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1.
Zootaxa ; 4813(1): zootaxa.4813.1.1, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055726

RESUMO

The genus Scolytodes Ferrari is a highly diverse group of Neotropical bark beetles. Recent collecting by hand and canopy fogging in Ecuador produced many new records. Overlap in species composition between samples from the canopy and the ground was very low, and canopy fogging revealed the highest proportion of undescribed species. Altogether we report records for 55 species of Scolytodes from Ecuador, including 40 species new to science: Scolytodes pseudoatratus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes latipes Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes sloanae Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes samamae Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes otongae Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes chaplini Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes projectus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes lubricus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes inordinatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes cancellatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes jubatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes abbreviatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes stramineus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes teres Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes animus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes pseudoanimus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes bombycinus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes bisetosus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes horridus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes virgatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes criniger Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes pseudocrassus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes semicrassus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes pseudolepidus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes semilepidus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes fortis Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes peniculus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes tristis Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes chrysifrons Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes amictus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes cnesinoides Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes maestus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes vietus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes echinus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes rufifrons Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes arcuatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes validus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes sparsus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes lapillus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes coronatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov. We also provide the first description of the female and a new country record for Scolytodes grandis (Schedl, 1962) (=Scolytodes glaberrimus Wood, 1972 syn. nov.) and a redescription and new country record for Scolytodes pilifrons (Schedl, 1962). The total number of valid species is now 287. Additional new country records were established for Scolytodes acuminatus Wood, 1969, Scolytodes comosus Jordal and Kirkendall, 2019, Scolytodes costabilis Wood, 1974, Scolytodes glabrescens Wood, 1972, Scolytodes impressus Wood, 1969, Scolytodes nitidus (Eggers, 1928), Scolytodes striatus (Eggers, 1934), Scolytodes tucumani Wood, 2007, and from another Hexacolini genus, Pycnarthrum fulgidum Wood, 1977. The first molecular phylogeny for Scolytodes is provided and used primarily to guide the inference of species validity. Molecular data from COI, 28S and EF-1α revealed substantial genetic divergence between morphologically very similar but diagnosable species.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Equador , Feminino , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Zootaxa ; 4779(4): zootaxa.4779.4.2, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055766

RESUMO

The fish collection from the Museum of Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador, has nine lots with 12 specimens assigned to genus Rhadinoloricaria. Specimens come from the Napo and Pastaza rivers, Amazon River basin, eastern Ecuador. One specimen matches accurately with figures and original description of Loricaria macromystax Günther, 1869, type species of Rhadinoloricaria. After 150 years, this is the first secure identification of the species, which allowed an accurate description of the genus Rhadinoloricaria, and the discovery of a new species from Ecuador, described herein. In addition, using available specimens, figures and literature, a comparative analysis on external morphology was performed among the eight species included in Rhadinoloricaria. The analysis documented significant differences between them, in some morphological external characters and in buccal ornamentation. The results suggest that the eight species can be grouped into three or four genera. Rhadinoloricaria, in strict sense, has two species. Apistoloricaria is considered a valid genus, and include the four species previously assigned to it. Rhadinoloricaria bahuaja and R. rhami do not belong to the known genera in the Pseudohemiodon group. At this time, available data suggests that both species could continue included in 'Rhadinoloricaria', waiting further analyses to solve their generic status. Results support the use of buccal ornamentation patterns alone or combined with some morphological characters as valuable tool for generic identification within Loricariini.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Animais , Equador , Rios
3.
Zootaxa ; 4761(1): zootaxa.4761.1.1, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056889

