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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18995, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149224

RESUMO

The current pandemic is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and large progress in understanding the pathology of the virus has been made since its emergence in late 2019. Several reports indicate short lasting immunity against endemic coronaviruses, which contrasts studies showing that biobanked venous blood contains T cells reactive to SARS-CoV-2 S-protein even before the outbreak in Wuhan. This suggests a preformed T cell memory towards structural proteins in individuals not exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Given the similarity of SARS-CoV-2 to other members of the Coronaviridae family, the endemic coronaviruses appear likely candidates to generate this T cell memory. However, given the apparent poor immunological memory created by the endemic coronaviruses, immunity against other common pathogens might offer an alternative explanation. Here, we utilize a combination of epitope prediction and similarity to common human pathogens to identify potential sources of the SARS-CoV-2 T cell memory. Although beta-coronaviruses are the most likely candidates to explain the pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells in uninfected individuals, the SARS-CoV-2 epitopes with the highest similarity to those from beta-coronaviruses are confined to replication associated proteins-not the host interacting S-protein. Thus, our study suggests that the observed SARS-CoV-2 pre-formed immunity to structural proteins is not driven by near-identical epitopes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Epitopos/química , Humanos , Pandemias , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/química
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057358

RESUMO

The causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control (China CDC) has been identified as a novel Betacoronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). A computational approach was adopted to identify multiepitope vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 based on S, N and M proteins being able to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study, the sequence of the virus was obtained from NCBI database and analyzed with in silico tools such as NetMHCpan, IEDB, BepiPred, NetCTL, Tap transport/proteasomal cleavage, Pa3P, GalexyPepDock, I-TASSER, Ellipro and ClusPro. To identify the most immunodominant regions, after analysis of population coverage and epitope conservancy, we proposed three different constructs based on linear B-cell, CTL and HTL epitopes. The 3D structure of constructs was assessed to find discontinuous B-cell epitopes. Among CTL predicted epitopes, S257-265, S603-611 and S360-368, and among HTL predicted epitopes, N167-181, S313-330 and S1110-1126 had better MHC binding rank. We found one putative CTL epitope, S360-368 related to receptor-binding domain (RBD) region for S protein. The predicted epitopes were non-allergen and showed a high quality of proteasomal cleavage and Tap transport efficiency and 100% conservancy within four different clades of SARS-CoV-2. For CTL and HTL epitopes, the highest population coverage of the world's population was calculated for S27-37 with 86.27% and for S196-231, S303-323, S313-330, S1009-1030 and N328-349 with 90.33%, respectively. We identified overall 10 discontinuous B-cell epitopes for three multiepitope constructs. All three constructs showed strong interactions with TLRs 2, 3 and 4 supporting the hypothesis of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility to TLRs 2, 3 and 4 like other Coronaviridae families. These data demonstrated that the novel designed multiepitope constructs can contribute to develop SARS-CoV-2 peptide vaccine candidates. The in vivo studies are underway using several vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epitopos/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Epitopos/química , Antígenos HLA/química , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/química , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Receptores Toll-Like/química , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Vacinas de Subunidades/química , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17806, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082473

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emergent coronavirus, which has adversely impacted human health and has led to the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an unmet need to develop therapies against SARS-CoV-2 due to its severity and lack of treatment options. A promising approach to combat COVID-19 is through the neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 by therapeutic antibodies. Previously, we described a strategy to rapidly identify and generate llama nanobodies (VHH) from naïve and synthetic humanized VHH phage libraries that specifically bind the S1 SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and block the interaction with the human ACE2 receptor. In this study we used computer-aided design to construct multi-specific VHH antibodies fused to human IgG1 Fc domains based on the epitope predictions for leading VHHs. The resulting tri-specific VHH-Fc antibodies show more potent S1 binding, S1/ACE2 blocking, and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization than the bi-specific VHH-Fcs or combination of individual monoclonal VHH-Fcs. Furthermore, protein stability analysis of the VHH-Fcs shows favorable developability features, which enable them to be quickly and successfully developed into therapeutics against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/genética , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Testes de Neutralização , Pandemias , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estabilidade Proteica , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5253, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067459

