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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248305, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339359

RESUMO

Abstract Fertilization with dehydrated sewage sludge can speed up the recovery process of degraded areas due to nutrients concentration, favoring the development of pioneer plants such as Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) and the emergence of insects. This study aimed the evaluation of chewing, pollinating insects, predators, their ecological indices and relationships on A. auriculiformis plants fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (with and without dehydrated sewage sludge) and 24 repetitions. The prevalence of chewing insects Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae), and Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), defoliation, and ecological indices of abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera were observed on fertilized A. auriculiformis. Acacia auriculiformis plants, with a superior number of branches/tree, revealed greater abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera, species richness of pollinating insects, defoliation, numbers of Parasyphraea sp. and T. collaris. The ones with larger leaves/branches displayed greater abundance of species richness of Coleoptera and Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Therefore, the use of A. auriculiformis plants, fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge, is promising in the recovery of degraded areas due to the ecological indices increase of chewing and pollinators insects and spiders in the analyzed area.


Resumo A fertilização com lodo de esgoto desidratado pode acelerar o processo de recuperação de áreas degradadas devido à concentração de nutrientes, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de plantas pioneiras tais como Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) e de seus insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os insetos mastigadores, polinizadores e predadores e seus índices e relações ecológicas em plantas de A. auriculiformis fertilizadas com lodo de esgoto desidratado, em área degradada, durante 24 meses. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizados com dois tratamentos (com e sem adubação com lodo de esgoto desidratado) e 24 repetições (uma repetição = uma planta). O maior número de insetos mastigadores Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae) e Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), de desfolha, e do índice ecológico abundância de Coleoptera e de Orthoptera foram maiores em plantas de A. auriculiformis fertilizadas do que nas não fertilizadas com lodo de esgoto desidratado. Plantas de A. auriculiformis, com maior quantidade de galhos/árvore, apresentaram maiores abundâncias de Coleoptera e Orthoptera, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, desfolha e números de Parasyphraea sp. e T. collaris, e as com maior folhas/galho os de riqueza de espécies de Coleoptera e Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Por tanto, a utilização de A. auriculiformis, adubada com lodo de esgoto desidratado, é promissora na recuperação de áreas degradadas devido ao aumento dos índices ecológicos de insetos mastigadores, polinizadores e aranhas na área.


Assuntos
Animais , Acacia , Fabaceae , Esgotos , Fertilização , Insetos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285606

RESUMO

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.


Assuntos
Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus pumilus/metabolismo , Esgotos , Temperatura , Fibras na Dieta , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
3.
Water Environ Res ; 94(8): e10775, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932182

RESUMO

In the present study, the performance of a modified upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (MUASB) reactor-static granular bed reactor (SGBR) series in intermittent operation was analyzed for the treatment of synthetic wastewater. The reactor series was operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. The maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and biogas production of the reactor series obtained during the intermittent operation were 99 ± 0.29% and 0.529 ± 0.03 m3 /kg CODdigested , respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a significant difference in biogas production during continuous and intermittent operations, whereas the COD removal was similar. Intermittent operation of the reactor series yielded a 56.05% increase in biogas production when compared with the continuous operation. The reactor series was maintained stable throughout the operational period. The maximum total suspended solids (TSS) removal and total nitrogen (TN) removal of the reactor series during the intermittent operation were 91.67% and 72.37%, respectively. Intermittent operation of the reactor series can be considered advantageous because of the reduced operational cost and enhanced biogas production in addition to COD removal. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Intermittent operation of MUASB-SGBR series in terms of COD removal is evaluated. COD removal of reactor series was similar in intermittent and continuous operation. Biogas production in intermittent operation was superior to continuous operation. Reactor series performance is also compared with continuous operation using one-way ANOVA.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 119: 130-138, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934458

