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1.
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 73 p. ilus.(Texto para Discussão / IPEA, 2559).
Monografia em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1100677

RESUMO

Este texto apresenta um panorama internacional das medidas econômicas adotadas para reduzir os graves efeitos econômicos da pandemia de Sars-COV-2 em três países: Estados Unidos, Reino Unido e Espanha. A análise toma como base primordialmente documentos governamentais que normatizaram as medidas de política econômica. São analisados os diversos canais por meio dos quais a crise sanitária afeta a economia. Por um lado, estão os fatores de oferta: oferta de trabalho, produtividade do trabalho e funcionamento das cadeias produtivas. Por outro lado, encontram-se os fatores de demanda: consumo das famílias, investimento privado e comércio exterior. O terceiro canal diz respeito aos fatores financeiros que incidem sobre as variáveis de demanda e, principalmente, sobre o grau de liquidez das empresas financeiras e não financeiras. As medidas adotadas nos três países apresentam como características comuns a mobilização de grande volume de recursos fiscais e financeiros, a adoção de uma grande diversidade de instrumentos de política econômica e o uso de arranjos institucionais sofisticados em termos de regras de focalização e de mecanismos de operacionalização das medidas adotadas.


This text presents an international overview of the economic measures adopted to reduce the serious economic effects of the Sars-COV-2 pandemic in three countries: the USA, the United Kingdom and Spain. The analysis is based primarily on government documents that regulated economic policy measures. The various channels through which the health crisis affects the economy are analyzed. On one hand, there are the supply factors: labor supply, labor productivity and the functioning of production chains. On the other hand, there are demand factors: household consumption, private investment and foreign trade. The third channel concerns the financial factors on demand variables and, mainly, on the degree of liquidity of financial and non-financial companies. The measures adopted in the three countries have as common characteristics the mobilization of large volumes of fiscal and financial resources, the adoption of a wide range of economic policy instruments and the use of sophisticated institutional arrangements in terms of targeting rules and mechanisms for operationalizing the measures adopted.


Assuntos
Política Pública , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 92(4): 241.e1-241.e11, abr. 2020. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186847

RESUMO

El 31 de diciembre de 2019, la Comisión Municipal de Salud y Sanidad de Wuhan (provincia de Hubei, China) informó sobre la existencia de 27 casos de neumonía de etiología desconocida con inicio de síntomas el 8 de diciembre, incluyendo 7 casos graves, con exposición común a un mercado de marisco, pescado y animales vivos en la ciudad de Wuhan. El 7 de enero de 2020, las autoridades chinas identificaron como agente causante del brote un nuevo tipo de virus de la familia Coronaviridae, denominado temporalmente «nuevo coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. El 30 de enero de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declara el brote una Emergencia Internacional. El día 11 de febrero la OMS le asigna el nombre de SARS-CoV2 e infección COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infectious Disease). El Ministerio de Sanidad convoca a las Sociedades de Especialidades para la elaboración de un protocolo clínico de manejo de la infección. La Asociación Española de Pediatría nombra un grupo de trabajo de las Sociedades de Infectología Pediátrica y Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos que se encargan de elaborar las presentes recomendaciones con la evidencia disponible en el momento de su realización


On 31 December 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Committee of Health and Healthcare (Hubei Province, China) reported that there were 27 cases of pneumonia of unknown origin with symptoms starting on the 8 December. There were 7 serious cases with common exposure in market with shellfish, fish, and live animals, in the city of Wuhan. On 7 January 2020, the Chinese authorities identified that the agent causing the outbreak was a new type of virus of the Coronaviridae family, temporarily called «new coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. On January 30th, 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the outbreak an International Emergency. On 11 February 2020 the WHO assigned it the name of SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19). The Ministry of Health summoned the Specialties Societies to prepare a clinical protocol for the management of COVID-19. The Spanish Paediatric Association appointed a Working Group of the Societies of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Paediatric Intensive Care to prepare the present recommendations with the evidence available at the time of preparing them


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha
3.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. ilus, tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193594