RESUMO

Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-neutralizing antibodies correlate with protection and have potential as therapeutic agents. We isolate and characterize a panel of plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies from an infected child whose antibody response focuses on the plateau epitope near the icosahedral 3-fold axes. Eight of a total of 19 antibodies target this epitope and three of these potently neutralize the virus. Representative neutralizing antibodies 38-1-10A and 38-3-11A both confer effective protection against lethal EV71 challenge in hSCARB2-transgenic mice. The cryo-electron microscopy structures of the EV71 virion in complex with Fab fragments of these potent and protective antibodies reveal the details of a conserved epitope formed by residues in the BC and HI loops of VP2 and the BC and HI loops of VP3 spanning the region around the 3-fold axis. Remarkably, the two antibodies interact with the epitope in quite distinct ways. These plateau-binding antibodies provide templates for promising candidate therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Enterovirus Humano A/imunologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Enterovirus Humano A/química , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Testes de Neutralização
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5278, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077712

RESUMO

There are no licensed therapeutics or vaccines available against Zika virus (ZIKV) to counteract its potential for congenital disease. Antibody-based countermeasures targeting the ZIKV envelope protein have been hampered by concerns for cross-reactive responses that induce antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of heterologous flavivirus infection. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a membrane-associated and secreted glycoprotein that functions in flavivirus replication and immune evasion but is absent from the virion. Although some studies suggest that antibodies against ZIKV NS1 are protective, their activity during congenital infection is unknown. Here we develop mouse and human anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies that protect against ZIKV in both non-pregnant and pregnant mice. Avidity of antibody binding to cell-surface NS1 along with Fc effector functions engagement correlate with protection in vivo. Protective mAbs map to exposed epitopes in the wing domain and loop face of the ß-platform. Anti-NS1 antibodies provide an alternative strategy for protection against congenital ZIKV infection without causing ADE.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Zika virus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Anticorpos Facilitadores , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Zika virus/química , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16219, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004978

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in 16,114,449 cases with 646,641 deaths from the 217 countries, or territories as on July 27th 2020. Due to multifaceted issues and challenges in the implementation of the safety and preventive measures, inconsistent coordination between societies-governments and most importantly lack of specific vaccine to SARS-CoV-2, the spread of the virus that initially emerged at Wuhan is still uprising after taking a heavy toll on human life. In the present study, we mapped immunogenic epitopes present on the four structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and we designed a multi-epitope peptide based vaccine that, demonstrated a high immunogenic response with a vast application on world's human population. On codon optimization and in-silico cloning, we found that candidate vaccine showed high expression in E. coli and immune simulation resulted in inducing a high level of both B-cell and T-cell mediated immunity. The results predicted that exposure of vaccine by administrating three injections significantly subsidized the antigen growth in the system. The proposed candidate vaccine found promising by yielding desired results and hence, should be validated by practical experimentations for its functioning and efficacy to neutralize SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Epitopos/imunologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/química , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epitopos/química , Antígenos HLA/química , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/química , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/química , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/química
7.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4339-4354, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892628

RESUMO

Emergence and re-emergence of pathogens bearing the risk of becoming a pandemic threat are on the rise. Increased travel and trade, growing population density, changes in urbanization, and climate have a critical impact on infectious disease spread. Currently, the world is confronted with the emergence of a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, responsible for yet more than 800 000 deaths globally. Outbreaks caused by viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, HIV, Ebola, influenza, and Zika, have increased over the past decade, underlining the need for a rapid development of diagnostics and vaccines. Hence, the rational identification of biomarkers for diagnostic measures on the one hand, and antigenic targets for vaccine development on the other, are of utmost importance. Peptide microarrays can display large numbers of putative target proteins translated into overlapping linear (and cyclic) peptides for a multiplexed, high-throughput antibody analysis. This enabled for example the identification of discriminant/diagnostic epitopes in Zika or influenza and mapping epitope evolution in natural infections versus vaccinations. In this review, we highlight synthesis platforms that facilitate fast and flexible generation of high-density peptide microarrays. We further outline the multifaceted applications of these peptide array platforms for the development of serological tests and vaccines to quickly encounter pandemic threats.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos , Pandemias , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4398-4406, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931291

RESUMO

Presentation of antigenic peptides by MHCI is central to cellular immune responses against viral pathogens. While adaptive immune responses versus SARS-CoV-2 can be of critical importance to both recovery and vaccine efficacy, how protein antigens from this pathogen are processed to generate antigenic peptides is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the proteolytic processing of overlapping precursor peptides spanning the entire sequence of the S1 spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, by three key enzymes that generate antigenic peptides, aminopeptidases ERAP1, ERAP2, and IRAP. All enzymes generated shorter peptides with sequences suitable for binding onto HLA alleles, but with distinct specificity fingerprints. ERAP1 was the most efficient in generating peptides 8-11 residues long, the optimal length for HLA binding, while IRAP was the least efficient. The combination of ERAP1 with ERAP2 greatly limited the variability of peptide sequences produced. Less than 7% of computationally predicted epitopes were found to be produced experimentally, suggesting that aminopeptidase processing may constitute a significant filter to epitope presentation. These experimentally generated putative epitopes could be prioritized for SARS-CoV-2 immunogenicity studies and vaccine design. We furthermore propose that this in vitro trimming approach could constitute a general filtering method to enhance the prediction robustness for viral antigenic epitopes.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/metabolismo , Antígenos Virais , Epitopos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Antígenos HLA/química , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Cell ; 183(4): 1013-1023.e13, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970990

