Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21.543
Filtrar
1.
Psychol Aging ; 36(6): 694-699, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516173

RESUMO

The initial phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic changed our lives dramatically, with stay-at-home orders and extreme physical distancing requirements. The present study suggests that how adults remember these disruptions depends, in part, on their age. In two surveys collected from American and Canadian participants during Summer 2020 (n = 551) and Fall 2020 (n = 506), older age (across ages 18-90 years) was associated with greater reflections on positive aspects of the initial phase of the pandemic. While the pandemic is a shared experience, the way it is remembered may differ across generations, with older age leading to a greater focus on the positive aspects. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , COVID-19 , Rememoração Mental , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 36(3): 321-345, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476641

RESUMO

The purpose of the current research was to compare pre- and post-retirement financial and economic resources of two groups of Jewish Israelis, Russian-speaking immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Hebrew-speaking veteran Israelis. The strategy of data-processing was based on SHARE Wave 6 (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) and included two levels of analysis: a) household general economic indices and b) individual economic variables for two age subsamples ('51-66' and '67 + '). The research-based model of well-being enabled comparison of economic profiles of the studied groups. The results of logistic regression and discriminant analysis of twenty SHARE 6.0 monetary variables displayed economic and financial inequality of retirement resources between veteran Israeli residents and Russian-speaking immigrants. Lower values of main residence, owned vehicles, and private pensions, together with higher values of mortgage burden, rent expenses, and inter-family support were significant distinguishing features of FSU immigrants. Analysis of the household indices demonstrated that the group of older FSU immigrants was most vulnerable due to their lowest values of household net worth and total income. According to the results of inter- and intra-gender comparisons of incomes between the groups of '67 + ' representatives, Russian-speaking women were identified as having the fewest resources. The retirement resources of Russian-speaking Israelis were clearly inferior to those of Hebrew-speaking veteran Israelis of the same age.Future research of retirement resources of Israelis may include non-financial components of human capital and additional socio-demographic factors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Judeus , Aposentadoria , Idoso , Envelhecimento/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , U.R.S.S.
3.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 371-377, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to spirituality well-being, ambiguity intolerance, and happiness conceptualizations, this study was purposed to investigate the influences of spiritual well-being and uncertainty tolerance on happiness with regards to the moderating roles of sex in the elderly. Meth-od: Participants included 120 elders from Shiraz City, Fars province, Iran. A demographic questionnaire, the Spiritual Well-Being Inventory (SWBI), the Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale-II (MSTAT-II), and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHI) were used for data collection. RESULTS: Findings showed that spirituality well-being and uncertainty intolerance explain 60% of happiness variation in the elderly. But results rejected the role of sex on the prediction of happiness in the present study. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the predictive roles of spiritual well-being and ambiguity tolerance on happiness in the field of gerontology


ANTECEDENTES: De acuerdo con las conceptualizaciones del bienestar espiritual, la intolerancia a la ambigüedad y la felicidad, este estudio se propuso investigar las influencias del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la incertidumbre sobre la felicidad con respecto a los roles moderadores del sexo en los ancianos. MÉTODO: Participaron 120 ancianos de la ciudad de Shiraz, provincia de Fars, Irán. Para la recopilación de datos se utilizaron un cuestionario demográfico, el Inventario de Bienestar Espiritual (SWBI), la Escala II de Tolerancia a la Ambigüedad de Tipos de Estímulos Múltiples (MSTAT-II) y el Cuestionario de Felicidad de Oxford (OHI). RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron que la espiritualidad, el bienestar y la intolerancia a la incertidumbre explican el 60% de la variación de la felicidad en los ancianos. Pero los resultados rechazaron el papel del sexo en la predicción de la felicidad en el presente estudio. CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio demuestra los roles predictivos del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la ambigüedad sobre la felicidad en el campo de la gerontología


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Espiritualidade , Permissividade , Felicidade , Incerteza , Saúde do Idoso , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inventário de Personalidade , Satisfação Pessoal , Envelhecimento/psicologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26734, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397711

