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1.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606296, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577390

RESUMO

Objective: Episiotomy, defined as the incision of the perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening during childbirth, is one of the most commonly performed surgical interventions in the world. We aimed to determine if migrant status is associated with episiotomy, and if individual characteristics mediate this association. Methods: We analyzed data from the Bambino study, a national, prospective cohort of migrant and native women giving birth at a public hospital in mainland Portugal between 2017 and 2019. We included all women with vaginal delivery. The association between migrant status and episiotomy was assessed using multivariable multilevel random-effect logistic regression models. We used path analysis to quantify the direct, indirect and total effects of migrant status on episiotomy. Results: Among 3,583 women with spontaneous delivery, migrant parturients had decreased odds of episiotomy, especially those born in Africa, compared to native Portuguese women. Conversely, with instrumental delivery, migrant women had higher odds of episiotomy. Disparities in episiotomy were largely explained by maternity units' factors, and little by maternal and fetal characteristics. Conclusion: Our results suggest non-medically justified differential episiotomy use during childbirth and highlight the importance of developing evidence-based recommendations for episiotomy use in a country with a high frequency of medical interventions during delivery.


Assuntos
Episiotomia , Migrantes , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Episiotomia/métodos , Portugal , Estudos Prospectivos , Parto Obstétrico
2.
Int Wound J ; 21(4): e14826, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512112

RESUMO

The efficacy of episiotomy, particularly the angle of incision in mediolateral episiotomies, remains a significant area of inquiry in obstetrics. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of low-angle mediolateral episiotomy on perineal wound healing and pain outcomes in women undergoing vaginal childbirth. Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted using the PICO framework. Studies were selected based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, focusing on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving low-angle mediolateral episiotomies. Comprehensive literature searches were performed across major electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library. Data extraction and quality assessments were meticulously carried out by independent reviewers, employing the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. A total of 1246 articles were initially identified, with 8 articles meeting the strict inclusion criteria for the final analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significant heterogeneity among studies regarding postoperative pain (p < 0.0001, I2 = 77.5%), and employed a random-effects model. Results showed that low-angle episiotomies significantly reduced postoperative pain (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.17-0.42, p < 0.001), and increased first-degree healing rates (OR = 2.95, 95% CI: 2.20-3.96, p < 0.001) compared to traditional angles. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the stability of these findings, and no significant publication bias was detected. The analysis suggests that low-angle episiotomies can potentially reduce postoperative perineal pain and enhance wound healing. However, the limited number and varying quality of the included studies warrant cautious interpretation of these results. Further well-designed studies are needed to corroborate these findings and guide clinical practice.


Assuntos
Episiotomia , Dor Pós-Operatória , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Períneo/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório
3.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 230(3S): S1014-S1026, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462247

RESUMO

This tutorial of the intrapartum management of shoulder dystocia uses drawings and videos of simulated and actual deliveries to illustrate the biomechanical principles of specialized delivery maneuvers and examine missteps associated with brachial plexus injury. It is intended to complement haptic, mannequin-based simulation training. Demonstrative explication of each maneuver is accompanied by specific examples of what not to do. Positive (prescriptive) instruction prioritizes early use of direct fetal manipulation and stresses the importance of determining the alignment of the fetal shoulders by direct palpation, and that the biacromial width should be manually adjusted to an oblique orientation within the pelvis-before application of traction to the fetal head, the biacromial width is manually adjusted to an oblique orientation within the pelvis. Negative (proscriptive) instructions includes the following: to avoid more than usual and/or laterally directed traction, to use episiotomy only as a means to gain access to the posterior shoulder and arm, and to use a 2-step procedure in which a 60-second hands-off period ("do not do anything") is inserted between the emergence of the head and any initial attempts at downward traction to allow for spontaneous rotation of the fetal shoulders. The tutorial presents a stepwise approach focused on the delivering clinician's tasks while including the role of assistive techniques, including McRoberts, Gaskin, and Sims positioning, suprapubic pressure, and episiotomy. Video footage of actual deliveries involving shoulder dystocia and permanent brachial plexus injury demonstrates ambiguities in making the diagnosis of shoulder dystocia, risks of improper traction and torsion of the head, and overreliance on repeating maneuvers that prove initially unsuccessful.


