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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256942, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360223

RESUMO

Domestic donkey plays a key role as a draft animal in rural economy of Pakistan where its population is increasing every year. The complete mtDNA control region of forty randomly sampled donkeys was PCR- amplified and sequenced bi-directionally using specific primers. Distinct mtDNA haplotypes obtained in the current study (KY446001−KY446011) were subjected to haplotype (h) and nucleotide diversity (π) measures using DnaS as well as to phylogenetic, Network, and AMOVA analyses. There were a total 27 polymorphic sites present within 11 unique mtDNA haplotypes from the studied 40 animals from different regions. Neighbor-joining network and median-joining network both illustrated the splitting of all these haplotypes into two well-defined Nubian and Somali lineages, confirming African maternal origin of Pakistani domestic donkey. Diversity parameters h (0.967± 0.037) and π (0.02917± 0.00307) were found to reveal high levels of genetic diversity in Pakistani donkeys. AMOVA demonstrated only 1% of genetic differences between two mtDNA maternal lineages, pointing to lack of population substructure in Pakistani donkeys as is the case with worldwide domestic donkey population. Pakistani donkeys have African maternal origin and high levels of mtDNA diversity. High genetic diversity may be due to non-selective breeding and heteroplasmy. We herein provide the first report on mtDNA diversity of control region in Pakistani domestic donkey.


O burro doméstico possui um papel fundamental como animal de tração na economia rural do Paquistão, onde a população desse animal está aumentando a cada ano. A região de controle de mtDNA completa de 40 burros amostrados aleatoriamente foi ampliada por PCR e sequenciada bidirecionalmente por intermédio de primers específicos. Haplótipos distintos de mtDNA obtidos no estudo atual (KY446001 − KY446011) foram submetidos a medidas de haplótipo (h) e diversidade de nucleotídeos (π) por meio de DnaS, bem como análises filogenéticas, de rede e AMOVA. Havia um total de 27 sítios polimórficos presentes em 11 haplótipos de mtDNA exclusivos dos 40 animais estudados de diferentes regiões. A rede de união de vizinhos e a rede de união mediana ilustram a divisão de todos esses haplótipos em duas linhagens núbias e somalis bem definidas, confirmando a origem materna africana do burro doméstico do Paquistão. Os parâmetros de diversidade h (0,967 ± 0,037) e π (0,02917 ± 0,00307) revelaram altos níveis de diversidade genética em burros paquistaneses. AMOVA demonstrou apenas 1% de diferenças genéticas entre as duas linhagens maternas de mtDNA, apontando a falta de subestrutura populacional em burros paquistaneses, como é o caso da população mundial de burros domésticos. Os burros paquistaneses têm origem materna africana e altos níveis de diversidade de mtDNA. A alta diversidade genética pode ser por causa da reprodução não seletiva e de heteroplasmia. Aqui, fornecemos o primeiro relatório sobre a diversidade do mtDNA da região de controle em burros domésticos do Paquistão


Assuntos
Animais , Paquistão , Variação Genética , DNA Mitocondrial , Equidae
2.
BMC Genom Data ; 24(1): 2, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the protein kinase cGMP-dependent 2 (PRKG2) gene is associated with dwarfism in humans, dogo Argentines, and Angus cattle, as well as with height and osteoblastogenesis in humans. Therefore, the PRKG2 gene was used as the target gene to explore whether this gene is associated with several thoracolumbar vertebrae and carcass traits in Dezhou donkeys. RESULTS: In this study, fifteen SNPs were identified by targeted sequencing, all of which were located in introns of the PRKG2 gene. Association analysis illustrated that the g.162153251 G > A, g.162156524 C > T, g.162158453 C > T and, g.162163775 T > G were significantly different from carcass weight. g.162166224 G > A, g.162166654 T > A, g.162167165 C > A, g.162167314 A > C and, g.162172653 G > C were significantly associated with the number of thoracic vertebrae. g.162140112 A > G was significantly associated with the number and the length of lumbar vertebrae, and g.162163775 T > G was significantly associated with the total number of thoracolumbar vertebrae. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results of this study suggest that PRKG2 gene polymorphism can be used as a molecular marker to breed high-quality Dezhou donkeys.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Dependente de GMP Cíclico Tipo II , Equidae , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Proteína Quinase Dependente de GMP Cíclico Tipo II/genética , Equidae/genética , Íntrons , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Coluna Vertebral
3.
Vet Microbiol ; 276: 109604, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481483

