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1.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 214: 153-167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473852

RESUMO

After more than a century of efforts to establish cancer immunotherapy in clinical practice, the advent of checkpoint inhibition (CPI) therapy was a critical breakthrough toward this direction (Hodi et al. in Cell Rep 13(2):412-424, 2010; Wolchok et al. in N Engl J Med 369(2):122-133, 2013; Herbst et al. in Nature 515(7528):563-567, 2014; Tumeh et al. in Nature 515(7528):568-571, 2014). Further, CPIs shifted the focus from long studied shared tumor-associated antigens to mutated ones. As cancer is caused by mutations in somatic cells, the concept to utilize these correlates of 'foreignness' to enable recognition and lysis of the cancer cell by T cell immunity seems an obvious thing to do.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Epitopos/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Humanos
2.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(5): 849-859, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661483

RESUMO

T cells play a key role in adaptive immunity reactions, recognizing antigens using variable TCRs. Functional TCR subunit genes are formed by somatic rearrangement, and some of the resulting TCRs recognize autoantigens, the body's own molecules. The autoreactive T cells that carry such TCRs pose a threat of inducing immune reactions against their own organism. In the course of the immune system's development, some autoreactive T lymphocytes are eliminated by apoptosis, some differentiate into immunosuppressive regulatory T cells, which support immunological tolerance to autoantigens, and the rest fall into a non-functional state of anergy. Suppression of effector T cells by regulatory T cells is mediated by immunosuppressive cytokines and costimulatory molecules, depletion of stimulating IL-2, removal of autoreactive peptides together with MHC molecules, and in other ways. Impairment of self-tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. However, the loss of immunological tolerance can be employed in tumor treatment, allowing immunotherapy and the use of the potential of autoreactive effector T cells. The fact that the efficacious immunotherapy of tumors is often accompanied by adverse autoimmune reactions currently seems to be the inevitable price paid by using this approach.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tolerância a Antígenos Próprios/imunologia
3.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 301-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507196

RESUMO

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes great economic loss to swine industry worldwide. Vaccination is an important method to control the TGEV infection. In this study, a TGEV oral vaccine was generated by transferring a eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmid carrying the SAD (A and D antigenic sites of the S protein) epitope of TGEV into a swine-origin Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus). In orally immunized BALB/c mice, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced significantly higher level of SIgA antibodies specific to TGEV compared with the mice immunized with a commercial inactivated TGEV vaccine and similar levels of IgG specific to TGEV as the inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced higher levels of IFN-γ, which suggested that the vaccine was able to induce immune response. In brief, this novel TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine could induce high levels of both mucosal and humoral immune responses, which has a potential to be used in the pig industries in the future. Keywords: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); live L. acidophilus oral vaccine; SIgA antibody; IgG antibody; IFN-γ; IL-4.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Epitopos , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível , Vacinas Virais , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/patologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus/genética , Lactobacillus acidophilus/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmídeos/genética , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5229-5242, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371958

RESUMO

Purpose: Dexamethasone (Dex) has long been used as a potent immunosuppressive agent in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, despite serious side effects. In the present study, Dex and model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) to deliver Dex and OVA preferentially to phagocytic cells, reducing systemic side effects of Dex. The OVA-specific immune tolerance-inducing activity of the nanoparticles (NPs) was examined. Methods: Polymeric NPs containing OVA and Dex (NP[OVA+Dex]) were prepared by the water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The effects of NP[OVA+Dex] on the maturation and function of immature dendritic cells (DCs) were examined in vitro. Furthermore, the OVA-specific immune tolerizing effects of NP[OVA+Dex] were confirmed in mice that were intravenously injected or orally fed with the NPs. Results: Immature DCs treated in vitro with NP[OVA+Dex] did not mature into immunogenic DCs but instead were converted into tolerogenic DCs. Furthermore, profoundly suppressed generation of OVA-specific cytotoxic T cells and production of OVA-specific IgG were observed in mice injected with NP[OVA+Dex], whereas regulatory T cells were concomitantly increased. Feeding of mice with NP[OVA+Dex] also induced OVA-specific immune tolerance. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that oral feeding as well as intravenous injection of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) NPs encapsulating both antigen and Dex is a useful means of inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance, which is crucial for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Antígenos/imunologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Nanopartículas/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/biossíntese , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
5.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(10): 1137-1144, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427818

