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1.
Parasitol Int ; 92: 102676, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096466

RESUMO

Specimens of Salmo trutta (n = 613) captured by local anglers in different rivers in Galicia (NW Spain) during the 2015 fishing season (15 March-15 August) were examined. In total 1479 adult helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of 221 fish. Moreover, the microscopic observation of the sediments obtained, previous diphasic concentration, revealed the presence of helminth eggs in 485 trout specimens. The following species were identified by morphological and molecular analysis: Crepidostomum metoecus (8.97%) (Trematoda); Salmonema ephemeridarum (16.97%), Raphidascaris acus (9.46%) and Pseudocapillaria sp. (2.12%) (Nematoda); and Echinorhynchus truttae (8.48%) (Acanthocephala). The prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of each helminth species were determined in relation to size/age of the fish. The helminth infracommunity comprised a maximum of four species and the species richness was S = 5. The biological cycles of most of the helminth species recovered are dependent on benthic macroinvertebrate fauna, which, in turn, is influenced by the water quality. Therefore, any changes that take place in the aquatic ecosystem (due to anthropogenic activities or climate change) may be reflected in the helminth composition.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Doenças dos Peixes , Helmintos , Trematódeos , Animais , Rios , Ecossistema , Espanha/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Truta/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158900, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Spain, two synoptic-scale conditions influence heat wave formation. The first involves advection of warm and dry air masses carrying dust of Saharan origin (North African Dust (NAF) = 1). The second entails anticyclonic stagnation with high insolation and stability (NAF) = 0). Some studies show that the meteorological origin of these heat waves may affect their impact on morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the impact of heat waves on health outcomes in Madrid (Spain) during 2013-2018 varied by synoptic-scale condition. METHODOLOGY: Outcome data consist of daily mortality and daily hospital emergency admissions (morbidity) for natural, circulatory, and respiratory causes. Predictors include daily maximum and minimum temperatures and daily mean concentrations of NO2, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and O3. Analyses adjust for insolation, relative humidity, and wind speed. Generalized linear models were performed with Poisson link between the variables controlling for trend, seasonality, and auto-regression in the series. Relative Risks (RR) and Attributable Risks (AR) were determined. The RRs for mortality attributable to high temperatures were similar regardless of NAF status. For hospital admissions, however, the RRs for hot days with NAF = 0 are higher than for days with NAF = 1. We also found that atmospheric pollutants worsen morbidity and mortality, especially PM10 concentrations when NAF = 1 and O3 concentrations when NAF = 0. RESULTS: The effect of heat waves on morbidity and mortality depends on the synoptic situation. The impact is greater under anticyclonic stagnation conditions than under Saharan dust advection. Further, the health impact of pollutants such as PM10 and O3 varies according to the synoptic situation. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, we strongly recommend prevention plans to include data on the meteorological situation originating the heat wave, on a synoptic-scale, as well as comprehensive preventive measures against the compounding effect of high temperatures and pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição do Ar/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Poeira/análise , Morbidade , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
3.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 107, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract viral infection (LRTI) is a significant cause of morbidity-mortality in older people worldwide. We analyzed the association between short-term exposure to environmental factors (climatic factors and outdoor air pollution) and hospital admissions with a viral LRTI diagnosis in older adults. METHODS: We conducted a bidirectional case-crossover study in 6367 patients over 65 years of age with viral LRTI and residential zip code in the Spanish Minimum Basic Data Set. Spain's State Meteorological Agency was the source of environmental data. Associations were assessed using conditional logistic regression. P-values were corrected for false discovery rate (q-values). RESULTS: Almost all were hospital emergency admissions (98.13%), 18.64% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 7.44% died. The most frequent clinical discharge diagnosis was influenza (90.25%). LRTI hospital admissions were more frequent when there were lower values of temperature and O3 and higher values of relative humidity and NO2. The regression analysis adjusted by temperatures and relative humidity showed higher concentrations at the hospital admission for NO2 [compared to the lag time of 1-week (q-value< 0.001) and 2-weeks (q-value< 0.001)] and O3 [compared to the lag time of 3-days (q-value< 0.001), 1-week (q-value< 0.001), and 2-weeks (q-value< 0.001)] were related to a higher odds of hospital admissions due to viral LRTI. Moreover, higher concentrations of PM10 at the lag time of 1-week (q-value = 0.023) and 2-weeks (q-value = 0.002), and CO at the lag time of 3-days (q-value = 0.023), 1-week (q-value< 0.001) and 2-weeks (q-value< 0.001)], compared to the day of hospitalization, were related to a higher chances of hospital admissions with viral LRTI. CONCLUSION: Unfavorable environmental factors (low temperatures, high relative humidity, and high concentrations of NO2, O3, PM10, and CO) increased the odds of hospital admissions with viral LRTI among older people, indicating they are potentially vulnerable to these environmental factors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Hospitalização , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
4.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to relate adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in an elderly population from the north of Spain. METHODS: We carried out an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and correlational study involving 556 non-institutionalised individuals aged 65 to 79 years. The MEDAS-14 questionnaire score was used to define the degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The diagnosis of MetS was conducted using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. RESULTS: In 264 subjects with an average age of 71.9 (SD: ±4.2), 39% of whom were men, 36.4% had good adherence (score ≥ 9 in MEDAS-14), with no differences by gender or age. The prevalence of MetS was 40.2%, with 47.6% in men and 35.4% in women (p < 0.05). The prevalence of MetS was 2.4 times more frequent among individuals who consumed less than two servings (200 g) of vegetables daily compared with those who consumed two or more servings of vegetables daily (OR: 2.368, 95%CI: 1.141-4.916, p = 0.021). Low adherence to the MedDiet (MEDAS-14 score ≤ 8) was associated with an 82% higher prevalence of MetS (OR: 1.817, 95%CI: 1.072-3.081, p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: An inverse relationship was established between adherence to the MedDiet and the prevalence of MetS.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Síndrome Metabólica , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 828, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incubation period of an infectious disease is defined as the elapsed time between the exposure to the pathogen and the onset of symptoms. Although both the mRNA-based and the adenoviral vector-based vaccines have shown to be effective, there have been raising concerns regarding possible decreases in vaccine effectiveness for new variants and variations in the incubation period. METHODS: We conducted a unicentric observational study at the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Barcelona, using a structured telephone survey performed by trained interviewers to estimate the incubation period of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in a cohort of Spanish hospitalized patients. The distribution of the incubation period was estimated using the generalized odds-rate class of regression models. RESULTS: From 406 surveyed patients, 242 provided adequate information to be included in the analysis. The median incubation period was 2.8 days (95%CI: 2.5-3.1) and no differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were found. Sex and age are neither shown not to be significantly related to the COVID-19 incubation time. CONCLUSIONS: Knowing the incubation period is crucial for controlling the spread of an infectious disease: decisions on the duration of the quarantine or on the periods of active monitoring of people who have been at high risk of exposure depend on the length of the incubation period. Furthermore, its probability distribution is a key element for predicting the prevalence and the incidence of the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Vacinação
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18837, 2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336749