Assuntos
Distocia , Distocia do Ombro , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Distocia/terapia , Distocia do Ombro/terapia , Ombro , Episiotomia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Parto Obstétrico/métodos
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 199, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pelvic organ prolapse is a common debilitating condition worldwide. Despite surgical treatment, its recurrence can reach up to 30%. It has multiple risk factors, some of which are particular for a low-resource settings. The identification these factors would help to devise risk models allowing the development of prevention policies. The objective of this study was to explore risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse in a population in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). METHODS: This was an unmatched case-control study conducted between January 2021 and January 2022. The sample size was estimated to be a total of 434 women (217 with prolapse as cases and 217 without prolapse as controls). Data comparisons were made using the Chi-Square and Student T tests. Binary and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associated factors. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Variables identified as definitive predictors of pelvic organ prolapse included low BMI (aOR 2.991; CI 1.419-6.307; p = 0.004), home birth (aOR 6.102; CI 3.526-10.561; p < 0.001), family history of POP (aOR 2.085; CI 1.107-3.924; p = 0.023), history of birth without an episiotomy (aOR 3.504; CI 2.031-6.048; p = 0), height ≤ 150 cm (aOR 5.328; CI 2.942-9.648; p < 0.001) and history of giving birth to a macrosomic baby (aOR 1.929; IC 1.121-3.321; p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified that Body Mass Index and birth-related factors are definitive predictors of pelvic organ prolapse in a low-resource setting. These factors are potentially modifiable and should be targeted in any future pelvic organ prolapse prevention policy. Additionally, there seems to be a genetic predisposition for prolapse, which warrants further assessment in specifically designed large scale studies.


Assuntos
Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , República Democrática do Congo , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos
5.
Trials ; 25(1): 221, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 85% of women experience an obstetric tear at delivery and up to 25% subsequently experience wound dehiscence and/or infection. Previous publications suggest that intravenous antibiotics administrated during delivery reduces this risk. We do not know if oral antibiotics given after delivery can reduce the risk of wound dehiscence or infection. Our aim is to investigate whether three doses of oral antibiotics (amoxicillin 500 mg/clavulanic acid 125 mg) given after delivery can reduce the risk of wound dehiscence and infection in patients with a second-degree obstetric tear or episiotomy. METHODS: We will perform a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study including 221women in each arm with allocation 1:1 in relation to the randomization. The study is carried out at Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Herlev University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. The women will be included after delivery if they have had a second-degree tear or episiotomy. After inclusion, the women will have a clinical follow-up visit after 1 week. The tear and healing will be evaluated regarding signs of infection and/or dehiscence. The women will again be invited for a 1-year clinical examination including ultrasound. Questionnaires exploring symptoms related to the obstetric tear and possible complications will be answered at both visits. Our primary outcome is wound dehiscence and/or wound infection, which will be calculated using χ2 tests to compare groups. Secondary outcomes are variables that relate to wound healing, as pain, use of painkillers and antibiotics, need for further follow-up, as well as outcomes that may be related to the birth or healing process, urinary or anal incontinence, symptoms of prolapse, female body image, and sexual problems. DISCUSSION: Reducing the risk of wound dehiscence and/or infection would decrease the number of control visits, prevent the need for longer antibiotic treatment, and possibly also decrease both short-term and long-term symptoms. This would be of great importance so the mother, her partner, and the baby could establish and optimize their initial family relation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The conduction of this study is approved the 2/2-2023 with the EU-CT number: 2022-501930-49-00. CLINICALTRIALS: gov Identifier: NCT05830162.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Episiotomia , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Amoxicilina , Ácido Clavulânico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Ruptura , Períneo , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos
6.
Ceska Gynekol ; 89(1): 40-43, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418252

