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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 20(869): 734-738, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616683

RESUMO

While most episodes of community-acquired pneumonia are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and respiratory viruses, other atypical pathogens can also be responsible for lung infections. The Infectious Diseases Service of the Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) organizes an annual meeting aimed at general practitioners, during which interesting clinical cases are presented. In this article, we summarize five cases of community-aquired respiratory infection due to atypical pathogens that were presented during the 2023 meeting, each with a particular teaching point. Although these infections are rare, expanding the differential diagnosis in cases of suboptimal response to therapy or particular exposures is warranted.


La plupart des épisodes de pneumonie acquise en communauté sont causés par Streptococcus pneumoniae et des virus respiratoires, mais d'autres agents pathogènes atypiques peuvent également être responsables d'infections pulmonaires. Le Service des maladies infectieuses du Centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois (CHUV) organise une réunion annuelle destinée aux médecins généralistes, au cours de laquelle des cas cliniques intéressants sont présentés. Dans cet article, nous résumons cinq cas d'infections respiratoires communautaires dus à des agents pathogènes atypiques présentés lors de la réunion de 2023, chacun avec un enseignement particulier. Bien que ces infections soient rares, élargir le diagnostic différentiel en cas de réponse thérapeutique suboptimale ou d'expositions particulières est justifié.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Infecções Respiratórias , Cavalos , Animais , Humanos , Equidae , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Hospitais Universitários
2.
PeerJ ; 12: e17149, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560452

RESUMO

Animal welfare is the state of an animal's body and mind and the level to which its requirements are satisfied. Animal welfare is affected by human decisions and actions. Numerous decisions concerning animals are driven by human desires to enhance their own lives, and some of these decisions may be influenced by self-interest or a strong emphasis on economic factors. How to assess the welfare state of animals is a central issue in animal welfare science. Two critical questions can be used to address animal welfare: first, is the animal healthy, and second, does the animal have what it needs? Both of these questions can potentially be answered using the study of animal behavior. The development of behavioral methodologies is crucial for evaluating welfare in contexts where concern for animal welfare is often highest, such as on intensive modern farms and sites where working animals are used. Herein, we discuss animal welfare by focusing on some of its major concepts and explanations. Later, to illustrate key aspects of animal welfare, we chose to examine the information that is available for some 'neglected' livestock species, which are commercially important on a global basis and found in large numbers: buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), mules (Equus asinus × Equus caballus), and lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus). We chose these species because there are major ongoing concerns about their welfare, and more research is required to help solve the various problems. Overall, there are strong imbalances in terms of the species that are usually studied in terms of animal welfare research, and we call for greater attention to those that have traditionally been neglected.


Assuntos
Bison , Equidae , Humanos , Animais , Cavalos , Comportamento Animal , Bem-Estar do Animal , Peixes , Búfalos
3.
Can Vet J ; 65(4): 397-398, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562977
4.
Vet Rec ; 194(6): 235, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488576
5.
Breastfeed Med ; 19(3): 223-227, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489532

RESUMO

Background: Since human milk contents does not meet the high need of very low birth weight infants, fortification of breast milk is a standard practice for this population. As donkey milk has been long considered for children allergic to cow's milk proteins due to its low allergic properties, a new donkey milk-derived fortifier (DF) has been recently evaluated as a valid alternative to bovine milk-derived fortifier (BF). It seems to improve feeding tolerance when compared with standard BF, with similar neurodevelopmental and auxological outcome at 18 months of age. The aim of this study is to evaluate the development of allergic manifestations occurring in the population of the "Fortilat Trial" at 6-8 years of age. Methods: Allergic manifestations were assessed by an ad hoc questionnaire administered to families. The occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and oculorhinitis, rashes and atopic dermatitis, food allergies, accesses to an emergency department for allergic reactions, and the need of antihistamine have been investigated. Results: In total, 113 infants were enrolled in the study (BF arm: n = 60, DF arm: n = 53). No difference in risk was observed between the two groups for all the considered outcomes. In conclusion, our data suggest that DF does not impact the development of allergic manifestations in the first years of life. Clinical Trial Registration number: ISRCT N70022881.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Criança , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Humanos , Leite Humano , Equidae , Seguimentos , Aleitamento Materno , Alimentos Fortificados , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/epidemiologia
6.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 333, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491117

