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1.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 189-201, mayo-sept. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202543

RESUMO

El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue revisar el estado de la investigación psicopatológica del duelo complicado en población adulta de España. Una búsqueda sistemática en PsycINFO, PsycArticles, PTSDpubs y PSICODOC identificó 13 estudios en los que, en conjunto, se había evaluado a 1,655 adultos. Los resultados de esta revisión ponen de manifiesto que no existe consenso en el diagnóstico de duelo complicado, en el uso de instrumentos de detección ni en los factores de riesgo y protección del duelo complicado. La prevalencia media ponderada basada en 6 de los estudios revisados fue de 21,53%. Tomando en consideración el tipo de instrumento de medida del duelo utilizado, se obtuvo una prevalencia de 7,67-10,68% en aquellos estudios que utilizaban instrumentos diagnósticos y de 28,77% en los instrumentos sintomáticos. Los resultados indican que el duelo complicado se relaciona con: un menor nivel socioeconómico y situación laboral desfavorable, la pérdida de un hijo o cónyuge, menor edad del fallecido, vulnerabilidad psicológica previa, consumo de psicofármacos y comorbilidad con otros trastornos. El apoyo social, los cuidados paliativos, las estrategias de afrontamiento centradas en el problema, el empleo de actividades agradables y la trascendencia o espiritualidad se presentan como factores protectores


The main objective of this research was to review the status of the psychopathological research of complicated grief in adult population of Spain, specifically the prevalence and risk factors. A systematic review of PsycINFO, PsycArticles, PTSDpubs, and PSICODOC databases identified 12 studies in which, overall, 1.627 adults had been evaluated. The results of this review show that there is no consensus about the diagnosis of complicated grief, the use of detection instruments, or the risk and protective factors for complicated grief. The weighted mean prevalence based on 6 of the reviewed studies was 21.53%. Taking into account the type of grief measurement used, a prevalence of 7.67 - 10.68% was obtained in those studies that used diagnostic instruments, and 28.77% in those using symptomatic instruments. The results indicate that complicated grief is related to: a lower socioeconomic level and unfavorable work situation, the loss of a child or spouse, younger age of the deceased, previous psychological vulnerability, the use of psychotropic medication, and comorbidity with other disorders. Social support, palliative care, problem-centered coping strategies, the use of pleasant activities, and transcendence or spirituality are shown as protective factors


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pesar , Fatores de Proteção , Transtornos de Adaptação/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Adaptação/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência , Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Espanha/epidemiologia
2.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 233-242, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202547

RESUMO

The study of happiness and well-being is receiving increased attention in different fields. Recent research into well-being has focused on delving deeper into the individual's conception about the experience of well-being. McMahan and Estes (2011a) created a scale that assesses lay conceptions of well-being based on four dimensions: the experience of pleasure, avoidance of negative experience, self-development and contribution to others. The goal of this study was to adapt this scale, the Beliefs about Well-Being Scale (BWBS), to the Spanish population. The sample consisted of 1,024 participants from the general population ranging in age interval from 17 to 87 years old. The confirmatory factorial analysis results in a structure of four dimensions, similar to the original scale, although in the adaptation of the scale the items decrease from 16 to 12. The results of the reliability analysis reveal indexes similar to those of the original scale. These results confirm the validity of Beliefs about Well-Being Scale with general population in a cultural context different from the original study. This will allow cross-cultural studies to analyze the influence of culture in the perception of well-being


El estudio de la felicidad y el bienestar está recibiendo cada vez más atención en diferentes campos. Las investigaciones recientes sobre el bienestar se han centrado en profundizar en la concepción del individuo sobre la experiencia del bienestar. McMahan y Estes (2011a) crearon una escala que evalúa las concepciones legas del bienestar en base a cuatro dimensiones: la experiencia de placer, la evitación de la experiencia negativa, el autodesarrollo y la contribución a los demás. El objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar esta escala, Beliefs about Well-Being Scale (BWBS), a la población española. La muestra estuvo formada por 1.024 participantes de la población general con un intervalo de edad entre 17 y 87 años. El análisis factorial confirmatorio da como resultado una estructura de cuatro dimensiones, similar a la escala original, aunque en la adaptación de la escala los ítems disminuyen de 16 a 12. Los resultados del análisis de fiabilidad revelan índices similares a los de la escala original. Estos resultados confirman la validez de la Escala de Creencias sobre el Bienestar con población general en un contexto cultural diferente al del estudio original. Esto permitirá realizar estudios transculturales para analizar la influencia de la cultura en la percepción del bienestar


