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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 127, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375931

RESUMO

Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes serious infections in aquaculture and exhibits significant multidrug resistance. The LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) family proteins are a well-known group of transcriptional regulators involved in diverse physiological functions. However, the role of LTTRs in the regulation of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is still largely unknown. In this study, to further investigate the role of four putative LTTR family proteins (A0KIU1, A0KJ82, A0KPK0, and A0KQ63) in antibiotic resistance in A. hydrophila, their genes were cloned and overexpressed in engineered Escherichia coli. After the optimization of experimental conditions including incubation time, temperature, and IPTG concentration, these proteins were successfully purified, and their specific antibodies against mice were obtained. Using western blot analysis, we found that these LTTR family proteins were downregulated in A. hydrophila following antibiotic treatment, indicating that they may be involved in the regulation of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays of chloramphenicol (CM), chlortetracycline (CTC), ciprofloxacin (CF), furazolidone (FZ), and balofloxacin (BF) in E. coli showed that overexpression of these LTTRs led to increased sensitivity to several antibiotics. To further validate their functional role in antibiotic resistance, we demonstrated that bacteria with loss of A0KQ63 (ΔAHA_3980) exhibited multi-drug resistance properties. Our results indicate that these LTTR family proteins may play an important role in the antibiotic resistance of A. hydrophila, and the that underlying mechanisms controlling antibiotic resistance should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Aeromonas hydrophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Aeromonas hydrophila/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reguladores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Western Blotting , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fatores de Transcrição/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 135, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432264

RESUMO

The feather-degrading strain Thermoactinomyces sp. YT06 secretes an extracellular keratinolytic protease (KERTYT); however, the gene encoding this protease remains unknown. The kerT1 gene (1170 bp) encoding keratinase was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Purified recombinant keratinase (rKERTYT) was achieved at a yield of 39.16% and 65.27-fold purification with a specific activity of 1325 U/mg. It was shown that rKERTYT has many similarities to the native enzyme (KERTYT) by characterization of rKERTYT. The molecular weight of rKERTYT secreted by recombinant E. coli was approximately 28 kDa. The optimal temperature and the pH values of rKERTYT were 65 °C and 8.5, respectively, and the protein remained stable from 50 to 60 °C and pH 6-11. The keratinase was strongly inhibited by phenyl methane sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), suggesting that it belongs to the serine protease family. It was significantly activated by Mn2+ and ß-mercaptoethanol (ß-Me). rKERTYT showed stability and retained over 80% activity with the existence of organic solvents such as acetone, methylbenzene and dimethyl sulfoxide. These findings indicated that rKERTYT will be a promising candidate for the enzymatic processing of keratinous wastes.


Assuntos
Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Thermoactinomyces/enzimologia , Ativadores de Enzimas/análise , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Estabilidade Enzimática , Escherichia coli/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Thermoactinomyces/genética
3.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 781-794, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452043

RESUMO

The phytopathogenic Burkholderia species B. glumae and B. plantarii are the causal agents of bacterial wilt, grain rot, and seedling blight, which threaten the rice industry globally. Toxoflavin and tropolone are produced by these phytopathogens and are considered the most hostile biohazards with a broad spectrum of target organisms. However, despite their nonspecific toxicity, the effects of toxoflavin and tropolone on bacteria remain unknown. RNA-seq based transcriptome analysis was employed to determine the genome-wide expression patterns under phytotoxin treatment. Expression of 2327 and 830 genes was differentially changed by toxoflavin and tropolone, respectively. Enriched biological pathways reflected the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome function, beginning with the inhibition of membrane biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism under oxidative stress or iron starvation. Conversely, several systems such as bacterial chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, biofilm formation, and sulfur/taurine transporters were highly expressed as countermeasures against the phytotoxins. In addition, our findings revealed that three hub genes commonly induced by both phytotoxins function as the siderophore enterobactin, an iron-chelator. Our study provides new insights into the effects of phytotoxins on bacteria for better understanding of the interactions between phytopathogens and other microorganisms. These data will also be applied as a valuable source in subsequent applications against phytotoxins, the major virulence factor.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Burkholderia/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pirimidinonas/toxicidade , Triazinas/toxicidade , Tropolona/toxicidade , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/microbiologia , Pirimidinonas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazinas/metabolismo , Tropolona/metabolismo
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(70): 10480-10483, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411608

RESUMO

A new enzymatic assay for the preparation of chiral sulfoxides that is enantiocomplementary to the known (S)-enantiomer-reducing activity of methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is described. To this end, we have utilized the enzyme DMSO reductase (DmsABC), recently discovered by us being highly upregulated in stationary phase E. coli bacteria.


