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2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301344, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768237

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a set of social measures were adopted for the preservation of business activity and the protection of workers. One of these measures was issuing the Temporary Disability (TD) for COVID-19 cases, close contacts, and especially vulnerable workers. OBJETIVE: This study analyzes whether the TD registry could be used as a complementary source to traditional epidemiological surveillance. METHODS: A longitudinal study of time series was carried out with a cross-correlation analysis of TD and COVID-19 cases reported to the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RENAVE). The analysis included six pandemic waves between 10/03/2020 and 31/12/2021 in Spain. Cross-correlation coefficients (r) were calculated using a time lag of -14 days. RESULTS: During the study period, 2,253,573 TD processes were recorded in Spain and 4,894,802 COVID-19 cases were reported to RENAVE. Significant positive correlations were observed at time lags of -7, -10, and -14, indicating that TD notification preceded RENAVE notification. In the first and sixth pandemic waves, TD notification preceded RENAVE by 12 and 7 days, respectively. Negative correlations between the two series were observed in the second and fourth waves, coinciding with a lower number of reported cases. In the third and fifth waves, TD notification also preceded RENAVE (lags -1, -5 and -14, -7, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the usefulness of TD registry as a complementary system to traditional epidemiological surveillance in Spain, by detecting COVID-19 cases in the 7, 10, and 14 days prior. A better positive correlation is observed in waves where more cases were reported.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(5): e13294, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from the sentinel surveillance system of severe acute respiratory infections in Spain were used to estimate the impact of administration of nirsevimab to children born from 1 April 2023 onwards. METHODS: Estimated RSV hospitalisations in < 1-year-olds during weeks 40, 2023, to 8, 2024, were compared to the number that would be expected after accounting for the background change in RSV circulation in the 2023/24 season, compared to 2022/23. RESULTS: We estimated 9364-9875 RSV hospitalisations less than expected, corresponding to a 74%-75% reduction.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hospitalização , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Humanos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/tratamento farmacológico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Lactente , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidência , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Masculino , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Recém-Nascido , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico
4.
BMC Prim Care ; 24(Suppl 1): 286, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary Health Care (PHC) has been key element in detection, monitoring and treatment of COVID-19 cases in Spain. We describe how PHC practices (PCPs) organized healthcare to guarantee quality and safety and, if there were differences among the 17 Spanish regions according to the COVID-19 prevalence. METHODS: Cross-sectional study through the PRICOV-19 European Online Survey in PCPs in Spain. The questionnaire included structure and process items per PCP. Data collection was due from January to May 2021. A descriptive and comparative analysis and a logistic regression model were performed to identify differences among regions by COVID-19 prevalence (low < 5% or high ≥5%). RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-six PCPs answered. 83.8% of PCPs were in high prevalence regions. Over 70% PCPs were multi-professional teams. PCPs attended mainly elderly (60.9%) and chronic patients (53.0%). Regarding structure indicators, no differences by prevalence detected. In 77.1% of PCPs administrative staff were more involved in providing recommendations. Only 53% of PCPs had a phone protocol although 73% of administrative staff participated in phone triage. High prevalence regions offered remote assessment (20.4% vs 2.3%, p 0.004) and online platforms to download administrative documents more frequently than low prevalence (30% vs 4.7%, p < 0.001). More backup staff members were hired by health authorities in high prevalence regions, especially nurses (63.9% vs 37.8%, p < 0.001. OR:4.20 (1.01-8.71)). 63.5% of PCPs provided proactive care for chronic patients. 41.0% of PCPs recognized that patients with serious conditions did not know to get an appointment. Urgent conditions suffered delayed care in 79.1% of PCPs in low prevalence compared to 65.9% in high prevalence regions (p 0.240). A 68% of PCPs agreed on having inadequate support from the government to provide proper functioning. 61% of high prevalence PCPs and 69.5% of low ones (p: 0.036) perceived as positive the role of governmental guidelines for management of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Spanish PCPs shared a basic standardized PCPs' structure and common clinical procedures due to the centralization of public health authority in the pandemic. Therefore, no relevant differences in safety and quality of care between regions with high and low prevalence were detected. Nurses and administrative staff were hired efficiently in response to the pandemic. Delay in care happened in patients with serious conditions and little follow-up for mental health and intimate partner violence affected patients was identified. Nevertheless, proactive care was offered for chronic patients in most of the PCPs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente
5.
Rev Neurol ; 78(10): 269-276, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743020