RESUMO

The spider family Mysmenidae includes two genera in which kleptoparasitic species are known to occur, Isela and Mysmenopsis. Mysmenopsis is the most speciose with 31 species described so far. Herein, we describe twenty-one new species from Ecuador: M. alvaroi n. sp., M. amazonica n. sp., M. angamarca n. sp., M. awa n. sp., M. baerti n. sp., M. bartolozzii n. sp., M. choco n. sp., M. cube n. sp., M. corazon n. sp., M. guanza n. sp., M. guayaca n. sp., M. hunachi n. sp., M. junin n. sp., M. lasrocas n. sp., M. lloa n. sp., M. otokiki n. sp., M. pululahua n. sp., M. salazarae n. sp., M. shushufindi n. sp., M. tepuy n. sp. and M. tungurahua n. sp. We report for the first time the presence of four species of Mysmenopsis in the web of a Lycosidae, namely M. salazarae n. sp., M. shushufindi n. sp., M. bartolozzii n. sp. and M. amazonica n. sp. All new species described here were collected in spider webs either from the family Dipluridae (Linothele) or Lycosidae (Aglaoctenus) and therefore are assumed to be kleptoparasitic. New locality records are presented for M. otonga, M. fernandoi, M. atahualpa and M. penai, the female of M. penai is described for the first time. Maps of all Ecuadorian species are presented, kleptoparasitism, morphological characters and distribution of Mysmenopsis species are discussed.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Equador , Feminino , Tamanho do Órgão
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0240008, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997705

RESUMO

Ecuador has been one of the most affected countries by the Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, by April 2020 this country presented the highest rates of mortality in Latin America. The purpose of the present study was to identify behaviors during confinement and sociodemographic variables associated with the mental health status of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 patients who were part of the epidemiological surveillance program in Ecuador that included mandatory confinement and self-isolation. A cross-sectional study was performed from March 22th to April 18th, 2020 using an online survey. The survey collected socio-demographic information and severity of depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and anxiety symptoms through the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7. A total of 759 patients completed the questionnaire, 20.3% presented moderate to severe symptoms of depression and 22.5% moderate to severe symptoms of anxiety. Being a woman and from the Coastal region were risk factors. Exercising, maintaining daily routines, and keeping informed about the COVID-19 but limiting to an hour was associated with better mental health. Regression analysis indicated that the mentioned behaviors explained approximately 17% of the variance for depression sum scores and 11.8% of the variance for anxiety sum scores while controlling for gender and region. Understanding the association between sociodemographic variables and psychological states in patients with COVID-19 is relevant to tackle future public mental health problems and to implement health policies that are intended to palliate further psychiatric complications. Promotion of modifiable behaviors such as exercising, maintaining daily routines, and keeping informed about the COVID-19 but limiting to less than an hour is recommended.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Quarentena , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e927304, 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This case series describes 5 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 in Ecuador who had been treated with hydroxychloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) prior to their COVID-19 illness. CASE REPORT Case #1 reports a 29-year-old woman who had been treated with 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day for 1 year and presented with flu-like symptoms, chest pain, fever, odynophagia, asthenia, dry cough, and chills. Case #2 was a 34-year-old woman whose treatment for SLE included 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day since 2017. She arrived at the clinic with a dry cough, asthenia, and myalgias. Case #3 was a 24-year-old woman who had been using 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day since 2010. She presented with asthenia, myalgias, headaches, hypogeusia, and anosmia. Case #4 was a 39-year-old woman taking 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine every day for SLE who presented with dyspnea, chest pain, odynophagia, hypogeusia, anosmia, diarrhea, and fever. Case #5 was a 46-year-old woman who had been taking 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine since 2019. She came to our hospital complaining of chest pain, fever, and dyspnea. In all 5 patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed with a nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test using the Cepheid/GeneXpert system. CONCLUSIONS All 5 of our patients with SLE who were taking hydroxychloroquine presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptoms of COVID-19. This case series provides support for a lack of prevention of COVID-19 by hydroxychloroquine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Equador , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Medição de Risco , Amostragem , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8226-8231, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the climate has played a role in the COVID-19 outbreak, we compared virus lethality in countries closer to the Equator with others. Lethality in European territories and in territories of some nations with a non-temperate climate was also compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lethality was calculated as the rate of deaths in a determinate moment from the outbreak of the pandemic out of the total of identified positives for COVID-19 in a given area/nation, based on the COVID-John Hopkins University website. Lethality of countries located within the 5th parallels North/South on 6 April and 6 May 2020, was compared with that of all the other countries. Lethality in the European areas of The Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom was also compared to the territories of the same nations in areas with a non-temperate climate. RESULTS: A lower lethality rate of COVID-19 was found in Equatorial countries both on April 6 (OR=0.72 CI 95% 0.66-0.80) and on May 6 (OR=0.48, CI 95% 0.47-0.51), with a strengthening over time of the protective effect. A trend of higher risk in European vs. non-temperate areas was found on April 6, but a clear difference was evident one month later: France (OR=0.13, CI 95% 0.10-0.18), The Netherlands (OR=0.5, CI 95% 0.3-0.9) and the UK (OR=0.2, CI 95% 0.01-0.51). This result does not seem to be totally related to the differences in age distribution of different sites. CONCLUSIONS: The study does not seem to exclude that the lethality of COVID-19 may be climate sensitive. Future studies will have to confirm these clues, due to potential confounding factors, such as pollution, population age, and exposure to malaria.