Assuntos
Sulfóxidos/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/química , Cinética , Metionina Sulfóxido Redutases/química , Oxirredutases/química , Estereoisomerismo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7908-7915, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268314

RESUMO

In this study, to obtain higher agmatine yields using the previously developed E. coli strain AUX4 (JM109 ΔspeC ΔspeF ΔspeB ΔargR), the genes encoding glutamate dehydrogenase (gdhA), glutamine synthetase (glnA), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (ppc), aspartate aminotransferase (aspC), transhydrogenase (pntAB), and biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (speA) were sequentially overexpressed by replacing their native promoters with the heterologous strong trp, core-trc, or 5Ptacs promoters to generate the plasmid-free E. coli strain AUX11. The fermentation results obtained using a 3-L bioreactor showed that AUX11 produced 2.93 g L-1 agmatine with the yield of 0.29 g agmatine g-1 glucose in the batch fermentation, and the fed-batch fermentation of AUX11 allowed the production of 40.43 g L-1 agmatine with the productivity of 1.26 g L-1 h-1 agmatine. The results showed that the engineered E. coli strain AUX11 can be used for the industrial fermentative production of agmatine.


Assuntos
Agmatina/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fermentação , Glucose/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica
6.
Gene ; 713: 143951, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269464

RESUMO

Rifampicin (RIF) is still a first line of antibiotic in the treatment of bacterial diseases, in particular the Mycobacterial infections. The antimicrobial activity of RIF is attributed to its ability to inhibit transcription by binding to the ß subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (encoded by rpoB). Continued use of this drug resulted in the emergence of RIF resistant rpoB mutations in a high frequency that compels the use of RIF almost exclusively in drug combinations. As of date, a broad array of rif mutations have been isolated and characterized by different research groups. Studies on rpoB mutations strengthen the view that the ß subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP) is very crucial in modulating transcription thereby leading to differential gene expression. Very recently we have reported the transcriptome profile of rpoB12 mutant that provides molecular evidence that presence of rpoB12 mutation modulates the transcription of about 450 genes. Here we present a maiden report that rpoB mutations that substitute Tyr at the Rif binding pocket (RBP) of ß subunit of RNA polymerase are able to suppress the over-production of colanic acid capsular polysaccharide (Ces phenotype) in Δlon mutant of Escherichia coli. Further analyses of the rif mutants involving their growth pattern on LB at higher temperature (42 °C), LB media without NaCl, survival in LB media with acidic pH (pH - 3) and motility revealed that only rpoB12 (His526Tyr) and rpoB137 (Ser522Tyr) affected all the above mentioned physiological parameters in addition to the elicitation of Ces phenotype. These two rif mutations confer fast movement to RNAP and they bear Tyr as the substituted amino acid in the RBP. This is perhaps the first study that brings out the possible role of Tyr in the RBP and its participation in the global gene expression. This study also envisages the point that amino acid residues that share the properties of Tyr in the RBP can be employed as a tool to bring out differential gene expression which would certainly have basic and applied values for the mankind.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Mutação , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tirosina/metabolismo , Antibióticos Antituberculose/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Fenótipo , RNA Bacteriano , Tirosina/genética
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8186-8190, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272146

RESUMO

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is considered the most common and important naturally occurring auxin in plants and a major regulator of plant growth and development. In this study, an aldehyde dehydrogenase AldH from Escherichia coli was found to convert indole-3-acetylaldehyde into IAA. Then we established an artificial pathway in engineered E. coli for microbial production of IAA from glucose. The overall pathway includes the upstream pathway from glucose to L-tryptophan and the downstream pathway from L-tryptophan to IAA. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biosynthesis of IAA directly from a renewable carbon source. The study described here shows the way for the development of a beneficial microbe for biosynthesis of auxin and promoting plant growth in the future.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Engenharia Genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8581-8589, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321975