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Older adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have higher risks for early manifestations of age-related disabilities. The objective of this study was to compare HIV-positive and HIV-negative adults aged ≥50 years in relation to sociodemographic, behavioral, and geriatric characteristics. A case-control study was conducted with a >90% estimated statistical power. A total of 52 individuals living with HIV were matched by age, sex, and neighborhood of residence with 104 community controls. Age-related disabilities were assessed throughout a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Review of medical records and interviews were used to obtain behavioral and clinical covariates. No statistical differences on clinically significant age-related disabilities were found. However, multivariate regression analyses, controlling for education and income, revealed that behavioral (use of condom [odds ratio {OR}: 7.03; 95% confidence intervals {CI}: 2.80-7.65] and number of medical visits [OR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.09-1.43]), along with faster gait speed (OR: 17.68; 95%CI: 2.55-122.85) and lower body and muscle mass indexes were independently associated with HIV (OR: .88; 95%CI: .79-.98 and OR: .72; 95%CI: .54-.97, respectively). In summary, results on age-related disabilities between groups could mean that public policies on HIV might be contributing to patients' positive outcomes regardless of the effects of aging, albeit gait speed, body and muscle mass indexes were independently associated with HIV. Screenings for age-related disabilities in specialized HIV services are recommended.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Psychol Aging ; 36(5): 584-603, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351185

RESUMO

Long-term memory is sensitive to both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, but little is known about the relative influence of these two sources of motivation on memory performance across the adult life span. The study examined the effects of extrinsic motivation, manipulated via monetary reward, and curiosity, a form of intrinsic motivation, on long-term memory in healthy younger and older adults. During the incidental encoding phase on Day 1, 60 younger and 53 older participants viewed high- and low-curiosity trivia items as well as unrelated face stimuli. Half of the participants in each age group received financial rewards for correctly guessing trivia answers. On Day 2, participants completed a trivia recall test and an old-new recognition test for the face stimuli. Both curiosity and reward were associated with enhanced trivia recall, but the effects were interactive, such that only low-curiosity items benefitted from monetary reward. Neither curiosity nor reward affected face recognition performance in either age group. These findings indicate that the individual and joint effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on long-term memory are relatively preserved in healthy aging, a finding that highlights the viability of motivational strategies for memory enhancement into old age. Identifying conditions under which memory for unrelated information benefits from motivational spillover effects in younger and older adults is a priority for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Comportamento Exploratório , Memória de Longo Prazo , Motivação , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychol Aging ; 36(5): 616-625, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351186

RESUMO

Prospective memory (PM) tasks that impose strong demands on strategic monitoring decline more in late adulthood relative to tasks dependent on more automatic cue detection processes. This finding has proven robust to numerous manipulations, with one exception: time-based PM. However, conventional time-based tasks may inadvertently present time-related yet still event-based cues. At the same time, prior studies have failed to consider whether time-based age differences vary according to the degree of deliberate strategic processing required to access these cues. In this study, 53 younger and 40 older participants completed three time-based PM conditions in which a response had to be executed when a sand timer completed a cycle. In one condition, this timer could only be accessed by explicit, deliberate monitoring (by pressing a specific key), in a second, it could also be accessed more perfunctorily (simply by altering ones' visual focus)-and in the third, could not be accessed at all (forcing participants to rely solely on internal temporal estimation processes). Negative age differences emerged in both conditions where participants were able to access the timer, but not in the condition where the timer was hidden. These data provide novel evidence of age-related preservation in at least some aspects of the temporal processing required to support time-based PM. They also suggest that younger and older adults can and do engage in monitoring when given this option, but that only the former group may be able to benefit, even when this monitoring can be conducted relatively perfunctorily. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Percepção do Tempo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychol Aging ; 36(5): 572-583, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351184

RESUMO

The longitudinal associations between subjective and objective memory functioning in later life remain unclear. This may be due, in part, to sociodemographic differences across studies, given the hypothesis that these associations differ across racial groups. Using data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE; N = 2,694; 26% African American), multiple-group, parallel-process latent growth curve models were used to explore relationships between subjective and objective memory over 10 years and assess racial differences in these associations. Across African Americans and whites, we found bidirectional associations between subjective and objective memory such that greater self-reported forgetting at baseline predicted faster subsequent verbal episodic memory declines, and higher baseline objective memory scores predicted less increase in self-reported forgetting over time. However, rates of change in self-reported frequency of forgetting were correlated with rates of change in verbal episodic memory in whites, but not in African Americans. Subjective memory complaints may be a harbinger of future memory declines across African Americans and whites but may not track with objective memory in the same way across these racial groups. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Memória , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Psychol Aging ; 36(5): 626-641, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351187