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease caused by the implantation of active endometrial cells outside the uterine cavity. In most cases, endometriosis occurs in the pelvic area, such as the ovary, Douglas' pouch, or uterine sacral ligament. Some rare cases of extrapelvic endometriosis can also occur in the perineum, urinary system, gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, chest, subcutaneous tissue, and skin. Endometriosis of the perineum is usually secondary to obstetric trauma, such as perineal laceration or episiotomy. To date, few cases of spontaneous perineal endometriosis have been reported. Herein, we report a rare case of spontaneous deep perineal endometriosis. Notably, the patient had typical symptoms of regular pain during menstruation with no history of delivery or perineal trauma. The patient recovered well after postoperative gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist injection.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Endometriose/diagnóstico , Períneo , Dor , Episiotomia , Pelve
7.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 294: 238-244, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the postnatal psychological health and parenting adjustment of primiparous women experiencing perineal trauma. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study assessing body image, perceptions of traumatic birth, psychological distress, perineal pain, impact upon parental tasks and mother-infant bonding at 6-12 weeks (n = 103) and 6-10 months postnatally (n = 91). Primiparous women were recruited following vaginal birth and perineal suturing in a UK-based maternity hospital. al. Comparisons made according to the objective classification of perineal trauma experienced; 1st/2nd degree tear, episiotomy, and Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries (OASI). RESULTS: At 6-12 weeks women with an episiotomy reported a more negative perception of their body image than those with OASI. Women with OASI or an episiotomy were more likely to have experienced birth as traumatic, and those with OASI reported more avoidance symptoms of post-traumatic stress and a greater negative impact on parenting tasks. At 6-10 months significantly more avoidance symptoms continued to be reported by those with OASI, whereas those with an episiotomy reported more anxiety related symptoms in general than those with OASI. CONCLUSIONS: OASI, whilst associated with traumatic birth and some early parenting impacts, may not be linked to general negative psychological outcomes when specialist routine follow-up care is provided. Psychological impacts for women with episiotomy may merit further input than currently provided. Consideration should be given with regards to widening the access to postnatal perineal care by extending the criteria for specialist follow up beyond those sustaining OASI.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Nascimento , Lacerações , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia/métodos , Mães , Canal Anal/lesões , Vagina , Lacerações/etiologia , Períneo/lesões , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia
8.
Midwifery ; 131: 103930, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Second-degree perineal tears are common and can vary widely in the extent of tissue trauma. Therefore, a better understanding of perineal pain based on tissue trauma severity in second-degree tears is needed. AIM: The primary aim of this study was to assess differences in perineal pain according to the severity of perineal tears, with a focus on subcategories of second-degree tears, during the first three months postpartum. The secondary aim was to assess the use of pain medication and breastfeeding patterns according to the severity of the second-degree tears. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, nulli- and multiparous women with singleton pregnancies were included during pregnancy. After birth, perineal tears were classified using the latest international classification system. In addition, second-degree tears were subcategorised according to percentage of damage to the perineum (<50 %=2A,>50 % but less than entire perineum=2B, affecting entire perineum, anal sphincter not involved=2C). Perineal pain, use of pain medication and breastfeeding patterns were assessed during a phone interview seven to ten days postpartum and through an electronic questionnaire three months postpartum. FINDINGS: Out of 880 vaginal births, 852 participants completed the phone interview and 715 answered the electronic questionnaire. During the first three months postpartum, women with 2C-tears reported statistically significantly higher pain scores and more frequent use of pain medication compared to women with 2A-tears. There was no statistically significant difference between the number of participants not breastfeeding between second-degree tear subcategories. CONCLUSION: Women with 2C-tears reported higher perineal pain scores and more use of pain medication compared to those with less severe tears during three months postpartum.


Assuntos
Lacerações , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Período Pós-Parto , Lacerações/complicações , Dor Pélvica , Estudos de Coortes , Períneo/lesões , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos
9.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 294: 39-42, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38211455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries are feared perineal injuries that are associated with increased pelvic floor disorders. The knowledge of influencing factors as the mode of delivery is therefore important. The aim of this study is to compare the rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries in primiparae after water and bed deliveries. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective cohort study 3907 primiparae gave birth in water or on a bed in a Swiss teaching hospital. The diagnosis of obstetric anal sphincter injuries was confirmed by a consultant of obstetrics and gynecology and treated by them. The rates of these injuries after water and bed births were compared. Subgroup analysis was performed to detect possible associative factors, such as birth weight, episiotomy, use of oxytocin in first and second stage of labor. RESULTS: 1844 (47.2 %) of the primiparae had a water delivery and 2063 (52.8 %) a bed delivery. 193 (4.94 %) were diagnosed with obstetric anal sphincter injuries, of which 68 (3.7 %) had a water delivery and 125 (6.1 %) a bed delivery, p < 0.001. Subgroup analysis revealed that, in the first and second stage of labor, the rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries with oxytocin was significantly lower in water than in bed deliveries; p = 0.025, p < 0.017, respectively. The rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries in the birth weight or episiotomy subgroups did not reach significance. CONCLUSIONS: In a teaching hospital setting with standardized labor management, primiparae with a water delivery have the lowest risk for obstetric anal sphincter injuries.