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: el modelo de los activos comunitarios se caracteriza por fomentar condiciones de salud que potencian las capacidades y habilidades individuales y colectivas. El objetivo de este proyecto ha sido identificar el mapa de activos en salud del barrio Arturo Eyries de Valladolid, para promover la prescripción social por parte del personal sanitario y hacer más visibles los recursos de los que dispone la comunidad. METODOLOGÍA: se han utilizado diferentes técnicas de mapeo: búsqueda de datos en internet, redes sociales, periódicos, paseos por el barrio, entrevistas, mapas mudos y fotovoz. Se incluyeron pacientes y profesionales sanitarios del Centro de Salud Arturo Eyries. RESULTADOS: se ha recogido información de un total de 40 participantes: 10 profesionales sanitarios y 30 pacientes del centro de salud. El resultado de esta investigación fueron 37 activos clasificados en seis categorías: sanidad, ocio y cultura, apoyo social, educación, ejercicio físico y transporte. Con todo esto se ha creado un fichero de activos, un mapa del barrio, una página web, un tríptico y una sesión clínica para los profesionales del centro. CONCLUSIONES: este proyecto de mapeo constituye el punto de partida para mejorar el conocimiento que los profesionales sanitarios y los pacientes tienen sobre los recursos de salud de su entorno. Este trabajo representa el inicio de una red para la promoción de la salud, dirigida a implicar a instituciones y responsables políticos en la creación de una cartografía común, a nivel ciudad o incluso comunidad autónoma, de activos para la salud


INTRODUCTION: The community assets model is characterized by fostering health conditions that enhance individual and collective capacities and abilities. The aim of this project has been to identify the map of health assets in the Arturo Eyries neighbourhood of Valladolid to promote social prescription by health personnel, and to make the resources available to the community more visible. METHODOLOGY: Different mapping techniques have been used: internet data search, social networks, newspapers, walks around the neighbourhood, interviews, silent maps and photovoice. Patients and health professionals from the Arturo Eyries health centre were included in this study. RESULTS: Information was collected from a total of 40 participants: 10 health professionals and 30 health centre patients. The result of this research was 37 assets classified into six categories: health, leisure and culture, social support, education, physical exercise and transport. With all this, an asset file, a map of the neighbourhood, a web page, a leaflet and a clinical session for the centre's professionals were created. CONCLUSIONS: This mapping project is the starting point for improving the knowledge that health professionals and patients have about the health resources of their environment. This work represents the beginning of a network for health promotion, and we would like to involve institutions and the politicians in the creation of common mapping, at local or regional level, of health assets


Assuntos
Humanos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Medicina Comunitária , Pessoal de Saúde , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Características de Residência , Nível de Saúde , Espanha
4.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 33(5): 369-378, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few descriptions of the clinical presentation and evolution of consecutive SARS-CoV-2 infections with a long-enough follow up. METHODS: Description of the first consecutive 100 patients with microbiologically-proven COVID-19 in a large hospital in Madrid, Spain including a minimum of two-month follow up. RESULTS: The median age of the patients (52% males) was 61.5 years (IQR=39.5-82.0) and the median BMI was 28.8 kg/m2 (IQR=24.7-33.7). Overall 72% of the patients had one or more co-morbid conditions with a median age-adjusted Charlson index of 2 (IQR=0-5.7). Five patients (5%) were immunosuppressed. The most common symptoms at the time of diagnosis were fever (80.0%), cough (53.0%) and dyspnea (23.0%). The median O2 saturation at the time of first examination was 94% (IQR=90-97). Chest X-ray on admission was compatible with pneumonia in 63% of the cases (bilateral in 42% and unilateral in 21%). Overall, 30% were managed at home and 70% were admitted to the hospital. Thirteen patients were admitted to the ICU with a median of 11 days of stay in the Unit (IQR=6.0-28.0). CALL score of our population ranged from 4 to 13. Overall, 60.0% of patients received antibiotic treatment and 66.0%, empirical antiviral treatment, mainly with lopinavir/ritonavir (65%) or hydroxychloroquine (42%). Mortality, with a minimum of 60 days of follow up, was 23%. The median age of the deceased patients was 85 years (IQR=79-93). CONCLUSIONS: We found a high mortality in the first 100 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at our institution, associated with advanced age and the presence of serious underlying diseases