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Basilar artery dolichoectasia (BADE) refers to abnormal enlargement or displacement of the basilar artery (BA). The previously reported prevalence of BADE among patients with stroke is 0.3 to 33.1%, however, it might vary among studied populations. We aim is to determine the prevalence of BADE in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in a Stroke Unit in a single center in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients 50 years old or older presenting with AIS or TIA were eligible for inclusion. Demographic and clinical data were prospectively collected. Two neuroradiologists, blind to each other, assessed BA morphology. RESULTS: Among 126 patients, 34.1% fulfilled the criteria for BADE (ectasia or dolichosis). BADE was associated with advanced age (p = 0.04). Patients with fetal-type circle of Willis presented smaller BA diameters (2.9 ± 0.1 vs. 3.5 ± 0.1; p < 0.001), whereas patients with lacunar strokes presented a greater diameter than other stroke subtypes (3.8 ± 0.3 mm vs. 3.3 ± 0.1 mm; p = 0.04). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center study of patients presenting with AIS or TIA, the prevalence of BADE (ectasia or dolichosis) is high. Further studies focusing on Spaniards should confirm our results.


TITLE: Prevalencia de la dolicoectasia de la arteria basilar en pacientes con ictus isquémico agudo o ataque isquémico transitorio en un centro español.Introducción. La dolicoectasia de la arteria basilar (DEAB) es un término que se refiere a la dilatación o elongación anormal de la arteria basilar (AB). La prevalencia de DEAB notificada hasta la fecha en pacientes con ictus es del 0,3 al 33,1%; sin embargo, puede variar entre poblaciones. Se propuso determinar la prevalencia de DEAB en pacientes con ictus isquémico agudo (IIA) o ataque isquémico transitorio (AIT) en una unidad de ictus de España. Pacientes y métodos. Se consideró a pacientes de 50 años o más con IIA o AIT para ser incluidos. La información demográfica y clínica se obtuvo de forma prospectiva. Dos neurorradiólogos evaluaron la morfología de la AB de forma independiente. Resultados. De 126 pacientes, el 34,1% cumplió los criterios de DEAB (ectasia o dolicosis). La DEAB se asoció a mayor edad (p = 0,04). Los pacientes con la variante fetal del polígono de Willis presentaron menor diámetro de la AB (2,9 ± 0,1 frente a 3,5 ± 0,1; p < 0,001), mientras que pacientes con ictus lacunar presentaron diámetros mayores de la AB que otros subtipos de ictus (3,8 ± 0,3 mm frente a 3,3 ± 0,1 mm; p = 0,04). Discusión y conclusiones. En este estudio de centro único de pacientes con IIA o AIT, la prevalencia de DEAB (ectasia o dolicosis) fue alta. Estudios futuros enfocados en población española podrían confirmar nuestros resultados.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , AVC Isquêmico , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/complicações , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
6.
Psychosoc Interv ; 33(2): 65-72, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711420

