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2.
J Helminthol ; 98: e40, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738533

RESUMO

In the past decade, interest has significantly increased regarding the medicinal and nutritional benefits of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel. This study examined the effects of using pomegranate peel extract (PGE) alone and in combination with albendazole (ABZ) on ultrastructural and immunological changes in cystic echinococcosis in laboratory-infected mice. Results revealed that the smallest hydatid cyst size and weight (0.48 ± 0.47mm, 0.17 ± 0.18 gm) with the highest drug efficacy (56.2%) was detected in the PGE + ABZ group, which also exhibited marked histopathological improvement. Ultrastructural changes recorded by transmission electron microscopy including fragmentation of the nucleus, glycogen depletion, and multiple lysosomes in vacuolated cytoplasm were more often observed in PGE + ABZ group. IFN-γ levels were significantly increased in the group treated with ABZ, with a notable reduction following PGE treatment, whether administered alone or in combination with ABZ. Thus, PGE enhanced the therapeutic efficiency of ABZ, with improvement in histopathological and ultrastructural changes.


Assuntos
Albendazol , Equinococose , Extratos Vegetais , Punica granatum , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Punica granatum/química , Camundongos , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Equinococose/parasitologia , Albendazol/farmacologia , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Interferon gama/sangue , Feminino , Masculino
3.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 12(4): e1236, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of miRNA in liver damage caused by Echinococcus multilocularis infection. METHODS: Six female C57BL mice were randomly divided into two groups, the control group and the infection group. Mice in the control group were injected with 100 µL PBS through the hepatic portal vein, and mice in the infection group were infected with E. multilocularis via the hepatic portal vein to establish a mouse model of infection. Small RNA sequencing was performed for detecting the expression of miRNAs in the liver of mice infected with 2000 E. multilocularis after 3 months of infection, screen out miRNAs related to liver damage, and verify by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Seventy-one differentially expressed miRNAs were found in the liver in comparison with control, and a total of 36 mouse miRNAs with |FC| >0.585 were screened out, respectively. In addition, Targetscan (V5.0) and miRanda (v3.3a) software were used to predict differential miRNAs target genes and functional enrichment of target genes. Functional annotation showed that "cytokine-cytokine interaction," "positive regulation of cytokine production," "inflammatory response," and "leukocyte activation" were enriched in the liver of E. multilocularis-infected mice. Moreover, the pathways "human cytomegalovirus infection," "cysteine and methionine metabolism," "Notch signaling pathway," and "ferroptosis" were involved in liver disease. Furthermore, four miRNAs (mmu-miR-30e-3p, mmu-miR-203-3p, mmu-miR-125b-5p, and mmu-miR-30c-2-3p) related to liver injury were screened and verified. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the expression profiling of miRNAs in the livers was changed after E. multilocularis infection, and improved our understanding of the transcriptomic landscape of hepatic echinococcosis in mice.


Assuntos
Echinococcus multilocularis , Fígado , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs , Veia Porta , Animais , MicroRNAs/genética , Camundongos , Feminino , Veia Porta/patologia , Veia Porta/parasitologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Equinococose/patologia
4.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 50: 101013, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38644038