ANTECEDENTES: Existen pocas descripciones de la presentación clínica y evolución de infecciones consecutivas por SARS-CoV-2 con un seguimiento lo suficientemente largo. MÉTODOS: Descripción de los primeros 100 pacientes consecutivos con COVID-19 probada microbiológicamente en un gran hospital de Madrid, incluyendo un seguimiento mínimo de dos meses. RESULTADOS: La mediana de edad de los pacientes (52% hombres) fue de 61,5 años (RIC=39,5-82,0) y la mediana de IMC fue de 28,8 kg/m2 (RIC=24,7-33,7). El 72% de los pacientes tuvieron una o más comorbilidades con un índice de Charlson ajustado a la edad de 2 (RIC=0-5,7). Cinco pacientes (5%) estaban inmunodeprimidos. Los síntomas más comunes al momento del diagnóstico fueron fiebre (80,0%), tos (53,0%) y disnea (23,0%). La mediana de saturación de O2 en el momento del primer examen fue del 94% (RIC=90-97). La radiografía de tórax al ingreso fue compatible con neumonía en el 63% de los casos (bilateral en el 42% y unilateral en el 21%). El 30% fueron manejados en su domicilio y el 70% ingresados en el hospital. Trece pacientes ingresaron en la UCI con una mediana de 11 días de estancia en la Unidad (RIC=6,0-28,0). El score CALL de nuestra población varió de 4 a 13. En general, el 60,0% de los pacientes recibió tratamiento antibiótico y el 66,0%, tratamiento antiviral empírico, principalmente con lopinavir/ritonavir (65%) o hidroxicloroquina (42%). La mortalidad, con un mínimo de 60 días de seguimiento, fue del 23%. La mediana de edad de los pacientes fallecidos fue de 85 años (RIC=79-93). CONCLUSIONES: Encontramos una alta mortalidad en los primeros 100 pacientes diagnosticados con COVID-19 en nuestra institución, asociada con edad avanzada y presencia de enfermedades subyacentes graves


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estatísticas Hospitalares , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 55(5): 266-271, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192479

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: La pandemia de la COVID-19 afecta de manera diferencial a distintos grupos etarios, concentrándose la mayor parte de fallecimiento entre las personas más mayores y con afecciones de salud previas. Esto ha implicado una mayor presencia de los mayores en la agenda informativa de todos los medios de comunicación. Este artículo pretende analizar esos discursos y representaciones relacionados con los mayores tal y como se presentan en los titulares de publicaciones difundidas en 2diarios de alcance nacional (ABC y El País) durante la fase más crítica de la pandemia en España. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 501 titulares relacionados con los mayores y la pandemia COVID-19 (380 del ABC y 121 de El País) desde la perspectiva de los Estudios Críticos del Discurso (van Dijk, 2003) y llevándose a cabo un análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: El 71,4% de los titulares representaban de manera desfavorable a los mayores, presentándolos como un grupo homogéneo y asociándolos a fallecimientos, deficiencias en la atención residencial o vulnerabilidad extrema. La presencia de ciertos términos potencialmente peyorativos o impropios (ancianos, abuelos) estaba en coherencia con esa representación negativa. CONCLUSIONES: A la luz de esos resultados, se discute en qué medida la pandemia de la COVID-19 puede reforzar una narrativa edadista de los mayores, basada en la fragilidad, el declive y la dependencia, que pueda justificar prácticas discriminatorias dirigidas a este sector de la población


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic affects various age groups differently, with most deaths concentrated among the older population and those with previous health conditions. This has led to a greater presence of older people in the agenda setting of all the media. This article aims to analyse these discourses and representations related to older people as presented in the headlines of publications disseminated in 2national newspapers (ABC and El País) during the most critical phase of the pandemic in Spain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An analysis was made of 501 headlines related to older people and the COVID-19 pandemic (380 from ABC, and 121 from El País) from the perspective of the Critical Discourse Studies (Van Dijk, 2003), as well as carrying out a content analysis. RESULTS: 71.4% of the headlines represented the Older adults were represented unfavourably in 71.4% of the headlines, with them being presented as a homogeneous group and associating them with deaths, deficiencies in residential care, or extreme vulnerability. The presence of certain potentially derogatory or improper terms (elderly, grandparents) was consistent with this negative representation. CONCLUSIONS: In light of these results, it is discussed to what extent the COVID-19 pandemic may reinforce an ageist narrative of the older people, based on frailty, decline, and dependency, which may justify discriminatory practices directed at this sector of the population


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Ageismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Idoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Jornais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Espanha/epidemiologia , Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 111(8): 650-654, oct. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190839