RESUMO

Optimal foraging theory predicts that animals maximise energy intake by consuming the most valuable foods available. When resources are limited, they may include lower-quality fallback foods in their diets. As seasonal herbivore diet switching is understudied, we evaluate its extent and effects across three Kenyan reserves each for Critically Endangered eastern black rhino (Diceros bicornis michaeli) and Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi), and its associations with habitat quality, microbiome variation, and reproductive performance. Black rhino diet breadth increases with vegetation productivity (NDVI), whereas zebra diet breadth peaks at intermediate NDVI. Black rhino diets associated with higher vegetation productivity have less acacia (Fabaceae: Vachellia and Senegalia spp.) and more grass suggesting that acacia are fallback foods, upending conventional assumptions. Larger dietary shifts are associated with longer calving intervals. Grevy's zebra diets in high rainfall areas are consistently grass-dominated, whereas in arid areas they primarily consume legumes during low vegetation productivity periods. Whilst microbiome composition between individuals is affected by the environment, and diet composition in black rhino, seasonal dietary shifts do not drive commensurate microbiome shifts. Documenting diet shifts across ecological gradients can increase the effectiveness of conservation by informing habitat suitability models and improving understanding of responses to resource limitation.


Assuntos
Equidae , Herbivoria , Humanos , Animais , Quênia , Equidae/fisiologia , Reprodução , Dieta
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 103, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar abortus equi (S. abortus equi) is one of the main pathogens that causes abortion in pregnant horses and donkeys, which was highly infectious and greatly restricts the healthy development of the horse industry. OBJECTIVES: In order to investigate the prevalence and biological characteristics of S. abortus equi in different regions and breeds of horses in Xinjiang. METHODS: This study conducted ELISA detection of S. abortus equi antibodies on serum samples of 971 horses collected from three large-scale horse farms and five free-range horse farms in Yili Prefecture and Bayingol Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang from 2020 to 2023. On this basis, bacterial isolation, culture, identification, and drug sensitivity tests were conducted on 42 samples of aborted foal tissues and 23 mare vaginal swabs. RESULTS: The results showed that the positive rate of S. abortus equi antibody was as high as 20.91% in 971 horse serum samples. Among them, the positive rate in the Ili region (29.09%) was significantly higher than that in the Bayingole region (11.24%), and the positive rate in mares (22.45%) was higher than that in stallions (14.05%). In terms of horse breeds, the positive rates of self-propagating thoroughbred horses, half-bred horses, Ili horses and Yanqi horses were 43.22%, 28.81%, 14.72% and 11.24% respectively. In addition, S. abortus equi was more susceptible to juvenile and elderly horses, with positive rates of 70.00%and 41.86%, respectively, both of which were significantly higher than young (10.97%) and adult (19.79%) horses. Further, 9 strains of S. abortus equi were obtained through bacterial isolation, culture and identification, which were resistant to five antibiotics (Clarithromycin, Clindamycin, penicillin, Sulfamethoxazole and Rifampicin), and sensitive to 13 antimicrobial agents (Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin, et al.). CONCLUSION: There was a high infection rate of S. abortus equi in Ili Prefecture and self-propagating thoroughbred horses, and juvenile or old mares were more susceptible, which will provide scientific basis for the prevention of S. abortus equi infection in different regions and breeds of horses in Xinjiang.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal , Doenças dos Cavalos , Gravidez , Cavalos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Equidae , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Salmonella , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(5): 139, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514489

