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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1781, 2021 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple countries have taken measures, such as isolation and quarantine, to prevent person-to-person spread of disease. These actions forced many physicians to adopt new techniques, such as telemedicine, to continue patient care, which has proven to be useful in continued care for those with non-COVID-19 pathologies. Various factors, such as security, confidentiality, cost-effectiveness, comfort, and the risk of malpractice, influence the perception of telemedicine among medical practitioners. The aim of this study was to adapt an existing instrument and validate it into a new Spanish version. The instrument is about the perceptions and knowledge of telemedicine in healthcare professionals. METHODS: The original questionnaire surveyed 6 domains with 40 questions, and each question was measured with a five-point Likert scale ranging from very high [5] to very low [1]. The survey was translated to Spanish using machine translation. The translation was reviewed independently, and then, a consensus was achieved regarding minor changes in the syntax of the survey to facilitate understanding. After expert feedback and questionnaire review, the research team members proposed reducing the instrument to 13 items in 4 domains due to the similarity of some questions. The sample was divided into 2randomly selected groups. Eligibility criteria included physicians providing private or public services with active medical/clinical practice. RESULTS: In total, 382 surveys were collected and separated into two random samples, S1 and S2 (198 and 184, respectively). In exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the 13 items were grouped into four theoretical domains, and item 7 presented cross loading between factors and was removed. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the scale reliability and interscale associations; three models were tested. Global Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was 0.76 for the EFA. The goodness of fit measures root mean square error of approximation and comparative fit index were 0.009 and 0.999, respectively, for the best model. CONCLUSIONS: The translated instrument was clear, with adequate internal consistency, readability, and appropriate for application in the physician setting. This validated questionnaire made it possible to evaluate physicians' knowledge of telemedicine to increase its use, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Médicos , Telemedicina , Equador , Humanos , Pandemias , Percepção , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00164520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550179

RESUMO

The tendency to live alone is a relatively recent phenomenon in Ecuador, but it is expanding rapidly. This study aims to identify factors associated with financial distress/well-being according to living situation (living alone vs. living with a partner) in Ecuadorian health workers. This study examined the construct of financial distress/well-being in a sample of 800 Ecuadorian health workers using cross-sectional data. Living situation was compared using generalized linear model analyses including income, age, children living at home, self-perception of health, depression, anxiety and stress, perceived social support, positive mental health, and hedonistic and austere profiles. Regarding financial well-being, workers living alone ranked lower and workers living with a partner ranked higher. In workers living alone the main sources of financial distress/well-being were income, children living at home, perceived social support, positive mental health, and hedonistic attitude towards indebtedness. In workers living with a partner the main sources of financial distress/well-being were income, age, self-perception of health, depression, anxiety and stress, perceived social support, positive mental health, and austere attitude towards indebtedness. Based on our results, we discuss potential public policy interventions that can be used to improve workers' financial well-being.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Saúde Mental , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Equador , Humanos
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583975