RESUMO

Although the benefits of positive affect in old age have been well established, little is known about the late-life salience or adaptive value of discrete positive emotions that have contrasting motivational functions. In two studies, we examined the prevalence and health consequences of individual differences in positive emotions posited to motivate a present-focused mindset that fosters rest and recovery (calmness) or a future-focused mindset that motivates pursuit of novelty and stimulation (excitement). Study 1 was based on a 1-week daily diary study (n = 146) that assessed the salience of these discrete emotions in older adults (M age = 75, SD = 6.82) relative to younger adults (M age = 23, SD = 3.91). Results from multilevel models showed that older adults experienced higher average levels of calmness and lower levels of excitement in comparison to younger adults. Study 2 was based on a 10-year study (n = 336, M age = 75, SD = 6.64) and examined the longitudinal health consequences of individual differences in calmness and excitement for older adults who perceived varying levels of control over their life circumstances. Results from multilevel growth models showed that calmness, but not excitement, buffered against longitudinal declines in psychological well-being (perceived stress, depressive symptoms) and physical health (physical symptoms, chronic conditions) for older adults experiencing low control circumstances. Findings inform theories of emotional aging in showing that positive emotions with disparate motivational functions become more or less salient with age and have diverging consequences for health in late life. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Nível de Alerta , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Emoções , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Motivação , Prazer , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4398, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285226

RESUMO

Studies in rodents and captive primates suggest that the early-life social environment affects future phenotype, potentially through alterations to DNA methylation. Little is known of these associations in wild animals. In a wild population of spotted hyenas, we test the hypothesis that maternal care during the first year of life and social connectedness during two periods of early development leads to differences in DNA methylation and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) later in life. Here we report that although maternal care and social connectedness during the den-dependent life stage are not associated with fGCMs, greater social connectedness during the subadult den-independent life stage is associated with lower adult fGCMs. Additionally, more maternal care and social connectedness after den independence correspond with higher global (%CCGG) DNA methylation. We also note differential DNA methylation near 5 genes involved in inflammation, immune response, and aging that may link maternal care with stress phenotype.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Hyaenidae/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Meio Social , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Animais , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/análise , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Hyaenidae/genética , Hyaenidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
10.
Psychol Aging ; 36(5): 545-556, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197138

RESUMO

Erikson's psychosocial stage model posits that identity formation is a key developmental task for adolescents, and that successfully resolving the identity versus role confusion crisis at this time of life has important impacts on psychosocial development through adulthood. However, little empirical work has tested the consequences of early-life identity development for progression through the subsequent psychosocial stages in Erikson's model. The purpose of the present study was to test whether identity resolution measured during emerging adulthood predicted later developmental trajectories of intimacy, generativity, and integrity across adulthood. We used data from four cohorts of participants in the Rochester Adult Longitudinal Study (RALS; N = 1,224), with up to five assessments spanning the twenties through the sixties. Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories for intimacy, generativity, and integrity, and to test the association between emerging adulthood identity resolution and growth parameters for each psychosocial outcome. Findings suggested that individuals with higher emerging adulthood identity resolution also experienced high levels of intimacy, generativity, and integrity in emerging adulthood, and these levels remained consistently high across adulthood. In contrast, those with lower identity resolution in emerging adulthood experienced lower initial levels of intimacy, generativity, and integrity, but faster growth over time. As a result, these trajectories appeared to nearly converge by the time participants were in their sixties, suggesting that one's emerging adulthood identity has less importance over time, and that individuals who struggled more with identity formation in adolescence and emerging adulthood are able to make up for it later in life. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Individualidade , Longevidade , Autoimagem , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Virtudes , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Neurobiol Aging ; 106: 80-94, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256190