RESUMO

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an effective chemotherapy drug in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, auxiliary or alternative therapies must be sought due to its resistance and potential side effects. Certain probiotic metabolites exhibit anticancer properties. In this study evaluated the anticancer and potential therapeutic activities of cell extracts potential probiotic strains, Limosilactobacillus fermentum and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum isolated from the mule milk and the standard probiotic strain Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) against the human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) and the normal cell line (HEK-293) alone or in combination with 5-FU. In this study, L. plantarum and L. fermentum, which were isolated from mule milk, were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Their probiotic properties were investigated in vitro and compared with the standard probiotic strain of the species L. rhamnosus GG. The MTT assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescent staining, and flow cytometry were employed to measure the viability of cell lines, cell apoptosis, and production rates of Th17 cytokines, respectively. The results demonstrated that the combination of lactobacilli cell extracts and 5-FU decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Furthermore, this combination protected HEK-293 cells from the cytotoxic effects of 5-FU, enhancing their viability and reducing apoptosis. Moreover, the combination treatment led to an increase in the levels of IL-17A, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, which can enhance anti-tumor immunity. In conclusion, the cell extracts of the lactobacilli strains probably can act as a potential complementary anticancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Probióticos , Humanos , Animais , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Extratos Celulares , Células HEK293 , Lactobacillus , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/farmacologia , Equidae
9.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0295388, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equids play a crucial role in the Ethiopian economy, transporting agricultural inputs and outputs in the dominant subsistence agricultural systems and the critical link for value chains throughout the country. However, these species are often neglected in policies and interventions, which reflects the data and information gaps, particularly the contribution of working equids to Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To assess population dynamics, distribution, biomass, and economic value of equids in Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Equine population data were obtained from the Ethiopian Central Statistics Agency (CSA) annual national agriculture surveys published yearbooks from 2004 to 2020. Parameters such as the number of effective service days and daily rental value were obtained from interviews and literature to estimate the stock monetary and service value of equids. Descriptive statistics were used to assess population dynamics and the geographical distribution was mapped. RESULTS: The estimated total Ethiopian equid population increased by more than doubled (by 131%) between 2004 and 2020 from 5.7 (4.9-6.6) million to 13.3 (11.6-15) million with 2.1 million horses, 10.7 million donkeys, and 380 thousand mules. Similarly, the number of households owning a working equid has increased. Equine populations are unevenly distributed across Ethiopia, although data were lacking in some districts of the country. The per human-capita equine population ranged from 0-0.52, 0-0.13, and 0-0.02 for donkeys, horses, and mules, respectively. The equid biomass was 7.4 (6.3-8.4) million Tropical livestock unit (TLU) (250 kg liveweight), 10% of total livestock biomass of the country. The stock monetary value of equids was USD 1,229 (651-1,908) million, accounting for 3.1% of total livestock monetary value and the services value of equids was USD 1,198 (825-1,516) million, which is 1.2% of Ethiopian 2021 expected GDP. CONCLUSION: The Ethiopian equine population has grown steadily over the last two decades. Equids play a central role in transportation and subsistence agriculture in Ethiopia and contribute significantly to the national economy. This pivotal role is insufficiently recognized in national livestock investments.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Equidae , Humanos , Cavalos , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Biomassa , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 135: 105048, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494096

RESUMO

The digital stethoscope (DS) is a cost-effective single-lead digital stethoscope that allows simultaneous electrocardiographic (ECG) and phonocardiographic recordings on a smartphone. Despite its application in small animals and horses, there are currently no studies on its use in donkeys. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a new smartphone-based DS device in recording ECG tracings in donkeys. Standard base-apex lead ECG (sECG) and single-lead DS ECG (dECG) were simultaneously recorded for at least 30 s. Both sECG and dECG tracings were analysed by the same operator, recording heart rate, ECG waves and intervals, and the presence and duration of artefacts. Thirty-seven donkeys were included. The dECG tracings were interpretable in all the animals (100 %). The results showed perfect agreement between the sECG and dECG data for the classification of heart rhythm and P-wave polarity. Strong agreement was found in the evaluation of heart rate calculated manually and automatically by the smartphone app, QRS complex polarity, T wave polarity, and duration of the PR interval. However, no agreement was found in the evaluation of P wave duration, QRS complex duration and amplitude, and T wave duration and amplitude. In conclusion, although this is only a preliminary study, the DS was a valid, practical, and easy to use electrocardiographic tool for recording good-quality ECG tracings to assess the ECGs of donkeys in the field.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Estetoscópios , Cavalos , Animais , Equidae , Estetoscópios/veterinária , Eletrocardiografia/veterinária , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Arritmias Cardíacas/veterinária , Smartphone
11.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 135: 105050, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527562

RESUMO

A 25-year-old female mule weighing 336 kg was referred with a history of lethargy, abdominal discomfort, anorexia, and constipation in the previous 24 hours. On admission, decreased intestinal borborygmi and distended small intestinal loops were detected by auscultation and rectal palpation, respectively. On rectal examination a firm, irregular surface, and pedunculated mass were detected in the middle-caudal region of the abdomen. Transrectal ultrasonography revealed the mass was highly vascularized with heterogeneous tissue density. On exploratory celiotomy two neoplastic masses were observed, one in the jejunoileal junction obstructing the intestinal flow and the second in the dorsal part of the jejunal mesentery, unable to be exposed and resected. An enterectomy was conducted, and the intestinal mass was removed. The mass was pale with hemorrhagic areas and 12 cm in diameter. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed a diagnosis of enteric associated T cell lymphoma subtype 2. The mule died suddenly 43 days later.