RESUMO

Intermediates in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis can serve as substrates for the synthesis of bioactive compounds. In this study we used two intermediates in the shikimate pathway of Escherichia coli, chorismate and anthranilate, to synthesize three bioactive compounds: 4-hydroxycoumarin (4-HC), 2,4-dihydroxyquinoline (DHQ), and 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2(1H)-quinolone (NMQ). We introduced genes for the synthesis of salicylic acid from chorismate to supply the substrate for 4-HC and the gene encoding N-methyltransferase for the synthesis of N-methylanthranilate from anthranilate. Polyketide synthases and coenzyme (Co)A ligases were tested to determine the optimal combination of genes for the synthesis of each compound. We also tested several constructs and identified the best one for increasing levels of endogenous substrates for chorismate, anthranilate, and malonyl-CoA. With the use of these strategies, 255.4 mg/L 4-HC, 753.7 mg/L DHQ, and 17.5 mg/L NMQ were synthesized. This work provides a basis for the synthesis of diverse coumarin and quinoline derivatives with potential medical applications.


Assuntos
4-Hidroxicumarinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Quinolinas/metabolismo , 4-Hidroxicumarinas/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácido Corísmico/metabolismo , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , Photorhabdus/enzimologia , Photorhabdus/genética , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Quinolinas/química , ortoaminobenzoatos/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2925, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266960

RESUMO

Bacteriophage Q protein engages σ-dependent paused RNA polymerase (RNAP) by binding to a DNA site embedded in late gene promoter and renders RNAP resistant to termination signals. Here, we report a single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of an intact Q-engaged arrested complex. The structure reveals key interactions responsible for σ-dependent pause, Q engagement, and Q-mediated transcription antitermination. The structure shows that two Q protomers (QI and QII) bind to a direct-repeat DNA site and contact distinct elements of the RNA exit channel. Notably, QI forms a narrow ring inside the RNA exit channel and renders RNAP resistant to termination signals by prohibiting RNA hairpin formation in the RNA exit channel. Because the RNA exit channel is conserved among all multisubunit RNAPs, it is likely to serve as an important contact site for regulators that modify the elongation properties of RNAP in other organisms, as well.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/enzimologia , Códon de Terminação/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/química , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Bacteriófagos/química , Bacteriófagos/genética , Códon de Terminação/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/virologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Virais/genética
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8393-8401, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291721

RESUMO

The ginsenoside 20-O-ß-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol or compound K is an essential ingredient in functional food, cosmetics, and traditional medicines. However, no study has reported the complete conversion of all protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides from ginseng extract into compound K using whole-cell conversion. To increase the production of compound K from ginseng extract using whole recombinant cells, the ß-glucosidase enzyme from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii was coexpressed with a chaperone expression system (pGro7), and the cells expressing the coexpression system were permeabilized with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The permeabilized cells carrying the chaperone coexpression system showed a 2.6-fold increase in productivity and yield as compared with nontreated cells, and completely converted all PPD-type ginsenosides from ginseng root extract into compound K with the highest productivity among the results reported so far. Our results will contribute to the industrial biological production of compound K.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Firmicutes/enzimologia , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Sapogeninas/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Escherichia coli/química , Firmicutes/genética , Engenharia Genética , Ginsenosídeos/química , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Panax/química , Sapogeninas/química , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 115, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332542