RESUMO

Growth alterations have been described in patients operated on for oral clefts. The purpose of this work was to analyze the craniofacial and palate morphology and dimensions of young adults operated on for oral clefts in early childhood in Spain. Eighty-three patients from eight different hospitals were divided into four groups based on their type of cleft: cleft lip (CL, n = 6), unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP, n = 37), bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP, n = 16), and cleft palate only (CPO, n = 24). A control group was formed of 71 individuals. Three-dimensional (3D) digital models were obtained from all groups with an intraoral scanner, together with cephalometries and frontal, lateral, and submental facial photographs. Measurements were obtained and analyzed statistically. Our results showed craniofacial alterations in the BCLP, UCLP, and CPO groups with an influence on the palate, maxilla, and mandible and a direct impact on facial appearance. This effect was more severe in the BCLP group. Measurements in the CL group were similar to those in the control group. Cleft characteristics and cleft type seem to be the main determining factors of long-term craniofacial growth alterations in these patients. Prospective research is needed to clearly delineate the effects of different treatments on the craniofacial appearance of adult cleft patients.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Cefalometria , Maxila
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1024904, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36353236

RESUMO

Background: Our study aimed to assess the prevalence of diabetic foot disease (DFD) and its associated risk factors among subjects attending primary care centers in Catalonia (Spain). Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of data from the primary health care (SIDIAP) database. The presence of comorbidities and concomitant medication were analyzed for subjects with or without DFD. DFD prevalence was estimated from 1st January 2018 to 31st December 2018. Results: During the 12-month observational period, out of 394,266 people with type 2 diabetes, we identified 3,277 (0.83%) active episodes of DFD in the database. The majority of these episodes were foot ulcers (82%). The mean age of patients with DFD was 70.3 (± 12.5) years and 55% were male. In the multivariable descriptive models, male gender, diabetes duration, hypertension, macrovascular, microvascular complications, and insulin and antiplatelet agents were strongly associated with DFD. A previous history of DFD was the stronger risk factor for DFD occurrence in subjects with T2DM (OR: 13.19, 95%CI: 11.81; 14.72). Conclusions: In this real-world primary care practice database, we found a lower prevalence of DFD compared to similar previous studies. Risk factors such as male sex, duration of diabetes, diabetes complications and previous history of DFD were associated with the presence of DFD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pé Diabético , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Pé Diabético/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360863