RESUMO

Current knowledge about the transformation of total mercury and methylmercury (MeHg) in aerobic composting process is limited. In this study, the composition and transformation of mercury and dissovled organic matter (DOM) in aerobic composting process of municipal sewage sludge were were comprehensively characterized, and the differences among the three C/N ratio (20, 26 and 30) were investigated. The main form of mercury in C/N 20 and 26 was organo-chelated Hg (F3, 46%-60%); while the main form of mercury in C/N 30 was mercuric sulfide (F5, 64%-70%). The main component of DOM in C/N 20 and 26 were tyrosine-like substance (C1, 53%-76%) while the main fractions in C/N 30 were tyrosine-like substance (C1, 28%-37%) and fulvic-like substance (C2, 17%-39%). The mercury and DOM varied significantly during the 9 days composting process. Compared to C/N 20 and 26, C/N 30 produced the less MeHg after aerobic composting process, with values of 658% (C/N 20), 1400% (C/N 26) and 139% (C/N 30) of the initial, respectively. Meanwhile, C/N 30 produced the best compost showed greater degree of DOM molecular condensation and humification. Hg fraction had been altered by DOM, as indicated by a significant correlation between mercury species and DOM components. Notably, C/N 30 should be used as an appropriate C/N ratio to control the methylation processes of mercury and degration of DOM.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Esgotos , Tirosina
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(9): 661, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945392

RESUMO

As the transition to renewable energy systems is accelerating, anaerobic digestion, which is one of the methods of energy recovery from organic substrates, continues to be studied with great interest by scientists. Anaerobic digestion research and applications are mostly carried out with biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests to decide the methane potency of sewage sludge, energy crops, and organic wastes. Unlike long and costly continually reactor experiments, actually, BMP tests are cumulative and can be performed with a relatively low investment of materials, technical labor, and also time. For the BMP to give accurate results, the effect of all the tools and technical parameters used in the implementation of the BMP should be well understood. In such situations, it is very useful to apply fuzzy logic methods in multi-criteria decision-making stages when more than one parameter changes at the same time. Therefore, in this study, fifteen parameters were determined and analyzed with the fuzzy DEMATEL (decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory) method to understand the cause-effect mechanism of the technical parameters of BMP. As a result of these analyses, it was seen that the material of the reactor (ri-cj value of 0.55), the particle size (ri-cj value of 0.43), the effect of mixing (ri-cj value of 0.32), and the amount of the total solids (TSA) (ri-cj value of 0.25) had a high effect in the causal sense. It was observed that the first-order parameter (material of reactor) was 27% stronger than the second-order (the particle size) parameter in terms of causality. Likewise, the second-order parameter is 34% stronger than the third-order parameter (the effect of mixing) in terms of cause effect. In addition, it was understood that the most effective parameters in the mechanism of effect were pH (ri + cj value of 3.41), C/N ratio (ri + cj value of 3.26), and temperature (ri + cj value of 3.07), respectively. Besides, high methane yield is seen in mesophilic conditions. The average cumulative biogas yield of the reactor is 282.1 NmL/g VS. The highest percentage of methane formed in the biogas occurred on the 21st day. Briefly, this study is important to provide a facilitating way for researchers working on BMP to understand the cause-effect mechanism of system technical requirements.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Metano , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis/análise , Reatores Biológicos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metano/análise , Esgotos/análise , Verduras
6.
Water Environ Res ; 94(8): e10768, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918060

RESUMO

COVID-19 wastewater-based epidemiology has been performed in catchments of various sizes and sewer types with many short-term studies available and multi-seasonal studies emerging. The objective of this study was to compare weekly observations of SARS-CoV-2 genes in municipal wastewater across multiple seasons for different systems as a factor of sewer type (combined, separate sanitary) and system size. Sampling occurred following the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 cases in the study region (June 2020) and continued through the third wave (May 2021), the period during which clinical testing was widely available and different variants dominated clinical cases. The strongest correlations were observed between wastewater N1 concentrations and the cumulative clinical cases reported in the 2 weeks prior to wastewater sampling, followed by the week prior, new cases, and the week after wastewater sampling. Sewer type and size did not necessarily explain the strength of the correlations, indicating that other non-sewer factors may be impacting the observations. In-system sampling results for the largest system sampled are presented for 1 month. Removing wet weather days from the data sets improved even the flow-normalized correlations for the systems, potentially indicating that interpreting results during wet weather events may be more complicated than simply accounting for dilution. PRACTITIONER POINTS: SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater correlated best with total clinical cases reported in 2 weeks before wastewater sampling at the utility level. Study performed when clinical testing was widespread during the year after the first COVID-19 wave in the region. Sewer type and size did not necessarily explain correlation strength between clinical cases and wastewater-based epidemiology results. Removing wet weather days improved correlations for 3/4 utilities studied, including both separate sanitary and combined sewers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Águas Residuárias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Esgotos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(9): 631, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920914