RESUMO

Antibiotic and arsenic (As) contaminations are worldwide public health problems. Previously, the bacterial ABC-type efflux protein MacAB reportedly conferred resistance to macrolide-type antibiotics but not to other metal(loid)s. In this study, the roles of MacAB for the co-resistance of different antibiotics and several metal(loid)s were analyzed in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A, a strain resistant to arsenite [As(III)] and several types of antibiotics. The macA and macB genes were cotranscribed, and macB was deleted in A. tumefaciens 5A and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli AW3110 and E. coli S17-1. Compared to the wild-type strain 5A, the macB deletion strain reduced bacterial resistance levels to several macrolide-type and penicillin-type antibiotics but not to cephalosporin-type antibiotics. In addition, the macB deletion strain showed lower resistance to As(III) but not to arsenate [As(V)], antimonite [Sb(III)] and cadmium chloride [Cd(II)]. The mutant strain 5A-ΔmacB cells accumulated more As(III) than the cells of the wild-type. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MacAB in E. coli S17-1 showed that MacAB was essential for resistance to macrolide, several penicillin-type antibiotics and As(III) but not to As(V). Heterologous expression of MacAB in E. coli AW3110 reduced the cellular accumulation of As(III) but not of As(V), indicating that MacAB is responsible for the efflux of As(III). These results demonstrated that, in addition to macrolide-type antibiotics, MacAB also conferred resistance to penicillin-type antibiotics and As(III) by extruding them out of cells. This finding contributes to a better understanding of the bacterial resistance mechanisms of antibiotics and metal(loid)s.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/metabolismo , Arsenitos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Penicilinas/farmacologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2393, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160557

RESUMO

Bacterial ClpB and yeast Hsp104 are homologous Hsp100 protein disaggregases that serve critical functions in proteostasis by solubilizing protein aggregates. Two AAA+ nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) power polypeptide translocation through a central channel comprised of a hexameric spiral of protomers that contact substrate via conserved pore-loop interactions. Here we report cryo-EM structures of a hyperactive ClpB variant bound to the model substrate, casein in the presence of slowly hydrolysable ATPγS, which reveal the translocation mechanism. Distinct substrate-gripping interactions are identified for NBD1 and NBD2 pore loops. A trimer of N-terminal domains define a channel entrance that binds the polypeptide substrate adjacent to the topmost NBD1 contact. NBD conformations at the seam interface reveal how ATP hydrolysis-driven substrate disengagement and re-binding are precisely tuned to drive a directional, stepwise translocation cycle.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Caseínas/metabolismo , Endopeptidase Clp/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/ultraestrutura , Transporte Proteico , Domínio AAA , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Endopeptidase Clp/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Modelos Moleculares , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2551, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186428

RESUMO

Respiratory complex I plays a central role in cellular energy metabolism coupling NADH oxidation to proton translocation. In humans its dysfunction is associated with degenerative diseases. Here we report the structure of the electron input part of Aquifex aeolicus complex I at up to 1.8 Å resolution with bound substrates in the reduced and oxidized states. The redox states differ by the flip of a peptide bond close to the NADH binding site. The orientation of this peptide bond is determined by the reduction state of the nearby [Fe-S] cluster N1a. Fixation of the peptide bond by site-directed mutagenesis led to an inactivation of electron transfer and a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We suggest the redox-gated peptide flip to represent a previously unrecognized molecular switch synchronizing NADH oxidation in response to the redox state of the complex as part of an intramolecular feed-back mechanism to prevent ROS production.


Assuntos
Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/química , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , NAD/química , Oxirredução
14.
Talanta ; 202: 384-391, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171199

RESUMO

A novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD) was developed with benzoquinone (BQ)-mediated E. coli respiration method to measure the biotoxicities of pollutants. Functional units including sample injection, fluid-cell separation, all-carbon electrode-enabled electrochemical detection, were integrated on a piece of chromatography paper. The three-electrode, working electrode, counter electrode and reference electrode, were simultaneously screen-printed on the µPAD with conductive carbon ink. The satisfying electrochemical performance of the paper-based carbon three-electrode was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry detecting K3 [Fe(CN)6]. The process of cell toxication was considered that toxicants inhibited cell respiration and diminished the electrons on E. coli respiratory chain. It was quantitatively reflected by measuring oxidation current of hydroquinone (HQ) as a reduced state of the redox mediator BQ after the incubation of cells with pollutants. The current detection time, BQ concentration and E. coli incubation time were carefully optimized to establish the systematic optimized operations of BQ-mediated E. coli respiration method. Using the fabricated µPAD the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) were Cu2+ solution 13.5 µg mL-1, Cu2+-soil 21.4 mg kg-1, penicillin sodium-soil 85.1 mg kg-1, and IC30 of Pb2+ solution was 60.0 µg mL-1. Detection of pesticide residues in vegetable juices were accomplished in a similar way. The proposed method is fascinating on three points; 1) The generality in the biotoxicity detection depends on toxicants inducing cellular respiratory inhibition; 2) The portability and affordability make it convenient for practical applications, because of replacing incubators and centrifuges; 3) There is potential applicability in less-developed areas due to its simple operation and low-cost.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Papel , Benzoquinonas/química , Eletrodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Escherichia coli/citologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo
15.
Life Sci ; 230: 178-187, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152810