RESUMO

Healthy aging is accompanied by reduced cognitive control and widespread alterations in the underlying brain networks; but the extent to which large-scale functional networks in older age show reduced specificity across different domains of cognitive control is unclear. Here we use cov-STATIS (a multi-table multivariate technique) to examine similarity of functional connectivity during different domains of cognitive control-inhibition, initiation, shifting, and working memory-across the adult lifespan. We report two major findings: (1) Functional connectivity patterns during initiation, inhibition, and shifting were more similar in older ages, particularly for control and default networks, a pattern consistent with dedifferentiation of the neural correlates associated with cognitive control; and (2) Networks exhibited age-related reconfiguration such that frontal, default, and dorsal attention networks were more integrated whereas sub-networks of somato-motor system were more segregated in older age. Together these findings offer new evidence for dedifferentiation and reconfiguration of functional connectivity underlying different aspects of cognitive control in normal aging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Desdiferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychol Aging ; 36(5): 604-615, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291964

RESUMO

Naturalistic stimuli (e.g., movies) provide the opportunity to study lifelike experiences in the lab. While young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized manner [as indexed by intersubject correlations (ISC) in their neural activity], older adults respond more idiosyncratically. Here, we examine whether eye-movement synchrony (eye-ISC) also declines with age during movie-watching and whether it relates to memory for the movie. Our results show no age-related decline in eye-ISC, suggesting that age differences in neural ISC are not caused by differences in viewing patterns. Both age groups recalled the same number of episodic details from the movie, but older adults recalled proportionally fewer episodic details due to their greater output of semantic and false information. In both age groups, higher eye-ISC related to a higher proportion of internal details and a lower proportion of false information being recalled. Finally, both older and younger adults showed better cued recall for cues taken from within the same event than those spanning an event boundary, further confirming that events are stored in long-term memory as discrete units with stronger associations within than across event boundaries. Taken together, these findings suggest that naturalistic stimuli drive perception in a similar way in younger and older adults, but age differences in neural synchrony further up the information processing stream may contribute to subtle differences in event memory. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental , Filmes Cinematográficos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4440, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290236