Assuntos
Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Betacoronavirus , Brunei/epidemiologia , Burundi/epidemiologia , Congo/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Equador/epidemiologia , Guiné Equatorial/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , França/epidemiologia , Gabão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ilhas do Oceano Índico/epidemiologia , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Micronésia/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Samoa/epidemiologia , São Tomé e Príncipe/epidemiologia , Seicheles/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Somália/epidemiologia , Timor-Leste/epidemiologia , Clima Tropical , Uganda/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236759, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745105

RESUMO

The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a moth pest native to the Western Hemisphere that has recently become a global problem, invading Africa, Asia, and Australia. The species has a broad host range, long-distance migration capability, and a propensity for the generation of pesticide resistance traits that make it a formidable invasive threat and a difficult pest to control. While fall armyworm migration has been extensively studied in North America, where annual migrations of thousands of kilometers are the norm, migration patterns in South America are less understood. As a first step to address this issue we have been genetically characterizing fall armyworm populations in Ecuador, a country in the northern portion of South America that has not been extensively surveyed for this pest. These studies confirm and extend past findings indicating similarities in the fall armyworm populations from Ecuador, Trinidad-Tobago, Peru, and Bolivia that suggest substantial migratory interactions. Specifically, we found that populations throughout Ecuador are genetically homogeneous, indicating that the Andes mountain range is not a long-term barrier to fall armyworm migration. Quantification of genetic variation in an intron sequence describe patterns of similarity between fall armyworm from different locations in South America with implications for how migration might be occurring. In addition, we unexpectedly found these observations only apply to one subset of fall armyworm (the C-strain), as the other group (R-strain) was not present in Ecuador. The results suggest differences in migration behavior between fall armyworm groups in South America that appear to be related to differences in host plant preferences.


Assuntos
Haplótipos/genética , Spodoptera/genética , Migração Animal , Animais , Equador , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Íntrons/genética , Controle de Pragas , Filogenia , Filogeografia , América do Sul
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1207-1210, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755528

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is now expanding into the developing world with devastating consequences. Departing from a population-based study in rural Ecuador where all adult individuals (aged 40 years or older) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies, we expanded it to include a house-based case-control component assessing in-house clustering and other variables potentially associated with infection. We selected houses where exactly two study participants lived and were both seropositive (case-houses), and matched 1:1 to control-houses where both were seronegative. Younger household members had an antibody test performed. Infected household members were found in 33 (92%) case-houses and in only six (17%) control-houses. In 28/29 discordant house pairs, the case-house had seropositive household members and the control-house did not (odds ratio: 28; 95% CI: 4.6-1,144). Our data demonstrate strong in-house clustering of infection in community settings, stressing the importance of early case ascertainment and isolation for SARS-CoV-2 control.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Equador/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
9.
Phytopathology ; 110(10): 1604-1619, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820671