RESUMO

Latin America has struggled to control the transmission of COVID-19. Comparison of excess death (ED) rates during the pandemic reveals that Ecuador is among the highest impacted countries. In this analysis, we update our previous findings with the most complete all-cause mortality records available for 2020, disaggregated by sex, age, ethnicity and geography. Our study shows that in 2020, Ecuador had a 64% ED rate (95% CI 63% to 65%) or 64% more deaths than expected. Men had a higher ED rate, 75% (95% CI 73% to 76%), than women's 51% (95% CI 49% to 52%), and this pattern of higher EDs for men than women held for most age groups. The only exception was the 20-29 age group, where women had 19% more deaths, compared to 10% more deaths for men, but that difference is not statistically significant. The analysis provides striking evidence of the lack of COVID-19 diagnostic testing in Ecuador: the confirmed COVID-19 deaths in 2020 accounted for only 21% of total EDs. Our significant finding is that indigenous populations, who typically account for about 5% of the deaths, show almost four times the ED rate of the majority mestizo group. Indigenous women in each age group have higher ED rates than the general population and, in ages between 20 and 49 years, they have higher ED rates than indigenous men. Indigenous women in the age group 20-29 years had an ED rate of 141%, which is commensurate to the ED rate of indigenous women older than 40 years.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Teste para COVID-19 , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257661, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of the COVID 19 pandemic on the mental health of citizens from Asia, Europe, or North America begin to be known, but there are fewer publications on its effects in Latin American countries. In this study, its impact in Ecuador is described, with data collected during the first phase of the pandemic. The objective of this study was to analyse the level of psychological distress in the population of Ecuador during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional observational study. The questionnaires were collected through an online self-developed questionnaire, between April 2 and May 17, 2020, using the non-probabilistic sampling methodology: snowball method. The variables considered were sociodemographic variables, physical symptoms, health status, COVID-19 contact history, preventive measures, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The percentage with high psychological distress (PD) (GHQ-12 ≥ 3) has been somewhat lower than that found in Europe, being women, young people, people with higher level of education, living without a partner, not living with children or children under 16 years of age, and with worse perception of health the groups with the highest PD. Differences have been observed with European studies regarding common symptoms, preventive measures to avoid contagion, percentage of infected relatives, or diagnostic tests performed. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the same research instrument, validated in Europe and adapted to Ecuador, has facilitated the comparison of the found results and differences, which can be explained by socio-economic or cultural variables, the health system, level of information, or by preventive measures put in place to prevent the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 166-175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the emergence of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the world has faced a pandemic with consequences at all levels. In many countries, the health systems collapsed and healthcare professionals had to be on the front line of this crisis. The adverse effects on the mental health of healthcare professionals have been widely reported. This research focuses on identifying the main factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes. METHODS: Descriptive, cross-sectional study based on surveys, applying the PHQ-9, GAD-7, ISI and EIE-R tests to healthcare professionals from Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: 1028 participants, distributed in: 557 physicians (54.18%), 349 nurses (33.94%), 29 laboratory workers (2.82%), 27 paramedics (2.62%), 52 psychologists (5.05%) and 14 respiratory therapists (1.36%), from 16 of the 24 provinces of Ecuador. Of these, 27.3% presented symptoms of depression, 39.2% anxiety symptoms, 16.3% insomnia and 43.8% symptoms of PTSD, with the 4 types of symptoms ranging from moderate to severe. The most relevant associated factors were: working in Guayas (the most affected province) (OR = 2.18 for depressive symptoms and OR = 2.59 for PTSD symptoms); being a postgraduate doctor (OR = 1.52 for depressive symptoms and OR = 1.57 for insomnia), perception of not having the proper protective equipment (OR = 1.71 for symptoms of depression and OR = 1.57 for symptoms of anxiety) and being a woman (OR = 1.39 for anxiety). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals can suffer a significant mental condition that may require psychiatric and psychological intervention. The main associated factors are primarily related to living and working in cities with a higher number of cases and the characteristics of the job, such as being a postgraduate doctor, as well as the perception of security. The main risk factors are primarily related to geographical distribution and job characteristics, such as being a resident physician and self-perception of safety. Further studies are required as the pandemic evolves.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Testes Psicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Quito; OPS; 2021-09-29. (OPS/ECU/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54919

RESUMO

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Prioridades em Saúde , Políticas, Planejamento e Administração em Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis , Cobertura de Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sistemas de Saúde , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Administração em Saúde Pública , América do Sul , Equador
7.
Toxicon ; 202: 90-97, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571098

RESUMO

Snakebite envenomation is a global health problem. This health problem asymmetrically affects rural populations in developing countries to such an extent that it recently has been listed as a priority neglected tropical disease (NTD). It is estimated that 5.4 million individuals are bitten by snakes each year, causing at least 2.7 million envenomations and more than 100,000 deaths each year. Ecuador has one of the highest snakebite envenomation incidence rates in Latin America, mostly in the coastal and Amazonian provinces. Envenomations in these regions are the result of bites primarily by species of snakes belonging to the Viperidae family. Ecuador was able to locally produce antivenoms, however serious flaws were revealed in the antivenom production process, leading to the decommissioning of the existing facility. In the interest of public health, we have summarized the political and social setbacks experienced by the antivenom serum production plant in Ecuador, while encouraging resuming local production of snake antivenom to improve the responsiveness of the already overburdened health system.