RESUMO

AIMS: With the purpose of exploring combinatorial options that could enhance the bactericide efficacy of linezolid against Gram-negative bacteria, we assessed the extent of combination of nano-silver and linezolid. MAIN METHODS: In this study, we selected Escherichia coli MTCC 443 as a model to study the combinatorial effect of nano-silver and linezolid to combat efflux-mediated resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. The acting mechanism of nano-silver on E. coli MTCC 443 was investigated by evaluating interaction of nano-silver with bacterial membrane as well as bacterial surface charge, morphology, intracellular leakages and biological activities of membrane bound respiratory chain dehydrogenase and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) of the cells following treatment with nano-silver. KEY FINDINGS: The alternation of zeta potential due to the interaction of nano-silver towards bacterial membrane proteins was correlated with enhancement of membrane permeability, which allows the penetration of linezolid into the cells. In addition, the binding affinity of nano-silver towards bacterial membrane depressed biological activities of membrane bound respiratory chain dehydrogenases and DNA integrity. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggested that nano-silver could not only obstruct the activities of efflux pumps, but also altered membrane integrity at the same time and thus increased the cytoplasmic concentration of the linezolid to the effective level.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Prata/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Linezolida/metabolismo , Linezolida/farmacologia , Prata/metabolismo
16.
Subcell Biochem ; 92: 127-168, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214986

RESUMO

The peptidoglycan sacculus is a net-like polymer that surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane in most bacteria. It is essential to maintain the bacterial cell shape and protect from turgor. The peptidoglycan has a basic composition, common to all bacteria, with species-specific variations that can modify its biophysical properties or the pathogenicity of the bacteria. The synthesis of peptidoglycan starts in the cytoplasm and the precursor lipid II is flipped across the cytoplasmic membrane. The new peptidoglycan strands are synthesised and incorporated into the pre-existing sacculus by the coordinated activities of peptidoglycan synthases and hydrolases. In the model organism Escherichia coli there are two complexes required for the elongation and division. Each of them is regulated by different proteins from both the cytoplasmic and periplasmic sides that ensure the well-coordinated synthesis of new peptidoglycan.


Assuntos
Peptidoglicano , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/citologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/química , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo
17.
Subcell Biochem ; 92: 337-366, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214992

RESUMO

The inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is a ~6 nm thick phospholipid bilayer. It forms a semi-permeable barrier between the cytoplasm and periplasm allowing only regulated export and import of ions, sugar polymers, DNA and proteins. Inner membrane proteins, embedded via hydrophobic transmembrane α-helices, play an essential role in this regulated trafficking: they mediate insertion into the membrane (insertases) or complete crossing of the membrane (translocases) or both. The Gram-negative inner membrane is equipped with a variety of different insertases and translocases. Many of them are specialized, taking care of the export of only a few protein substrates, while others have more general roles. Here, we focus on the three general export/insertion pathways, the secretory (Sec) pathway, YidC and the twin-arginine translocation (TAT) pathway, focusing closely on the Escherichia coli (E. coli) paradigm. We only briefly mention dedicated export pathways found in different Gram-negative bacteria. The Sec system deals with the majority of exported proteins and functions both as a translocase for secretory proteins and an insertase for membrane proteins. The insertase YidC assists the Sec system or operates independently on membrane protein clients. Sec and YidC, in common with most export pathways, require their protein clients to be in soluble non-folded states to fit through the translocation channels and grooves. The TAT pathway is an exception, as it translocates folded proteins, some loaded with prosthetic groups.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Canais de Translocação SEC/metabolismo , Sistema de Translocação de Argininas Geminadas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/citologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7087-7097, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199132