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Satisfação Pessoal , Cultura , Adaptação Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Felicidade , Comparação Transcultural , Filosofia , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Fatorial , Prazer , Espanha
3.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 253-264, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202549

RESUMO

Ambivalent sexism is a multidimensional construct composed of two elements: hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. The main aim of this study is to analyse the acceptance of ambivalent sexist attitudes in a sample of future teachers from Spain and Latin America. The research is based on a quantitative methodological strategy. The sample is composed of 2798 trainee teachers, and their mean age is 22.62 years (SD = 6.23), they were residing in seven countries: Spain, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina and Mexico. The data collection technique was the structured questionnaire. The results show that ambivalent sexist attitudes exist to a varying degree in future teachers of every country. The assumption of sexism varies significantly between men and women and among countries. There seems to be a relationship between levels of sexism with indices of gender inequality and human development. Education institutions are not exempt from obstacles and gender bias that impede the attainment of equality between women and men. Sexist attitudes of teachers can be transmitted through the education system and the socialization process, so including gender issues in initial and in service teacher training plans is essential


El sexismo ambivalente es un constructo multidimensional compuesto por dos componentes: el sexismo hostil y el sexismo benévolo. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar la aceptación de las actitudes sexistas ambivalentes en una muestra de futuros y futuras docentes de España y Latinoamérica. En la investigación participaron 2798 docentes en formación con una edad media de 22.62 años (DE = 6.23) que residían en siete países: España, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina y México. Los resultados muestran que las actitudes sexistas están presentes, con diferentes grados de aceptación, en el profesorado en formación de todos los países. La aceptación del sexismo varía significativamente entre hombres y mujeres y entre los países de la muestra. Parece existir una relación entre los niveles de sexismo y los índices de desigualdad de género y desarrollo humano. Las actitudes sexistas del profesorado pueden transmitirse a través del sistema educativo y de los procesos de socialización, por lo que es fundamental incluir la perspectiva de género en los planes de formación inicial y continua del profesorado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Capacitação de Professores , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Sexuais , Sexismo/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Valores de Referência , Hostilidade , Empatia , Espanha , América Latina
4.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 311-322, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202554

RESUMO

Desde la teoría del liderazgo transformacional, este estudio tenía como objetivo analizar las propiedades psicométricas de una versión adaptada al ámbito educativo del Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X). Un total de 1551 estudiantes españoles (M = 15,47 años ± 0,72; 679 chicos y 872 chicas) de 31 centros de enseñanza secundaria participaron en el estudio. El análisis factorial confirmatorio de la estructura inicial de nueve factores de la escala determinó la necesidad de eliminar dos ítems del factor dirección por excepción pasiva, agrupando en un solo factor el liderazgo pasivo. En un segundo modelo de ocho factores, se hallaron altas correlaciones entre los factores del liderazgo transformacional, señalando la necesidad de establecer un factor de primer orden. Finalmente, se testó un tercer modelo que obtuvo valores adecuados de validez y fiabilidad, que estaba compuesto por 34 ítems distribuidos en 4 factores principales (liderazgo transformacional, recompensa contingente, dirección por excepción activa y liderazgo pasivo) y 5 factores secundarios para el liderazgo transformacional (influencia idealizada conducta, influencia idealizada atribuida, motivación inspiracional, estimulación intelectual y consideración individualizada. Por tanto, la versión española del MLQ-5X en el ámbito educativo puede ser utilizada para evaluar el liderazgo transformacional de los docentes desde la percepción del alumnado