RESUMO

As new persistent organic compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have aroused important concern because of their potential bioaccumulation and possible ecological and health risk. To examine the sources and temporal variation of PBDEs in Chaohu Lake in eastern China, the surface sediments from Nanfei River (NFR) and core sediments from four estuaries were measured. It showed that low-brominated congeners were dominant, from MonoBDEs to HeptaBDEs (referred to as Σ39PBDE). Concentrations of ∑39PBDE and the ratios of (BDE-47 + BDE-99 + BDE-100)/(BDE-153 + BDE-154) were much greater in surface sediments than in core sediments. The highest concentration was observed in a site close to the outfall of a municipal sewage treatment plant (MSTP), and the ratio was significantly correlated with ∑39PBDE. These results suggested that PentaBDE and OctaBDE commercial mixtures were widely used around Chaohu Lake and the effluent of municipal sewage was a dominant source of PBDEs to surface sediment. Compared to data from other freshwater systems around the world, the concentrations of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in this study were in the middle of the range of global data, but BDE-183 concentrations were at the high end of the range. Due to restrictions on the usage of PentanBDE and OctaBDE commercial mixtures, reductions of PBDE levels from subsurface to superficial layer were observed in all estuaries. Elevated contribution by MonoBDEs to ∑39PBDE in the estuary of the only outflow river suggests significant congener fractionation. TriBDEs, TetraBDEs, and HexaBDEs appeared to pose low risks in all surface sediments, but moderate to high risks may be expected for PentaBDEs. Overall, the results would contribute to a better understanding of the sources and environmental fate of PBDEs in the studied eutrophicated lake.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Lagos , Rios , Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(9): 637, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922699

RESUMO

Ribeirão das Pedras, a 10-km-long stream from the source to mouth, is part of a predominantly urban catchment located in Campinas metropolitan area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and it is also surrounded by sugarcane farms. Monthly sampling of 31 selected emerging contaminants (ECs) was conducted for 1 year (October 2018 to October 2019) in five points, including the spring, agricultural, and urban areas, to assess the dynamics and impact of ECs on the stream. The ECs were quantified using LC-MS/MS analysis. Out of the 31 ECs monitored in this study, 13 were detected in the Ribeirão das Pedras catchment, which were mainly pesticides and caffeine. Eight ECs (hexazinone, malathion, desethylatrazine (DEA), desisopropylatrazine (DIA), fipronil, ametryn, 2-hidroxyatrazine, and diuron) were detected with risk quotients higher than 1, indicating some level of environmental concern. Statistical analyses showed that caffeine, hexazinone, atrazine, DEA, and DIA were the most statistically important contaminants in temporal analysis, with caffeine concentrations varying randomly. Hexazinone, atrazine, DIA, and DEA concentrations increased from November 2018 to January 2019, and atrazine, hexazinone, and DEA concentrations increased from June 2019 to September 2019. Spatial analysis indicates that the spring of Ribeirão das Pedras is the only statistically different sampling point, with lower concentrations of EC. Points 3 and 5, both located in urban areas next to the stream's mouth, differ from each other due to the possible dilution of caffeine downstream of point 3 and domestic sewage discharge upstream of point 5.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Atrazina/análise , Brasil , Cafeína/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Esgotos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Water Environ Res ; 94(8): e10766, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915389

RESUMO

A pilot study was conducted to investigate the carbon demand requirements and nitrogen removal capabilities of two mainstream partial denitrification/anammox (PdNA) processes: a two-zone, moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process and an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) process. The first MBBR zone conducted PdNA, while the second operated as an anammox zone. Operation of the IFAS process was conducted in two phases. The first phase of the operation involved minor external carbon addition, while the second phase of the operation involved controlled external carbon addition. The MBBR process produced an average effluent TIN concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD)/TIN ratio of 2.81 ± 1.21 mg/L and 2.42 ± 0.77 g/g. The average effluent TIN concentrations and COD/TIN ratios for the IFAS process were 4.07 ± 1.66 mg/L and 1.08 ± 0.38 g/g during phase 1 and 3.30 ± 0.96 mg/L and 2.18 ± 0.99 g/g during phase 2. Despite having relatively low and unstable partial denitrification (PdN) efficiencies, both mainstream PdNA processes exhibited low effluent TIN concentrations and carbon requirements compared to nitrification/denitrification. Successful operation of the PdNA IFAS process indicates that mainstream PdNA can be implemented with minimal capital costs in a water resource recovery facility's second anoxic zone. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Low effluent TIN concentrations can be maintained in mainstream PdNA MBBR and IFAS processes with low external carbon demand. MBBR and IFAS PdNA processes do not require consistent or high PdN efficiencies to maintain low effluent TIN concentrations. IFAS and MBBR PdNA processes exhibit similar TIN and NH3 removal efficiencies. PdNA can be implemented in a second anoxic zone, using IFAS technology for anammox retention, with minimal capital costs.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Esgotos , Oxidação Anaeróbia da Amônia , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Carbono , Desnitrificação , Oxirredução , Projetos Piloto , Estanho , Águas Residuárias
10.
Water Res ; 221: 118844, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949067