RESUMO

Understanding how potent neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) inhibit SARS-CoV-2 is critical for effective therapeutic development. We previously described BD-368-2, a SARS-CoV-2 NAb with high potency; however, its neutralization mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we report the 3.5-Å cryo-EM structure of BD-368-2/trimeric-spike complex, revealing that BD-368-2 fully blocks ACE2 recognition by occupying all three receptor-binding domains (RBDs) simultaneously, regardless of their "up" or "down" conformations. Also, BD-368-2 treats infected adult hamsters at low dosages and at various administering windows, in contrast to placebo hamsters that manifested severe interstitial pneumonia. Moreover, BD-368-2's epitope completely avoids the common binding site of VH3-53/VH3-66 recurrent NAbs, evidenced by tripartite co-crystal structures with RBDs. Pairing BD-368-2 with a potent recurrent NAb neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus at pM level and rescues mutation-induced neutralization escapes. Together, our results rationalized a new RBD epitope that leads to high neutralization potency and demonstrated BD-368-2's therapeutic potential in treating COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Sítios de Ligação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cricetinae , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
10.
Cell ; 183(4): 1024-1042.e21, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991844

RESUMO

Analysis of the specificity and kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial for understanding immune protection and identifying targets for vaccine design. In a cohort of 647 SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects, we found that both the magnitude of Ab responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleoprotein and nAb titers correlate with clinical scores. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) is immunodominant and the target of 90% of the neutralizing activity present in SARS-CoV-2 immune sera. Whereas overall RBD-specific serum IgG titers waned with a half-life of 49 days, nAb titers and avidity increased over time for some individuals, consistent with affinity maturation. We structurally defined an RBD antigenic map and serologically quantified serum Abs specific for distinct RBD epitopes leading to the identification of two major receptor-binding motif antigenic sites. Our results explain the immunodominance of the receptor-binding motif and will guide the design of COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Cinética , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903266

RESUMO

A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is the source of a current pandemic (COVID-19) with devastating consequences in public health and economic stability. Using a peptide array to map the antibody response of plasma from healing patients (12) and heathy patients (6), we identified three immunodominant linear epitopes, two of which correspond to key proteolytic sites on the spike protein (S1/S2 and S2') known to be critical for cellular entry. We show biochemical evidence that plasma positive for the epitope adjacent to the S1/S2 cleavage site inhibits furin-mediated proteolysis of spike.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Epitopos/química , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/sangue , Epitopos/imunologia , Furina/metabolismo , Humanos , Pandemias , Ácidos Nucleicos Peptídicos/química , Peptídeos/química , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteólise , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 212, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963228

RESUMO

The outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, respectively, have posed severe threats to global public health and the economy. Treatment and prevention of these viral diseases call for the research and development of human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NMAbs). Scientists have screened neutralizing antibodies using the virus receptor-binding domain (RBD) as an antigen, indicating that RBD contains multiple conformational neutralizing epitopes, which are the main structural domains for inducing neutralizing antibodies and T-cell immune responses. This review summarizes the structure and function of RBD and RBD-specific NMAbs against SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 currently under development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/biossíntese , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Vírion/imunologia , Vírion/ultraestrutura
13.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(10): 1095-1097, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895485
14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(19): 8084-8093, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885971

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is a health threat with dire socioeconomical consequences. As the crucial mediator of infection, the viral glycosylated spike protein (S) has attracted the most attention and is at the center of efforts to develop therapeutics and diagnostics. Herein, we use an original decomposition approach to identify energetically uncoupled substructures as antibody binding sites on the fully glycosylated S. Crucially, all that is required are unbiased MD simulations; no prior knowledge of binding properties or ad hoc parameter combinations is needed. Our results are validated by experimentally confirmed structures of S in complex with anti- or nanobodies. We identify poorly coupled subdomains that are poised to host (several) epitopes and potentially involved in large functional conformational transitions. Moreover, we detect two distinct behaviors for glycans: those with stronger energetic coupling are structurally relevant and protect underlying peptidic epitopes, and those with weaker coupling could themselves be prone to antibody recognition.