RESUMO

Con el progresivo control de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2, los miembros del Grupo Español de Investigación en Dermatitis de Contacto y Alergia Cutánea (GEIDAC) realizan una propuesta sobre cuáles van a ser los requisitos, las limitaciones y los condicionantes para reanudar el servicio en las unidades de dermatitis de contacto en un escenario en el que se presume la persistencia del virus, con episodios ocasionales o estacionales de exacerbación. Se aconseja ajustar el número de pruebas epicutáneas (PE) a las posibilidades de cada centro y la revisión de los casos en lista de espera para priorizar a los pacientes en función de la gravedad y la urgencia. Se ofrecerán, si es factible, métodos telemáticos para los documentos relativos a las PE (información, pautas, documentos de consentimiento informado). De estar disponible, puede ofrecerse la opción de realizar una primera visita telemática. Igualmente, en pacientes seleccionados puede llevarse a cabo una televisita en las visitas de lectura a través de imágenes realizadas por el paciente o mediante una videovisita que permita visualizar el resultado de la exploración. Estas acciones permitirán reducir el número de visitas presenciales, aunque no el tiempo dedicado y asignado al facultativo para los actos médicos. Todas estas recomendaciones son sugerencias y se adaptarán a los requisitos y a las posibilidades de cada centro sanitario


As the COVID-19 pandemic gradually comes under control, the members of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) have drawn up a proposed list of the requirements, limitations, and conditioning factors affecting the resumption of work in contact dermatitis units. The assumption is that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is still circulating and that occasional or seasonal outbreaks will occur. They recommend that the first step should be to assess how many patch tests each clinic can handle and review the waiting list to prioritize cases according to disease severity and urgency. Digital technologies can, where possible, be used to send and receive the documentation necessary for the patch test (information, instructions, informed consent, etc.). If the necessary infrastructure is available, patients can be offered the option of a remote initial consultation. Likewise, in selected cases, the patch test results can be read in a virtual visit using photographs taken by the patient or a video visit can be scheduled to allow the physician to evaluate the site of application remotely. These measures will reduce the number of face-to-face visits required, but will not affect the time spent on each case, which must be scheduled in the normal manner. All of these recommendations are suggestions and should be adapted to the needs and possibilities of each health centre


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Testes Cutâneos/normas , Dermatologia/normas , Teledermatologia , Espanha
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036132

RESUMO

The continued spread of COVID-19 suggests a significant possibility of reimposing the lockdowns and stricter social distancing similar to the early phase of pandemic control. We present a dynamic model to quantify the impact of isolation for the contagion curves. The model is calibrated to the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain to study the effects of the isolation enforcement following the declaration of the state of alarm (14 March 2020). The simulations indicate that both the timing and the intensity of the isolation enforcement are crucial for the COVID-19 spread. For example, a 4-day earlier intervention for social distancing would have reduced the number of COVID-19 infected people by 67%. The model also informs us that the isolation enforcement does not delay the peak day of the epidemic but slows down its end. When relaxing social distancing, a reduction of the contagion probability (with the generalization of preventive actions, such as face mask wearing and hands sanitizing) is needed to overcome the effect of a rise in the number of interpersonal encounters. We report a threshold level for the contagion pace to avoid a second COVID-19 outbreak in Spain.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036176

RESUMO

The strict quarantine measures employed as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic have led the global tourism industry to a complete halt, disrupting the livelihoods of millions. The economic importance of beach tourism for many destinations has led many governments to reopen tourist beaches, as soon as the number of infection cases decreased. The objective of this paper is to provide a scientific basis for understanding the key issues for beach tourism management in these circumstances. These issues include risk perception, environmental considerations directly related to beaches and COVID-19, and management strategies designed to limit the risk of contagion on the beach. The contribution of this paper lies in its interdisciplinary approach to delivering the findings from the latest studies, highly relevant for beach tourism, in psychology, health science, and environmental science (often in preprint and in press format). Particular attention was given to identifying the knowledge gaps evident in the areas of COVID-19 risk perception, with the drivers explaining the risk-taking behavior and the protective strategies employed by beachgoers. Gaps were also found in areas such as the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in bathing waters and the sand, the potential of contaminated sand being a viable route of transmission, and the impact of the use of chemical disinfectants on the marine environment and on bathers. The paper identifies research prospects in these areas, additionally pointing out other questions such as new carrying capacity methods, the opportunity given by COVID-19 in estimation of the impacts of visitation and beach-litter.