RESUMO

Recent research has emphasized the importance of addressing specific victim-related factors to reduce victims' vulnerability and prevent future revictimization experiences. This study aimed to analyze the vulnerability profiles of women who were victims of intimate partner violence, including those who had experienced a single incident of violence and those who had endured revictimization. Participants were 338 women with active judicial protection measures registered in the system of support for victims of gender violence (VioGén) in Madrid, Spain. The analysis considered sociodemographic characteristics, victimization history, perceived triggers of violence, women's responses and feelings, as well as clinical outcomes linked to revictimization history. The study revealed that many victims faced socioeconomic vulnerability. Furthermore, the findings underscored the intricate link between the likelihood of enduring chronic violence and women's awareness of early indicators of violence risk, their initial responses to aggression, communication skills, and recurrent behaviors in the context of an established violent dynamic. This study offers valuable insights for law enforcement to identify the risk of revictimization. Furthermore, findings raise awareness about the particularly vulnerable situation of some women to repeated victimization experiences and provide relevant information for clinical intervention.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Saúde da Mulher , Humanos , Feminino , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Adulto , Espanha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302461, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Identifying profiles of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and explore their association with different degrees of severity of COVID-19 outcomes (i.e. in-hospital mortality, ICU assistance, and invasive mechanical ventilation). The findings of this study could inform the development of multiple care intervention strategies to improve patient outcomes. METHODS: Prospective multicentre cohort study during four different waves of COVID-19 from March 1st, 2020 to August 31st, 2021 in four health consortiums within the southern Barcelona metropolitan region. From a starting point of over 292 demographic characteristics, comorbidities, vital signs, severity scores, and clinical analytics at hospital admission, we used both clinical judgment and supervised statistical methods to reduce to the 36 most informative completed covariates according to the disease outcomes for each wave. Patients were then grouped using an unsupervised semiparametric method (KAMILA). Results were interpreted by clinical and statistician team consensus to identify clinically-meaningful patient profiles. RESULTS: The analysis included nw1 = 1657, nw2 = 697, nw3 = 677, and nw4 = 787 hospitalized-COVID-19 patients for each of the four waves. Clustering analysis identified 2 patient profiles for waves 1 and 3, while 3 profiles were determined for waves 2 and 4. Patients allocated in those groups showed a different percentage of disease outcomes (e.g., wave 1: 15.9% (Cluster 1) vs. 31.8% (Cluster 2) for in-hospital mortality rate). The main factors to determine groups were the patient's age and number of obese patients, number of comorbidities, oxygen support requirement, and various severity scores. The last wave is also influenced by the massive incorporation of COVID-19 vaccines. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that a single care model at hospital admission may not meet the needs of hospitalized-COVID-19 adults. A clustering approach appears to be appropriate for helping physicians to differentiate patients and, thus, apply multiple care intervention strategies, as another way of responding to new outbreaks of this or future diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Prospectivos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Respiração Artificial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto , Comorbidade
8.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301335, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current antiretroviral therapies have increased the life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLHIV). There is, however, limited evidence regarding the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and living conditions of older people living with HIV (OPLHIV) in Spain. METHODS: We implemented a self-administered online questionnaire to identify sex differences in HRQoL and poverty risk among Spanish OPLHIV (PLHIV ≥50 years). Participants were contacted through non-governmental organisations. We used the standardised WHOQoL-HIV BREF questionnaire and the Europe 2020 guidelines to estimate HRQoL and poverty risk respectively. The statistical analysis included multivariable generalised linear models with potential confounding variables and robust estimates. RESULTS: The study included 247 OPLHIV (192 men and 55 women). On the WHOQoL-HIV BREF questionnaire, men scored higher on 84% of items and in all six domains. Women had significantly lower HRQoL in five domains: physical health (ß: -1.5; 95% CI: -2.5, -0.5; p: 0.002), psychological health (ß: -1.0; 95% CI: -1.9, -0.1; p: 0.036), level of independence (ß: -1.1; 95% CI: -1.9, -0.2; p: 0.019), environmental health (ß: -1.1; 95% CI: -1.8, -0.3; p: 0.008), and spirituality/personal beliefs (ß: -1.4; 95% CI: -2.5, -0.3; p: 0.012). No statistical differences were found in the domain of social relations. Poverty risk was considerable for both men (30%) and women (53%), but women were significantly more likely to experience it (OR: 2.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 6.5; p: 0.009). CONCLUSION: The aging of PLHIV is a public health concern. Our findings indicate that HRQoL and poverty risk among Spanish OPLHIV differ significantly by sex. Spain should, therefore, implement specific policies and interventions to address OPLHIV needs. The strategies must place a high priority on the reduction of sex inequalities in HRQoL and the enhancement of the structural conditions in which OPLHIV live.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pobreza , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Span J Psychiatry Ment Health ; 17(2): 88-94, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720187

