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1.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 41(2): 78-86, abr.-jun2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232393

RESUMO

Introducción: La hipertensión arterial (HTA) representa el principal factor de riesgo individual, con mayor carga a nivel mundial de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV). En nuestro país, algunos trabajos epidemiológicos han mostrado marcadas diferencias en las prevalencias de estos factores de riesgo de acuerdo con la población evaluada. Sin embargo, no hay estudios epidemiológicos de evaluación de factores de riesgo cardiovascular exclusivos referentes a barrios vulnerables con muy bajos recursos económicos, socioculturales y poca accesibilidad a los sistemas de salud. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional de corte transversal multicéntrico en habitantes de comunas vulnerables de muy bajos recursos, como asentamientos populares y barrios carenciados con muestreo aleatorizado simple de casas. Se realizaron tomas de presión arterial (PA), medidas antropométricas, así como cuestionarios epidemiológicos, económicos y socioculturales. Se describen los hallazgos: prevalencia, conocimiento y control de la PA en las distintas regiones. Se efectuó una regresión logística para determinar las variables independientes a los resultados principales. Resultados: Se analizaron 989 participantes. La prevalencia de HTA global fue de 48,2%. Un total de 82% tenía un índice de masa corporal (IMC) >25 kg/m2. De estos pacientes, 45,3% tenían menos de seis años de educación. Este último aspecto se asoció a mayor prevalencia de HTA de forma independiente. De los hipertensos, 44% desconocían su padecimiento y solo en 17,2% estaba controlado, asociándose esto a tener obra social (OS) y mayor nivel educativo. Únicamente 24% estaban bajo tratamiento combinado. Conclusión: La prevalencia de HTA en barrios vulnerables es elevada, superando a la de otros estratos sociales con niveles de conocimiento, tratamiento y control de la HTA bajos, similar a otras poblaciones. Se detectó un uso insuficiente de la terapia combinada.


Introduction: Hypertension (HTN) represents the primary individual risk factor, contributing significantly to the global burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In our country, epidemiological research has highlighted substantial variations in the prevalence of these risk factors across different populations. However, there is a lack of epidemiological studies assessing exclusive cardiovascular risk factors within vulnerable neighborhoods characterized by extremely limited economic resources, sociocultural challenges, and inadequate healthcare access. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional observational study was conducted among individuals residing in economically deprived and marginalized communities, including informal settlements and underprivileged neighborhoods. Simple random sampling of households was employed. Blood pressure measurements, anthropometric assessments, and epidemiological, economic, and sociocultural questionnaires were administered. Results encompass prevalence rates, awareness levels, and blood pressure control across diverse regions. Logistic regression was utilized to identify independent variables influencing primary outcomes. Results: A total of 989 participants were analyzed. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 48.2%. About 82% had a body mass index (BMI) >25. Approximately 45.3% had less than 6 years of formal education. Independent association was established between education levels below 6 years and higher hypertension prevalence Among hypertensive individuals, 44% were unaware of their condition, with only 17.2% achieving control, correlated with having health insurance and a higher educational background. Merely 24% were receiving combined therapy. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension within vulnerable neighborhoods is alarmingly high, surpassing rates in other social strata. Knowledge, treatment, and control levels of hypertension are suboptimal, comparable to other populations... (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciências da Saúde , Epidemiologia , Hipertensão , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Prevalência , Conhecimento , Argentina
7.
BMC nephrology ; 25maio2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | CONASS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1553901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Although approximately 25% of Brazilians have private health coverage (PHC), studies on the surveillance of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in this population are scarce. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of CKD in individuals under two PHC regimes in Brazil, who total 8,335,724 beneficiaries. METHODS Outpatient serum creatinine and proteinuria results of individuals from all five regions of Brazil, ≥18 years of age, and performed between 10/01/2021 and 10/31/2022, were analyzed through the own laboratory network database. People with serum creatinine measurements were evaluated for the prevalence and staging of CKD, and those with simultaneous measurements of serum creatinine and proteinuria were evaluated for the risk category of the disease. CKD was classified according to current guidelines and was defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m² estimated by the 2021 CKD-EPI equation. RESULTS The number of adults with serum creatinine results was 1,508,766 (age 44.0 [IQR, 33.9­56.8] years, 62.3% female). The estimated prevalence of CKD was 3.8% (2.6%, 0.8%, 0.2% and 0.2% in CKD stages 3a, 3b, 4 and 5, respectively), and it was higher in males than females (4.0% vs. 3.7%, p<0.001, respectively) and in older age groups (0.2% among 18-29-year-olds, 0.5% among 30-44-year-olds, 2.0% among 45-59-year-olds, 9.4% among 60-74-yearolds, and 32.4% among ≥75-year-olds, p<0.001) Adults with simultaneous results of creatinine and proteinuria were 64,178 (age 57.0 [IQR, 44.8­67.3] years, 58.1% female). After adjusting for age and gender, 70.1% were in the low-risk category of CKD, 20.0% were in the moderate-risk category, 5.8% were in the high-risk category, and 4.1% were in the very high-risk category. CONCLUSION The estimated prevalence of CKD was 3.8%, and approximately 10% of the participants were in the categories of high or very high-risk of the disease. While almost 20% of beneficiaries with PHC had serum creatinine data, fewer than 1% underwent tests for proteinuria. This study was one of the largest ever conducted in Brazil and the first one to use the 2021 CKD-EPI equation to estimate the prevalence of CKD.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação em Laboratório Clínico , Saúde Suplementar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Epidemiologia , Prevalência
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 45(4): 597-601, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678359