Assuntos
Antivenenos , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Equador , Humanos , Incidência , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Serpentes
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48311

RESUMO

O Ministério de Saúde Pública (MSP) do Equador realizou um encontro virtual para debater os diversos aspectos envolvidos na proteção, promoção e suporte à amamentação, em celebração à Semana Mundial de Aleitamento Materno. Estavam presentes representantes do MSP, instituições de saúde e da sociedade civil. A Rede Brasileira de Bancos de Leite Humano (rBLH-BR) apresentou sua experiência no enfrentamento da pandemia de Covid-19.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , COVID-19 , Bancos de Leite , Leite Humano , Equador
9.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 189, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18), structured in three dimensions (psychological distress (PD), barriers to activity (BA) and disinhibited eating (DE)), assesses the psychological and behavioural burden of living with type 2 diabetes. The objectives were to adapt the DHP-18 linguistically and culturally for use with patients with type 2 DM in Ecuador, and to evaluate its psychometric properties. METHODS: Participants were recruited using purposive sampling through patient clubs at primary health centres in Quito, Ecuador. The DHP-18 validation consisted in the linguistic validation made by two Ecuadorian doctors and eight patient interviews. And in the psychometric validation, where participants provided clinical and sociodemographic data and responded to the SF-12v2 health survey and the linguistically and culturally adapted version of the DHP-18. The original measurement model was evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Reliability was assessed through internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reproducibility by administering DHP-18 in a random subgroup of the participants two weeks after (n = 75) using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Convergent validity was assessed by establishing previous hypotheses of the expected correlations with the SF12v2 using Spearman's coefficient. RESULTS: Firstly, the DHP-18 was linguistically and culturally adapted. Secondly, in the psychometric validation, we included 146 participants, 58.2% female, the mean age was 56.8 and 31% had diabetes complications. The CFA indicated a good fit to the original three factor model (χ2 (132) = 162.738, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.990; TLI = 0.989; SRMR = 0.086 and RMSEA = 0.040. The BA dimension showed the lowest standardized factorial loads (λ) (ranging from 0.21 to 0.77), while λ ranged from 0.57 to 0.89 and from 0.46 to 0.73, for the PD and DE dimensions respectively. Cronbach's alphas were 0.81, 0.63 and 0.74 and ICCs 0.70, 0.57 and 0.62 for PD, BA and DE, respectively. Regarding convergent validity, we observed weaker correlations than expected between DHP-18 dimensions and SF-12v2 dimensions (r > -0.40 in two of three hypotheses). CONCLUSIONS: The original three factor model showed good fit to the data. Although reliability parameters were adequate for PD and DE dimensions, the BA presented lower internal consistency and future analysis should verify the applicability and cultural equivalence of some of the items of this dimension to Ecuador.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Equador , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444455

RESUMO

Adherence to preventive measures is influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards a disease; therefore, assessing knowledge of COVID-19 is critical in the overall effort to contain the outbreak. This cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduates (n = 3621) of different programs and different levels of education associated with universities in north-central Ecuador. The form consisted of 32 questions covering demographics, symptoms, detection, treatment, transmission, prevention and knowledge of the virus. The rate of correct answers was 75.5% (21.1 ± 5 out of 28), with differences observed regarding program of study, educational level and location of institution (α = 0.05), although effect size analyses showed that these differences could not be considered large. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that lower scores were associated with initial stages of education, careers related to social sciences and location of institution. Participants possessed sufficient knowledge about detection, transmission and prevention, although they overestimated fatality rate and were less confident about the characteristics of the virus and the effectiveness of traditional medicine. Consequently, future educational programs must place emphasis on addressing deficient knowledge. Certainly, improving COVID-19 literacy will promote the appropriate application of protective measures aimed at preventing the virus' spread.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361766