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population studies on social anxiety disorder (SAD) are relatively scarce and there is no previous reported evidence on prevalence or correlates of SAD in an Andalusian general population sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used a random representative sample previously identified via standard stratification procedures. Thus, a final sample of 4507 participants were included (response rate 83.7%). Interviewees were thoroughly assessed on sociodemographic, clinical and psychosocial factors, including: exposures to threatening life events (TLEs), childhood abuse, personality disorder and traits (neuroticism, impulsivity, paranoia), global functioning, physical health and toxics consumption. SAD diagnosis was ascertained using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Both, pooled prevalences (with 95% confidence intervals) and risk correlates for SAD were estimated using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Estimated prevalence for SAD was 1.1% (95% CI=0.8-1.4). Having a SAD diagnosis was independently and significantly associated with younger age, poorer global functioning, higher neuroticism and paranoia personality traits, having suffered childhood abuse and exposure to previous TLEs. Furthermore, SAD was significantly associated with comorbid personality disorder, major depression, panic disorder and alcohol abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Among this large Andalusian population sample, the prevalence of SAD and its associated factors are relatively similar to previously reported international studies, although no population study had previously reported such a strong association with paranoia.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Humanos , Fobia Social/epidemiologia , Fobia Social/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Comorbidade , Idoso , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
10.
Span J Psychiatry Ment Health ; 17(2): 95-102, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) and gender play a key role in mental health. The objective of this study was to assess socioeconomic and gender mental health inequalities in adolescents and young adults using a population-based registry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a lifetime follow-up study of all residents in the Basque Country between 1 and 30 years old (n=609,381) as of 31 December 2018. Primary care, specialized outpatient, and hospital care records were searched for diagnoses. SES was assessed based on household income. We estimated disaggregated lifetime prevalence of substance use, behaviour, anxiety, depression, psychosis, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The local Institute of Statistics validated the mortality data. The likelihood of risks was estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 96,671 individuals (15.9%) had a diagnosed mental disorder, with clear gradients by gender and SES. Females of medium-to-high SES had the lowest prevalence of all mental disorders, except anxiety and depression. This group was followed by males of the same SES and females of low SES, while the highest prevalence of mental disorders was observed in low-SES males. The lower income categories had higher risks of psychiatric admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.64 for females; 6.66 for males) and death (AOR: 5.42). People with a mental health diagnosis had higher mortality (AOR: 2.38). CONCLUSIONS: Our work evidenced important SES and gender inequalities in the mental health and premature mortality of adolescents and young adults, findings that should drive the development and implementation of early preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Classe Social , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Fatores Sexuais , Criança , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Espanha/epidemiologia , Lactente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Seguimentos , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros
11.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 150, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study is to analyse the trends in the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an observational retrospective population-based study using data from primary care electronic health records spanning from January 2016 to December 2022 (involving 5.1 million people older than 14 years). We described the daily number of new STI diagnoses from 2016 to 2022; as well as the monthly accumulation of new STI diagnoses for each year. We compared the monthly averages of new diagnoses in 2019, 2020, 2021 and 2022 using the T-test. Finally, we performed a segmented regression analysis of the daily number of STI diagnoses. RESULTS: We analysed 200,676 new STI diagnoses. The number of diagnoses abruptly decreased coinciding with the lockdown. Overall in 2020, we observed a reduction of 15%, with higher reductions for specific STIs such as gonorrhoea (-21%), chlamydia (-24%), and HIV (-31%) compared to 2019. Following this drastic drop, which was temporarily associated with the lockdown, we observed a rapid rebound. In 2021, the number of STI diagnoses was similar to that of 2019. Notably, we found a considerable increase in 2022, particularly for non-specific STI, which lack laboratory confirmation (67% increase). HIV was the only STI with a reduction of up to -38% in diagnoses at the end of 2022 compared to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: After a significant reduction in 2020, the number of STIs recorded in primary care rapidly rebounded, and the current trend is similar to that of 2019, except for HIV. These findings underscore the dynamic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on STI diagnoses and highlight the importance of ongoing monitoring and public health interventions in the post-pandemic period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychosoc Interv ; 33(2): 103-115, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706710