RESUMO

The utility of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) therapies for tissue regeneration depends on reliable production of immunologically silent functional iPSC derivatives. However, rejection of autologous iPSC-derived cells has been reported, although the mechanism underlying rejection is largely unknown. We hypothesized that de novo mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which has far less reliable repair mechanisms than chromosomal DNA, might produce neoantigens capable of eliciting immune recognition and rejection. Here we present evidence in mice and humans that nonsynonymous mtDNA mutations can arise and become enriched during reprogramming to the iPSC stage, long-term culture and differentiation into target cells. These mtDNA mutations encode neoantigens that provoke an immune response that is highly specific and dependent on the host major histocompatibility complex genotype. Our results reveal that autologous iPSCs and their derivatives are not inherently immunologically inert for autologous transplantation and suggest that iPSC-derived products should be screened for mtDNA mutations.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Animais , Antígenos , Transplante de Células/métodos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Transplante Autólogo
6.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(10): 102367, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404705

RESUMO

Aggregation of immuno-proteomic data reveals that i) herpesviruses and synaptic proteins -in particular Synapsin-1 and Bassoon - share a large number of hexapeptides that also recur in hundreds of epitopes experimentally validated as immunopositive in the human host, and ii) the shared peptides are also spread among human epilepsy-related proteins. The data indicate that cross-reactive processes may be associated with pathogenetic mechanisms in epilepsy, thus suggesting a role of autoimmunity in etiopathology of epilepsies after herpesvirus-infections.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/imunologia , Epilepsia/etiologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Herpes Simples/complicações , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Sinapsinas/imunologia , Animais , Reações Cruzadas , Epilepsia/patologia , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Humanos
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10458-10469, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469568

RESUMO

Mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) is a commonly consumed seafood as a result of its high nutritional value; however, it is associated with food allergy. The current understanding of crab allergens remains insufficient. In the present study, an 18 kDa protein was purified from crab muscle and confirmed to be myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Total RNA was isolated and amplified to obtain a MLC1 open reading frame of 462 bp, encoding 154 amino acids. A structural analysis revealed that recombinant MLC1 (rMLC1) expressed in Escherichia coli contained α-helix and random coil. Moreover, rMLC1 displayed strong immunoactivity by dot blot and a basophil activation test. Furthermore, seven allergenic epitopes of MLC1 were predicted, and five critical epitope regions were identified by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and human mast cell degranulation assay. This comprehensive research of an allergen helps to conduct component-resolved diagnoses and immunotherapies related to crab allergies.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Braquiúros/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Epitopos/imunologia , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/imunologia , Alérgenos/química , Alérgenos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Braquiúros/química , Braquiúros/imunologia , Degranulação Celular , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Humanos , Mastócitos/imunologia , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/química , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Alinhamento de Sequência
8.
Immunogenetics ; 71(7): 479-487, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270568

RESUMO

Xenotransplantation of pig organs into people may help alleviate the critical shortage of donors which faces organ transplantation. Unfortunately, human antibodies vigorously attack pig tissues preventing the clinical application of xenotransplantation. The swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), homologs of human HLA molecules, can be xenoantigens. SLA molecules, encoded by genes in the pig major histocompatibility complex, contribute to protective immune responses in pig. Therefore, simply inactivating them through genome engineering could reduce the ability of the human immune system to surveil transplanted pig organs for infectious disease or the development of neoplasms. A potential solution to this problem is to identify and modify epitopes in SLA proteins to eliminate their contribution to humoral xenoantigenicity while retaining their biosynthetic competence and ability to contribute to protective immunity. We previously showed that class II SLA proteins were recognized as xenoantigens and mutating arginine at position 55 to proline, in an SLA-DQ beta chain, could reduce human antibody binding. Here, we extend these observations by creating several additional point mutants at position 55. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for class II SLA proteins, we show that these mutants remain biosynthetically competent. Examining antibody binding to these variants shows that point mutagenesis can reduce, eliminate, or increase antibody binding to class II SLA proteins. Individual mutations can have opposite effects on antibody binding when comparing samples from different people. We also performed a preliminary analysis of creating point mutants near to position 55 to demonstrate that manipulating additional residues also affects antibody reactivity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Epitopos/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos Heterófilos/genética , Arginina/genética , Células HEK293 , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação Puntual , Suínos
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3017, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289267