RESUMO

Taylorella asinigenitalis is a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the genital tract of donkeys but also a cause of metritis and vaginal discharge in mares. It is closely related to Taylorella equigenitalis, the cause of Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) in horses, and has been present in different countries in Europe since 1995. Up to date, there are no studies on the prevalence of T. asinigenitalis in the equine or asinine populations in Spain; this is the first report of the presence of T. asinigenitalis in donkeys (Equus asinus) from different breeds in three regions of Spain. A total of 106 healthy animals of three different Spanish donkey breeds: Andaluza (26), Majorera (12) and Zamorano-Leonés (68) were sampled between June and July 2017 and a real-time PCR was used to detect T. asinigenitalis in all samples. A total of 39/221 (17,65 %) samples from 22/106 (20,75 %) animals yielded a positive result and were further characterized by MLST; an allelic profile and Sequence Type (ST) could be assigned to 11 of the 39 positive samples, resulting in four novel STs and no clonal complexes within the PubMLST database. There were statistically significant differences in the percentage of positive animals by breed and sex, and also in the variability of STs between farms. Breeding management would have an influence on the percentage of positives in a farm; artificial insemination and separating jacks from jennies should be implemented. Further studies to detect and characterize T. asinigenitalis in donkeys and horses from Spain would be required to obtain a broader epidemiological picture in this country.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Doenças dos Cavalos , Taylorella equigenitalis , Taylorella , Cavalos , Animais , Feminino , Equidae/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Espanha/epidemiologia , Taylorella/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico
4.
Emerg Med J ; 40(2): 134-139, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine which demographic, clinical and ultrasonography characteristics are predictive of testicular torsion (TT) and to determine factors associated with time to treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all medical records of patients (0-17 years) with acute scrotal syndrome (ASS) who were treated in our hospital in Lithuania between 2011 and 2020. We extracted patients' demographic data, in-hospital time intervals, clinical, US and surgical findings. TT was determined at surgery or clinically after manual detorsion. Test characteristics of demographic, clinical and US findings for the diagnosis of TT versus other causes of ASS were determined. We performed a multivariate analysis to identify independent clinical predictors of torsion, and factors associated with surgical delay. RESULTS: A search of medical records yielded 555 cases: 196 (35%) patients with TT and 359 (65%) patients with other ASS causes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age between 13 and 17 years (OR 8.39; 95% CI 5.12 to 13.76), duration of symptoms <7 hours (OR 3.41; 95% CI 2.03 to 5.72), palpated hard testis (OR 4.65; 95% CI 2.02 to 10.67), scrotal swelling (OR 2.37; 95% CI 1.31 to 4.30), nausea/vomiting (OR 4.37; 95% CI 2.03 to 9.43), abdominal pain (OR 2.38; 95% CI 1.27 to 4.45) were independent clinical predictors of TT. No testicular blood flow in Doppler US had a specificity of 98.2% and a positive predictive value of 94.6%. However, 75 (41.7%) patients with TT had normal testicular blood flow, yielding low sensitivity (58.3%) and negative predictive value of 81.3% for this US finding. In-hospital waiting time for surgery was longer in patients with TT with normal testicular blood flow by USS (195 min) compared with no blood flow (123 min), p<0.01. Higher orchiectomy rates were associated with longer duration of symptoms (p<0.001) and longer waiting time for USS (p=0.029) but not with false-negative US. CONCLUSIONS: Pubertal age, symptoms duration of <7 hours, nausea/vomiting, palpated hard testis, abdominal pain and scrotal swelling are predictive factors for TT. Time lost between symptom onset and seeking medical care, and between arrival and US are associated with the need for orchiectomy. Preserved blood flow in USS does not rule out TT and may contribute to delays to surgery.