RESUMO

Reinforcement learning is a fundamental mechanism displayed by many species. However, adaptive behaviour depends not only on learning about actions and outcomes that affect ourselves, but also those that affect others. Using computational reinforcement learning models, we tested whether young (age 18-36) and older (age 60-80, total n = 152) adults learn to gain rewards for themselves, another person (prosocial), or neither individual (control). Detailed model comparison showed that a model with separate learning rates for each recipient best explained behaviour. Young adults learned faster when their actions benefitted themselves, compared to others. Compared to young adults, older adults showed reduced self-relevant learning rates but preserved prosocial learning. Moreover, levels of subclinical self-reported psychopathic traits (including lack of concern for others) were lower in older adults and the core affective-interpersonal component of this measure negatively correlated with prosocial learning. These findings suggest learning to benefit others is preserved across the lifespan with implications for reinforcement learning and theories of healthy ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Reforço Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(3): 1085-1114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In relaxed adults, staying in quiet wakefulness at eyes closed is related to the so-called resting state electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms, showing the highest amplitude in posterior areas at alpha frequencies (8-13 Hz). OBJECTIVE: Here we tested the hypothesis that age may affect rsEEG alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms recorded in normal elderly (Nold) seniors and patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI). METHODS: Clinical and rsEEG datasets in 63 ADMCI and 60 Nold individuals (matched for demography, education, and gender) were taken from an international archive. The rsEEG rhythms were investigated at individual delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands, as well as fixed beta (14-30 Hz) and gamma (30-40 Hz) bands. Each group was stratified into three subgroups based on age ranges (i.e., tertiles). RESULTS: As compared to the younger Nold subgroups, the older one showed greater reductions in the rsEEG alpha rhythms with major topographical effects in posterior regions. On the contrary, in relation to the younger ADMCI subgroups, the older one displayed a lesser reduction in those rhythms. Notably, the ADMCI subgroups pointed to similar cerebrospinal fluid AD diagnostic biomarkers, gray and white matter brain lesions revealed by neuroimaging, and clinical and neuropsychological scores. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that age may represent a deranging factor for dominant rsEEG alpha rhythms in Nold seniors, while rsEEG alpha rhythms in ADMCI patients may be more affected by the disease variants related to earlier versus later onset of the AD.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Amnésia/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Amnésia/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descanso/fisiologia , Descanso/psicologia
15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(3): 1203-1218, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationships between obesity and cognitive decline in aging are mixed and understudied among Hispanics/Latinos. OBJECTIVE: To understand associations between central obesity, cognitive aging, and the role of concomitant cardiometabolic abnormalities among Hispanics/Latinos. METHODS: Participants included 6,377 diverse Hispanics/Latinos enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) and SOL-Investigation for Neurocognitive Aging (SOL-INCA). Participants were 45 years and older at the first cognitive testing session (Visit 1). Cognitive outcomes (z-score units) included global composite and domain specific (learning, memory, executive functioning, processing speed) measures at a second visit (SOL-INCA, on average, 7 years later), and 7-year change. We used survey linear regression to examine associations between central obesity (waist circumference≥88 cm and≥102 cm for women and men, respectively) and cognition. We also tested whether the relationships between obesity and cognition differed by cardiometabolic status (indication of/treatment for 2 + of the following: high triglycerides, hypertension, hyperglycemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). RESULTS: Central obesity was largely unassociated with cognitive outcomes, adjusting for covariates. However, among individuals with central obesity, cardiometabolic abnormality was linked to poorer cognitive function at SOL-INCA (ΔGlobalCognition =-0.165, p < 0.001) and to more pronounced cognitive declines over the average 7 years (ΔGlobalCognition = -0.109, p < 0.05); this was consistent across cognitive domains. CONCLUSION: Central obesity alone was not associated with cognitive function. However, presence of both central obesity and cardiometabolic abnormalities was robustly predictive of cognition and 7-year cognitive declines, suggesting that in combination these factors may alter the cognitive trajectories of middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Hispano-Americanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/etnologia , Obesidade Abdominal/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(3): 1243-1257, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age may affect treatment outcome in trials of mild probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: We examined age as a moderator of outcome in an exploratory study of deep brain stimulation targeting the fornix (DBS-f) region in participants with AD. METHODS: Forty-two participants were implanted with DBS electrodes and randomized to double-blind DBS-f stimulation ("on") or sham DBS-f ("off") for 12 months. RESULTS: The intervention was safe and well tolerated. However, the selected clinical measures did not differentiate between the "on" and "off" groups in the intent to treat (ITT) population. There was a significant age by time interaction with the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale; ADAS-cog-13 (p = 0.028). Six of the 12 enrolled participants < 65 years old (50%) markedly declined on the ADAS-cog-13 versus only 6.7%of the 30 participants≥65 years old regardless of treatment assignment (p = 0.005). While not significant, post-hoc analyses favored DBS-f "off" versus "on" over 12 months in the < 65 age group but favored DBS-f "on" versus "off" in the≥65 age group on all clinical metrics. On the integrated Alzheimer's Disease rating scale (iADRS), the effect size contrasting DBS-f "on" versus "off" changed from +0.2 (favoring "off") in the < 65 group to -0.52 (favoring "on") in the≥65 age group. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight issues with subject selection in clinical trials for AD. Faster disease progression in younger AD participants with different AD sub-types may influence the results. Biomarker confirmation and genotyping to differentiate AD subtypes is important for future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletrodos Implantados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 50(1): 85-95, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is well-known that cognitive function declines with age. In order to detect changes in cognitive function, cognitive tests should be performed repeatedly. Currently existing cognitive tests come in only a single version, so the subject is likely to remember the contents with repeated testing. And, under the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in-person assessment should be avoided. This study was performed to develop a new cognitive test (brain assessment, BA) that has 5 versions and can be performed on a personal computer (PC) through the Internet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five thousand subjects performed the online BA, which consisted of 5 subtests: number memory, word memory, mental rotation test, N-back test, and judgment test. We standardized the raw scores (cognitive scores, CSs) using mean and standard deviation, which were 50 and 10, respectively. Then, we calculated the mean CS for each sex and age, plotted the relationships between ages and mean CSs on figures, and calculated the formula of cognitive changes during normal aging. RESULTS: The CSs of all subtests decreased with aging. The regression coefficient was from -0.31 to -0.45. It is noteworthy that in most subtests, the CSs started to increase at 85 years of age. DISCUSSION: Our BA has 5 versions and can be done on a PC using the Internet. We tested the BA in a large number of subjects, and the standard values of CSs were measured in individuals up to 89 years of age. By performing this test repeatedly, subjects can evaluate the degree of their cognitive decline. If the rate of cognitive decline is greater than that predicted using the normalized formula, the subjects can undertake strategies to improve their control of lifestyle-related diseases or other habits of daily living. CONCLUSION: The BA can be easily taken online using a PC, and its scores linearly declined with normal aging. The BA will be useful for detecting longitudinal cognitive changes and comparing them to the pattern seen in normal aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Psychol Aging ; 36(4): 421-432, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124919