Assuntos
Epitopos/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus/química , Sítios de Ligação de Anticorpos , Glicosilação , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/química
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239785, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976525

RESUMO

Porcine rubulavirus (PRV), which belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae, causes blue eye disease in pigs, characterized by encephalitis and reproductive failure in newborn and adult pigs, respectively. There is no effective treatment against PRV and no information on the effectiveness of the available vaccines. Continuous outbreaks have occurred in Mexico since the early 1980s, which have caused serious economic losses to pig producers. Vaccination can be used to control this disease. Searching for effective antigen candidates against PRV, we first sequenced the PAC1 F protein, then we used various immunoinformatics tools to predict antigenic determinants of B-cells and T-cells against the two glycoproteins of the virus (HN and F proteins). Finally, we used AutoDock Vina to determine the binding energies. We obtained the F gene sequence of a PRV strain collected in the early 1990s in Mexico and compared its amino acid profile with previous and more recent strains, obtaining an identity similarity of 97.78 to 99.26%. For the F proteins, seven linear B-cell epitopes, six conformational B-cell epitopes and twenty-nine T-cell MHC class I epitopes were predicted. For the HN proteins, sixteen linear B-cell epitopes, seven conformational B-cell epitopes and thirty-four T-cell MHC class I epitopes were predicted. The ATRSETDYY and AAYTTTTCF epitopes of the HN protein might be important for neutralizing the viral infection. We determined the in silico binding energy between the predicted epitopes on the F and HN proteins and swine MHC-I molecules. The binding energy of these epitopes ranged from -5.8 to -7.8 kcal/mol. The present study aimed to assess the use of HN and F proteins as antigens, either as recombinant proteins or as a series of peptides that could activate different responses of the immune system. This may help identify relevant immunogens, saving time and costs in the development of new vaccines or diagnostic tools.


Assuntos
Epitopos/química , Proteína HN/imunologia , Rubulavirus/imunologia , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Epitopos/imunologia , Proteína HN/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Suínos , Células Vero , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/química
16.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2301-2309, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757056

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a major pathogen associated with swine diseases. It is the smallest single-stranded DNA virus, and its genome contains four major open reading frames (ORFs). ORF2 encodes the major structural protein Cap, which can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro and contains the primary antigenic determinants. In this study, we developed a high-efficiency method for obtaining VLPs and optimized the purification conditions. In this method, we expressed the protein Cap with a 6× His tag using baculovirus-infected silkworm larvae as well as the E. coli BL21(DE3) prokaryotic expression system. The PCV2 Cap proteins produced by the silkworm larvae and E. coli BL21(DE3) were purified. Cap proteins purified from silkworm larvae self-assembled into VLPs in vitro, while the Cap proteins purified from bacteria were unable to self-assemble. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the self-assembly of VLPs. The immunogenicity of the VLPs produced using the baculovirus system was demonstrated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, the purification process was optimized. The results demonstrated that the expression system using baculovirus-infected silkworm larvae is a good choice for obtaining VLPs of PCV2 and has potential for the development of a low-cost and efficient vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Baculoviridae/genética , Bombyx/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Circovirus/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/biossíntese , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese , Animais , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Baculoviridae/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/biossíntese , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/genética , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Histidina/genética , Histidina/imunologia , Soros Imunes/química , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Larva/virologia , Camundongos , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Oligopeptídeos/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/genética , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/isolamento & purificação
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008736, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745149