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis of suicide-related emergency calls in the city of Valencia (Spain) over a six-year period. To this end we first examined age and gender patterns and, second, the influence of neighborhood characteristics on general and gender-specific spatio-temporal patterns of suicide-related emergency calls. Method: Geocoded data on suicide-related emergency calls between 2017 and 2022 (N = 10,030) were collected from the 112 emergency service in Valencia. Data were aggregated at the census block group level, used as a proxy for neighborhoods, and trimesters were considered as the temporal unit. Two set of analyses were performed: (1) demographic (age and gender) and temporal descriptive analyses and (2) general and gender-specific Bayesian spatio-temporal autoregressive models. Results: Descriptive analyses revealed a higher incidence of suicide-related emergency calls among females and an increase in calls among the 18-23 age group from 2020 onwards. The general spatio-temporal model showed higher levels of suicide-related emergency calls in neighborhoods characterized by lower education levels and population density, and higher residential mobility, aging population, and immigrant concentration. Relevant gender differences were also observed. A seasonal effect was noted, with a peak in calls during spring for females and summer for males. Conclusions: These findings highlight the need for comprehensive mental health targeted interventions and preventive strategies that account for gender-specific disparities, age-related vulnerabilities, and the specific characteristics of neighborhoods.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Suicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Espanha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Idoso , Fatores Etários , Teorema de Bayes
13.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300362, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear what biopsychosocial factors influence the impact of NAFLD on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and if these factors are equally important predictors between different nationalities. METHODS: HRQoL (CLDQ) was measured in both Southern European (Spain, n = 513) and Northern European (United Kingdom -UK-, n = 224) cohorts of patients with NAFLD in this cross-sectional study. For each cohort, participant data were recorded on histological grade of steatohepatitis, stage of fibrosis and biopsychosocial variables. Regression analysis was used to explore which of these variables predicted HRQoL. Moderated mediation models were conducted using SPSS PROCESS v3.5 macro. RESULTS: Participants with severe fibrosis reported more fatigue, systemic symptoms and worry, and lower HRQoL than those with none/mild fibrosis, regardless of place of origin. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and gender were found to be significant predictors of HRQoL in both Spanish and UK participants. Female gender was associated with worse emotional function, higher BMI and more fatigue, which predicted lower participants' HRQoL. UK participants showed more systemic symptoms and worry than Spanish participants, regardless of liver severity. The negative effects of gender on HRQoL through emotional function, BMI and fatigue were reported to a greater degree in UK than in Spanish participants. CONCLUSIONS: UK participants showed a greater impairment in HRQoL as compared to Spanish participants. Higher fibrosis stage predicted lower HRQoL, mainly in the Spanish cohort. Factors such as female gender or higher BMI contributed to the impact on HRQoL in both cohorts of patients and should be considered in future multinational intervention studies in NAFLD.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/psicologia , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Feminino , Espanha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fadiga/psicologia
14.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 49: 126-132, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic has represented one of the most stressful events of recent times and has placed enormous psychological pressure on doctors and nurses. AIMS: The objective of this work is to evaluate the psychological impact of the Covid-19 outbreak on Spanish nurses and doctors, and to identify factors related to their mental health. METHODS: The study is a descriptive study and examined 812 doctors and 768 nurses. The dependent variables were health-related quality of life, anxiety, depression, perceived stress and insomnia. Participants completed the Health-related Quality of Life-Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item-Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Impact Event Scale-Revised, and the Insomnia Severity Index. Sociodemographic and Covid-related data were also recorded. Descriptive statistics, univariable analysis and multivariable linear regression models were used. RESULTS: A greater proportion of nurses than doctors suffered clinical anxiety, depression and insomnia (56.84 % vs 45.81 p-value<0.0001, 64.67 % vs 53.39 p-value<0.0001, and 23.04 % vs 18.02 p-value 0.01, respectively). Although in our study nurses were more likely to suffer clinical anxiety, stress and insomnia than doctors, our results nevertheless showed that there were no differences in terms of quality of life. Different factors related to mental health were identified for doctors and nurses. Nurses working in care homes or geriatric services (OR = 4.13, IC95% 1.71-9.99, p-value 0.002), and in services with greatest contact with Covid-19 patients (OR = 1.71,IC95% 1.10-2.68, p-value 0.02) were more likely to suffer depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that doctors and nurses are at high risk of clinical anxiety, depression, stress or insomnia during the Covid-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19 , Depressão , Médicos , Qualidade de Vida , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Humanos , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/enfermagem , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Médicos/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias
15.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 42(5): 263-266, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cases of acute mastoiditis, characteristics, management and complications in children attended in the emergency department. METHODS: Retrospective study of acute mastoiditis in a Spanish tertiary hospital over a 6-year period (2018-2023). RESULTS: One hundred two episodes of acute mastoiditis were analyzed (54% males, median age 1.8 years). Microorganisms were isolated in one third of cases, mainly Streptococcus pyogenes (64% of ear secretion cultures). Complications occurred in 27.5%, primarily subperiosteal abscess. A younger age, absence of vaccination schedule, previous history of otitis, cochlear implant carriers or white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels were not associated with complications. Complicated cases had longer hospitalizations. Treatment included antibiotics, corticosteroids, and surgery in 50% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an increase of acute mastoiditis during 2023, with a relevant role of S. pyogenes. A younger age, absence of vaccination, personal history of otitis or cochlear implant, blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels were not associated with complications.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Mastoidite , Humanos , Mastoidite/epidemiologia , Mastoidite/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Feminino , Espanha/epidemiologia , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Doença Aguda , Criança , Adolescente
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(6): 1293-1296, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781982