RESUMO

Canids harbor many zoonotic parasites and play an important role in the spread of parasites in the human environment. Estimation of parasitic infection among canids as definitive hosts may help competent authorities design efficient control programs. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and foxes with an emphasis on Echinococcus spp. A total of 500 fecal samples of dogs and 30 fecal samples of foxes were studied in the summer, autumn, and winter of 2021 in the Zanjan province using the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique, followed by multiplex PCR. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite infection was estimated to be 19.05%. The prevalence was 24.8%, 10.2%, and 26.7% in stray, shelter dogs and foxes, respectively. No parasites were found among pet and guard dog samples. PCR results on Taenidae eggs showed that 2.4% of samples were positive for Echinococcus granulosus and none contained E. multilocularis. Noteworthy is that E. granulosus was identified only in stray dog samples. The higher prevalence of E. granulosus infection in stray dogs in this province emphasizes the importance of monitoring the food sources consumed by these animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Equinococose , Fezes , Raposas , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Cães , Raposas/parasitologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fezes/parasitologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Equinococose/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 190, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widespread zoonosis caused by the infection with Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (E. granulosus s.l.). CE cysts mainly develop in the liver of intermediate hosts, characterized by the fibrotic tissue that separates host organ from parasite. However, precise mechanism underlying the formation of fibrotic tissue in CE remains unclear. METHODS: To investigate the potential impact of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes on liver fibrosis formation in CE, two members of ubiquitin-conjugating (UBC) enzyme of Echinococcus granulosus (EgE2D2 and EgE2N) were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and analyzed for bioinformatics, immunogenicity, localization, and enzyme activity. In addition, the secretory pathway and their effects on the formation of liver fibrosis were also explored. RESULTS: Both rEgE2D2 and rEgE2N possess intact UBC domains and active sites, exhibiting classical ubiquitin binding activity and strong immunoreactivity. Additionally, EgE2D2 and EgE2N were widely distributed in protoscoleces and germinal layer, with differences observed in their distribution in 25-day strobilated worms. Further, these two enzymes were secreted to the hydatid fluid and CE-infected sheep liver tissues via a non-classical secretory pathway. Notably, TGFß1-induced LX-2 cells exposed to rEgE2D2 and rEgE2N resulted in increasing expression of fibrosis-related genes, enhancing cell proliferation, and facilitating cell migration. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that EgE2D2 and EgE2N could secrete into the liver and may interact with hepatic stellate cells, thereby promoting the formation of liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Ovinos , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Equinococose/parasitologia , Cirrose Hepática , Ubiquitinas/genética , Genótipo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
6.
J Helminthol ; 98: e34, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628145

RESUMO

The diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is based on imaging. Detection of a focal lesion with morphological characteristics of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato metacestode is the starting point for the diagnostic workup. In organs explorable with ultrasound (US), this is the method of choice for both aetiological diagnosis of CE and staging of the CE cyst. Staging in terms of lesion morphology is also needed when serology is added to the diagnostic workflow when imaging alone is inconclusive. Finally, staging guides the clinical management of uncomplicated CE, especially in the liver. This commentary provides an overview of the most up-to-date evidence backing the above-mentioned role of US in the diagnosis and clinical management of CE. Finally, we outline future perspectives for the improvement of CE diagnosis.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Animais , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
Parasite Immunol ; 46(4): e13034, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625016