RESUMO

This study aims at examining the application and development of digital teaching materials in the field of epidemiology, encompassing both China and international contexts. The research involved conducting search on websites and literature databases to assess the status of digital teaching materials in epidemiology, nationally and internationally. At present, in China, digital teaching materials used in epidemiology are primarily presented in the form of printed books with added QR codes, providing teaching resources such as videos and exercises. However, issues with the level of interactivity have been identified. In foreign countries, with stronger emphasis placed on personalization, interactivity, and the use of rich media technologies in the digital teaching materials, epidemiologically. Enhanced digitization regarding materials and learning outcomes is achieved through features such as real-time notes, interactive animations, and quizzes. These approaches are considered worth considering for adoption. This study provides valuable insights for the digital transformation of epidemiology education.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia , Materiais de Ensino , Ensino , Epidemiologia/educação , China/epidemiologia , Humanos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59394

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To investigate the burden of tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer due to tobacco exposure in the last 30 years in 12 South American countries. Methods. We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 exposure-response function to analyze the total tobacco, smoking, and secondhand smoke exposure-related TBL cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), for 12 South American countries, between 1990 and 2019. Metrics were described as abso- lute numbers or rates per 100 000 individuals. The relative change in burden was assessed by comparing the 1990-1994 to 2015-2019 periods. Results. In 2019, the all-ages number of TBL cancer deaths and DALYs associated with tobacco expo- sure in South America was 29 348 and 658 204 in males and 14 106 and 318 277 in females, respectively. Age-adjusted death and DALYs rates for the region in 2019 were 182.8 and 4035 in males and 50.8 and 1162 in females, respectively. In males, 10/12 countries observed relative declines in TBL death rates attributed to tobacco exposure while only 4 countries reduced their mortality in females. Conclusion. While significant efforts on tobacco control are under place in South America, substantial bur- den of TBL cancer persists in the region with significant sex-specific disparities. Increased country-specific primary data on TBL cancer and tobacco exposure is needed to optimize healthcare strategies and improve comprehension of regional trends.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Investigar la carga del cáncer de tráquea, bronquios y pulmón por exposición al tabaco en los últi- mos 30 años en 12 países de Sudamérica. Métodos. Se utilizó la función de relación entre exposición y respuesta de la carga mundial de morbilidad del 2019 para analizar las muertes por cáncer de tráquea, bronquios y pulmón asociadas a la exposición total al tabaco, al tabaquismo activo y al tabaquismo pasivo, así como los años de vida ajustados en función de la discapacidad (AVAD), en 12 países de Sudamérica, entre 1990 y el 2019. Los resultados se presentaron en forma de número absoluto o de tasa por 100 000 personas. Se evaluó el cambio relativo de la carga mediante la comparación de los períodos 1990-1994 y 2015-2019. Resultados. En el 2019, el número de muertes por cáncer de tráquea, bronquios y pulmón y los AVAD aso- ciados a la exposición al tabaco