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the main causative agents of congenital viral infection in neonates. HCMV infection also causes serious morbidity and mortality among organ transplant patients. Glycoprotein B (gB) is a major target for HCMV neutralizing antibodies, yet the underlying neutralization mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we report that 3-25, a gB-specific monoclonal antibody previously isolated from a healthy HCMV-positive donor, efficiently neutralized 14 HCMV strains in both ARPE-19 cells and MRC-5 cells. The core epitope of 3-25 was mapped to a highly conserved linear epitope on antigenic domain 2 (AD-2) of gB. A 1.8 Å crystal structure of 3-25 Fab in complex with the peptide epitope revealed the molecular determinants of 3-25 binding to gB at atomic resolution. Negative-staining electron microscopy (EM) 3D reconstruction of 3-25 Fab in complex with de-glycosylated postfusion gB showed that 3-25 Fab fully occupied the gB trimer at the N-terminus with flexible binding angles. Functionally, 3-25 efficiently inhibited HCMV infection at a post-attachment step by interfering with viral membrane fusion, and restricted post-infection viral spreading in ARPE-19 cells. Interestingly, bivalency was required for HCMV neutralization by AD-2 specific antibody 3-25 but not the AD-4 specific antibody LJP538. In contrast, bivalency was not required for HCMV binding by both antibodies. Taken together, our results reveal the structural basis of gB recognition by 3-25 and demonstrate that inhibition of viral membrane fusion and a requirement of bivalency may be common for gB AD-2 specific neutralizing antibody.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Sequência Conservada , Citomegalovirus/química , Citomegalovirus/genética , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Internalização do Vírus
18.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 70, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has created an urgency to identify novel vaccine targets for protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Early reports identify protective roles for both humoral and cell-mediated immunity for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We leveraged our bioinformatics binding prediction tools for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-I and HLA-II alleles that were developed using mass spectrometry-based profiling of individual HLA-I and HLA-II alleles to predict peptide binding to diverse allele sets. We applied these binding predictors to viral genomes from the Coronaviridae family and specifically focused on T cell epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 proteins. We assayed a subset of these epitopes in a T cell induction assay for their ability to elicit CD8+ T cell responses. RESULTS: We first validated HLA-I and HLA-II predictions on Coronaviridae family epitopes deposited in the Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR) database. We then utilized our HLA-I and HLA-II predictors to identify 11,897 HLA-I and 8046 HLA-II candidate peptides which were highly ranked for binding across 13 open reading frames (ORFs) of SARS-CoV-2. These peptides are predicted to provide over 99% allele coverage for the US, European, and Asian populations. From our SARS-CoV-2-predicted peptide-HLA-I allele pairs, 374 pairs identically matched what was previously reported in the ViPR database, originating from other coronaviruses with identical sequences. Of these pairs, 333 (89%) had a positive HLA binding assay result, reinforcing the validity of our predictions. We then demonstrated that a subset of these highly predicted epitopes were immunogenic based on their recognition by specific CD8+ T cells in healthy human donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Finally, we characterized the expression of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in virally infected cells to prioritize those which could be potential targets for T cell immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Using our bioinformatics platform, we identify multiple putative epitopes that are potential targets for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, whose HLA binding properties cover nearly the entire population. We also confirm that our binding predictors can predict epitopes eliciting CD8+ T cell responses from multiple SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Protein expression and population HLA allele coverage, combined with the ability to identify T cell epitopes, should be considered in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design strategies and immune monitoring.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Alelos , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Biologia Computacional , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Genoma Viral , Antígenos HLA/química , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Espectrometria de Massas , Pandemias , Vacinas Virais/química , Vacinas Virais/genética
19.
Biophys Chem ; 265: 106441, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745829

RESUMO

The possibility of immobilizing a protein with antigenic properties on a solid support offers significant possibilities in the development of immunosensors and vaccine formulations. For both applications, the orientation of the antigen should ensure ready accessibility of the antibodies to the epitope. However, an experimental assessment of the orientational preferences necessarily proceeds through the preparation/isolation of the antigen, the immobilization on different surfaces and one or more biophysical characterization steps. To predict a priori whether favorable orientations can be achieved or not would allow one to select the most promising experimental routes, partly mitigating the time cost towards the final product. In this manuscript, we apply a simple computational model, based on united-residue modelling, to the prediction of the orientation of the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on surfaces commonly used in lateral-flow devices. These calculations can account for the experimental observation that direct immobilization on gold gives sufficient exposure of the epitope to obtain a response in immunochemical assays.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Epitopos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Antígenos/química , Antígenos/imunologia , Antígenos/metabolismo , Epitopos/imunologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Domínios Proteicos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 871-883, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682041

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused COVID-19 disease in China. So far, no vaccine has licensed to protect against infection with COVID-19, therefore an effective COVID-19 vaccine needed. The aim of this study was to predict antigenic peptides of SARS-CoV-2 for designing the COVID-19 vaccine using immunoinformatic analysis. In this study, T and B-cell epitopes of S protein were predicted and screened based on the antigenicity, toxicity, allergenicity, and cross-reactivity with human proteomes. The epitopes were joined by the appropriate linker. LT-IIc as an adjuvant was attached to the end of the structure. The secondary and 3D structure of the vaccine was predicted. The refinement process was performed to improve the quality of the 3D model structure; the validation process is performed using the Ramachandran plot and ProSA z-score. The proposed vaccine's binding affinity to the HLA-A11:01 and HLA-DRB1_01:01 molecule was evaluated by molecular docking. Using molecular dynamics, the stability of vaccine-HLA complexes was also evaluated. Finally, in silico gene cloning was performed in the pET30a (+) vector. The findings suggest that the current vaccine may be a promising vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epitopos/química , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/química , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Conformação Proteica , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/química
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