Assuntos
Equidae , Linfoma de Células T , Feminino , Animais , Linfoma de Células T/veterinária , Ultrassonografia
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 160, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38549117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine piroplasmosis is caused by two tick-borne protozoan parasites, Theileria equi and Babesia caballi,, which are clinically relevant in susceptible horses, donkeys, and mules. Moreover, equine piroplasmosis significantly constrains international trading and equestrian events. Rapidly diagnosing both parasites in carrier animals is essential for implementing effective control measures. Here, a rapid immunochromatographic test for the simultaneous detection of antibodies to T. equi and B. caballi was evaluated using samples from horses and donkeys collected in Greece, Israel, and Italy. The results were compared with an improved competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for detecting antibodies to both parasites using the same panel of samples. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 255 horses and donkeys. The panel consisted of 129 horses sampled at four locations in northern Greece, 105 donkeys sampled at four locations in Sicily, and 21 horses sampled at two locations in Israel. The rapid test and the cELISA were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions, and the results were subjected to a statistical analysis to determine the sensitivity and specificity of both tests and their association. RESULTS: The immunochromatographic test provided a result within 15 min and can be performed in the field, detecting both pathogens simultaneously. The overall coincidence rate between the rapid test and the cELISA for detecting antibodies against T. equi was 93% and 92.9% for B. caballi. The rapid test's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for T. equi were above 91.5%. Sixteen samples were positive for both parasites in the rapid test and eight in the cELISA. Either test had no significant association between T. equi and B. caballi detection. The detection rates of both parasites were significantly higher in Italy than in Greece or Israel and in donkeys than in horses. The agreement for T. equi between the results of both tests was high in Greece (93.8%) and Italy (95.2%) and moderate in Israel (76.2%). For B. caballi, the specificity and NPV of the rapid test were high (94.2% and 98.3%, respectively), although the sensitivity and PPV were moderate (69.2% and 39.1%, respectively) due to the small sample size. However, for B. caballi, the sensitivity was higher with the rapid test. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid test detected T. equi and B. caballi simultaneously in the field, potentially replacing laborious cELISA testing and is recommended for import/export purposes. The test can also be helpful for the differential diagnosis of clinical cases, since seropositivity may rule out equine piroplasmosis since it does not indicate current or active infection.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Theileria , Theileriose , Carrapatos , Cavalos , Animais , Bovinos , Equidae , Babesiose/parasitologia , Theileriose/parasitologia , Anticorpos , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Sicília , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia
13.
Vet Rec ; 194(7): i-ii, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551276

RESUMO

From an early age Jo Hockenhull was acutely aware of the plight of equids and how animals' behaviour reveals a huge amount about their wellbeing, leading to a distinguished career in animal welfare research.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Equidae , Animais , Comportamento Animal
14.
Vet Rec ; 194(5): 176, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427440

Assuntos
Equidae , Pele , Animais
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 102, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective therapy for many infections is becoming difficult due to the evolutionary development of drug resistance, and hence, the development of alternative treatment options mainly from herbs is crucial. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of ethanol extracts of stem bark, leaves and roots of Combretum molle against Streptococcus equi isolated from clinical cases of strangles using in vitro tests. METHODS: Plant extraction was performed using a maceration technique with 80% ethanol. The mean zone of inhibition was determined using the agar well diffusion method. Six serial dilutions with different concentrations (10%, 5%, 2.5%, 1.25%, 0.625% and 0.3125%) of each plant extract were prepared using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A modified agar microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of the extracts. RESULTS: The results revealed that all plant extracts showed significant antibacterial activity. The root extract showed the best antibacterial effect compared to the others at all concentrations, with MZI values of 27.5, 23.225, 20.5, 17.9, 15.65 and 12.25 for the respective concentrations mentioned above and an MIC of 250 µg/ml. It was followed by the stem bark extract, which had MZI values of 24.67, 22.35, 18.225, 16.175, 11.125 and 8.2 millimeters and an MIC of 375 µg/ml. The leaf extract also had significant activity, with MZI values of 20.175, 18.25, 15.7, 13.125, 9.4 and 6.75 in millimeters and an MIC of 500 µg/ml. There was a direct relationship between the concentrations of the plant extracts and the level of inhibition. CONCLUSION: The test plant extracts were compared with the conventional antibiotic penicillin G, and the results indicated that the parts of the test plant have significant antibacterial activity, which may support traditional claims and could be candidates for alternative drug discoveries.