Drawing on the transformational leadership theory, this study aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of a version adapted to the educational environment of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X). A total of 1551 Spanish students (M = 15.47 years ± 0.72; 679 boys and 872 girls) from 31 secondary schools participated in the study. The confirmatory factor analysis of the initial nine-factor structure of the scale determined the need to eliminate two items of the passive exception management factor, grouping passive leadership into a single factor. A second eight-factor model found high correlations between the factors of transformational leadership, revealing the need to establish a first-order factor. Finally, a third model, which obtained adequate values of validity and reliability, was composed of 34 items distributed in 4 main factors (transformational leadership, contingent reward, leadership by active exception, and passive leadership) and 5 secondary factors for transformational leadership (idealized influence behavior, attributed idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration). The Spanish version of the MLQ-5X in the educational field can be used to assess the students' perception of teacher leadership


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Liderança , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Análise Fatorial , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha
5.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 323-333, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202555

RESUMO

Este estudio tiene dos objetivos. Primero, estudiar la validez del modelo de clima motivacional de la familia como indicador de implicación parental, cuando se evalúa con el cuestionario de Clima Motivacional de la Familia para padres (CMF/P). Y, segundo, hacerlo en población española y cubana con el fin de determinar las diferencias en la percepción del CMF de los padres de ambos países. Participaron 892 padres, 400 españoles y 492 cubanos. Se realizaron análisis factoriales confirmatorios, de validez cruzada y multigrupo, y análisis de fiabilidad. Los resultados muestran, tanto en España como en Cuba, la validez del Modelo teórico que subyace al cuestionario. Las ayudas que ofrecen los padres sirviendo como ejemplo a sus hijos y la estructuración del trabajo escolar en casa por parte de los padres son los factores de mayor peso en la definición del CMF. Sin embargo, la cultura moderó la configuración del CMF en varios indicadores del Modelo, mostrando diferentes maneras de actuar entre padres españoles y cubanos en la configuración de un clima familiar motivador


This study has two objectives. First, to study the validity of the family motivational climate model as an indicator of parental involvement, when it is evaluated with the Family Motivational Climate questionnaire for Parents (CMF / P). Second, to do it in the Spanish and Cuban population in order to determine the differences in the CMF perception of the parents of both countries. A total of 892 parents participated in the study, 400 from Spain and 492 from Cuba. Confirmatory factor analyses, cross-validation and multi-group analyses performed, as well as reliability analysis. The results show, both in Spain and in Cuba, the validity of the theoretical model that underlies the questionnaire. The help offered by parents serving as an example to their children, and the way in which parents structure the schoolwork at home are the most important factors in the definition of the CMF. However, culture moderated the configuration of the CMF in several indicators of the Model, showing different ways of acting between Spanish and Cuban parents in the configuration of a family motivating climate


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Comparação Transcultural , Relações Pais-Filho , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Análise Fatorial , Percepção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Cuba , Espanha
6.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 334-340, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202556

RESUMO

El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar si la curiosidad es una variable moderadora entre la Impulsividad y la Orientación Emprendedora. Se utiliza una muestra multiocupacional de 883 empleados españoles (49 % hombres, 51 % mujeres), obtenidos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico. Se ha utilizado el programa SPSS 23.0. Se encontraron correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre todas las variables de la investigación a excepcion de la impulsividad Funcional. Finalmente, la evidencia empírica indica que la Curiosidad-D tiene un papel moderador entre la impulsividad Disfuncional y la Orientación Emprendedora mostrada, en el sentido de que la Curiosidad-D (entendida como una variable cuantitativa) afecta la intensidad de la relación entre la Impulsividad Disfuncional (variable predictora) y la Orientación Emprendedora (variable de criterio)


The objective of the present study is to analyze whether the variable Curiosity is a moderating variable between Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation. The multi-occupational sample of 883 Spanish and Colombian employees (49% men, 51% women) was obtained through non-probabilistic sampling. The data collected were processed with the SPSS 23.0 program. Statistically significant correlations were found among all the research variables except for Functional Impulsivity. Finally, empirical evidence indicates that Curiosity-D plays a moderating role between Dysfunctional Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation in the sense that Curiosity-D (understood as a quantitative variable) affects the intensity of the relationship between Dysfunctional Impulsivity (predictor variable) and Entrepreneurial Orientation (criterion variable)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Exploratório , Impulso (Psicologia) , Empreendedorismo , Comportamento Impulsivo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inventário de Personalidade , Análise de Regressão , Valores de Referência , Espanha , Colômbia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205985