RESUMO

Scavenger receptors participate in a wide range of biological functions after binding to multiple non-self or altered self-ligands. Among them, CD5 and CD6 are lymphocyte scavenger receptors known to interact with different microbial-associated molecular patterns, and the administration of the recombinant soluble ectodomains of human CD5 (rshCD5) and/or CD6 (rshCD6) has shown therapeutic/prophylactic potential in experimental models of fungal, bacterial and echinococcal infections. The latter is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in humans can induce secondary cystic echinococcosis (CE) after the spillage of protoscoleces contained within fertile cysts, either spontaneously or during surgical removal of primary hydatid cysts. Herein, we have analysed the mechanisms behind the significant protection observed in the mouse model of secondary CE following prophylactic administration of rshCD5 or rshCD6. Our results show that both molecules exhibit intrinsic antiparasitic activities in vitro, as well as immunomodulatory functions during early secondary CE, mainly through Th1/Th17 cytokine bias and promotion of peritoneal polyreactive antibodies. These data support the relevance of the parasite components bound by rshCD5 and rshCD6, as well as the potential of their prophylactic administration as a useful strategy to reduce secondary CE in patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Equinococose , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Antiparasitários , Zoonoses , Receptores Depuradores
8.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and its association with hepatic fibrosis during the development of alveolar echinococcosis, so as to provide the basis for unraveling the mechanisms underlying the role of LSEC in the development and prognosis of hepatic injuries and hepatic fibrosis caused by alveolar echinococcosis. METHODS: Forty C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6 to 8 weeks were randomly divided into a control group and 1-, 2- and 4-week infection groups, of 10 mice in each group. Each mouse in the infection groups was intraperitoneally injected with 2 000 Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces, while each mouse in the control group was given an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline using the same method. All mice were sacrificed 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-infection and mouse livers were collected. The pathological changes of livers were observed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and hepatic fibrosis was evaluated through semi-quantitative analysis of Masson's trichrome staining-positive areas. The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition were examined using immunohistochemical staining of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1), and the fenestrations on the surface of LSECs were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Primary LSECs were isolated from mouse livers, and the mRNA expression of LSEC marker genes Stabilin-1, Stabilin-2, Ehd3, CD209b, GATA4 and Maf was quantified using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. RESULTS: Destruction of local liver lobular structure was observed in mice 2 weeks post-infection with E. multilocularis protoscoleces, and hydatid cysts, which were surrounded by granulomatous tissues, were found in mouse livers 4 weeks post-infection. Semi-quantitative analysis of Masson's trichrome staining showed a significant difference in the proportion of collagen fiber contents in mouse livers among the four groups (F = 26.060, P < 0.001), and a higher proportion of collagen fiber contents was detected in mouse livers in the 4-week infection group [(11.29 ± 2.58)%] than in the control group (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical staining revealed activation of a few HSCs and ECM deposition in mouse livers 1 and 2 weeks post-infection, and abundant brown-yellow stained α-SMA and COL1A1 were deposited in the lesion areas in mouse livers 4 weeks post-infection, which spread to surrounding tissues. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed significant differences in α-SMA (F = 7.667, P < 0.05) and COL1A1 expression (F = 6.530, P < 0.05) in mouse levers among the four groups, with higher α-SMA [(7.13 ± 3.68)%] and COL1A1 expression [(13.18 ± 7.20)%] quantified in mouse livers in the 4-week infection group than in the control group (both P values < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy revealed significant differences in the fenestration frequency (F = 37.730, P < 0.001) and porosity (F = 16.010, P < 0.001) on the surface of mouse LSECs among the four groups, and reduced fenestration frequency and porosity were observed in the 1-[(1.22 ± 0.48)/µm2 and [(3.05 ± 0.91)%] and 2-week infection groups [(3.47 ± 0.10)/µm2 and (7.57 ± 0.23)%] groups than in the control group (all P values < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the average fenestration diameter on the surface of mouse LSECs among the four groups (F = 15.330, P < 0.001), and larger average fenestration diameters were measured in the 1-[(180.80 ± 16.42) nm] and 2-week infection groups [(161.70 ± 3.85) nm] than in the control group (both P values < 0.05). In addition, there were significant differences among the four groups in terms of Stabilin-1 (F = 153.100, P < 0.001), Stabilin-2 (F = 57.010, P < 0.001), Ehd3 (F = 31.700, P < 0.001), CD209b (F = 177.400, P < 0.001), GATA4 (F = 17.740, P < 0.001), and Maf mRNA expression (F = 72.710, P < 0.001), and reduced mRNA expression of Stabilin-1, Stabilin-2, Ehd3, CD209b, GATA4 and Maf genes was quantified in three infection groups than in the control group (all P values < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: E. multilocularis infections may induce capillarization of LSECs in mice, and result in a reduction in the expression of functional and phenotypic marker genes of LSECs, and capillarization of LSECs occurs earlier than activation of HSC and development of hepatic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Células Endoteliais , Camundongos , Animais , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Equinococose/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Colágeno/efeitos adversos , Colágeno/metabolismo
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the echinococcosis surveillance results in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 2017 to 2022, so as to provide insights into formulation of echinococcosis control measures in the prefecture. METHODS: Villagers were randomly sampled using a multistage sampling method from class I and II echinococcosis endemic counties in Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture from 2017 to 2022 for detection of human echinococcosis, while all patients undergoing ultrasound examinations in medical institutions in class III endemic counties received active echinococcosis screening. In addition, livestock in centralized slaughterhouses or slaughtering sites were screened for echinococcosis using the palpation and necropsy method, and fresh domestic dog feces samples were collected from randomly selected dog owners in each administrative village for detection of Echinococcus copro-antigen in domestic dogs. The trends in detection of human and livestock echinococcosis, detection of newly diagnosed human echinococcosis cases and detection of Echinococcus coproantigen in domestic dogs were analyzed in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture from 2017 to 2022. RESULTS: The mean detection rate of human echinococcosis was 0.13% (540/407 803) in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture from 2017 to 2022, which appeared a tendency towards a decline over years (χ2trend = 1 217.21, P < 0.001), and the highest detection of newly diagnosed echinococcosis cases was seen in Hejing County (0.28%, 191/67 865). The detection of livestock echinococcosis appeared a tendency towards a decline over years from 2017 to 2022 (χ2trend = 147.02, P < 0.001), with the highest detection rate seen in Hejing County (3.44%, 86/2 500), and the detection of Echinococcus copro-antigen in domestic dogs appeared a tendency towards a decline over years from 2017 to 2022 (χ2trend = 302.46, P < 0.001), with the highest detection rate in Qiemo County (2.74%, 118/4 313). CONCLUSIONS: The detection of human and livestock echinococcosis and dog feces antigens Echinococcus copro-antigen in domestic dogs all appeared a tendency towards a decline in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 2017 to 2022; however, there is still a high echinococcosis transmission risk in local areas. Sustainable integrated echinococcosis control is required in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Equinococose , Echinococcus , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Prevalência , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Gado , Fezes , Antígenos de Helmintos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
10.
Skin Res Technol ; 30(4): e13685, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wound healing has evolved in recent years, resulting in diverse therapeutic options. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of the somatic antigen of the hydatid cyst protoscolex on wound healing in mice with full-thickness skin wounds. METHODS: Fifty-four adult mice, weighing 25 ± 5 g and approximately 60 days old, were divided into three groups (A, B, and C), each further divided into three subgroups. Subgroups A1, A2, and A3 were assigned negative controls. B1, B2, and B3 received hydatid cyst somatic antigen tests at 10 µg/SC, whereas C1, C2, and C3 received somatic antigen tests at 20 µg/SC. Under general anesthesia, a wound biopsy puncture of 9.8 mm in diameter was performed on the mice's back and spine. In the experimental group, antigen and alum adjuvant were administered subcutaneously around the wound, while the control group received Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS). Using digital images, a geometric assessment was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 post-wounding. The obtained images were analyzed by Image J software and after analyzing the data by SPSS software. RESULTS: A significant difference in terms of epithelization was observed in the antigen treatment group with a dose of 20 µg on days 3 and 6 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the 20 µg antigen group was significantly higher than the 10 µg antigen group in terms of this factor on day 3 (P < 0.05). Skin samples were taken from all wounds on days 3, 10 and 21 for microscopic evaluation. Regarding epithelization, on day 10, a significant difference was observed in the treatment group with a concentration of 10 µg with the control group and the treatment group with a concentration of 20 µg (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that somatic antigens of protoscolex hydatid cyst are dose-dependent and antigens with a dose of 20 µg by subcutaneous injection accelerate wound healing and epithelialization.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Cicatrização , Camundongos , Animais , Injeções Subcutâneas
11.
Open Vet J ; 14(3): 866-878, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38682137