RESUMO

Bioelectrochemical anaerobic digestion (BEAD) is a promising next-generation technology for simultaneous wastewater treatment and bioenergy recovery. While knowledge on the inhibitory effect of emerging pollutants, such as microplastics, on the conventional wastewater anaerobic digestion processes is increasing, the impact of microplastics on the BEAD process remains unknown. This study shows that methane production decreased by 30.71% when adding 10 mg/L polyethylene microplastics (PE-MP) to the BEAD systems. The morphology of anaerobic granular sludge, which was the biocatalysts in the BEAD, changed with microbes shedding and granule crack when PE-MP existed. Additionally, the presence of PE-MP shifted the microbial communities, leading to a lower diversity but higher richness and tight clustering. Moreover, fewer fermentative bacteria, acetogens, and hydrogenotrophic methanogens (BEAD enhanced) grew under PE-MP stress, suggesting that PE-MP had an inhibitory effect on the methanogenic pathways. Furthermore, the abundance of genes relevant to extracellular electron transfer (omcB and mtrC) and methanogens (hupL and mcrA) decreased. The electron transfer efficiency reduced with extracellular cytochrome c down and a lower electron transfer system activity. Finally, phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states analysis predicted the decrease of key methanogenic enzymes, including EC 1.1.1.1 (Alcohol dehydrogenase), EC 1.2.99.5 (Formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase), and EC 2.8.4.1 (Coenzyme-B sulfoethylthiotransferase). Altogether, these results provide insight into the inhibition mechanism of microplastics in wastewater methane recovery and further optimisation of the BEAD process.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Filogenia , Plásticos , Polietileno , Esgotos/microbiologia
11.
Water Res ; 221: 118855, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949070

RESUMO

The extensive application of anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) to wastewater treatment for methane recovery has drawn considerable attention to the system performances affected by the presence of emerging contaminants in wastewater such as nanoplastics. However, effective strategies on how to mitigate the inhibition caused by nanoplastics remained unavailable. In this study, a novel strategy using biochar to mitigate the inhibition on the AGS performances caused by polyethylene nanoplastics (PE-NPs) was proposed and the corresponding mitigating mechanisms involved were explored. The PE-NPs solely decreased the level of methane recovery of AGS to 71.3 ± 2.7% of control, which was subsequently increased to 85.6 ± 0.8% of control with the presences of both biochar and PE-NPs, although biochar solely showed no obvious effect on methane production. The addition of biochar also elevated the granule size of AGS, along with AGS integrity based on the morphological observation. Moreover, the distributions of live cells and functional microbes related to acidification and methanation increased with biochar addition compared to sole PE-NPs exposure. More extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was secreted when biochar was involved in AGS systems, with more protein being detected to maintain the granule structure of AGS. Evaluation of adsorption tests indicated that biochar possessed stronger affinity for PE-NPs than AGS, thus capturing the PE-NPs that would originally contact AGS and posing less toxicity to microorganisms.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Carvão Vegetal , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Microplásticos , Polietileno , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
12.
Water Res ; 221: 118825, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949074

RESUMO

According to extensive in situ investigations, the microplastics (MPs) determined in current wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are mostly aged, with roughened surfaces and varied types of oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., carbonyl and hydroxyl). However, the formation mechanism of aged MPs in WWTPs is still unclear. This paper systematically reviewed MP fragmentation and generation mechanisms in WWTPs at different treatment stages. The results highlight that MPs are prone to undergo physical abrasion, biofouling, and chemical oxidation-associated weathering in WWTPs at different treatment stages and can be further decomposed into smaller secondary MPs, including in nanoplastics (less than 1000 nm or 100 nm in size), suggesting that WWTPs can act as a formation source for MPs in aquatic environments. Sand associated mechanical crashes in the primary stage, microbes in active sewage sludge-related biodegradation in the secondary stage, and oxidant-relevant chemical oxidation processes (light photons, Cl2, and O3) in the tertiary stage are the dominant causes of MP formation in WWTPs. For MP formation mechanisms in WWTPs, external environmental forces (shear and stress forces, UV radiation, and biodegradation) can first induce plastic chain scission, destroy the plastic molecular arrangement, and create abundant pores and cracks on the MP surface. Then, the physicochemical properties (modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and elongation at break) of MPs shift consequently and finally breakdown into smaller secondary MPs or nanoscale plastics. Overall, this review provides new insights to better understand the formation mechanism, occurrence, fate, and adverse effects of aged microplastics/nanoplastics in current WWTPs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
J Environ Manage ; 318: 115629, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949087