RESUMO

Anxiolytics (N05B) are one of the most widely used pharmacological groups. This study aimed to analyze the progression of the consumption of anxiolytics (ATC classification: N05B) dispensed in pharmacies in Castile and Leon, Spain, from 2015 to 2020, with a special focus on the possible impact of COVID-19 on the use of these drugs. A quantitative-qualitative analysis of usage was carried out using the total number of packs and the packs per 1000 inhabitants. Overall, the use of anxiolytics grew by 14.41% during 2015-2020. The most commonly used drugs were the short-acting benzodiazepine derivatives lorazepam (whose use increased by 15.18%) and alprazolam (whose use increased by 21.40%), and the dispensing of the long-acting derivative diazepam increased the most, by 31.83%. Anxiolytics consumption increased significantly in 2020 and peaked in March. The pattern of use remained the same in 2020. The consumption of anxiolytics has continued to increase in Castile and Leon over the last six years. The COVID-19 pandemic situation affected the dispensing of these drugs, causing a sharp increase in prescriptions, especially during March, when the confinement of the population was initiated.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , COVID-19 , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha
8.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The preventive measures to be taken in the face of a new epidemic require knowledge of the number of infected and which groups are most vulnerable. To know the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in the city of Madrid and its 21 districts in the first 4 months of the epidemic and its relationship with some socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS: Cross-sectional ecological study (39,270 cases). The 39,270 cases diagnosed from the beginning of the pandemic until June 26, 2020, published by the Comunidad de Madrid in were studied. In the districts, the distribution of gross and fair incidence is related to the ones of the independent variables (Municipal Statistics and Estudio de Salud 2018, Madrid Salud). The Incidence and the r and r2 coefficients, obtained with the factors and the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model, are studied. RESULTS: The city of Madrid presents a cumulative incidence of COVID-19, which is double the national one (100), with a Standardized Cumulative Incidence Ratio (RIAE) of 204.59 per 100. The districts with the most RIAE were those in the southeast, all>240 per 100. In the districts, the per capita household rate, the per capita income, and the mortality rate from infectious diseases in men reached high and inverse correlations with RIAE (all r>-0.3). The RLM model with these 3 indicators predicts 30% of the RIAES. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between material wealth and the risk of COVID-19 infection is inverse. The knowledge in the districts of per capita income, household rate and mortality rate due to infectious diseases in men reduces the uncertainty about the accumulated incidence by 30%.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Deescalation began in May 2020 increases social interaction, which has an influence on COVID-19 epidemiological surveillance. The aim of this study was the characterization of COVID-19 cases detected during this period. METHODS: We analyzed certain variables of interest coming from the epidemiological surveys carried out in an area of Madrid during May 2020, and stratified the results depending on its temporal relation with the deescalation. Prevalence for each category of response and average duration in minutes of the telephonic call were calculated. Confidence intervals were estimated at 95%. RESULTS: We included 167 cases, being 30.5% of them incident and 49.1% prevalent. The main source of infection was home (38.0%; CI 95% 31.4-46.2). Regarding healthcare and social care workers, the main source of infection was workplace (93.0%; 85.4-100). Average number of close contacts per case was 2.0 (1.8-2.2), being 1.5 (1.0-2.0) among pre-deescalation incident cases and 2.4 (1.8-3.0) among those post-deescalation. Average duration of each survey was 35.9 minutes (32.2-38.9), being 32.1 (24.4-39.8) among pre-deescalation incident cases and 37.0 (29.6-44.4) among those post-deescalation. Most of the contacts were household, both before and after beginning of deescalation. CONCLUSIONS: Home is the most prevalent place for the acquisition of the infection among general population, while workplace is the most prevalent among healthcare and social care workers. The initial phase of deescalation do not represents a change regarding sources of infection, but it may increase the number of close contacts.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13678, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211001