RESUMO

The myxoma virus species jump from European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) to Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) has raised concerns. We assess the decline suffered by Iberian hare populations on the Iberian Peninsula and discuss the association between the effect of myxomatosis and the average abundance index, which we estimated by using hunting bags.


Assuntos
Lebres , Myxoma virus , Animais , Myxoma virus/genética , Lebres/virologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Coelhos , Mixomatose Infecciosa/epidemiologia , Mixomatose Infecciosa/virologia
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(6): 1253-1257, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782139

RESUMO

We conducted a serologic and molecular study to assess exposure of captive nonhuman primates (NHPs) to SARS-CoV-2 in Spain during the 2020-2023 COVID-19 pandemic. We found limited exposure of NHPs to SARS-CoV-2. Biosafety measures must be strictly maintained to avoid SARS-CoV-2 reverse-zoonotic transmission in the human-NHP interface.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Espanha/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/veterinária , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Primatas , Humanos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Animais de Zoológico/virologia
18.
Nurs Open ; 11(5): e2182, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783599

RESUMO

AIM: The rate of readmission after hospitalisation for respiratory diseases has become a common and challenging clinical problem. Social and functional patient variables could help identify cases at high risk of readmission. The aim was to identify the nursing diagnoses that were associated with readmission after hospitalisation for respiratory disease in Spain. DESIGN: Case-control study within the cohort of patients admitted for respiratory disease during 2016-19 in a tertiary public hospital in Spain (n = 3781). METHODS: Cases were patients who were readmitted within the first 30 days of discharge, and their controls were the remaining patients. All nursing diagnoses (n = 130) were collected from the electronic health record. They were then grouped into 29 informative diagnostic categories. Clinical confounder-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: The readmission rate was 13.1%. The nursing diagnoses categories 'knowledge deficit' (OR: 1.61; 95%CI: 1.13-2.31), 'impaired skin integrity and risk of ulcer infection' (OR: 1.45; 95%CI: 1.06-1.97) and 'activity intolerance associated with fatigue' (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.21-2.01) were associated with an increased risk of suffering an episode of hospital readmission rate at 30% after hospital discharge, and this was independent of sociodemographic background, care variables and comorbidity. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: The nursing diagnoses assigned as part of the care plan of patients during hospital admission may be useful for predicting readmissions.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Readmissão do Paciente , Humanos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Idoso , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Respiratórias/enfermagem , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia
19.
Age Ageing ; 53(5)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An updated time-trend analysis of anti-dementia drugs (ADDs) is lacking. The aim of this study is to assess the incident rate (IR) of ADD in individuals with dementia using real-world data. SETTING: Primary care data (country/database) from the UK/CPRD-GOLD (2007-20), Spain/SIDIAP (2010-20) and the Netherlands/IPCI (2008-20), standardised to a common data model. METHODS: Cohort study. Participants: dementia patients ≥40 years old with ≥1 year of previous data. Follow-up: until the end of the study period, transfer out of the catchment area, death or incident prescription of rivastigmine, galantamine, donepezil or memantine. Other variables: age/sex, type of dementia, comorbidities. Statistics: overall and yearly age/sex IR, with 95% confidence interval, per 100,000 person-years (IR per 105 PY (95%CI)). RESULTS: We identified a total of (incident anti-dementia users/dementia patients) 41,024/110,642 in UK/CPRD-GOLD, 51,667/134,927 in Spain/SIDIAP and 2,088/17,559 in the Netherlands/IPCI.In the UK, IR (per 105 PY (95%CI)) of ADD decreased from 2007 (30,829 (28,891-32,862)) to 2010 (17,793 (17,083-18,524)), then increased up to 2019 (31,601 (30,483 to 32,749)) and decrease in 2020 (24,067 (23,021-25,148)). In Spain, IR (per 105 PY (95%CI)) of ADD decreased by 72% from 2010 (51,003 (49,199-52,855)) to 2020 (14,571 (14,109-15,043)). In the Netherlands, IR (per 105 PY (95%CI)) of ADD decreased by 77% from 2009 (21,151 (14,967-29,031)) to 2020 (4763 (4176-5409)). Subjects aged ≥65-79 years and men (in the UK and the Netherlands) initiated more frequently an ADD. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of dementia remains highly heterogeneous. Further consensus in the pharmacological management of patients living with dementia is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Demência , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Demência/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fatores de Tempo , Nootrópicos/uso terapêutico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Fatores Etários , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 982024 May 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study addressed a COVID-19 outbreak in a nursing home, where the residents were vaccinated with two doses of Comirnaty® and thirty of them had previously had the infection. Outbreaks in closed communities are opportunities to study the entire clinical spectrum of the disease and, as in this case, the effect of hybrid immunity on transmission, infection progression and viral load. METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective cohort study in the resident population was carried out. Attack rates were calculated for one of four stages of the disease: infection, symptomatic infection, hospitalization, and death. Relative risks (RR) were then estimated using simple and multivariate Poisson regression for each of these stages. RESULTS: The attack rate was 59% (56/95). The clinical spectrum was the same in both sexes. There was a notable protective effect of hybrid immunity against transmission (67%). In terms of progression, those with hybrid immunity had a lower risk of symptomatic infection. Nasopharyngeal viral load was significantly lower in individuals with hybrid immunity and asymptomatic individuals, supporting the idea of lower transmissibility in this group. Age was identified as a risk factor for disease progression. Molecular analysis identified the Delta B.1.617.2 variant in the patients and an air sample, supporting aerosol transmission in closed, poorly ventilated environments. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a comprehensive view of an outbreak in a vaccinated nursing home, highlighting the importance of hybrid immunity. The results support the individual consideration of previous infection history when assessing the risk of COVID-19, contributing to the understanding of the evolution of the pandemic in the future.