RESUMO

Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) may represent a significant source of pollution, but they are difficult to quantify at a large scale (e.g. regional or national), due to a lack of accessible data. In the present study, we use a large scale, 6-parameter, lumped hydrological model to perform a screening level assessment of different CSO management scenarios for the European Union and United Kingdom, considering prevention and treatment strategies. For each scenario we quantify the potential reduction of CSO volumes and duration, and estimate costs and benefits. A comparison of scenarios shows that treating CSOs before discharge in the receiving water body (e.g. by constructed wetlands) is more cost-effective than preventing CSOs. Among prevention strategies, urban greening has a benefit/cost ratio one order of magnitude higher than grey solutions, due to the several additional benefits it entails. We also estimate that real time control may bring on average a CSO volume reduction of just above 20%. In general, the design of appropriate CSO management strategies requires consideration of context-specific conditions, and is best made in the context of an integrated urban water management plan taking into account factors such as other ongoing initiatives in urban greening, the possibility to disconnect impervious surfaces from combined drainage systems, and the availability of space for grey or nature-based solutions.


Assuntos
Hidrologia , Esgotos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Reino Unido
14.
J Environ Manage ; 318: 115635, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949088

RESUMO

Single pretreatment of sewage sludge, either physical, chemical or biological, has its own drawbacks in term of poor sanitization, energy intensity and high operational and capital cost. To tackle these drawbacks, combined high pressure homogenization (HPH) and free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment for sludge solubilization and further biodegradation in anaerobic digestion was investigated. Synergistic effect of combined HPH (40 MPa) and FNA (2.49 mg/L) pretreatment (HPH-FNA) for improving anaerobic digestion was evaluated, and its effect on archaeal and bacterial community structure was analyzed. Compared with single HPH and FNA pretreatments, HPH-FNA pretreatment efficiently solubilized wasted activated sludge (WAS), subsequently improved anaerobic digestion. Cumulative biogas production from sewage sludge pretreated with HPH-FNA was 154%, 108% and 284% more than that with single pretreatment of FNA, HPH and raw sludge, respectively. In addition, volumetric biogas production of combined pretreatment system (815 ml) was more than the sum from single pretreatment (710 ml). Methane content in biogas for raw sludge, FNA, HPH and HPH-FNA pretreated sludge was 45%, 51%, 55% and 65%, respectively. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis revealed that HPH-FNA pretreatment promoted bacterial growth of phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Synergistetes and archaeal genera Methanospirillum and Methanosaeta. Overall, combined HPH-FNA pretreatment of sewage sludge, prior to anaerobic digestion, is an environmentally-friendly and potentially economic technology.


Assuntos
Ácido Nitroso , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis/análise , Reatores Biológicos , Metano/análise , Ácido Nitroso/análise , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
15.
J Environ Manage ; 318: 115646, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949095

RESUMO

The dewaterability of waste-activated sludge (WAS) has been extensively examined using zero-valent iron (ZVI)-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). However, the high dosage and low utilization efficiencies of ZVI cast doubt on the dependability and viability of ZVI-based AOPs. In this study, we successfully demonstrated pre-magnetization as an efficient, chemical-free, and ecological method for improving the efficiency of sludge dewatering by ZVI/persulfate (PS) process, in which the reduction ratios of capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) increased by 8.67% and 11.06% under optimal conditions, respectively. The highly active Fe2+ released during ZVI corrosion may be more essential than ZVI itself during PS activation, which could be strengthened by pre-magnetization. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous Fe2+ could react with PS to produce aqueous hydroxyl radicals (∙OH) and sulfate radicals (SO4-∙) as well as surface-bound ∙OH and SO4-∙, further decomposing bound-extracellular polymeric substances fractions, broking hydrophilic functional groups and compounds, altering protein secondary structure to expose more hydrophobic sites, and releasing abundant EPS-bound water. Due to the protection of tightly-bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS) and the competitive oxidation of organics released during the early disintegration stage, radical oxidation primarily occurs at extracellular levels, releasing a bit of intracellular water. Besides, polysaccharides in TB-EPS may function a more significant role in flocculation than proteins, and a porous structure favorable to drainage will be formed after the pre-magnetized ZVI/PS treatment. The cost-benefit analysis further reveals that the Pre-ZVI/PS process presents high reusability and utilization, making it potential for particle application in sludge dewatering.