RESUMO

Cacao is a commodity crop from the tropics cultivated by about 6 million smallholder farmers. The tree, Theobroma cacao, originated in the Upper Amazon where it was domesticated ca. 5450 to 5300 B.P. From this center of origin, cacao was dispersed and cultivated in Mesoamerica as early as 3800 to 3000 B.P. After the European conquest of the Americas (the 1500s), cacao cultivation intensified in several loci, primarily Mesoamerica, Trinidad, Venezuela, and Ecuador. It was during the colonial period that cacao diseases began emerging as threats to production. One early example is the collapse of the cacao industry in Trinidad in the 1720s, attributed to an unknown disease referred to as the "blast". Trinidad would resurface as a production center due to the discovery of the Trinitario genetic group, which is still widely used in breeding programs around the world. However, a resurgence of diseases like frosty pod rot during the republican period (the late 1800s and early 1900s) had profound impacts on other centers of Latin American production, especially in Venezuela and Ecuador, shifting the focus of cacao production southward, to Bahia, Brazil. Production in Bahia was, in turn, dramatically curtailed by the introduction of witches' broom disease in the late 1980s. Today, most of the world's cacao production occurs in West Africa and parts of Asia, where the primary Latin American diseases have not yet spread. In this review, we discuss the history of cacao cultivation in the Americas and how that history has been shaped by the emergence of diseases.


Assuntos
Cacau , América , Ásia , Brasil , Equador , Doenças das Plantas
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237877, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841244