RESUMO

During the unfolding of a crisis, it is crucial to forecast its severity at an early stage , yet access to reliable data is often challenging early on. The wisdom of crowds has been effective at forecasting in similar scenarios. We investigated whether the initial regional social media reaction to the emerging COVID-19 pandemic in three critically affected countries has significant relations with their observed mortality a month later. We obtained COVID-19 related regionally geolocated tweets from Italian, Spanish, and United States regions. We quantified the predictive power of the wisdom of the crowds using correlations and regressions of geolocated Tweet Intensity (TI) during the initial social media attention peak versus the cumulative number of deaths a month ahead. We found that the intensity of initial COVID-19 related tweet attention at the beginning of the pandemic across Italian, Spanish, and United States regions is significantly related (p < 0.001) to the extent to which these regions had been affected by the pandemic a month later. This association is most striking in Italy as when at its peak of TI in late February 2020 only two of its regions had reported mortality. The collective wisdom of the crowds at early stages of the pandemic, when information on the number of infections was not broadly available, strikingly predicted the extent of mortality reflecting the regional severity of the pandemic almost a month later. Our findings could underpin the creation of real-time novelty detection systems aimed at early reporting of the severity of crises impacting a territory leading to early activation of control measures at a stage when available data is extremely limited.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Previsões , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation represents the treatment choice for most people with chronic kidney disease due to the benefits it provides compared to other renal replacement therapies. This population requires specific monitoring, where the nursing professional must attend to determining factors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in order to guarantee an effective approach to the difficulties that arise. This bibliographic review pretends to determine the altered physical, psychological, and social components of health-related quality of life maintained by kidney transplant recipients as a way to improve quality of care through the most appropriate nursing interventions. METHODS: The literature review was conducted in PubMed, Medes, LILACS, CINAHL, Dialnet and Scopus databases. From a total of 718 articles identified, 30 publications were selected in order to meet the aim of the review and the established inclusion, exclusion and PRISMA Statement criteria. RESULTS: The quality of the published studies was set at a mean score of 6.07 according to the PEDro scale, for clinical trials and 10.5, according to the Amstar scale, for bibliographic reviews. 50% of the total were published in the last two years (2018-2019) and 75% are between Q1 and Q2 of the JCR and SJR impact factors. CONCLUSIONS: An improvement in HRQoL has been identified in these patients compared to the previous period of dialysis, although it is not still comparable to the general population. The physical area seems to be the most affected. The nursing professional can develop health education, psychological counseling and self-management activities.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/enfermagem , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Espanha
12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In modern health systems, emergency services (ES) constitute one of the cornerstones of health care, and they have an essential role in the conception of current health services. The objective of this work was to analyze the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and clinical factors in the use of ES. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with data from the National Health Survey of Spain (2017) in which 23,089 adults (15 years or more) participated. Three population profiles were defined to analyze visits to ES (young people between 15 and 24 years of age; people aged 75 or over and with multiple pathologies; the general population). Descriptive analyses were performed by population profile, and logistic regression models by population profile and type of service (public hospital, public non-hospital emergency center, and private health center) were applied to evaluate the association between the use of ES and the independent variables. RESULTS: The percentage of use of ES was higher in the elderly population with multiple pathologies (41.1%) compared to young people (35.7%) and the general population (28.4%). Young people between 15 and 24 years of age used ES more in private centers, and the associated factors were female sex (OR=2.862; 95% CI=1.139-7.191), the use of diagnostic tests (OR=9.401; 95% CI=3.183-27.760), belonging to the lowest social classes (OR=0.207; 95% CI=0.073-0.585) and residing in municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants and capitals (OR=5.985; 95% CI=1.143-31.330). The elderly population with multiple pathologies presented a worse state of health than the other two population groups and with a higher demand for ES in public hospitals. In addition, in the elderly population group, the factors associated with the use of ES in public hospitals were having been hospitalized (OR=2.229; 95% CI=1.333-3.730), belonging to the lowest social classes (social class III: OR=2.794; 95% CI=1.154-6.768/social class IV-V- VI: OR=3.767; 95% CI=2.236-6.344), residing in municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants and capitals (OR=1.679; 95% CI=1.042-2.704) and having had at least one visit to the PC doctor (OR=0.603; 95% CI=0.396-0.918). Finally, in the general population the variables associated with increased use of ES in public hospitals were age (OR=1.009; 95% CI=1.001-1.016), the highest number of visits to the PC doctor (OR=1.550; 95% CI=1.180-2.170), the use of diagnostic tests (OR=1.480; 95% CI=1.236-1.773) and belonging to the lowest social classes (social class IV-V-VI: OR=1.581; 95% CI=1.229-2.033). CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics associated with the use of ES, both public and private, as well as hospital and extra-hospital, differ according to socioeconomic characteristics and clinical factors. The results of this study suggest redirecting interventions to improve care outcomes, as well as achieving a more rational use of ES.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Multimorbidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Workplace violence is a public health problem that affects professionals in the hospital emergency services, being this environment where there is an intense interaction with users and / or relatives who require critical and / or special care. Given this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to user violence perceived by different health and non-health professionals in Emergency Services belonging to eleven Spanish hospitals. METHODS: The design was an associative, descriptive-comparative cross-sectional strategy developed in 2019 with a sample of 584 healthcare and non-healthcare professionals from eleven Spanish hospital emergency services in eight Spanish autonomous communities. Non-parametric statistics were used for between-group comparisons, post-hoc analysis and the calculation of the effect size. RESULTS: 100% of respondents acknowledged having suffered workplace violence at least once in the last year. Specifically, at least eight out of every ten professionals were exposed to non-physical violence (range 85.1%-100%). The group that most perceived this violence was administration, followed by nursing, medicine and auxiliary nursing care technician (T.C.A.E) (H=28.881; p=0.001). While the manifestations of physical violence affected approximately three out of ten professionals (range 22.6%-29.5%), it is more present in the Auxiliary Nursing Care Technicians (T.C.A.E), followed by medical and nursing health professionals, as well as non-health professionals, orderlies and administration (H=9.800; p=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows the high prevalence of a medium or low intensity violent behavior in spanish Emergency Services. In addition, it allows to deepen in the different manifestations of violence received by the main professional groups of these services.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(5): 3416, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241134