Assuntos
Combretum , Streptococcus equi , Cavalos , Animais , Equidae , Casca de Planta , Ágar , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Etanol
16.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 270: 110738, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452577

RESUMO

Laminitis is a pathology of the equine digit ultimately leading to a failure of the dermo-epidermal interface. Neutrophil activation is recognized as a major factor in SIRS-associated laminitis and has recently been described in induced endocrinopathic laminitis evidenced by the presence of myeloperoxidase (MPO). Neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) are released with neutrophil activation. This study aimed to investigate the presence and activity of MPO and NET in the lamellar tissue of equids presented with naturally occurring laminitis. Samples of lamellar tissue of five horses and five donkeys presented with laminitis, as well as eight control horses without laminitis, were collected. Lamellar tissue extracts were submitted to ELISA and specific immuno-extraction followed by enzymatic detection (SIEFED) assays to confirm the presence and activity of both MPO and NET. Lamellar sections were also immunohistopathologically stained for MPO and NET. Analysis of lamellar tissue extracts revealed that laminitis cases had significantly higher levels of total MPO concentration, MPO activity, and NET-bound MPO activity in comparison to control horses. Moreover, a strong correlation was identified between the activity of NET-bound MPO and the total MPO activity, which suggests that MPO activity partly originates from NET-bound MPO. Immunohistochemical staining showed that MPO and NET labelling in laminitis cases was moderate to marked, primarily in the epidermis and in inflammatory infiltrates containing neutrophils, while labelling in control horses was minimal. This article constitutes the first indication of the presence and activity of NET-bound MPO in the lamellar tissue of horses and donkeys with naturally occurring laminitis. Targeting these substances may provide new treatment possibilities for this debilitating disease.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Armadilhas Extracelulares , Doenças do Pé , Doenças dos Cavalos , Cavalos , Animais , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Dermatite/veterinária , Equidae , Peroxidase , Extratos de Tecidos , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Inflamação/veterinária
17.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 107: 102155, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460360

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, determine the distribution, and identify the epidemiological risk factors of EHV-1/-4 infections in selected districts of Northwest Amhara Region. 460 serum samples were collected from equines using multistage cluster sampling technique, and a competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was performed. Various risk factors for the occurrence of EHV-1/-4 were considered. Statistical analysis was performed using R version 4.3.1. 65.9% (303) equids were tested positive for antibodies against EHV-1/-4. Based on district, the highest prevalence was recorded in Wogera (86.1%), while the lowest was in Debark (47.4%). There was a significant difference (p <0.05; 95% CI: 1.1067993-3.682843) in the prevalence of EHV-1/-4 among species and donkeys are 2.019 times more likely to get an EHV infection than horses. The prevalence of EHV-1/-4 was highest in equids with the age of 3-8 years and lowest in < 3 years, and the difference was statistically significant (p <0.05; 95% CI: 1.9812042-6.771820). Statistically significant variation (p <0.05; 95% CI: 1.1173822-2.684013) was also observed between sex of equids in which females had 1.73 times higher chance to get EHV infection than males. Higher prevalence was found in lactating equids (81.6%), followed by pregnant equids (74.6%), and dry equids (66.4%). Generally, this study indicated a high and wide distribution of EHV-1/-4 infection in the study area, which needs due attention. Devising strategies to prevent and minimize the spread and occurrence of the infection is crucial.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1 , Doenças dos Cavalos , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Cavalos , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Lactação , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Equidae , Fatores de Risco , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia
18.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(4): e14555, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546114