Assuntos
Ferro , Esgotos , Filtração , Ferro/química , Oxirredução , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Água/química
16.
Water Environ Res ; 94(7): e10763, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822693

RESUMO

A phosphorus removal biochar adsorbent was prepared from Fenton sludge. The adsorption process was optimized, and its phosphorus adsorption mechanism was discussed. It was found that the phosphorus adsorption performance of biochar prepared from single Fenton sludge (FBC-400) was better than that of co-pyrolysis of Fenton sludge and bamboo powder. The optimum condition was that Fenton sludge pyrolyzed at 400°C (FBC-400). FBC-400 had a larger specific surface area than that prepared by co-pyrolysis with bamboo powder. And the high content of iron element could provide a higher surface charge of the biochar, thereby increasing the electrostatic adsorption of phosphorus onto FBC-400. The phosphorus adsorption was highly pH dependent by FBC-400, which can enhance electrostatic adsorption and increase adsorption capacity in acidic conditions. The effect of coexisting anion on adsorption performance was mainly affected by CO3 2- , reducing the adsorption capacity by at least 49%, whereas other anions had no obvious interference. The adsorption process of FBC-400 accorded with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir model, which indicated that the adsorption process was monolayer adsorption and mainly chemical adsorption, and the maximum saturated phosphorus adsorption capacity was 8.77 mg g-1 . The mechanisms for phosphorus adsorption were electrostatic adsorption and inner-sphere complexing. 1 M NaOH was used for desorption, and the adsorption capacity remained at 81% in the fifth cycle. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The Fenton sludge biochar usage as an adsorbent could be a win-win strategy to convert waste biomass to valuable - product. The adsorption process accorded with the Langmuir model, the maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity was 8.77 mg/g at 25°C. The adsorption mechanisms were electrostatic adsorption and inner-sphere complexing. 1M NaOH was used for desorption, and the adsorption capacity remained at 81% in the fifth cycle.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Esgotos , Carvão Vegetal , Pós , Esgotos/química , Hidróxido de Sódio
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816438

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-positive, thin rod-shaped, non-motile, aerobic and creamy-white pigmented bacterium (designated strain WJ7-1T) was isolated from activated sludge sampled in Suwon, Republic of Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolate belongs to the genus Humibacter, family Microbacteriaceae, with a sequence similarity of 97.9 % to its nearest neighbour Humibacter albus KACC 20986T. Strain WJ7-1T contained menaquinone (MK)-10 (16.0 %), 11 (48.5 %) and 12 (35.5 %) as major respiratory quinones. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>15 %) were anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The peptidoglycan of strain WJ7-1T contained the diagnostic diamino acid ornithine and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid alanine. Alanine, glutamic acid and glycine were also present in the cell wall. The characteristic whole-cell sugars present were glucose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. Strain WJ7-1T possessed ginsenoside-converting (ß-glucosidase) activity, which enabled it to transform ginsenoside protopanaxadiol-type Rb1 (one of the dominant active components of ginseng) to compound K. The genome size of strain WJ7-1T has 4.2 Mbp and the G+C content is 68.3 mol%. Average nucleotide identity, amino acid identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain WJ7-1T and the closely related strain were 79.8, 36.1 and 23.5 %, respectively, indicating that strain WJ7-1T represents a novel species of the genus Humibacter. Strain WJ7-1T could be distinguished from the other members of the genus Humibacter by a number of chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics. Based on polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strain WJ7-1T (=KACC 19729T=LMG 30802T) represents a novel species within the genus Humibacter, for which the name Humibacter ginsenosidimutans sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Actinomycetales , Ginsenosídeos , Alanina/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esgotos , Microbiologia do Solo , Vitamina K 2/química
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(8): 568, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794258