Assuntos
Torção do Cordão Espermático , Masculino , Humanos , Animais , Adolescente , Torção do Cordão Espermático/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Fatores de Risco , Dor Abdominal , Equidae
5.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 120: 104190, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509242

RESUMO

Among infection diseases transmitted by arthropods, the equine vector-borne diseases transmitted by ticks represent an emerging problem worldwide due to their morbidity and mortality and, in some cases, to their zoonotic relevance. Understanding the host immune/inflammatory response to the pathogens is crucial to develop effective methods of diagnosis, control and treatment. This study aimed to evaluate red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin content (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin (MCHC), platelets (PLT), white blood cells (WBC), leukocytes populations, and serum protein pattern of Sardinian donkeys scored positive to tick-borne pathogens. Thirty donkeys were dived in five groups, six subjects each: Group 1, tested negative to pathogens (control group); Group 2, donkeys infected by Theileria equi; Group 3, donkeys infected by Ehrlichia equi; Group 4, donkeys infected by Rickettsia Rickettsii; Group 5, donkeys co-infected by T. equi, E. equi and R. Rickettsii. From donkeys blood samples were collected and haematological and serum protein profiles were assessed. One-way ANOVA showed lower red blood cells, haemoglobin, platelets, lymphocytes and neutrophils values, and higher eosinophils, basophils, serum total proteins, α2-, ß- and γ- globulins values in donkeys infected by one or more pathogens compared to control group (P < .05). The study highlighted an immune and inflammatory response of donkeys positive to E. equi, T. equi, and R. Rickettsii and represents a starting point for further investigations in the field to fill the gaps currently existing on the complex interwoven relationship between the pathogen and host immune and inflammatory response in equids.


Assuntos
Theileria , Carrapatos , Cavalos , Animais , Equidae , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Rickettsia rickettsii
6.
J Proteomics ; 273: 104793, 2023 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535622

RESUMO

The freezability difference between donkey ejaculates is a limiting factor of sperm cryopreservation. Our recent study shows that the freezability of donkey semen is related to the seminal plasma proteome. In this study, we aimed to identify the different abundance sperm proteins in good freezability ejaculates (GFEs) and poor freezability ejaculates (PFEs) using a Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) peptide labeling coupled with LC-MS/MS approach. A total of 2682 proteins were identified, among which 58 were significantly up-regulated in GFEs and 16 were down-regulated compared with PFEs. Bioinformatic analysis results revealed that the majority of different abundance proteins (DAPs) participated in copper and calcium binding, regulation of RNA biosynthetic process, positive regulation of innate immune response, and negative regulation of programmed cell death. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed the up-regulated proteins in GF group were mainly involved in N-Glycan biosynthesis and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum. Our study was the first to analyze the proteome of sperm from donkey ejaculates with different freezabilities. The identified candidate proteins might be used to explore the molecular mechanism related to donkey sperm cryotolerance and might improve the screening of jacks with good sperm freezability. SIGNIFICANCE: Cryopreserved semen has been widely used in assisted reproductive technology. However, semen cryopreservation is a damaging process, which can cause oxidative stress, reduce sperm motility and motility. There are differences in sperm freezability reported to exist between or within breeds, and even between fractions coming from the same ejaculate. The freezability difference between donkey ejaculates is a limiting factor of sperm cryopreservation. The mechanisms that affect the freezing difference in sperm quality remain to be investigated, and freezability differences was found to be related to protein composition of spermatozoa. Some protein markers that can indicate good freezability or poor freezability semen have been identified in mammals. Until now, there is no information about the relationship between donkey spermatozoa proteome and freezability. Additional novel biomarkers of semen freezability in donkey spermatozoa are also needed. The identified candidate proteins might be used to explore the molecular mechanism related to donkey sperm cryotolerance and might improve the screening of jacks with good sperm freezability.


Assuntos
Equidae , Preservação do Sêmen , Animais , Masculino , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Cromatografia Líquida , Motilidade Espermática , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Criopreservação/métodos , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos
7.
S Afr Med J ; 112(12): 892-896, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36472321

RESUMO

Wound infections following cytotoxic snakebites are common. Bites from Naja nigricincta nigricincta (an African spitting cobra) usually present as severe dermonecrosis spreading within the subdermal fascia layer. Primary infections can follow inoculation of the snake's oral flora during the bite, worsening the dermonecrosis into infective necrotising fasciitis. We report the case of a 2½-year-old boy who presented with infective (Proteus vulgaris) necrotising fasciitis after an N. n. nigricincta bite, resulting in multiple-organ failure and death. A P. vulgaris with the same antibiotic profile was cultured from the mouth of the snake.