Assuntos
Praias , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036461

RESUMO

Spanish children were locked down for 72 days due to COVID-19, causing severe disruption to their normal life. The threat posed by COVID-19 continues and clinicians, administrators, and families need to know the life conditions associated with more psychological problems to modify them and minimize their effect on mental health. The goal was to study the life conditions of adolescents during lockdown and their association with psychological problems. A total of 226 parents of 117 girls and 109 boys (mean age: 13.9; Standard deviation: 0.28) from the community that were participants in a longitudinal study answered an online questionnaire about life conditions during lockdown and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Stepwise regression analyses controlling by previous reports of SDQ were performed. Conduct, peer, prosocial, and total problems scores increased after lockdown. After adjusting for previous measures of psychopathology, worse adolescents' mental health during COVID-19 lockdown was associated with unhealthy activities, worsening of the relationships with others, and dysfunctional parenting style. It seems important to mitigate psychological stress in a situation of isolation due to a state of emergency by keeping the adolescent active and maintaining their daily habits and routines in a non-conflictive atmosphere and give support to parents.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Coronavirus , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(3): 1748, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003833

RESUMO

The lockdown that Madrid has suffered during the months of March to June 2020 to try to control and minimize the spread of COVID-19 has significantly altered the acoustic environment of the city. The absence of vehicles and people on the streets has led to a noise reduction captured by the monitoring network of the City of Madrid. In this article, an analysis has been carried out to describe the reduction in noise pollution that has occurred and to analyze the changes in the temporal patterns of noise, which are strongly correlated with the adaptation of the population's activity and behavior to the new circumstances. The reduction in the sound level ranged from 4 to 6 dBA for the indicators Ld, Le, and Ln, and this is connected to a significant variation in the daily time patterns, especially during weekends, when the activity started earlier in the morning and lasted longer at midday, decreasing significantly in the afternoon.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Ruído , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Espanha
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008116

RESUMO

During the first outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic the population, focusing primarily on the risk of infection, was generally inattentive to the quality of indoor air. Spain, and the city of Madrid in particular, were among the world's coronavirus hotspots. The country's entire population was subject to a 24/7 lockdown for 45 days. This paper describes a comparative longitudinal survey of air quality in four types of housing in the city of Madrid before and during lockdown. The paper analysed indoor temperatures and variations in CO2, 2.5 µm particulate matter (PM2.5) and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations before and during lockdown. The mean daily outdoor PM2.5 concentration declined from 11.04 µg/m3 before to 7.10 µg/m3 during lockdown. Before lockdown the NO2 concentration values scored as 'very good' 46% of the time, compared to 90.9% during that period. Although the city's outdoor air quality improved, during lockdown the population's exposure to indoor pollutants was generally more acute and prolonged. Due primarily to concern over domestic energy savings, the lack of suitable ventilation and more intensive use of cleaning products and disinfectants during the covid-19 crisis, indoor pollutant levels were typically higher than compatible with healthy environments. Mean daily PM2.5 concentration rose by approximately 12% and mean TVOC concentration by 37% to 559%. The paper also puts forward a series of recommendations to improve indoor domestic environments in future pandemics and spells out urgent action to be taken around indoor air quality (IAQ) in the event of total or partial quarantining to protect residents from respiratory ailments and concomitantly enhanced susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, as identified by international medical research.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Dióxido de Carbono , Cidades , Habitação/classificação , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico , Material Particulado , Espanha , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5009, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024121