RESUMO

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is triggered by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus, is a global zoonotic disease that is common in rural regions in which there are frequent encounters between dogs and other domestic animals. The disease can have devastating consequences, impacting the health of people and animals and leading to huge financial losses, especially in the agricultural industry. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Egypt, despite the high incidence of disease, few investigations have been conducted into the genetic variation in species of the genus Echinococcus. Aim: This study sought to compare the genetic features of the hydatid cysts carried in sheep in KSA with those found in Egypt. Methods: DNA from the protoscolices was used in a PCR targeting the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 1 (NAD1), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), and nuclear actin II (ACT II) genes, and the resulting amplification products of 30 KSA and Egyptian isolates were sequenced and compared. Results: Among the sheep in KSA, the overall prevalence of CE was 0.51%. Of the sheep cyst DNA samples, 95%, 100%, and 52% were positive for the Cox1, nad1, and act II genes, respectively. Targeting all three genes, all KSA samples belonged to the E. granulosus genotype (G1), whereas all Egyptian isolates belonged to E. granulosus (G1) and E. canadensis (G6). Conclusion: We conclude that isolates of E. granulosus from the two countries shared a common origin in Arabic North Africa, with sheep and camels as common hosts.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Genótipo , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Equinococose/veterinária , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Ovinos , Egito/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Prevalência
12.
Br J Biomed Sci ; 81: 12446, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650738

RESUMO

Introduction: The parasitic tapeworm impersonated by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus represents the aetiology of the hydatid pathology. The predilect site of invasion is the liver, but there are other cases of different localization all over the body, regardless of the type of invaded tissue. Soft tissue hydatidosis can be a real challenge for the clinician in terms of the diagnosis, and it might generate various complications such as anaphylactic shock. The aim of the present work is to illustrate a unique case of primary hydatidosis located in the nuchal region. Case Report: We report the case of a 68-year-old male patient, a zootechnic, who presented at the hospital with a tumoural mass (dimension: about 12/10 cm) located in the nuchal region. The complex approach needed consisted of surgical therapy along with histopathological confirmation of the diagnostic and antiparasitic medication, which led to a complete recovery with a low probability of recurrence. Discussion: Encounters with patients with primary soft tissue hydatidosis are exceptionally rare, but the surgeon must take into consideration this clinical diagnosis, especially for patients located in an endemic region with occupations that might have exposed the patient to this type of parasite.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Humanos , Masculino , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/patologia , Idoso , Animais , Echinococcus granulosus
13.
Parasitology ; 151(4): 421-428, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576256