Assuntos
Fasciite Necrosante , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Humanos , Naja , Venenos Elapídicos , Fasciite Necrosante/complicações , Equidae , África do Sul , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Serpentes , Antivenenos
8.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 111938, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461196

RESUMO

Donkey colostrum milk fat globule membrane (DCMFGM) proteins are involved in multiple biological functions. However, the effect of N-glycosylation on their physiological properties are unknown. The aim of this study was to map the DCMFGM protein site-specific N-glycosylation landscape using a label-free glycoproteomic approach. A total of 1,443 unique intact N-glycopeptides mapping to 453 unique N-glycosites on 336 N-glycoproteins were identified. The macro- and microheterogeneity of DCMFGM glycoproteins were explored at the N-glycosite level and the site-specific N-glycan level, respectively, and it was found that the N-glycosylation profiles of the DCMFGM proteins varied based on subcellular localisation and protein domain types. Our findings reveal the heterogeneity and functional diversity of N-glycosylation of DCMFGM proteins and provide theoretical support for the promotion of DCMFGM proteins as a functional food ingredient.


Assuntos
Colostro , Proteínas de Membrana , Feminino , Gravidez , Animais , Glicosilação , Equidae , Glicoproteínas
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1003247, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466834

RESUMO

Evidence has shown that gut microbiota play a key role in host metabolism and health; however, little is known about the microbial community in the donkey hindgut as well as the interactions that occur between gut microbes and the host. This study aimed to explore the gut microbiome differences by analyzing the microbial community and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to lipid metabolism and the immune system along the donkey hindgut. The hindgut tissues (cecum, ventral colon, and dorsal colon) were separated, and the contents of each section were collected from six male donkeys for multi-omics analysis. There were significant differences in terms of dominant bacteria among the three sections, especially between the cecum and dorsal colon sites. For instance, species belonging to Prevotella and Treponema were most abundant in the cecum, while the Clostridiales_bacterium, Streptococcus_equinus, Ruminococcaceae_bacterium, etc., were more abundant in the dorsal colon. Apart from propionate, the concentrations of acetate, isobutyrate, valerate and isovalerate were all lower in the cecum than in the dorsal colon (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we identified some interesting DEGs related to lipid metabolism (e.g., ME1, MBOAT1, ACOX1, ACOX2 and LIPH) and the immune system (e.g., MUC3B, mucin-2-like, IL17RC, IL1R2, IL33, C1QA, and MMP9) between the cecum and dorsal colon and found that the PPAR pathway was mainly enriched in the cecum. Finally, we found a complex relationship between the gut microbiome and gene expression, especially with respect to the immune system, and combined with protein-protein interaction (PPI) data, suggesting that the PPAR pathway might be responsible, at least in part, for the role of the hindgut microbiota in the donkeys' gut homeostasis. Our data provide an in-depth understanding of the interaction between the microbiota and function in the healthy equine hindgut and may also provide guidance for improving animal performance metrics (such as product quality) and equine welfare.


Assuntos
Besouros , Gastrópodes , Masculino , Cavalos , Animais , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Equidae , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Ceco , Colo
10.
Vet Rec ; 191(12): 483, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524645
11.
J Anim Ecol ; 91(12): 2342-2347, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36479678