RESUMO

Limonene, a cyclic monoterpene, is widely used in food and cosmetics industries as well as in agriculture. In the work described herein, employing a systematic optimization strategy, we constructed an efficient platform for producing limonene via the heterologous mevalonate pathway in Escherichia coli. By site-directed mutation of EfMvaS and tuning the initial translation of EfMvaE and EfMvaSA110G through ribosome binding site engineering, the upstream module for overproducing mevalonate was obtained. Expression of MmMK with ScPMK, ScPMD, and ScIDI under FAB80 promoter resulted in an efficient midstream module to produce 181.73 mg/L of limonene. Subsequently, coexpression of SlNPPS and MsLS in the downstream module led to a great improvement of limonene production to 694.61 mg/L. Finally, metabolically engineered strain ELIM78 produced 1.29 g/L of limonene in 84 h by fed-batch fermentation in a shake-flask. This is the first report on limonene biosynthesis in E. coli using neryl pyrophosphate synthase, which has promising potential for producing other monoterpenes.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Limoneno/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Fermentação , Engenharia Metabólica , Ácido Mevalônico/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo
19.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 328, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of central nodes in asymmetrically directed biological networks depends on centrality metrics quantifying individual nodes' importance in a network. In topological analyses on metabolic networks, various centrality metrics have been mostly applied to metabolite-centric graphs. However, centrality metrics including those not depending on high connections are largely unexplored for directed reaction-centric graphs. RESULTS: We applied directed versions of centrality metrics to directed reaction-centric graphs of microbial metabolic networks. To investigate the local role of a node, we developed a novel metric, cascade number, considering how many nodes are closed off from information flow when a particular node is removed. High modularity and scale-freeness were found in the directed reaction-centric graphs and betweenness centrality tended to belong to densely connected modules. Cascade number and bridging centrality identified cascade subnetworks controlling local information flow and irreplaceable bridging nodes between functional modules, respectively. Reactions highly ranked with bridging centrality and cascade number tended to be essential, compared to reactions that other central metrics detected. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that cascade number and bridging centrality are useful to identify key reactions controlling local information flow in directed reaction-centric graphs of microbial metabolic networks. Knowledge about the local flow connectivity and connections between local modules will contribute to understand how metabolic pathways are assembled.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Escherichia coli/metabolismo
20.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180641, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Infection, inflammation and bone resorption are closely related events in apical periodontitis development. Therefore, we sought to investigate the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) in osteoclastogenesis and bone metabolism signaling in periapical bone tissue after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inoculation into root canals. METHODOLOGY: Seventy two C57BL/6 mice had the root canals of the first molars inoculated with a solution containing LPS from E. coli (1.0 mg/mL) and received selective (celecoxib) or non-selective (indomethacin) COX-2 inhibitor. After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days the animals were euthanized and the tissues removed for total RNA extraction. Evaluation of gene expression was performed by qRT-PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-tests (α=0.05). RESULTS: LPS induced expression of mRNA for COX-2 (Ptgs2) and PGE2 receptors (Ptger1, Ptger3 and Ptger4), indicating that cyclooxygenase is involved in periapical response to LPS. A signaling that favours bone resorption was observed because Tnfsf11 (RANKL), Vegfa, Ctsk, Mmp9, Cd36, Icam, Vcam1, Nfkb1 and Sox9 were upregulated in response to LPS. Indomethacin and celecoxib differentially modulated expression of osteoclastogenic and other bone metabolism genes: celecoxib downregulated Igf1r, Ctsk, Mmp9, Cd36, Icam1, Nfkb1, Smad3, Sox9, Csf3, Vcam1 and Itga3 whereas indomethacin inhibited Tgfbr1, Igf1r, Ctsk, Mmp9, Sox9, Cd36 and Icam1. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that gene expression for COX-2 and PGE2 receptors was upregulated after LPS inoculation into the root canals. Additionally, early administration of indomethacin and celecoxib (NSAIDs) inhibited osteoclastogenic signaling. The relevance of the cyclooxygenase pathway in apical periodontitis was shown by a wide modulation in the expression of genes involved in both bone catabolism and anabolism.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Tecido Periapical/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Periapical/metabolismo , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/fisiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Celecoxib/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/análise , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Indometacina/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/análise , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
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