RESUMO

Differences among hosts, resulting from genetic variation in the immune system or heterogeneity in drug treatment, can impact within-host pathogen evolution. Genetic association studies can potentially identify such interactions. However, extensive and correlated genetic population structure in hosts and pathogens presents a substantial risk of confounding analyses. Moreover, the multiple testing burden of interaction scanning can potentially limit power. We present a Bayesian approach for detecting host influences on pathogen evolution that exploits vast existing data sets of pathogen diversity to improve power and control for stratification. The approach models key processes, including recombination and selection, and identifies regions of the pathogen genome affected by host factors. Our simulations and empirical analysis of drug-induced selection on the HIV-1 genome show that the method recovers known associations and has superior precision-recall characteristics compared to other approaches. We build a high-resolution map of HLA-induced selection in the HIV-1 genome, identifying novel epitope-allele combinations.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , HIV-1/genética , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Epitopos/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Genoma Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Recombinação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Recombinação Genética/imunologia , Seleção Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Seleção Genética/imunologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3068, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296843

RESUMO

Most neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike glycoprotein and block its binding to the cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). The epitopes and mechanisms of mAbs targeting non-RBD regions have not been well characterized yet. Here we report the monoclonal antibody 7D10 that binds to the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike glycoprotein and inhibits the cell entry of MERS-CoV with high potency. Structure determination and mutagenesis experiments reveal the epitope and critical residues on the NTD for 7D10 binding and neutralization. Further experiments indicate that the neutralization by 7D10 is not solely dependent on the inhibition of DPP4 binding, but also acts after viral cell attachment, inhibiting the pre-fusion to post-fusion conformational change of the spike. These properties give 7D10 a wide neutralization breadth and help explain its synergistic effects with several RBD-targeting antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/ultraestrutura , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/ultraestrutura , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cercopithecus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/metabolismo , Testes de Neutralização , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/ultraestrutura , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1140: 377-388, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347059

RESUMO

Identifying antigen-antibody interactions have been shown as a critical step in understanding the proteins biological functions and their involvement in various pathological conditions. While many techniques have been developed to characterize antigen-antibody interactions, one strategy that has gained considerable momentum over the last decade for the identification and quantification of antigen-antibody interactions, is immune affinity-chromatography followed by mass spectrometry. Moreover, the combination of enzymatic digestion of antigens and mass spectrometric identification of specific binding peptide(s) to the corresponding anti-antigen antibody has become a versatile and clinical relevant method for mapping epitopes by mass spectrometry. In this chapter, the development and applications of novel immunoaffinity mass spectrometric methodologies for elucidating biomedical aspects will be presented. First, a simplified mass spectrometric approach that maps an epitope from a digested antigen solution without immobilizing the anti-antigen antibody on a solid support will be reported. iMALDI (from immunoaffinity and MALDI, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization), a technique that involves immunoaffinity capture of specific peptides and direct MALDI measurements was used for absolute quantification of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (AKT) peptides from breast cancer and colon cancer cell lines and flash-frozen tumor lysates. The intact transition epitope mapping (ITEM) was shown as a rapid and accurate epitope mapping method by using Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) for analysing the antigen peptide-containing immune complex previously generated by in solution epitope extraction/excision procedures.


Assuntos
Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/análise , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Peptídeos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/análise , Epitopos , Humanos
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2947, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270320

RESUMO

To expand the toolbox of imaging in living cells, we have engineered a single-chain variable fragment binding the linear HA epitope with high affinity and specificity in vivo. The resulting probe, called the HA frankenbody, can light up in multiple colors HA-tagged nuclear, cytoplasmic, membrane, and mitochondrial proteins in diverse cell types. The HA frankenbody also enables state-of-the-art single-molecule experiments in living cells, which we demonstrate by tracking single HA-tagged histones in U2OS cells and single mRNA translation dynamics in both U2OS cells and neurons. Together with the SunTag, we also track two mRNA species simultaneously to demonstrate comparative single-molecule studies of translation can now be done with genetically encoded tools alone. Finally, we use the HA frankenbody to precisely quantify the expression of HA-tagged proteins in developing zebrafish embryos. The versatility of the HA frankenbody makes it a powerful tool for imaging protein dynamics in vivo.