RESUMO

Research Highlight: Lundgren, E. J., Ramp, D., Middleton, O. S., Wooster, E. I. F., Kusch, E., Balisi, M., Ripple, W. J., Hasselerharm, C. D., Sanchez, J. N., Mills, M. & Wallach, A. D. (2022) A novel trophic cascade between cougars and feral donkeys shapes desert wetlands. Journal of Animal Ecology, (91, 2010-2022). https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13766. Despite being absent from most regions of the contemporary world, megafauna species dominated the dynamics of ecological communities until the late Pleistocene. Trophic rewilding is a promising approach to restoring megafauna interactions, their functional roles and the consequent trophic cascades. Unintentional rewilding with large non-native herbivores, such as equids, offers outstanding opportunities for ecologists to understand the outcomes of using replacement species to restore the ecological functions of extinct native megafauna. In this context, it is relevant to understand the extent to which extant native predators can impose top-down control on non-native megaherbivores and how trophic cascades arising from novel predator-prey interactions influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions. In Death Valley National Park (United States), Lundgren et al. depict a natural experiment showing compelling evidence of native cougars overcoming ecological naïveté-that is, the mismatches between predator and prey species that do not share a common evolutionary history-and are now successfully preying on younger individuals of feral donkeys. These non-native donkeys, whose growing wild populations threaten the native biota, became cougars' most frequent dietary item in that region. In areas with cougars, donkeys changed their spatiotemporal foraging patterns, becoming diurnal and less active. On the other hand, donkeys remain more active and forage throughout the day and night in areas without cougars. The cougar-donkey interaction triggered a behaviourally mediated trophic cascade emerging from a 'landscape of fear', that is, from the perception of spatial heterogeneity in predation risk by donkeys. Areas with cougars have less trampled ground, fewer donkey trails, and much more canopy cover and vegetation around water. Donkeys concentrate their activity mostly in topologically plain terrains lacking proper sites for the ambush behaviour of cougars and with more intense human presence, likely acting as a shield against the predators. Lundgren et al. present a promising model system for studying the effects of fearful grazers on community structure in the context of novel ecological interactions being established in the Anthropocene. Whether the emerging cascade is transient or persistent, the relative roles of consumptive and non-consumptive effects as underlying mechanisms, and their consequences for food web structure, functioning and stability, are questions of general interest. Addressing them can help us to elucidate the costs and benefits of using non-native megaherbivores in the functional restoration of permanently invaded ecosystems.


Pesquisa em Destaque: Lundgren, E. J., Ramp, D., Middleton, O. S., Wooster, E. I. F., Kusch, E., Balisi, M., Ripple, W. J., Hasselerharm, C. D., Sanchez, J. N., Mills, M. & Wallach, A. D. (2022) A novel trophic cascade between cougars and feral donkeys shapes desert wetlands. Journal of Animal Ecology, 00:00-00. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13766. Apesar de estarem ausentes da maioria das regiões do mundo contemporâneo, as espécies da megafauna dominaram a dinâmica das comunidades ecológicas até o Pleistoceno tardio. A refaunação trófica é uma abordagem promissora para a restauração das interações da megafauna, de seus papéis funcionais e das cascatas tróficas delas decorrentes. A refaunação não-intencional com grandes herbívoros não-nativos, tais como equídeos, oferece oportunidades extraordinárias para os ecólogos entenderem as consequências do uso de espécies substitutas para restaurar as funções ecológicas da extinta megafauna nativa. Nesse contexto, é relevante entendermos o quanto os predadores nativos atuais podem impor controle de cima para baixo sobre mega-herbívoros não-nativos, e como cascatas tróficas oriundas de novas interações predador-presa influenciam a biodiversidade e as funções ecossistêmicas. No Parque Nacional do Vale da Morte (Estados Unidos), Lundgren et al. reportam um experimento natural mostrando evidências contundentes de que onças pardas superaram a ingenuidade ecológica - i.e., os desajustes entre predadores e presas que não compartilham uma história evolutiva comum - e agora estão predando os indivíduos mais jovens de burros ferais com sucesso. Esses burros exóticos, cujas populações crescentes ameaçam a biota nativa, se tornaram o item mais frequente da dieta das onças pardas nessa região. Em áreas com onças pardas, os burros mudaram seus padrões espaço-temporais de forrageio, tornando-se diurnos e menos ativos. Por outro lado, os burros permanecem mais ativos e forrageiam durante o dia e à noite em áreas sem onças pardas. A interação entre onças pardas e burros desencadeou uma cascata trófica comportamentalmente mediada que emerge de uma "paisagem de medo", isto é, da percepção dos burros sobre a heterogeneidade espacial do risco de predação. Áreas com onças pardas tiveram menos solo pisoteado, menos trilhas de burros, e muito mais cobertura de dossel e vegetação no entorno da água. Os burros concentram a maior parte de suas atividades em terrenos topologicamente planos, os quais não apresentam lugares apropriados para o comportamento de emboscada das onças pardas e têm presença humana mais intensa, provavelmente agindo como escudos contra predadores. Lundgren et al. apresentam um sistema modelo promissor para o estudo de efeitos de pastadores temorosos sobre a estrutura comunitária no contexto de novas interações ecológicas em estabelecimento no Antropoceno. Se a cascata trófica emergente é transiente ou persistente, os papéis relativos dos efeitos diretos e indiretos como mecanismos subjacentes, e suas consequências para a estrutura, funcionamento e estabilidade da teia trófica são questões de interesse geral. Respondê-las pode nos ajudar a elucidar os custos e benefícios de usar mega-herbívoros não-nativos na restauração funcional de ecossistemas permanentemente invadidos.