Assuntos
Lacerações , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Canal Anal/lesões , Peso ao Nascer , Suíça/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Episiotomia , Hospitais Públicos , Hospitais de Ensino , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Lacerações/etiologia , Lacerações/prevenção & controle
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(1): 357-364, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38235887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate whether cleaning the episiotomy line with rifampicin solution before suturing will reduce infection and wound dehiscence in women who had vaginal delivery with episiotomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 400 primigravida patients. In the study group, irrigation with rifampicin of the subcutaneous tissue of the episiotomy incision was applied, and in the control group, there was no irrigation. Patients were evaluated for infection at the 1st, 3rd week, and 1-month controls. The groups were compared according to episiotomy infection and wound dehiscence rates. RESULTS: The episiotomy infection rate of the whole group was 8.5%, the wound dehiscence rate was 3.75%, and the average time of occurrence of the infection was 5.35±2.21 days. The most common infection findings were local pain and purulent discharge at 4.75%. In the control group, where the infection occurred earlier, the infection and wound dehiscence rates were significantly higher [11.5% vs. 5.5%; 6.0% vs. 1.5% (p<0.05)]. Purulent discharge was the most common finding in the control group, and local pain in the study group, but no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of findings (p<0.05). When only the patients who developed episiotomy infection were evaluated among themselves, the only significant difference was found in wound dehiscence, which was higher in the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high rates of episiotomy in our country, subcutaneous irrigation with rifampicin is a good option that can be kept in the foreground due to its low cost and ease of application.


Assuntos
Episiotomia , Rifampina , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tela Subcutânea , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Dor , Períneo
11.
Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol ; 52(2): 95-101, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a progressive reduction in the rate of episiotomies since the recommendations of the French college of gynaecologists. Our objective was to study the evolution of the rate of episiotomies and Obstetric Anus Sphincter Injury (OASI) since the restriction of episiotomies in our department. METHODS: Observational monocentric retrospective study performed at the Rouen University Hospital. The inclusion criteria were monofetal pregnancies, delivery at a term greater than or equal to 37 weeks of amenorrhea of a living, viable child and by cephalic presentation. We compared two periods corresponding to before and after the 2018 recommendations. We used logistic regression modelling to identify factors associated with the risk of episiotomies and of obstetrical anal injuries, overall and in case of instrumental delivery. RESULTS: We included 3329 patients for the 1st period and 3492 for the 2nd period, and the rate of instrumental deliveries were respectively of 16.4% (n=547) and 17.9% (n=626). Multivariate analysis showed a significant decrease in the rate of episiotomies in the 2nd period (OR 0.14, CI 95% [0.12; 0.16], P<0.0001). Main factors associated with the risk of OASI were primiparity (OR 6.21, CI 95% [3.19; 12.11]) and the use of forceps (OR 4.23, CI 95% [2.17; 8.27]) overall; and instrumental delivery using forceps (OR 3.25, CI 95% [1.69; 6.22]) and delivery during the 2nd period (OR 1.98, CI 95% [1.01; 3.88]) in case of instrumental delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that the voluntary reduction in the episiotomy rate does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of OASI, overall and in case of instrumental delivery. However, we show an increase in the rate of OASI in case of instrumental delivery since the latest recommendations.


Assuntos
Episiotomia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Canal Anal/lesões , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Recém-Nascido
12.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 103(3): 488-497, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38053429