RESUMO

Hedyosmum racemosum (Ruiz & Pav.) G. is a native species of Ecuador used in traditional medicine for treatment of rheumatism, bronchitis, cold, cough, asthma, bone pain, and stomach pain. In this study, fresh H. racemosum leaves of male and female specimens were collected and subjected to hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oil. The chemical composition of male and female essential oil was determined by gas chromatography-gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and coupled to a mass spectrometer using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. The antibacterial activity was assayed against five Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and two dermatophytes fungi. The scavenging radical properties of the essential oil were evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify forty-three compounds that represent more than 98% of the total composition. In the non-polar and polar column, α-phellandrene was the principal constituent in male (28.24 and 25.90%) and female (26.47 and 23.90%) essential oil. Other main compounds were methyl chavicol, germacrene D, methyl eugenol, and α-pinene. Female essential oil presented a strong activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 9997) with an minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 500 µg/mL and a scavenging capacity SC50 of 800 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/química , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/isolamento & purificação , Anisóis/química , Anisóis/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/isolamento & purificação , Equador , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Eugenol/química , Eugenol/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
Cir Cir ; 89(4): 476-483, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352874

RESUMO

Antecedentes: En una cesárea se puede emplear analgesia epidural con bupivacaína 0.125% and lidocaína 1.5% ó bupivacaína 0.25% and lidocaína 1.0%. Una concentración mayor de bupivacaína alcanza mayor analgesia con más eventos adversos. OBJETIVO: evaluar la analgesia y seguridad de bupivacaína 0.125% and lidocaína 1.5% ó bupivacaína 0.25% and lidocaína 1.0%. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Cohorte prospectivo estratificado según ambas concentraciones de bupivacaína. RESULTADOS: Se recuperó cien gestantes a término (cincuenta por cohorte). A los 20 y 30 minutos tras la administración epidural hubo más casos con mayor bloqueo motor en quienes se empleó bupivacaína 0.125% and lidocaína 1.5% (p = 0.0229 y p = 0.0006, respectivamente). No hubo diferencia significativa respecto al bloqueo sensitivo. Bupivacaína 0.25% and lidocaína 1.5% mostró una tencencia a la hipotensión (p < 0.001) y a la bradicardia (p = 0.4100). De la cohorte de bupivacaína 0.125% and lidocaína 1.5%, 25 casos (50%) presentaron cuando menos un evento adverso, en contraste con 44/50 (88%) de la cohorte de bupivacaína 0.25% and lidocaína 1.0% (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIÓN: En la analgesia epidural durante cesárea, bupivacaína 0.125% and lidocaína 1.5% está asociado con un efecto analgésico similar a bupivacaína 0.25% and lidocaína 1.0%. Sin embargo, mayores concentraciones están significativamente relacionadas con mayor tasa de eventos adversos (especialmente hipotensión). BACKGROUND: In a cesarean section, epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine and 1.5% lidocaine or 0.25% bupivacaine with 1.0% lidocaine concentrations can be used. A higher concentration of bupivacaine reaches better analgesia but with a higher rate of drug-related adverse events. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess analgesia and safety of 0.125% bupivacaine and 1.5% lidocaine or 0.25% bupivacaine with 1.0% lidocaine during cesarean. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective cohort stratified following both bupivacaine concentrations. RESULTS: One hundred women with full-term pregnancies were selected (fifty per cohort). At 20 and 30 min after epidural administration, there was a higher proportion of motor blockade cases from the 0.125% bupivacaine and 1.5% lidocaine cohort (p = 0.0229 and p = 0.0006, respectively). There was no significant difference among sensitive blockage. A 0.25% bupivacaine and 1.0% lidocaine concentration showed a tendency to hypotension (p < 0.001) and bradycardia (p = 0.4100). From 0.125% bupivacaine and 1.5% lidocaine cohort, 25 cases (50%) presented at least one adverse event; in contrast with 44/50 (88%) from 0.25% bupivacaine and 1.0% lidocaine cohort (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In epidural analgesia during cesarean, using 0.125% bupivacaine and 1.5% lidocaine presented similar analgesia than 0.25% bupivacaine and 1.0% lidocaine. However, a higher bupivacaine concentration is significantly related to more frequent drug-related adverse events (especially hypotension).