Assuntos
Puma , Humanos , Animais , Equidae , Ecossistema , Ecologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22590, 2022 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585464

RESUMO

Health monitoring is critical for newborn animals due to their vulnerability to diseases. Urine can be not only a useful and non-invasive tool (free-catch samples) to reflect the physiological status of animals but also to help monitor the progression of diseases. Proteomics involves the study of the whole complement of proteins and peptides, including structure, quantities, functions, variations and interactions. In this study, urinary proteomics of neonatal donkeys were characterized and compared to the profiles of adult donkeys to provide a reference database for healthy neonatal donkeys. The urine samples were collected from male neonatal donkeys on their sixth to tenth days of life (group N) and male adult donkeys aging 4-6 years old (group A). Library-free data-independent acquisition (direct DIA) mass spectrometry-based proteomics were applied to analyze the urinary protein profiles. Total 2179 urinary proteins were identified, and 411 proteins were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the two groups. 104 proteins were exclusively expressed in group N including alpha fetoprotein (AFP), peptidase-mitochondrial processing data unit (PMPCB), and upper zone of growth plate and cartilage matrix associated (UCMA), which might be used to monitor the health status of neonatal donkeys. In functional analysis, some differentially expressed proteins were identified related to immune system pathways, which might provide more insight in the immature immunity of neonatal donkeys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report donkey urinary proteome and our results might provide reference for urinary biomarker discovery used to monitor and evaluate health status of neonatal donkeys.


Assuntos
Equidae , Proteômica , Animais , Masculino , Proteômica/métodos , Equidae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Peptídeos , Proteoma/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278400, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516165

RESUMO

Identification of livestock farmers' breeding practices and morphological characterization of livestock are the important first steps to the successful implementation of any breeding programme. Community-based breeding programme (CBBP) has gained attention as a promising method for the genetic improvement of livestock but lacks information on donkey breeding. The study was conducted to identify donkey farmers' breeding practices and donkey morphological characterization in three purposely selected villages (Thorne, Archibalt and Genau) located in Blouberg Local Municipality, Limpopo province of South Africa. Questionnaire survey method was used to collect the data from twenty-one donkey farmers while body weight and seventeen morphological traits were measured for the morphological characterization from seventy-four donkeys. Descriptive statistics and index values were computed to describe donkey breeding practices. Chi-square statistics were used to compare categorical variables among villages. General Linear Model procedure was used to compare morphological characteristics of donkeys among villages. The results revealed that there was no statistical different (P>0.05) observed on socio-economic characteristics of donkey farmers except on education level (P<0.05) among villages. Purpose of keeping donkeys, type of donkey breed kept, donkey coat colours, mating systems, reasons for culling, mating seasons and selection criterions were not significantly different (P>0.05) among villages. The most common trait preferences of donkey farmers among the surveyed villages were body size and growth rate in breeding males while in breeding females were body size, twining ability and mothering ability. The results indicated that in all the eighteen measured traits only four showed a significant difference (P<0.05) among the villages and some were significantly correlated with body weight (P<0.05). The results of this study will serves as basis for the development and implementation of CBBPs for donkey farmers at Blouberg Local Municipality of South Africa.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Equidae , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Humanos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Equidae/genética , Fazendeiros , Gado , Peso Corporal
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553455