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are many risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) and the interaction between these risk factors is complex and understudied. The many observational studies that have shown a reduction of OASIS rates after implementation of perineal support have short follow-up time. We aimed to study the effect of integration of active perineal support and lateral episiotomy on OASIS rates over a 15-year period and to study interactions between risk factors known before delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a historical cohort study over the periods 1999-2006 and 2007-2021 at Stavanger University Hospital, Norway. The main outcome was OASIS rates. Women without a previous cesarean section and a live singleton fetus in cephalic presentation at term were eligible. The department implemented in 2007 the Finnish concept of active perineal protection, which includes support of perineum, control of fetal expulsion, good communication with the mother and observation of perineal stretching. The practice of mediolateral episiotomy was replaced with lateral episiotomy when indicated. We analyzed the OASIS rates in groups with and without episiotomy stratified for delivery mode, fetal position at delivery and for parity, and adjusted for possible confounders (maternal age, gestational age, oxytocin augmentation and epidural analgesia). RESULTS: We observed a long-lasting reduction in OASIS rates from 4.9% to 1.9% and an increase in episiotomy rates from 14.4% to 21.8%. Lateral episiotomy was associated with lower OASIS rates in nulliparous women with instrumental vaginal deliveries and occiput anterior (OA) position; 3.4% vs 10.1% (OR 0.31; 95% CI: 0.24-0.40) and 6.1 vs 13.9% (OR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19-0.82) in women with occiput posterior (OP) position. Lateral episiotomy was also associated with lower OASIS rates in nulliparous women with spontaneous deliveries and OA position; 2.1% vs 3.2% (OR 0.62; 95% CI: 0.49-0.80). The possible confounders had little confounding effects on the risk of OASIS in groups with and without episiotomy. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a long-lasting reduction in OASIS rates after implementation of preventive procedures. Lateral episiotomy was associated with lower OASIS rates in nulliparous women with an instrumental delivery. Special attention should be paid to deliveries with persistent OP position.


Assuntos
Lacerações , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Períneo/lesões , Canal Anal/lesões , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lacerações/complicações
13.
Int Urogynecol J ; 35(2): 319-326, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37656195

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Evidence suggests that episiotomies reduce the risk for obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs) in operative vaginal deliveries (OVDs). However, there is limited evidence on the importance of episiotomy technique in this context. The primary objective of this study was to assess if an episiotomy suture angle >45° from the median line would be associated with a lower risk for OASIs at the time of OVD. METHODS: This was an ancillary study from the multicentre prospective cohort INSTRUMODA study. Of the 2,620 patients who had an OVD with a concomitant episiotomy between April 2021 and March 2022, a total of 219 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Post-suturing photographs were used to assess episiotomy characteristics. RESULTS: Based on suture angles of ≤45° and >45° the study cohort was categorized into groups A (n = 155) and B (n = 64) respectively. The groups had comparable demographic and birth-related characteristics. The mean episiotomy length was significantly longer in group A than in group B (3.21 cm vs 2.84 cm; p = 0.009). Senior obstetricians performed more acute angled episiotomies than junior residents (p = 0.016). The total prevalence of OASIS was 2.3%, with no significant difference in rate of OASI between the two study groups. Birthweight was significantly higher in OASI births (p = 0.018) and spatula-assisted births were associated with higher risk for OASIs than ventouse or forceps (p = 0.0039). CONCLUSIONS: This study did not demonstrate a significant reduction in risk for OASI at the time of OVD when the episiotomy suture angle was >45° from the median line. However, these results should be interpreted with caution owing to the low prevalence of OASIs in our cohort.


Assuntos
Episiotomia , Lacerações , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , França/epidemiologia , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Lacerações/etiologia , Lacerações/prevenção & controle
14.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 309(3): 843-869, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37632600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to reduce the complications of perineal damage and the pain caused by it for the mother, this study was conducted to determine the effect of warm perineal compress on perineal trauma (1st-, 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-degree perineal tears), postpartum pain, intact perineum (primary outcomes), episiotomy, length of the second stage, and APGAR score at 1 and 5 min after childbirth (secondary outcome). METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, Web of Science, SID, Magiran, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to identify the relevant articles from inception to November 1, 2022, with language restriction (only English and Persian). A manual search was also performed. Risk of bias 2 (RoB2) and ROBIN-I were employed to evaluate the quality of the included papers. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. In cases with high heterogeneity, subgroup analysis was utilized based on the parity and ethnicity, and time of pain measurement after delivery also a random-effects model was used instead of a fixed-effects model. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was performed for the primary outcomes. The certainty of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: A total number of 228 articles were found in databases. Of these articles, eighty-six were screened by title, 27 by abstract, and 21 by full text. Finally, 14 articles were included, of which ten were RCT and four were non-RCT. Meta-analysis results revealed that warm perineal compress significantly reduced perineal pain (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.66; P = 0.0006), average pain (SMD - 0.73, 95% CI 1.23 to - 0.23; P = 0.004), second-degree perineal tear (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54-0.79; P˂0.00001), third-degree perineal tear (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15-0.67; P = 0.003), fourth-degree perineal tear (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-0.87; P = 0.04), episiotomy (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46-0.86; P = 0.004), and intact perineum significantly increased (RR 3.06, 95% CI 1.79-5.22; P < 0.0001) compared to the control group. However, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of first-degree tear (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25; P = 0.72), length of the second stage of labor (MD - 0.60, 95% CI - 2.43 to 1.22; P = 0.52), the first minute (MD - 0.03, 95% CI - 0.07 to 0.02; P = 0.24) and the fifth minute Apgar score (MD - 0.02, 95% CI - 0.07 to 0.03; P = 0.46) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Warm perineal compress administered during the second stage of labor reduce postpartum pain, second and third-degree perineal tears, and episiotomy rate while it increases the incidence of intact perineum compared to the control group.