Assuntos
Epitopos/metabolismo , Sondas Moleculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/metabolismo , Coloração e Rotulagem , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
13.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109889, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307671

RESUMO

Blocking immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding receptors on leukocytes is an established and highly recommended preventive procedure for immunological assays. Failing to prevent such nonspecific binding can lead to erroneous results. Several studies testing different blocking reagents have been performed in murine or human cells, however, there are no specific studies on bovine cells. Our study aimed to investigate the efficiency of blocking reagents to inhibit the nonspecific binding of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to bovine peripheral blood cells. We observed nonspecific interactions of IgG2a and IgG2b negative isotypes with bovine leukocytes, but not IgG1. We found that these nonspecific bindings could be eliminated by blocking with purified mouse IgG, whereas little or no blocking effect was observed when bovine serum or Mouse Seroblock FcR were applied. Moreover, in the absence of an efficient blocking reagent, the percentage of CD335 positive cells was significantly higher than in the group previously blocked with mouse IgG. Based on these results, and due to the lack of specific commercial blocking reagents for bovine cells, our recommendation is to use purified mouse IgG as a blocking reagent for immune assays targeting bovine leukocytes in order to enhance the accuracy of the results.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Receptores Fc/imunologia , Erro Experimental , Animais , Bovinos , Epitopos/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/isolamento & purificação , Imunofenotipagem/normas , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 387, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioinformatics methods are helpful to identify new molecules for diagnostic or therapeutic applications. For example, the use of peptides capable of mimicking binding sites has several benefits in replacing a protein which is difficult to produce, or toxic. Using peptides is less expensive. Peptides are easier to manipulate, and can be used as drugs. Continuous epitopes predicted by bioinformatics tools are commonly used and these sequential epitopes are used as is in further experiments. Numerous discontinuous epitope predictors have been developed but only two bioinformatics tools have been proposed so far to predict peptide sequences: Superficial and PEPOP 2.0. PEPOP 2.0 can generate series of peptide sequences that can replace continuous or discontinuous epitopes in their interaction with their cognate antibody. RESULTS: We have developed an improved version of PEPOP (PEPOP 2.0) dedicated to answer to experimentalists' need for a tool able to handle proteins and to turn them into peptides. The PEPOP 2.0 web site has been reorganized by peptide prediction category and is therefore better formulated to experimental designs. Since the first version of PEPOP, 32 new methods of peptide design were developed. In total, PEPOP 2.0 proposes 35 methods in which 34 deal specifically with discontinuous epitopes, the most represented epitope type in nature. CONCLUSION: Through the presentation of its user-friendly, well-structured new web site conceived in close proximity to experimentalists, we report original methods that show how PEPOP 2.0 can assist biologists in dealing with discontinuous epitopes.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Epitopos/metabolismo , Software , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Epitopos/química , Soros Imunes , Internet , Camundongos , Peptídeos/sangue , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/imunologia , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas/química
15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(7): 1174-1183, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328474

RESUMO

With the rapid development of antibody genetic engineering, bispecific antibody technology has been advanced. They are capable of binding two or more different epitopes simultaneously, thus offering specific advantages over natural monoclonal antibodies in immunotherapy. Bispecific antibodies have been successfully used in cancer therapy (e.g. melanoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, liver cancer, and stomach cancer) and inflammation therapy (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and Crohn's disease), but are still in their early stage for viral immunotherapy. In this study, we reviewed the research progress of bispecific antibodies for immunotherapy of virus infections, especially those with good effects in vivo and in vitro, to provide references for the research and development of bispecific antibodies for antivirus treatment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Viroses , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Epitopos , Humanos , Imunoterapia
17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(67): 9927-9930, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334708

RESUMO

Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the upstream signaling pathway but accounts for less than 0.1% of total phosphorylation in human cells. Herein, molecularly imprinted mesoporous materials were first synthesized to recognize the phosphorylated tyrosine residue from other phosphorylated residues.