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural , Cesárea , Bupivacaína , Equador , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Environ Qual ; 50(5): 1233-1245, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350988

RESUMO

The behavior of trace metals may vary strongly in the course of volcanic soil development. Cadmium retention in soils is specifically important for some Galápagos islands where agriculture is leading to anthropogenic Cd contamination. To assess the influence of soil development factors on soil Cd retention and toxicity, we performed Cd sorption-desorption experiments with volcanic topsoils from the Galápagos Islands sampled along gradients of (a) substrate age (chronosequence, 1.5-1,070 ka) and (b) climate (elevation sequence, 47-866 m asl) ranging from arid lowland areas to humid highland areas. Additionally, the effects of Cd toxicity on the soil microbial community composition were evaluated for two soils of the chronosequence. In young volcanic soils, the sorption capacity was very high but decreased rapidly with soil age and increasing elevation. These trends were coupled with decreases in soil weathering indicators (e.g., electrical conductivity, pH, and effective cation exchange capacity) as well as changes in soil mineralogy. Cadmium addition did not influence total phospholipid fatty acids and basal respiration in most soils. However, with increasing Cd concentration, a pronounced reduction in the Gram-negative/Gram-positive bacteria ratio (from 0.32 to 0.12) occurred in an old, highly weathered soil with low Cd retention capacity. Our results show that up to 60% of added Cd was only weakly sorbed in old volcanic soils. As a consequence, the old volcanic soils of Galápagos bear the potential risk that the mobile Cd fraction is taken up by soil microorganisms, transferring this element into the food chain.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Cádmio/análise , Clima , Equador , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117955, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435567

RESUMO

Mangroves are unique coastal ecosystems, located in tropical and subtropical regions. Yet, the functioning of these essential ecosystems is threatened by the presence of pollutants, including pesticides originating from agricultural activities. We investigated pesticide residues in the Guayas estuarine environment, since agricultural activities rapidly increased in the Guayas river basin over the past decades. A multi-residue analysis involving a selection of 88 pesticides was performed on the white meat and the hepatopancreas of the red mangrove crab (Ucides Occidentalis) at 15 sampling sites within the Guayas estuary along with water, sediment, and leaves samples. We found that 35 active compounds were present in the Guayas estuary, of which pyrimethanil was most commonly detected and had the highest concentrations in almost all compartments. Also, cadusafos was present in all studied compartments of the Guayas mangrove system and several prohibited pesticides (including carbendazim, carbofuran, and parathion) were detected. An ecotoxicological and probabilistic consumer risk assessment pointed out that current butachlor, carbendazim, and fludioxonil concentrations can cause adverse effects in aquatic organisms in the long term. Moreover, high potential acute and chronic risks of cadusafos residues on aquatic invertebrates and of diuron on algae in the Guayas wetlands were observed. Still, the exposure results indicated that the health risk for the consumers of the commercial red mangrove crab is low concerning cadusafos, chlorpyrifos, diuron, linuron, and pyrimethanil residues in crab tissues. The findings presented in this research can provide a useful basis for local water managers and environmental conservation groups to act and reduce the usage of pesticides, to avoid threatening aquatic and human health.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Equador , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Humanos , Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444800