OBJECTIVE: Este estudio abordó un brote de la COVID-19 en una residencia de ancianos, donde los residentes estaban vacunados con dos dosis de Comirnaty® y treinta de ellos habían pasado anteriormente la infección. Los brotes en colectivos cerrados son oportunidades para estudiar todo el espectro clínico de la enfermedad y, como en este caso, el efecto de la inmunidad híbrida sobre la transmisión, la progresión de la infección y la carga viral. METHODS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y de cohortes retrospectivo en la población de residentes. Se calcularon las tasas de ataque para uno de cuatro estadios de la enfermedad: infección, infección sintomática, hospitalización y defunción. Después se estimaron los riesgos relativos (RR) mediante regresión de Poisson simple y multivariante para cada uno de esos estadios. RESULTS: La tasa de ataque fue del 59% (56/95). El espectro clínico fue igual en ambos sexos. Hubo un notable efecto protector de la inmunidad híbrida contra la transmisión (67%). En términos de progresión, aquellos con inmunidad híbrida presentaron un riesgo menor de infección sintomática. La carga viral nasofaríngea fue significativamente menor en individuos con inmunidad híbrida y asintomáticos, respaldando la idea de una menor transmisibilidad en este grupo. La edad se identificó como un factor de riesgo para la progresión de la enfermedad. El análisis molecular identificó la variante Delta B.1.617.2 en los pacientes y una muestra de aire, lo que respaldó la transmisión por aerosol en entornos cerrados y mal ventilados. CONCLUSIONS: Este estudio proporciona una visión integral de un brote en una residencia de ancianos vacunados, destacando la importancia de la inmunidad híbrida. Los resultados respaldan la consideración individual de la historia de infección previa al evaluar el riesgo de la COVID-19, contribuyendo a la comprensión de la evolución de la pandemia en el futuro.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Casas de Saúde , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacina BNT162 , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Carga Viral , Estudos de Coortes , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Surtos de Doenças , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos
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