RESUMO

The present study investigated the contribution of dispositional factors in accounting for the perplexing negative relationship between aging and mind-wandering (MW). First, we sought to examine whether experimentally manipulating participants' motivation during a modified Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) would modulate sustained attention performance and MW reports for younger and older adults. Results indicated that a performance-based motivational incentive influenced self-reported motivation and objective measures of sustained attention performance for younger, but not older, adults as compared to a control block. However, the motivation manipulation did not significantly modulate either younger or older adults' MW reports. Second, we tested the unique contributions of conscientiousness, interest, and motivation in predicting state-level, trait-level, and SART MW reports along with a composite measure of all three predictors. The results from a series of mediation and regression analyses indicated (a) that conscientiousness and interest fully accounted for the relationship between age and four different self-reported MW estimates and (b) that self-reported motivation did not account for any unique variance in predicting MW reports above and beyond age. The dispositional factors also accounted for the observed differences in No-Go accuracy but did not fully account for the age differences in the coefficient of variation. Discussion focuses on distinctions between self-report and objective measures of MW and more general implications of considering dispositional factors in cognitive aging research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; 13(3): e12473, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide among older adults is a multifactorial problem with several interrelated factors involved that vary with age, gender and culture. The number of suicides is highest in those aged 70 years or older in almost all regions of the world. With the increase in life expectancy, and the decrease in mortality due to other causes of death, we could expect the absolute number of older adults' suicide continue increasing. METHODS: Review of the literature on suicide protective factors of suicide among older adults. RESULTS: Improvements on social determinants of health and the timely detection and early treatment of affective disorders are key interventions. Prevention based on community actions and training of gatekeepers may have positive impact. Community programs that promote a sense of usefulness, belonging and that contribute to preserve social integration should be encouraged. Governments should develop the improvement of retirement programs and the development of support systems. The access to general health and mental health services should be facilitated and Primary Care professionals should receive proper training to detect and manage older persons at risk. Actively promoting a culture of coping to different stages of life and to the changes imposed by the advancing of age should form the essential part of a process bringing to better successful aging avenues. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide prevention in older adults should broaden its focus and pay attention to the many socio-environmental conditions that may be relevant in older age, especially social isolation, financial security and physical health.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , COVID-19/psicologia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26492, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190176

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Researchers have repeatedly examined the relationship between a previous experience of a fall and subsequent fear of falling (FOF); however, few studies have investigated the effects of falling along various timelines among older adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether experiencing a fall in the previous month or the previous year led to FOF among the elderly.The National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) in the U.S. collected information indicative of basic trends in the behavior of individuals aged 65 years and older. In the current study, we applied multiple logistic regression analysis of results from round 7 of the NHATS with the aim of identifying the risk factors associated with FOF among 5559 participants aged 65 years or older.FOF was reported by 48.8% of those who experienced a fall in the previous year and 46.8% experienced a fall in the previous month. The results of regression analysis revealed that after adjusting for sex, age, related chronic disease, activities of daily living, and instrumental activities of daily living, FOF was significantly associated with experiencing a fall during the previous month (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.78-2.95) or during the previous year (OR = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.16-3.14).Our results indicate that experiences of falling during the previous month or the previous year were both significantly associated with a fear of falling, and caregivers should keep this in mind when dealing with community-living elderly individuals.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Atividades Cotidianas , Envelhecimento , Medo/psicologia , Vida Independente , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Vida Independente/psicologia , Vida Independente/normas , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...