higher level of social engagement performed poorly on cognitive tests (ß=-1.54; 95% CI: -2.11 to -0.98) compared with men with higher social engagements. Three-way stratification between social engagement, gender and depressive symptoms suggests that social engagement's buffering effects are lower in women than in men. The Karlson-Holm-Breen method identified a significant confounding effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between social engagement and cognitive functioning. CONCLUSION: The positive association of social engagement with cognitive functioning was significantly confounded by depressive symptoms, suggesting the need for maintaining social relations that help improve mental health and cognitive functioning among older adults.


Assuntos
Depressão , Participação Social , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Participação Social/psicologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231405

RESUMO

(1) Background: Ageism refers to the stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination against older individuals or groups based on their age. This study investigates the modifying role of social support in the relationship between depressive symptoms and ageism in China; (2) Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 21 nursing homes in Jinan from March to June in 2019. The data were analyzed through a multilevel mixed-effects generalized linear model; (3) The analysis showed that older adults in nursing homes experienced moderate levels of ageism. There were significant interaction effects between depressive symptoms and social support on overall ageism and objective ageism after controlling for covariates (p < 0.05). As the level of social support increased, the predicted ageism greatly reduced among older adults without depressive symptoms when compared to those with depressive symptoms; (4) Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of identifying strategies to enhance social support and reduce depressive symptoms for nursing home residents. Having positive attitudes toward aging and overcoming negative age-related stereotypes may benefit older adults' physical and mental health, well-being, and help to promote an age-friendly society.


Assuntos
Etarismo , Idoso , Etarismo/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Apoio Social , Estereotipagem
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