RESUMO

The lockdown measures in Spain due to COVID-19 social measures showed a wide decrease in the urban noise levels observed. This paper presents an analysis of the noise levels in Girona, a 100 000 citizen city in the North-East of Catalonia (Spain). We present the LAeq levels in four different locations from January 2020 to June 2020, including all the stages of the lockdown. Several comparisons are conducted with the monitoring data available from the previous years (2019, 2018, and 2017, when available). This analysis is part of the project "Sons al Balcó," which aims to draw the soundscape of Catalonia during the lockdown. The results of the analysis in Girona show drastic LAeq changes especially in nightlife areas of the city, moderate LAeq changes in commercial and restaurants areas, and low LAeq changes in dense traffic areas.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha
16.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255781

RESUMO

Spain was, together with Italy, the first European country severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. After one month of strict lockdown and eight weeks of partial restrictions, Spanish residents are expected to have revised some of their beliefs. We conducted a survey one year before the pandemic, at its outbreak and during de-escalation (N = 1706). Despite the lockdown, most respondents tolerated being controlled by authorities, and acknowledged the importance of group necessities over individual rights. However, de-escalation resulted in a belief change towards the intrusiveness of authorities and the preeminence of individual rights. Besides, transcendental beliefs-God answering prayers and the existence of an afterlife-declined after the outbreak, but were strengthened in the de-escalation. Results were strongly influenced by political ideology: the proportion of left-sided voters who saw authorities as intrusive greatly decreased, and transcendental beliefs prevailed among right-sided voters. Our results point to a polarization of beliefs based on political ideology as a consequence of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Cultura , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Quarentena/psicologia , Espanha
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Midwives look after women during pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium. In Spain, the first wave of COVID was particularly virulent. There are few studies about the experiences of midwives providing care during the COVID pandemic and very few have been undertaken in the countries of southern Europe such as Spain. This article sets out to take a more in-depth look at the experiences of midwives who were on the frontline of care during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as to identify new needs and resilience strategies that can help midwives. METHODS: A qualitative methodology of phenomenological tradition was used, interviewing 10 midwives from primary care, hospital and independent care. RESULTS: After content analysis, three central categories emerged: (a) cascade of emotions; (b) professional occupation and concern for the women; (c) resisting the day-to-day; resilience and resistance strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the difficulties, midwives are concerned about the loss of rights and autonomy and about the increased vulnerability of women. Midwives have become aware of the power they have in their actions both in health management and administration, as well as in the care of women, creating strategies to provide dignified care to their users.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tocologia , Atenção à Saúde , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204383