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most widespread zoonoses in Mediterranean countries. Baiting not-owned dogs with praziquantel (PZQ), due to their key role in the maintaining the transmission of CE, currently appears to be the most effective way to limit the transmission of CE, as well as an important aspect to introduce for the control of this parasitic disease. Therefore, this study aims to test 3 types of PZQ-based baits by evaluating different parameters (integrity over time, attractiveness and palatability for dogs, and mechanical resistance after release to different altitudes) and the bait acceptance in field by target animals, i.e. not-owned dogs, by using camera traps. The double PZQ-laced baits (with a double layer of highly palatable chews) showed the greatest resistance in the environment while also preserving the attractiveness and palatability up to 10 days, also withstood heights of 25 m, thus resulting as the most suitable also for drone delivery. The results on the field showed that most of the baits were consumed by not-owned dogs (82.2%), while the remaining were consumed by wild boars (8.9%), foxes (6.7%), badgers (1.1%) and hedgehogs (1.1%), confirming the specific and high attractiveness of the double PZQ-laced baits for the target population and highlights how an anthelmintic baiting programme may be a viable tool for the management of E. granulosus among free-ranging dog populations in endemic rural areas.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Praziquantel , Animais , Cães , Echinococcus granulosus/efeitos dos fármacos , Equinococose/veterinária , Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Equinococose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Praziquantel/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Suínos
14.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 143, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin nanoemulsion (CUR-NE) in mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto protoscoleces. METHODS: Forty-two inbred BALB/c mice were divided into seven groups of six animals each. Six groups were inoculated intra-peritoneally with 1500 viable E. granulosus protoscoleces, followed for six months and used as infected groups. The infected groups were named as: CEI1 to CEI6 accordingly. The 7th group was not inoculated and was named cystic echinococcosis noninfected group (CENI7). CEI1 and CEI2 groups received 40 mg/kg/day and 20 mg/kg/day curcumin nanoemulsion (CUR-NE), respectively. CEI3 received nanoemulsion without curcumin (NE-no CUR), CEI4 received curcumin suspension (CUR-S) 40 mg/kg/day, CEI5 received albendazole 150 mg/kg/day and CEI6 received sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). CENI7 group received CUR-NE 40 mg/kg/day. Drugs administration was started after six months post-inoculations of protoscoleces and continued for 60 days in all groups. The secondary CE cyst area was evaluated by computed tomography (CT) scan for each mouse before treatment and on the days 30 and 60 post-treatment. The CT scan measurement results were compared before and after treatment. After the euthanasia of the mice on the 60th day, the cyst area was also measured after autopsy and, the histopathological changes of the secondary cysts for each group were observed. The therapeutic efficacy of CUR-NE in infected groups was evaluated by two methods: CT scan and autopsied cyst measurements. RESULTS: Septal calcification in three groups of infected mice (CEI1, CEI2, and CEI4) was revealed by CT scan. The therapeutic efficacy of CUR-NE 40 mg/kg/day (CEI1 group) was 24.6 ± 26.89% by CT scan measurement and 55.16 ± 32.37% by autopsied cysts measurements. The extensive destructive effects of CUR-NE 40 mg/kg/day (CEI1 group) on the wall layers of secondary CE cysts were confirmed by histopathology. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated a significant therapeutic effect of CUR-NE (40 mg/kg/day) on secondary CE cysts in BALB/c mice. An apparent septal calcification of several cysts revealed by CT scan and the destructive effect on CE cysts observed in histopathology are two critical key factors that suggest curcumin nanoemulsion could be a potential treatment for cystic echinococcosis.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Cistos , Equinococose , Animais , Camundongos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia
15.
Ann Transplant ; 29: e942358, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Hepatic cystic echinococcosis (HCE) is a frequently overlooked parasitic liver disease, for which the commonly recommended treatment is radical resection. However, this approach is often associated with severe comorbidities such as HBV/HCV, cirrhosis, and hepatic carcinoma, among others. CASE REPORT In this report, we present a case successfully managed by ex vivo liver resection and autologous liver transplantation (ELRA). In the described case, ex vivo resection was not feasible due to recurrent lesions and infections invading the portal vein, which resulted in portal vein cavernous transformation. CONCLUSIONS Through this paper, we aim to detail the treatment process, showcasing the feasibility and advantages of ELRA. Additionally, we propose a novel approach for the treatment of this disease, while emphasizing the importance of radical resection surgery to prevent long-term complications.