RESUMO

Interspecific hybridization often shows negative effects on hybrids. However, only a few multicellular species, limited to a handful of plants and animals, have shown partial genetic mechanisms by which hybridization leads to low fitness in hybrids. Here, to explore the outcome of combining the two genomes of a horse and donkey, we analyzed the whole-genome sequences from an Equus parent-offspring trio using Illumina platforms. We generated 41.39× and 46.21× coverage sequences for the horse and mule, respectively. For the donkey, a 40.38× coverage sequence was generated and stored in our laboratory. Approximately 24.86 million alleles were discovered that varied from the reference genome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were used as polymorphic markers for assigning alleles to their parental genomic inheritance. We identified 25,703 Mendelian inheritance error single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mule genome that were not inherited from the parents through Mendelian inheritance. A total of 555 de novo single nucleotide polymorphisms were also identified. The rate of de novo single nucleotide polymorphisms was 2.21 × 10-7 in the mule from the Equus parent-offspring trio. This rate is obviously higher than the natural mutation rate for Equus, which is also consistent with the previous hypothesis that interracial crosses may have a high mutation rate. The genes associated with these single nucleotide polymorphisms are mainly involved in immune processes, DNA repair, and cancer processes. The results of the analysis of three genomes from an Equus parent-offspring trio improved our knowledge of the consequences of the integration of parental genomes in mules.


Assuntos
Equidae , Genoma , Cavalos/genética , Animais , Equidae/genética , Genômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Hibridização Genética
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553607

RESUMO

Donkeys, with high economic value for meat, skin and milk production, are important livestock. However, the current insights into reproduction of donkeys are far from enough. To obtain a deeper understanding, the differential expression analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of transcriptomic data of testicular and epididymis tissues in donkeys were performed. In the result, there were 4313 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the two tissues, including 2047 enriched in testicular tissue and 2266 in epididymis tissue. WGCNA identified 1081 hub genes associated with testis development and 6110 genes with epididymal development. Next, the tissue-specific genes were identified with the above two methods, and the gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the epididymal-specific genes were associated with gonad development. On the other hand, the testis-specific genes were involved in the formation of sperm flagella, meiosis period, ciliary assembly, ciliary movement, etc. In addition, we found that eca-Mir-711 and eca-Mir-143 likely participated in regulating the development of epididymal tissue. Meanwhile, eca-Mir-429, eca-Mir-761, eca-Mir-200a, eca-Mir-191 and eca-Mir-200b potentially played an important role in regulating the development of testicular tissue. In short, these results will contribute to functional studies of the male reproductive trait in donkeys.


Assuntos
Epididimo , Testículo , Animais , Masculino , Testículo/metabolismo , Epididimo/metabolismo , Equidae/genética , Sêmen , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
16.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 80(11): 1724-1725, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332991

Assuntos
Equidae , Animais
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 404, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380376

RESUMO

This study aimed to correlate the pulsed wave spectral indices of the middle uterine artery at both sides with placental development in jenny within mid-late pregnancies, and establish umbilical Doppler values for different ages and different gestational months. Twenty Equus Asinus pregnant jennies 260-450 kg (average, 320 ± 10 kg) were examined from 5 to 9 months of pregnancy with different ages (4-14 years). Monthly B-mode ultrasound examination was performed on both the combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP; mm) and umbilical artery cross-sectional diameter, and Doppler mode examination was performed on both the middle uterine (MUA at right [R] and left [L] sides) and umbilical arteries to measure both Doppler indices that expressed by resistance (RI) and pulsatility indices (PI), and blood flow rate. CTUP was elevated within pregnancy time at different ages (P < 0.05). L. PI was significantly declined throughout different ages (P < 0.05), but this declining trend was not observed in L. RI. The L. blood flow rate (R; bpm) was elevated among different ages and different months (P < 0.05). Both RI and PI were significantly decreased from 5 to 9 month of gestation period in jennies (P < 0.05).. The umbilical arteries cross-sectional diameter (Umb A; mm), was elevated among different ages and different months, while both Doppler indices were declined. A positive correlation was found (between both Doppler indices of both umbilical and uterine arteries P < 0.001). There was elevated vascular perfusion in uterine and umbilical arteries associated with reduced both Doppler indices along the course of pregnancy at different ages.