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic started in December 2019 and still is a major global health challenge. Lockdown measures and social distancing sparked a global shift towards online learning, which deeply impacted universities' daily life, and the University of Barcelona (UB) was not an exception. Accordingly, we aimed to determine the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic at the UB. To that end, we performed a cross-sectional study on a sample of 2784 UB members (n = 52,529). Participants answered a brief, ad hoc, online epidemiological questionnaire and provided a nasal swab for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 analysis and a venous blood sample for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody assay. Total prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (positive RT-PCR or positive IgG) was 14.9% (95%CI 13.3 to 17.0%). Forty-four participants (1.6%, 95%CI: 1.2-2.1%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. IgG against SARS-CoV-2 was observed in 12.8% (95%CI: 11.6-14.1%) of participants. Overall, while waiting for population vaccination and/or increased herd immunity, we should concentrate on identifying and isolating new cases and their contacts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205348

RESUMO

It is essential to understand the impact of social inequalities on the risk of COVID-19 infection in order to mitigate the social consequences of the pandemic. With this aim, the objective of our study was to analyze the effect of socioeconomic inequalities, both at the individual and area of residence levels, on the probability of COVID-19 confirmed infection, and its variations across three pandemic waves. We conducted a retrospective cohort study and included data from all individuals tested for COVID-19 during the three waves of the pandemic, from March to December 2020 (357,989 individuals) in Aragón (Spain). We studied the effect of inequalities on the risk of having a COVID-19 confirmed diagnosis after being tested using multilevel analyses with two levels of aggregation: individuals and basic healthcare area of residence (deprivation level and type of zone). Inequalities in the risk of COVID-19 confirmed infection were observed at both the individual and area level. There was a predominance of low-paid employees living in deprived areas. Workers with low salaries, unemployed and people on minimum integration income or who no longer receive the unemployment allowance, had a higher probability of COVID-19 infection than workers with salaries ≥ €18,000 per year. Inequalities were greater in women and in the second wave. The deprivation level of areas of residence influenced the risk of COVID-19 infection, especially in the second wave. It is necessary to develop individual and area coordinated measures by areas in the control, diagnosis and treatment of the epidemic, in order to avoid an increase in the already existing inequalities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205373

RESUMO

Chronic diseases are treated and cared for in different healthcare settings. Continuity of care and the case management model facilitate the integration of processes and care levels. However, there is little evidence regarding the satisfaction of nurses with this model. The purpose of this study was to examine nurses' satisfaction with continuity of care and the case management model. A cross-sectional study was conducted. An ad hoc questionnaire was administrated to 437 Spanish nurses from the three health care settings that responded. This included items on socio-demographics, employment relationship, and satisfaction with continuity of care and case management. Descriptive analysis and linear regression models were performed. In total, 96.1% of the nurses expressed a high level of satisfaction with continuity of care and 80.7% with the case management model. Nurses in a primary care setting reported the greatest satisfaction with the case management model (B = 0.146, 95% CI = 0.139-0.694, p = 0.003). The nurses' higher perception of patient satisfaction was associated with greater satisfaction with continuity of care (B = 0.466, 95% CI = -0.367-0.533, p < 0.000). Nurses identified the case management model as an optimal facilitator of continuity of care. While satisfaction with continuity is high, strategies are needed to improve it in primary care centers and aged care homes.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Idoso , Administração de Caso , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Satisfação Pessoal , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
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