RESUMO

World ecosystems are suffering from anthropogenic and natural pressure. The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has developed analogous criteria for the Red List of Threatened Species in order to perform similar risk assessments on ecosystems, creating the Red List of Ecosystems (RLE) methodology. One of the most significant challenges for the construction of these lists is gathering the available information to apply the criteria. By applying IUCN RLE criteria B (the extent of restricted geographic distribution of an ecosystem), we analyzed the threat level of 64 forest ecosystems of the Ecuadorian mainland. According to the results, limited distribution is the key risk to threatened ecosystems, which are associated with anthropogenic pressures. Our study showed that 22% of forest ecosystems are classified as threatened. This evaluation of the forest ecosystem status at a national level could lead to public awareness towards ecosystem conservation and provide reasonable strategies to managers.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Clima Tropical , Equador , Geografia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236924, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have many negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies) that can also exacerbate poverty. These infections are generally highest among low-income populations, many of which are also undergoing market integration (MI; increased participation in a market-based economy). Yet the direct impact of MI-related social and environmental changes on STH infection patterns is poorly understood, making it unclear which lifestyle factors should be targeted to better control disease spread. This cross-sectional study examines if household infrastructure associated with greater MI is associated with lower STH burdens among Indigenous Ecuadorian Shuar. METHODS: Kato-Katz fecal smears were used to determine STH infection status and intensity (n = 620 participants; 308 females, 312 males, aged 6 months-86 years); Ascaris lumbricoides (ascarid) and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) were the primary infection types detected. Structured interviews assessing lifestyle patterns (e.g., measures of household infrastructure) measured participant MI. Multilevel regression analyses and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models tested associations between MI measures and STH infection status or intensity, controlling for individual and community characteristics. RESULTS: Participants residing in more market-integrated households exhibited lower infection rates and intensities than those in less market integrated households. Parasite infection status and T. trichiura infection intensity were lower among participants living in houses with wood floors than those with dirt floors, while individuals using well or piped water from a spring exhibited lower A. lumbricoides infection intensities compared to those using river or stream water. Unexpectedly, latrine type was not significantly related to STH infection status or intensity. These results suggest that sources of exposure differ between the two helminth species. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents associations between household measures and STH infection among an Indigenous population undergoing rapid MI. These findings can help healthcare programs better target interventions and reduce STH exposure among at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/transmissão , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/transmissão , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(10): e291-e296, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause respiratory tract infections during childhood manifesting as common colds, bronchiolitis, croup and pneumonia. In temperate geographies, HCoV activity peaks between December and March. The epidemiology and manifestations of HCoV infections have not been previously reported from Ecuador. METHODS: Children <5 years who presented with ≥2 symptoms consistent with an acute respiratory tract infection were eligible for enrollment. After obtaining informed consent, demographic data and details regarding the acute illness were recorded. Secretions collected with a nasopharyngeal swab underwent diagnostic testing using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: A total of 850 subjects were enrolled. A total of 677 (80%) tested positive for at least 1 pathogen, including 49 (7.2%) who tested positive for ≥1 HCoV type. HCoV-NL63 was the most frequent type detected (39%), followed by HCoV-OC43 (27%), 229E (22%) and HKU1 (12%). Nearly all subjects who tested positive for HCoV had nasal congestion or secretions (47/49; 96%). The most frequent syndromic diagnosis was common cold (41%), followed by bronchiolitis (27%). We found no association between the infecting HCoV type and subject's syndromic diagnosis (P > 0.05) or anatomic location of infection (upper vs. lower respiratory tract; P > 0.05). The 2018-2019 peak HCoV activity occurred from October to November; the 2019-2020 peak occurred from January to February. CONCLUSIONS: HCoVs were detected in ~7% of outpatient Ecuadorean children <5 years of age with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection. The most frequently detected HCoV types, and the period of peak HCoV activity differed for the 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 seasons.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Doença Aguda , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Estações do Ano
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e20737, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, social media platforms have become active sites for the dissemination of conspiracy theories that provide alternative explanations of the cause of the pandemic, such as secret plots by powerful and malicious groups. However, the association of individuals' beliefs in conspiracy theories about COVID-19 with mental health and well-being issues has not been investigated. This association creates an assessable channel to identify and provide assistance to people with mental health and well-being issues during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to provide the first evidence that belief in conspiracy theories regarding the COVID-19 pandemic is a predictor of the mental health and well-being of health care workers. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 252 health care workers in Ecuador from April 10 to May 2, 2020. We analyzed the data regarding distress and anxiety caseness with logistic regression and the data regarding life and job satisfaction with linear regression. RESULTS: Among the 252 sampled health care workers in Ecuador, 61 (24.2%) believed that the virus was developed intentionally in a lab; 82 (32.5%) experienced psychological distress, and 71 (28.2%) had anxiety disorder. Compared to health care workers who were not sure where the virus originated, those who believed the virus was developed intentionally in a lab were more likely to report psychological distress and anxiety disorder and to have lower levels of job satisfaction and life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: This paper identifies belief in COVID-19 conspiracy theories as an important predictor of distress, anxiety, and job and life satisfaction among health care workers. This finding will enable mental health services to better target and provide help to mentally vulnerable health care workers during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Equador , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on prevalence and associated risk factors for atopy and allergic diseases from high-altitude urban settings in Latin America. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of atopy, asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, and associations with relevant risk factors in preschool children in the Andean city of Cuenca. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a representative sample of 535 children aged 3-5 years attending 30 nursery schools in the city of Cuenca, Ecuador. Data on allergic diseases and risk factors were collected by parental questionnaire. Atopy was measured by skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to a panel of relevant aeroallergens. Associations between risk factors and the prevalence of atopy and allergic diseases were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Asthma symptoms were reported for 18% of children, rhinitis for 48%, and eczema for 28%, while SPT reactivity was present in 33%. Population fractions of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema attributable to SPT were 3.4%, 7.9%, and 2.9%, respectively. In multivariable models, an increased risk of asthma was observed among children with a maternal history of rhinitis (OR 1.85); rhinitis was significantly increased in children of high compared to low socioeconomic level (OR 2.09), among children with a maternal history of rhinitis (OR 2.29) or paternal history of eczema (OR 2.07), but reduced among children attending daycare (OR 0.64); eczema was associated with a paternal history of eczema (OR 3.73), and SPT was associated with having a dog inside the house (OR 1.67). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema symptoms were observed among preschool children in a high-altitude Andean setting. Despite a high prevalence of atopy, only a small fraction of symptoms was associated with atopy. Parental history of allergic diseases was the most consistent risk factor for symptoms in preschool children.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Eczema/epidemiologia , Rinite/epidemiologia , Alérgenos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Testes Cutâneos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 37(2): 179-181, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730486

RESUMO

We report the first identification in Ecuador of the microorganism Comamonas kerstersii, a strain isolates from a sample of fluid from the abdominal cavity and identified by the technique of mass spectrometry MALDITOF. It was obtained during the surgical act of a patient with the diagnosis of acute peritonitis, secondary to a perforated appendicitis. This microorganism is considered a rare pathogen. Even though the genus to which it belongs has a wide geographical distribution, this pathogen is considered an opportunistic agent.