RESUMO

Most of the northern hemisphere donkey breeds are faced with the risk of extinction, thus donkey reproduction is considered an emerging branch of theriogenology, and the management of artificial insemination and induction of ovulation is a crucial point in setting up preservation protocols. For four consecutive cycles, six jennies' ovarian activity was routinely monitored; an ultrasound examination was performed daily from the evidence of a follicle diameter ≥27 mm until ovulation. Upon reaching a follicular diameter ≥32 ± 2 mm (Hour 0), oestrous jennies were treated alternatively with 0.1 mg triptorelin acetate, sc, (TRIP), 0.4 mg/sc of buserelin acetate (BUS) or saline, sc, (CTRL) and examined ultrasonographically at Hours 14, 24, 38, 42, 48, 62 and every 24 h until ovulation. Induction of ovulation was considered successful if ovulation occurred from 24 to 48 h after treatment. 11/12 cycles resulted in ovulation for TRIP and 12/12 for BUS and CTRL groups, respectively. Mean ± SD ovulation time after treatment was 37.3 ± 8.3, 47.1 ± 21.0 and 66.8 ± 25.9 h for BUS, TRIP and CTRL, respectively (p = .0032). Ovulation rates between h24 and h48 were 10/12 (83.3%) for both TRIP/BUS and 2/12 (16.7%) for CTRL, respectively (p = .003). Buserelin and triptorelin-treated jennies had a 25 times higher probability to ovulate between Hours 24 and 48 than controls (p = .003), while there were no jenny and cycle effects on the ovulatory rate. The results of this study show how triptorelin successfully induced ovulation in jennies, like other GnRH analogues previously evaluated.


Assuntos
Equidae , Pamoato de Triptorrelina , Feminino , Animais , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/farmacologia , Ovulação , Busserrelina/farmacologia , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Acetatos/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2016): 20231638, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351797

RESUMO

Fierce international debates rage over whether trophy hunting is socially acceptable, especially when people from the Global North hunt well-known animals in sub-Saharan Africa. We used an online vignette experiment to investigate public perceptions of the acceptability of trophy hunting in sub-Saharan Africa among people who live in urban areas of the USA, UK and South Africa. Acceptability depended on specific attributes of different hunts as well as participants' characteristics. Zebra hunts were more acceptable than elephant hunts, hunts that would provide meat to local people were more acceptable than hunts in which meat would be left for wildlife, and hunts in which revenues would support wildlife conservation were more acceptable than hunts in which revenues would support either economic development or hunting enterprises. Acceptability was generally lower among participants from the UK and those who more strongly identified as an animal protectionist, but higher among participants with more formal education, who more strongly identified as a hunter, or who would more strongly prioritize people over wild animals. Overall, acceptability was higher when hunts would produce tangible benefits for local people, suggesting that members of three urban publics adopt more pragmatic positions than are typically evident in polarized international debates.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Elefantes , Animais , Humanos , Animais Selvagens , Caça , Opinião Pública , Equidae
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 57, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphoma is a common neoplasm in horses but is reported much less commonly in donkeys. In this case report, we describe the macroscopic, microscopic and immunohistochemical features of a multicentric lymphoma with intestinal and bone marrow involvement. CASE PRESENTATION: A geriatric female donkey with history of chronic lameness was found dead. Post-mortem examination revealed advanced emaciation, periodontal disease, left front foot laminitis and multiple, soft, white to yellow tan intestinal transmural masses, up to 12 cm in diameter. Cytology suggested a round cell intestinal neoplasm. The femur of the left hint limb was double the size of the normal contralateral, with suspected neoplastic infiltration and replacement of bone marrow and bone. Histologically we diagnosed a lymphoma in the intestine and left femur. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells showed CD3 immunolabelling, supporting a diagnosis of a multicentric T-cell lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time multicentric lymphoma is diagnosed in donkeys. Further studies of the genetic background, clinical, laboratory, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical, as well as the pathogenesis of lymphoma, is needed to better understand the uniquely low frequency of this neoplasm in donkeys.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Linfoma de Células T , Linfoma , Feminino , Cavalos , Animais , Medula Óssea , Equidae , Linfoma/veterinária , Linfoma/patologia , Intestinos/patologia , Linfoma de Células T/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia
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