RESUMO

Low-grade systemic inflammation is implicated in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiometabolic diseases. Diet is hypothesized to be an important low-grade inflammation modifier. However, few studies have examined the association of dietary inflammation with MetS and cardiometabolic risk in Latin American populations and their findings are inconsistent. Our cross-sectional study examined the association of dietary inflammatory potential with MetS and cardiometabolic risk components in 276 urban Ecuadorian women. Dietary inflammation was evaluated using an energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII), divided into quartiles (Q). E-DII scores ranged from -4.89 (most anti-inflammatory) to 4.45 (most pro-inflammatory). Participants in the most pro-inflammatory (Q4) compared to the least inflammatory E-DII quartile (Q1) had a 4.4 increased adjusted odds for MetS (95% C.I. = 2.0, 9.63; p < 0.001). Every one-unit increase in E-DII was associated with a 1.4 increase in MetS (95% CI = 1.22, 1.52; p < 0.001). In other adjusted models, the most pro-inflammatory E-DII quartile (Q4) was positively associated with total blood cholesterol and triglycerides (p < 0.001), LDL-c (p = 0.007), diastolic blood pressure (p< 0.002), mean arterial pressure (p < 0.006), waist circumference (p < 0.008), and Framingham risk score (p < 0.001). However, the previously identified associations with pulse wave velocity and BMI were no longer evident in the models. These findings suggest that more pro-inflammatory diets may contribute to poorer cardiometabolic health. Promoting healthier diets with a lower inflammatory potential may help to prevent or slow development of cardiometabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Dieta , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Ingestão de Alimentos , Equador , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Inflamação , Síndrome Metabólica , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198627

RESUMO

In this paper, we group South American countries based on the number of infected cases and deaths due to COVID-19. The countries considered are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The data used are collected from a database of Johns Hopkins University, an institution that is dedicated to sensing and monitoring the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. A statistical analysis, based on principal components with modern and recent techniques, is conducted. Initially, utilizing the correlation matrix, standard components and varimax rotations are calculated. Then, by using disjoint components and functional components, the countries are grouped. An algorithm that allows us to keep the principal component analysis updated with a sensor in the data warehouse is designed. As reported in the conclusions, this grouping changes depending on the number of components considered, the type of principal component (standard, disjoint or functional) and the variable to be considered (infected cases or deaths). The results obtained are compared to the k-means technique. The COVID-19 cases and their deaths vary in the different countries due to diverse reasons, as reported in the conclusions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Argentina , Brasil , Chile , Colômbia , Equador , Humanos , Peru , Análise de Componente Principal , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguai , Venezuela
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201336

RESUMO

Through the strategic use of health communication from their websites, government institutions can achieve greater promotion and prevent health issues for citizens, at whom such websites are aimed. Thus, the transparency of these sites is essential to favor issues such as participation, accountability, and good governance. In the present study, through content analysis, we examined how active transparency and communication in health is built through analyzing the information provided by the different administrative levels with competencies in this field (government, regions, and municipalities) from the following countries: Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Spain. The results were projected according to a double axis of analysis. On the one hand, we offer a description of the levels of management of this phenomenon (structural characteristics and available resources). On the other hand, we developed indices based on each of the countries to compare the typologies grouped in these Ibero-American countries. As a general conclusion, the results evinced insufficient transparency in common; however, the deficit was less in countries that had a public health system.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Governo , Chile , Colômbia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Equador , Espanha , Estados Unidos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several instruments have been developed to assess adolescent dating violence but only few have been validated in Spanish-speaking settings. Some instruments are too long and may not be feasible to include them in a multipurpose questionnaire. We developed an instrument to be used in the YourLife project, an international project about young people lifestyles. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of this instrument in three Spanish-speaking countries (Chile, Ecuador, and Spain). METHOD: We included 1049 participants, aged 13-18 years. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Associations between dating violence and variables expected to covariate with it (substance use, school peer aggression, justification of dating violence, and relationship power imbalance), were tested. RESULTS: Two different constructs (psychological and physical/sexual) for suffered and perpetrated violence were identified and confirmed in the three countries. The dating violence subscales had Cronbach's alpha scores higher than 0.85. The strongest associations between dating violence and variables related to it were found within the relationship power imbalance items, suggesting that these items may be useful to detect adolescent dating violence when a specific questionnaire cannot be implemented. CONCLUSION: This instrument seems to be adequate to assess suffered and perpetrated adolescent dating violence within a multipurpose questionnaire among schooled adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adolescente , Chile , Equador , Humanos , Psicometria , Espanha
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