para todas las edades en Sudamérica fueron de 29 348 y 658 204 en los hombres y de 14 106 y 318 277 en las mujeres, respectivamente. La tasa de mortalidad y los AVAD ajustados por la edad correspondientes al 2019 en la región fueron de 182,8 y 4035 en los hombres y de 50,8 y 1162 en las mujeres, respectivamente. En el caso de los hombres, en 10 de los 12 países se observaron disminuciones relativas de la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer de tráquea, bronquios y pulmón atribuido a la exposición al tabaco, mientras que en el caso de las mujeres solo en 4 países hubo una reducción de la mortalidad. Conclusión. Aunque en Sudamérica se están llevando a cabo iniciativas importantes para el control del tabaco, en esta región persiste una carga considerable de cáncer de tráquea, bronquios y pulmón, con diferencias significativas en función del sexo. Es preciso contar con más datos primarios específicos de cada país sobre el cáncer de tráquea, bronquios y pulmón, así como sobre la exposición al tabaco, para optimizar las estrategias de atención de salud y mejorar la comprensión de las tendencias regionales.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Investigar a carga de câncer de traqueia, brônquios e pulmão (TBP) decorrente da exposição ao tabaco nos últimos 30 anos em 12 países da América do Sul. Métodos. A função de exposição-resposta do estudo Carga Global de Doença (GBD, na sigla em inglês) 2019 foi usada para analisar o número de mortes e de anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (AVAI) por câncer de TBP relacionado à exposição total ao tabaco e ao tabagismo e ao fumo passivo em 12 países da América do Sul entre 1990 e 2019. Os índices foram descritos em números absolutos ou taxas por 100 mil pessoas. A variação relativa da carga foi avaliada comparando-se os períodos de 1990 a 1994 e de 2015 a 2019. Resultados. Em 2019, os números de mortes e de AVAI por câncer de TBP associado à exposição ao tabaco na América do Sul, em todas as idades, foram, respectivamente, 29.348 e 658.204 em homens e 14.106 e 318.277 em mulheres. As taxas de mortalidade e os AVAI ajustados por idade na região foram, respecti- vamente, 182,8 e 4.035 em homens e 50,8 e 1.162 em mulheres em 2019. Em homens, 10 dos 12 países registraram uma diminuição relativa das taxas de mortalidade por câncer de TBP atribuído à exposição ao tabaco, mas somente 4 países obtiveram uma redução da mortalidade em mulheres. Conclusão. Apesar dos consideráveis esforços atuais para o controle do tabaco na América do Sul, ainda há uma expressiva carga de câncer de TBP na região, com disparidades significativas entre os sexos. É necessário dispor de mais dados primários sobre câncer de TBP e exposição ao tabaco específicos para cada país para aprimorar as estratégias de atenção à saúde e melhorar a compreensão das tendências regionais.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Fumar , Epidemiologia , América do Sul , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Fumar , Epidemiologia , América do Sul , América do Sul
17.
Recurso na Internet em Espanhol | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-49581

RESUMO

Ente adscrito al Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Salud que ofrece programas de formación de posgrado, formación permanente y de interacción social para dar respuesta a las necesidades del Sistema Público Nacional de Salud, eventos edición de publicaciones, incluyendo el Boletin de Malariología y Salud Ambiental.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia/educação , Saúde Ocupacional/educação , Saúde Pública/educação , Publicações Científicas e Técnicas , Escolas para Profissionais de Saúde
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