Assuntos
Comamonas , Equador , Humanos , Peritonite
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140832, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679506

RESUMO

Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic studies on viral shedding have reported that this virus is excreted in feces in most patients. High viral loads are found at the sewage pipeline or at the entrance of wastewater treatment plants from cities where the number of COVID-19 cases are significant. In Quito (Ecuador) as in many other cities worldwide, wastewater is directly discharged into natural waters. The aim of this study was to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 presence in urban streams from a low sanitation context. Three river locations along the urban rivers of Quito were sampled on the 5th of June during a peak of COVID-19 cases. River samples were evaluated for water quality parameters and afterwards, concentrated for viral analysis using skimmed milk flocculation method. The viral concentrates were quantified for SARS-CoV-2 (N1 and N2 target regions) and Human Adenovirus as a human viral indicator. The results showed that SARS-CoV-2 was detected for both target regions in all samples analyzed in a range of 2,91E+05 to 3,19E+06 GC/L for N1 and from 2,07E+05 to 2,22E+06 GC/L for N2. The high values detected in natural waters from a low sanitation region have several implications in health and ecology that should be further assessed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Rios , Saneamento , Betacoronavirus , Cidades , Equador , Humanos
19.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578709

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study compares the clinical response to antimicrobials between indigenous and non-indigenous Kichwa children under 5 years old with CAP in Otavalo, Ecuador. METHODS: All children with CAP who met the inclusion criteria and were admitted at the San Luis de Otavalo Hospital between March 2017 and June 2018 were evaluated. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in clinical responses between indigenous and non-indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: The improved healthcare access of the Otavalo's Kichwa population may have contributed to the observed clinical response to CAP treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Escolar , Equador , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008286, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598382

RESUMO

Amphimerus sp. is a fluke that dwells in the biliary tracts of vertebrate definitive hosts including humans, domestic, and wild mammals in Latin America. Opisthorchiid liver infections are rarely studied in the Americas confirming its status as a neglected tropical disease. In Ecuador, small trematode eggs were reported in human cases from the province of Manabí in 1949, and recently, Amphimerus sp. adults were recovered from human and reservoir hosts in the province of Esmeraldas. Due to the lack of research on the infectious sources of Amphimerus sp. in the continent, we have developed a series of epidemiological studies with parasitological and molecular techniques to elucidate the endemicity of opisthorchiid fluke infections. We developed a cross-sectional study in three communities at Pedro Pablo Gómez parish in the province of Manabí, Ecuador. We examined a total of 176 fecal samples to detect opisthorchiid eggs, and four fish species to find opisthorchiid metacercariae. To study adult worms, we treated and purged seven patients in a family and dissected the livers of a dog and a cat infected. We observed morphological features of adults and metacercariae and used polymerase chain reaction with restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing of a section of the ITS2 gene for identification. Small trematode eggs were detected in 63 (35.8%) out of 176 fecal samples of residents in the three study sites. Adult opisthorchiid flukes were recovered from human patients, a dog and a cat, and they were morphologically and molecularly identified as Amphimerus sp. Opisthorchiid metacercariae were also identified molecularly as Amphimerus sp. in four fish species, i.e., Rhoadsia altipinna, Bryconamericus bucay, Andinoacara rivulatus, and Piabucina aureoguttata. Metacercariae of the heterophyid Haplorchis pumilio were also found in the four fish species examined. This is the first study to confirm the current endemicity of Amphimerus sp. in Pedro Pablo Gómez, Manabí, Ecuador. The adult worms isolated here shared morphological characteristics with previous Amphimerus sp. descriptions and were molecularly similar to Amphimerus sp. described in the province of Esmeraldas. Moreover, this study is the first to document four fish species as infection sources of Amphimerus sp. detected via a molecular protocol targeting the metacercariae of the parasite. Fish species identified here should be targeted for public health campaigns to avoid further human liver-fluke infections by Amphimerus sp. or potential intestinal-fluke infections by H. pumilio or others.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Opisthorchidae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Gatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Equador/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Lactente , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/parasitologia
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