RESUMO

In this study, the multi-marker approach was used for the first time with a highly urbanized lake located in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, to provide a comprehensive view of temporal trends in sources of pollutants and evaluate the relation between the influence of anthropogenic activities and socioeconomic development. Total concentrations of the markers analyzed ranged from 21.0 to 103.8 ng g-1, 450.2 to 2390.2 ng g-1, and 233.8 to 9827.3 ng g-1 for ∑PAHs, ∑n-alk, and ∑sterols, respectively. Concentrations and patterns of PAH, AH, and sterol ratio distribution changed over time and may be associated with different episodes in the history of the city of Fortaleza. The marker ratio distribution in the sediment core revealed an overlap of natural and anthropogenic sources, with degraded oil, biogenic inputs, pyrogenic processes, and fecal contamination from humans and animals in the past changing to petroleum fossil inputs and high contamination from sewage in the present day. The distribution of markers and the chronological history of Fortaleza revealed two distinct periods related to human activities during the development of the city. In the first period (prior to the 1950s), the main human activities were animal breeding and the use of biomass for domestic activities, public and cargo transportation, and commercial activities, especially food production. In the second period (after the 1950s), expansion of the city occurred due to the so-called Brazilian economic miracle and the main human activities were industrialization and urbanization processes, involving deforestation, paving, sewage discharge, and petroleum combustion.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Efeitos Antropogênicos , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12227, 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851096

RESUMO

Particular attention is devoted to pharmaceutical residues in sewage sludge caused by their potential ecotoxicological effects. Diclofenac, ibuprofen and carbamazepine, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, ß-estradiol, were analysed in four types of fertilizers, based on sewage sludge commercial products, in compliance with Polish requirements. The release of active pharmaceutical compounds from fertilizers to water the phase after 24 h and 27 days was analysed. Solid-water partition coefficients (Kd) and partitioning coefficient values normalized on organic carbon content (log KOC) were evaluated. The environmental risk to terrestrial ecosystems, due to the application of fertilizers onto soils, was estimated. Cumulative mass of pharmaceuticals emitted to water from fertilizers ranged from 0.4 to 30.8 µg/kg after 24 h contact. The greatest amount of the material that was released, over 70%, was observed for carbamazepine. No presence of compounds except ibuprofen was observed after 27 days of testing. The highest environmental risk in fertilizers is due to carbamazepine, risk quotation, RQ = 0.93 and diclofenac RQ = 0.17. The values of risk quotation estimated for soil were below RQ = 0.01. This fact means that no risk to terrestrial ecosystems is expected to occur. The important decrease of the concentrations of active compounds after passing from sewage sludge to fertilizers [and] to fertilized soil could be observed.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carbamazepina , Diclofenaco , Ecossistema , Etinilestradiol/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Ibuprofeno , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Esgotos/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(8): 564, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788916

RESUMO

Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) are widely used to track contaminants in surface waters. However, POCIS have not been used previously to monitor for artificial sweeteners as an indicator of wastewater pollution. In this study, we report for the first time the POCIS sampling rates (Rscal) for four artificial sweetener compounds, acesulfame (0.001 L/day), sucralose (0.114 L/day), cyclamate (0.001 L/day), and saccharin (0.002 L/day). We also prepared a modified POCIS with Strata X-AW anion exchange resin as a sorbent (i.e., ax-POCIS) and determined the sampling rates for sucralose (0.060 L/day) and acesulfame (0.128 L/day). Rscal values were adjusted according to the rate of loss of the performance reference compound, metoprolol-d6 from deployed POCIS to yield field sampling rates (i.e., Rsfield). Field validation of the monitoring method was conducted in Presqu'ile Bay on the north-central coast of Lake Ontario that is impacted by discharges from a sewage lagoon. POCIS were deployed at four sites within the bay and in the lagoon discharge. The four artificial sweeteners, as well as caffeine, ibuprofen, and other microcontaminants of sewage origin, were present throughout the bay at estimated concentrations in the ng/L range, and in the lagoon discharge at estimated concentrations higher by approximately one order of magnitude. Because acesulfame is present in ionic form over the pH range of natural waters, there are uncertainties related to the sampling rates using the standard POCIS. Sucralose is recommended as the best choice for source tracking using POCIS. There was good agreement between the concentrations of sucralose estimated from POCIS and the measured concentrations in grab samples of surface water in the bay. The present study provides key data for monitoring artificial sweeteners using POCIS.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Calibragem , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos , Esgotos , Edulcorantes , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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