Assuntos
Epitopos , Impressão Molecular , Nanopartículas/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Tirosina/metabolismo , Adsorção , Cinética , Fosfopeptídeos/química , Fosforilação , Porosidade , Titânio/química
18.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 256-265, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207549

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease with an etiology that is not yet well understood, disproportionally affects women and also varies in incidence and prevalence by population. The presence of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) is a highly specific biomarker for the diagnosis of clinically apparent RA. ACPA are also present in the serum for an average of 3-5 years prior to the onset of RA during an asymptomatic period characterized by mucosal inflammation and local ACPA production at these sites. We hypothesized that systemic complement activation products might be generated during the pre-clinical initiation of RA and/or provide a second hit that promotes subsequent arthritis development in the joints. In addition, we evaluated which demographic and genetic features and environmental exposures could influence the complement activation process. We analyzed plasma from healthy subjects, subjects at-risk for the development of RA based on serum ACPA positivity in absence of inflammatory arthritis (IA), and ACPA positive RA subjects by Multiplex Assay and ELISA for eighteen complement system components, factors and activation products belonging to the classical, lectin and alternative pathways. By using regression models, associations between complement proteins and various demographic, genetic, and environmental factors previously found to be associated with RA, including sex, smoking, shared epitope, and oral contraceptive use, were examined. We found no evidence of systemic complement activation in ACPA positive subjects without IA, but in contrast found evidence of systemic involvement of the both classical and alternative pathways during the stage of the disease where classified RA is present, (i.e. during joint inflammation and damage). With regard to the demographic, genetic, and environmental variables, females who reported current or past oral contraceptive use and subjects with current tobacco exposure demonstrated alterations of the alternative pathway of complement. Furthermore, RA subjects with established disease who have a body mass index categorized as obese demonstrated higher levels of C2 compared to RA subjects who are not considered obese. In sum, the complement system may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA, with only localized mucosal effects during the preclinical period in those at-risk for RA but in the joint as well as systemically in those who have developed clinically apparent arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Proteína Citrulinada/imunologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/imunologia , Tabaco/imunologia
19.
Immunity ; 50(6): 1530-1541.e8, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216462

RESUMO

Rapidly evolving RNA viruses, such as the GII.4 strain of human norovirus (HuNoV), and their vaccines elicit complex serological responses associated with previous exposure. Specific correlates of protection, moreover, remain poorly understood. Here, we report the GII.4-serological antibody repertoire-pre- and post-vaccination-and select several antibody clonotypes for epitope and structural analysis. The humoral response was dominated by GII.4-specific antibodies that blocked ancestral strains or by antibodies that bound to divergent genotypes and did not block viral-entry-ligand interactions. However, one antibody, A1431, showed broad blockade toward tested GII.4 strains and neutralized the pandemic GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney strain. Structural mapping revealed conserved epitopes, which were occluded on the virion or partially exposed, allowing for broad blockade with neutralizing activity. Overall, our results provide high-resolution molecular information on humoral immune responses after HuNoV vaccination and demonstrate that infection-derived and vaccine-elicited antibodies can exhibit broad blockade and neutralization against this prevalent human pathogen.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Norovirus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Sequência Conservada , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Norovirus/classificação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vacinação
20.
Oncology ; 97(3): 135-148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have developed a Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1)-targeting dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine combined with standard chemotherapy for patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). METHODS: We evaluated predictive markers of overall survival (OS) in PDA patients treated with multiple major histocompatibility complex class I/II-restricted, WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccinations (DC/WT1-I/II) in combination with chemotherapy. Throughout the entire period of immunochemotherapy, the plasma levels of soluble factors derived from granulocytes of 7 eligible PDA patients were examined. Moreover, systemic inflammatory response markers (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio [NLR], monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio [MLR], and granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio [GLR]) were assessed. In addition, cytoplasmic WT1 expression in PDA cells was examined. RESULTS: Compared to the 4 non-super-responders (OS <1 year), the remaining 3 super-responders (OS ≥1 year) showed significantly decreased low plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels throughout long-term therapy. The NLR, MLR, and GLR after 5 DC/WT1-I/II vaccinations and 3 cycles of gemcitabine were significantly lower in the super-responders than in the non-super-responders. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic WT1 expression in the PDA cells of super-responders was relatively weak compared to that in the PDA cells of non-super-responders. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged low levels of a granulocyte-related systemic inflammatory response after the early period of therapy and low cytoplasmic WT1 expression in PDA cells may be markers predictive of OS in PDA patients receiving WT1-targeting immunochemotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Proteínas WT1/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação , Proteínas WT1/genética
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