Assuntos
Equinococose Hepática , Equinococose , Humanos , Transplante Autólogo , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Equinococose Hepática/complicações , Equinococose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose Hepática/cirurgia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Equinococose/cirurgia , Equinococose/complicações , Equinococose/patologia
17.
Rev. patol. respir ; 27(1): 36-39, ene.-mar2024. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231676

RESUMO

La hidatidosis es una zoonosis poco frecuente causada por cestodos del género Echinococcus. El órgano afectado con mayor frecuencia es el hígado, seguido del pulmón. La hidatidosis pulmonar se caracteriza por cursar de forma asintomática en la mayoría de los casos, y en muchas ocasiones suele ser un hallazgo casual en estudios realizados con otros fines. El diagnóstico resulta complejo por la diversidad de la presentación clínica, las pruebas serológicas pueden resultar negativas y los hallazgos de laboratorio son inespecíficos, por lo que debería ser un diagnóstico a tener en cuenta sobre todo en zonas con alta prevalencia de esta infestación. (AU)


Hydatidosis is a rare zoonosis caused by cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. The most frequently affected organ is the liver, followed by the lung. Pulmonary hydatidosis is characterized by an asymptomatic course in most cases, and in many cases it is usually an incidental finding in studies performed for other purposes. The diagnosis is complex due to the diversity of the clinical presentation, serological tests can be negative and laboratory findings are nonspecific, so it should be a diagnosis to consider especially in areas with high prevalence of this infestation. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Equinococose , Hemoptise , Fígado , Pulmão , Diagnóstico , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio
18.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 249: 10126, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510493

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l). In the intermediate host, this disease is characterized by the growth of cysts in viscera such as liver and lungs, inside of which the parasite develops to the next infective stage known as protoscoleces. There are records that the infected viscera affect the development and morphology of E. granulosus s.l. protoscolex in hosts such as buffalo or humans. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive these differences remains unknown. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) using a set of RNAseq data obtained from E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) protoscoleces found in liver and lung cysts reveals 34 modules in protoscoleces of liver origin, of which 12 have differential co-expression from protoscoleces of lung origin. Three of these twelve modules contain hub genes related to immune evasion: tegument antigen, tegumental protein, ubiquitin hydrolase isozyme L3, COP9 signalosome complex subunit 3, tetraspanin CD9 antigen, and the methyl-CpG-binding protein Mbd2. Also, two of the twelve modules contain only hypothetical proteins with unknown orthology, which means that there are a group of unknown function proteins co-expressed inside the protoscolex of liver CE cyst origin. This is the first evidence of gene expression differences in protoscoleces from CE cysts found in different viscera, with co-expression networks that are exclusive to protoscoleces from liver CE cyst samples. This should be considered in the control strategies of CE, as intermediate hosts can harbor CE cysts in liver, lungs, or both organs simultaneously.


Assuntos
Cistos , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Humanos , Animais , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Genótipo , Equinococose/genética , Equinococose/parasitologia
20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 119: 105581, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432594

RESUMO

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, is an important zoonotic disease. Yili Prefecture in Xinjiang is endemic for AE, however the molecular variability of E. multilocularis in this region is poorly understood. In this study, 127 samples were used for haplotypes analysis, including 79 tissues from humans, 43 liver tissues from small rodents, and 5 fecal samples from dogs. Genetic variability in E. multilocularis was studied using complete sequences of the mitochondrial (mt) genes of cytochrome b (cob), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad2), and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), using a total of 3558 bp per sample. The Asia haplotype 2 (A2) was the dominant haplotype, with 72.15% (57/79) prevalence in humans, 2.33% (1/43) in small rodents, and 80.00% (4/5) in dogs, followed by A5, the second most common haplotype, which infected 27.91% (12/43) small rodents. Haplotype network analysis showed that all haplotypes clustered together with the Asian group. Pairwise fixation index (FST) values showed lower level of genetic differentiation between different regions within the country. Compared with the sequences of E. multilocularis from North America and Europe, all concatenated sequences isolated from Yili Prefecture were highly differentiated and formed a single population. The A2 haplotype, analyzed using the cob, nad2, and cox1 genes of E. multilocularis, is the predominant variant in humans and dogs in Yili Prefecture.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus multilocularis , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Haplótipos , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Zoonoses , Roedores , Citocromos b/genética
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