Assuntos
Equidae , Artérias Umbilicais , Feminino , Gravidez , Animais , Artérias Umbilicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Umbilicais/fisiologia , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/veterinária , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Ultrassonografia Doppler/veterinária , Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica , Envelhecimento , Perfusão/veterinária
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360182

RESUMO

Lack of archaeological and whole-genome diversity data has restricted current knowledge of the evolutionary history of donkeys. With the advancement of science and technology, the discovery of archaeological evidence, the development of molecular genetics, and the improvement of whole-genome sequencing technology, the in-depth understanding of the origin and domestication of donkeys has been enhanced, however. Given the lack of systematic research, the present study carefully screened and collected multiple academic papers and books, journals, and literature on donkeys over the past 15 years. The origin and domestication of donkeys are reviewed in this paper from the aspects of basic information, cultural origin, bioarcheology, mitochondrial and chromosomal microsatellite sequences, and whole-genome sequence comparison. It also highlights and reviews genome assembly technology, by assembling the genome of an individual organism and comparing it with related sample genomes, which can be used to produce more accurate results through big data statistics, analysis, and computational correlation models. Background: The donkey industry in the world and especially in China is developing rapidly, and donkey farming is transforming gradually from the family farming model to large-scale, intensive, and integrated industrial operations, which could ensure the stability of product quality and quantity. However, theoretical research on donkey breeding and its technical development lags far behind that of other livestock, thereby limiting its industrial development. This review provides holistic information for the donkey industry and researchers, that could promote theoretical research, genomic selection (GS), and reproductive management of the donkey population.


Assuntos
Equidae , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Equidae/genética , Genoma/genética , Genômica , Mitocôndrias/genética
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18617, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329147

RESUMO

The best-supported hypothesis for why zebras have stripes is that stripes repel biting flies. While this effect is well-established, the mechanism behind it remains elusive. Myriad hypotheses have been suggested, but few experiments have helped narrow the field of possible explanations. In addition, the complex visual features of real zebra pelage and the natural range of stripe widths have been largely left out of experimental designs. In paired-choice field experiments in a Kenyan savannah, we found that hungry Stomoxys flies released in an enclosure strongly preferred to land on uniform tan impala pelts over striped zebra pelts but exhibited no preference between the pelts of the zebra species with the widest stripes and the narrowest stripes. Our findings confirm that zebra stripes repel biting flies under naturalistic conditions and do so at close range (suggesting that several of the mechanisms hypothesized to operate at a distance are unnecessary for the fly-repulsion effect) but indicate that interspecific variation in stripe width is associated with selection pressures other than biting flies.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Animais , Equidae , Quênia
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18473, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323741

RESUMO

The identification of appropriate references genes is an integral component of any gene expression-based study for getting accuracy and reliability in data interpretation. In this study, we evaluated the expression stability of 10 candidate reference genes (GAPDH, RPL4, EEF1A1, RPS9, HPRT1, UXT, RPS23, B2M, RPS15, ACTB) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of livestock species that are adapted to high altitude hypoxia conditions of Leh-Ladakh. A total of 37 PBMCs samples from six native livestock species of Leh-Ladakh region such as Ladakhi cattle, Ladakhi yak, Ladakhi donkey, Chanthangi goat, Double hump cattle and Zanskar ponies were included in this study. The commonly used statistical algorithms such as geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder were employed to assess the stability of these RGs in all the livestock species. Our study has identified different panel of reference genes in each species; for example, EEF1A1, RPL4 in Ladakhi cattle; GAPDH, RPS9, ACTB in Ladakhi yak; HPRT1, B2M, ACTB in Ladakhi donkey; HPRT1, B2M, ACTB in Double hump camel, RPS9, HPRT1 in Changthangi goat, HPRT1 and ACTB in Zanskar ponies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic attempt to identify panel of RGs across different livestock species types adapted to high altitude hypoxia conditions. In future, the findings of the present study would be quite helpful in conducting any transcriptional studies to understand the molecular basis of high altitude adaptation of native livestock population of Leh-Ladakh.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Bovinos/genética , Cavalos/genética , Animais , Gado/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Hipóxia/genética , Cabras/genética , Equidae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Padrões de Referência
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