Assuntos
Lacerações , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Períneo/lesões , Parto , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Dor/etiologia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Período Pós-Parto , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle
15.
Women Birth ; 37(1): 159-165, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37598048

RESUMO

PROBLEM: The perineal-bundle is a complex intervention widely implemented in Australian maternity care facilities. BACKGROUND: Most bundle components have limited or conflicting evidence and the implementation required many midwives to change their usual practice for preventing perineal trauma. AIM: To measure the effect of perineal bundle implementation on perineal injury for women having unassisted births with midwives. METHODS: A retrospective pre-post implementation study design to determine rates of second degree, severe perineal trauma, and episiotomy. Women who had an unassisted, singleton, cephalic vaginal birth at term between two time periods: January 2011 - November 2017 and August 2018 - August 2020 with a midwife or midwifery student accoucheur. We conducted logistic regression on the primary outcomes to control for confounding variables. FINDINGS: data from 20,155 births (pre-implementation) and 6273 (post-implementation) were analysed. After implementation, no significant difference in likelihood of severe perineal trauma was demonstrated (aOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.71-1.04, p = 0.124). Nulliparous women were more likely to receive an episiotomy (aOR 1.49 95% CI 1.31-1.70 p < 0.001) and multiparous women to suffer a second degree tear (aOR 1.18 95% CI 1.09-1.27 p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: This study adds to the growing body of literature which suggests a number of bundle components are ineffective, and some potentially harmful. Why, and how, the bundle was introduced at scale without a research framework to test efficacy and safety is a key concern. CONCLUSION: Suitably designed trials should be undertaken on all proposed individual or grouped perineal protection strategies prior to broad adoption.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Tocologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Austrália , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Períneo/lesões
16.
Int Urogynecol J ; 35(1): 157-166, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37999762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Women who have intraspinal anesthesia for delivery are more likely to experience postpartum urinary retention (PUR), which, if not recognized and treated promptly, can result in long-term urinary dysfunction. Many factors influencing PUR have been proposed, but no study has been conducted to investigate the relationship between them. This study is aimed at determining the influencing factors of PUR and to explore the relationship between them. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional survey using self-made questionnaires was conducted among 372 puerperae in a Grade A hospital in Guangzhou, China, from April to September 2022. SPSS25.0 and AMOS24.0 were used for data analysis, and a path analysis model was established to determine the relationship between the influencing factors. RESULTS: The incidence of PUR was 49.85%. Residence, the level of postpartum pain, and the change of postnatal urination position had a direct effect on PUR. Episiotomy and analgesic duration have both direct and indirect effects on PUR. Forceps delivery, perineal edema and oxytocin had an indirect effect on PUR. Variables could influence the occurrence of PUR by mediating the analgesic duration, episiotomy, postpartum pain level, and postnatal urination position changes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an empirical model to illustrate the relationship between PUR and related factors in women who delivered under intraspinal anesthesia. In future management, more attention should be paid to women who live in cities, have higher levels of postpartum pain, longer analgesic duration, higher grade of perineal edema, and received episiotomy, forceps delivery, and oxytocin during labor.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Transtornos Puerperais , Retenção Urinária , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Retenção Urinária/epidemiologia , Retenção Urinária/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Ocitocina , Transtornos Puerperais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Edema/complicações , Analgésicos , Dor
17.
Reprod Sci ; 31(4): 1006-1016, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38097899