RESUMO

Comorbid conditions appear to be common among individuals hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but estimates of prevalence vary and little is known about the prior medication use of patients. Here, we describe the characteristics of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 and compare them with influenza patients. We include 34,128 (US: 8362, South Korea: 7341, Spain: 18,425) COVID-19 patients, summarising between 4811 and 11,643 unique aggregate characteristics. COVID-19 patients have been majority male in the US and Spain, but predominantly female in South Korea. Age profiles vary across data sources. Compared to 84,585 individuals hospitalised with influenza in 2014-19, COVID-19 patients have more typically been male, younger, and with fewer comorbidities and lower medication use. While protecting groups vulnerable to influenza is likely a useful starting point in the response to COVID-19, strategies will likely need to be broadened to reflect the particular characteristics of individuals being hospitalised with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 745, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workers and residents in Care Homes are considered at special risk for the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection, due to the infectivity and high mortality rate in the case of residents, compared to other containment areas. The role of presymptomatic people in transmission has been shown to be important and the early detection of these people is critical for the control of new outbreaks. Pooling strategies have proven to preserve SARS-CoV-2 testing resources. The aims of the present study, based in our local experience, were (a) to describe SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in institutionalized people in Galicia (Spain) during the Coronavirus pandemic and (b) to evaluate the expected performance of a pooling strategy using RT-PCR for the next rounds of screening of institutionalized people. METHODS: A total of 25,386 Nasopharyngeal swab samples from the total of the residents and workers at Care Homes in Galicia (March to May 2020) were individually tested using RT-PCR. Prevalence and quantification cycle (Cq) value distribution of positives was calculated. Besides, 26 pools of 20 samples and 14 pools of 5 samples were tested using RT-PCR as well (1 positive/pool). Pooling proof of concept was performed in two populations with 1.7 and 2% prevalence. RESULTS: Distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection at Care Homes was uneven (0-60%). As the virus circulation global rate was low in our area (3.32%), the number of people at risk of acquiring the infection continues to be very high. In this work, we have successfully demonstrated that pooling of different groups of samples at low prevalence clusters, can be done with a small average delay on Cq values (5 and 2.85 cycles for pools of 20 and 5 samples, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A new screening system with guaranteed protection is required for small clusters, previously covered with individual testing. Our proposal for Care Homes, once prevalence zero is achieved, would include successive rounds of testing using a pooling solution for transmission control preserving testing resources. Scale-up of this method may be of utility to confront larger clusters to avoid the viral circulation and keeping them operative.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Espanha/epidemiologia
16.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 320-331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the organization of Spanish hospital emergency departments (EDs). To explore differences between Spanish autonomous communities or according to hospital size and disease incidence in the area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of the heads of 283 EDs in hospitals belonging to or affiliated with Spain's public health service. Respondents evaluated the pandemic's impact on organization, resources, and staff absence from work in March and April 2020. Assessments were for 15-day periods. Results were analyzed overall and by autonomous community, hospital size, and local population incidence rates. RESULTS: A total of 246 (87%) responses were received. The majority of the EDs organized a triage system, first aid, and observation wards; areas specifically for patients suspected of having COVID-19 were newly set apart. The nursing staff was increased in 83% of the EDs (with no subgroup differences), and 59% increased the number of physicians (especially in large hospitals and locations where the COVID-19 incidence was high). Diagnostic tests for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were the resource the EDs missed most: 55% reported that tests were scarce often or very often. Other resources reported to be scarce were FPP2 and FPP3 masks (38% of the EDs), waterproof protective gowns (34%), and space (32%). More than 5% of the physicians, nurses, or other emergency staff were on sick leave 20%, 19%, and 16% of the time. These deficiencies were greatest during the last half of March, except for tests, which were most scarce in the first 15 days. Large hospital EDs less often reported that diagnostic tests were unavailable. In areas where the COVID-19 incidence was higher, the EDs reported higher rates of staff on sick leave. Resource scarcity differed markedly by autonomous community and was not always associated with the incidence of COVID-19 in the population. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to organizational changes in EDs. Certain resources became scarce, and marked differences between autonomous communities were detected.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Alocação de Recursos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Triagem/organização & administração
17.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 369-371, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006841
18.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 371-373, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006842
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22436, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019425

RESUMO

In addition to governing key functions in bone metabolism and the immune system, the RANK/RANKL/OPG system plays a role in the vascular system, particularly in vascular calcification and atherosclerosis.Given that these 2 phenotypes are considered a major cause of high blood pressure (BP), in this study we analyzed the association of SNPs in RANK and OPG genes with blood pressure. An observational study was conducted of 2 SNPs in the RANK gene (rs884205 and rs78326403) and 1 in the OPG gene (rs4876869) with systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in a cohort of 695 women.Data analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the SNP rs884205 and BP pressure (SBP and DBP). Analyzing this relationship by the dominant inheritance model for this SNP (allele risk: A), women of the AA/AC genotype showed higher BP than women of the CC genotype, both for SBP (P = .001) and for DBP (P = .003), and these associations both surpassed the Bonferroni threshold for multiple comparisons. Multivariate regression analysis including known predictors of BP as independent variables was performed to evaluate the strength of this association, which in the case of the SNP rs884205 of the RANK gene remained statistically significant after adjustment for both SBP (P = .0006) and DBP (P = .005), demonstrating the key role of this SNP in BP.We report a robust association between the SNP rs884205 in RANK gene and BP in women, and this SNP is validated as a candidate in cardiovascular risk studies.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoprotegerina/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espanha
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