RESUMO

Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) is common to be associated with pregnancy and birth. To date, no research has been done to understand whether the perineal massage and warm compresses technique has an impact on pelvic floor dysfunction. To assess the impact of perineal massage and warm compresses technique during the second stage of labor in pelvic floor dysfunction at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Of the 800 women recruited to randomised controlled trial to prevent perineal trauma, 496 were included in the study, with 242 (48.8%) assigned to the Perineal Massage and Warm Compresses (PeMWaC) group and 254 (51.2%) to the control group (hands-on). Used the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20). The questionnaire is divided into three subscales: Urinary (UDI), Colorectal-Anal (CRADI), and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory (POPDI). The PeMWaC group had a significantly higher frequency of intact perineum (p < 0.001) and low-severity vaginal tears (tears without any other degree of perineal trauma) (p = 0.031) compared to the control group, while the control group had significantly more patients who suffered high-severity vaginal/perineal trauma (second degree perineal tears) (p = 0.031) and patients without spontaneous perineal trauma or vaginal tears who underwent episiotomy (p < 0.001). In addition, at 3 months postpartum, women in the control group had a higher Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI) score and global score, compared to the PeMWaC group, and after controlling for confounding variables, the perineal massage and warm compresses technique was associated with lower UDI scores at 3 months postpartum compared to control group. At 6 months postpartum, there were no differences in the UDI or global scores, indicating general recovery from perineal trauma. In addition to reducing perineal trauma during birth, the perineal massage and warm compresses technique was associated with a lower prevalence of early PFD symptoms, mainly urinary distress, at 3 months.Trial registration http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05854888, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Lacerações , Períneo , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Períneo/lesões , Diafragma da Pelve/lesões , Período Pós-Parto , Episiotomia , Lacerações/complicações , Lacerações/prevenção & controle , Massagem
19.
In Vivo ; 38(1): 390-398, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38148051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: At the beginning of the 21st century, obstetric medicine took a turn from interventional to restrictive in low-risk birth. The present study examined the changes in peripartum management over the past 20 years at the Women's University Hospital Cologne. The attitudes of the becoming mother and physicians towards anesthesia, episiotomy, and vaginal-operative deliveries were compared and the factors influencing the duration of birth over the past 20 years were examined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, the low-risk singleton birth of 955 in 2000/2001 and 944 births in 2018 at the Women's University Hospital Cologne were analyzed. RESULTS: The age of women who tended to give birth has significantly increased at present compared to 20 years ago. In 2018, labor was induced significantly more often than in 2000/2001. The rate of vaginal operative deliveries has fluctuated between 15% and 20% in the last 20 years. Forceps are no longer used. The use of episiotomy has taken a fundamental turn in the last 20 years. Prophylactic episiotomy is not performed anymore, most vaginal operative deliveries take place without the episiotomy. The birth duration has been significantly shortened at present compared to 20 years ago. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and childbirth over the last years are not considered as a disease, but as a natural course, and the trend of minimizing interventions in low-risk delivery has a positive effect on childbirth.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Episiotomia , Hospitais , Fatores de Risco
20.
Midwifery ; 129: 103909, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38134575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum perineal pain is a frequent symptom (90%) with consequences on postnatal health regardless of whether the perineum remains intact. The impact of that pain on both short and long-term health has been studied and literature suggests midwives have a role to play in addressing this issue. However, the determinants of perineal pain when no lesions are identified are under researched and there is little understanding of women's views on this topic. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to gain an understanding of postpartum perineal pain when the perineum is considered to be intact. The objectives were •To gain an understanding of postpartum pain and its consequences on health and well-being •To explore women's views and understanding of perineal pain postpartum •To gain an understanding of the determinants of postpartum perineal pain when no anatomic lesion is diagnosed. METHODS: A Gadamerian hermeneutic approach was used to achieve a shared understanding of the issue. Participants were recruited from two maternity hospitals in the French area of Vaucluse. All women aged 18 to 45 years old, having given birth vaginally to a single live child and diagnosed with an intact perineum, were invited to participate in face-to-face interviews. Eleven participants were interviewed once, six of whom agreed to a second interview which took place over the telephone due to Covid lockdown. FINDINGS: The findings identified three major themes 1. Can't honestly call it pain, 2. Reassurance in normality, 3. Managing the unexpected. The use of the word pain to describe perineal sensations in postpartum was questioned by the participants, who used inner resources to deal with these sensations. Fostering self-confidence, having the possibility to explain the sensations and qualifying them as normal were some approaches women usedto manage their postpartum perineal sensations in a positive manner.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Períneo , Período Pós-Parto , Dor Pélvica , Episiotomia
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