RESUMO

Background: As of 7 January 2022, it is estimated that 5.5 million people worldwide have died from COVID-19. Although the full impact of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) on healthcare systems worldwide is still unknown, we must consider the socio-economic impact. For instance, it has resulted in an 11% decrease in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in the European Union. We aim to provide valuable information for policymakers by analysing widely available epidemiological and socioeconomic indicators using Spanish data. Methods: Secondary analysis of routinely available data from various official data sources covering the period from 1 March 2020 to 31 March 2021. To measure the impact of COVID-19 in the population, a set of epidemiological and socioeconomic indicators were used. The interrelationships between these socioeconomic and epidemiological indicators were analysed using Pearson's correlation. Their behaviour was grouped according to their greater capacity to measure the impact of the pandemic and was compared to identify those that are more appropriate to monitor future health crises (primary outcome) using multivariate analysis of canonical correlation for estimating the correlation between indicators using different units of analysis. Results: Data from different time points were analysed. The excess of mortality was negatively correlated with the number of new companies created during the pandemic. The increase in COVID-19 cases was associated with the rise of unemployed workers. Neither GDP nor per capita debt was related to any epidemiological indicators considered in the annual analysis. The canonical models of socioeconomic and epidemiological indicators of each of the time periods analysed were statistically significant (0.80-0.91 p < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, excess mortality, incidence, lethality, and unemployment constituted the best group of indicators to measure the impact of the pandemic. These indicators, widely available, could provide valuable information to policymakers and higher management in future outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Produto Interno Bruto
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360892

RESUMO

Different analyses show that the design of vaccination policies should especially protect the most vulnerable social groups, since the level of acceptance is determined by the population's knowledge, attitude and concerns about the safety and efficacy of vaccines. The objective of this work will be to detect the most socially vulnerable groups with respect to COVID-19 and to analyze the factors that influence predisposition to vaccination. This is a cross-sectional study using data from the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS) on the Effects and Consequences of Coronavirus (Study 3346 of December 2021). Sociodemographic variables (sex, age, employment status, studies and subjective class identification) were extracted, as well as the answers to the questions indicating the attitude towards vaccination, corresponding to questions 7,8,10 and 11 of the study. The most vulnerable group was lower class women (self-perceived), under 45 years of age with lower educational level, unemployed or performing unpaid work in the home. Most of them are not predisposed to vaccinate only because of the obligation to do so, mainly due to lack of belief in the power and efficacy of vaccines, as well as fear of health risks/collateral side effects. The lower vaccine uptake in this vulnerable population group may be due to a lack of awareness and lower trust in the authorities, as well as the benefits of the vaccine, which could be related to a lack of policy targeting the most socially vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Vulnerabilidade Social , Feminino , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361439

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a renewed interest in indoor air quality to limit viral spread. In the case of educational spaces, due to the high concentration of people and the fact that most of the existing buildings do not have any mechanical ventilation system, the different administrations have established natural ventilation protocols to guarantee an air quality that reduces risk of contagion by the SARS-CoV-2 virus after the return to the classrooms. Many of the initial protocols established a ventilation pattern that opted for continuous or intermittent ventilation to varying degrees of intensity. This study, carried out on a university campus in Spain, analyses the performance of natural ventilation activated through the information provided by monitoring and visualisation of real-time data. In order to carry out this analysis, a experiment was set up where a preliminary study of ventilation without providing information to the users was carried out, which was then compared with the result of providing live feedback to the occupants of two classrooms and an administration office in different periods of 2020, 2021 and 2022. In the administration office, a CO2-concentration-based method was applied retrospectively to assess the risk of airborne infection. This experience has served as a basis to establish a route for user-informed improvement of air quality in educational spaces in general through low-cost systems that allow a rational use of natural ventilation while helping maintain an adequate compromise between IAQ, comfort and energy consumption, without having to resort to mechanical ventilation systems.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilação/métodos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise
11.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 962022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384906

RESUMO

During the last decades, healthcare has undergone important changes. Increased life expectancy has given rise to an aging population that, according to the United Nations, is about to become one of the most important social transformations of the 21st century. Globally, there were 727 million people aged 65 or over in 2020 (9.3% of the total population) and this is estimated to increase to 16% by 2050 . In the European Union (EU), the percentage of the population aged 65 or over has increased from 9.6% in 1960 to 20.3% in 2019 and is projected to increase to 31.3% by 2100. We are also witnessing a process of aging of the elderly population, with a proportion of very old people (those aged 80 and over) in the total population of the European Union of 5.8% in 2019 . Spain is one of the countries with the highest proportion of older people, with a percentage of citizens aged 65 or over in 2020 of 19.6% of the total population, and with a projection of 26.5% for 2035. Almost a third of this population (6%) are 80 years or older.


Durante las últimas décadas la asistencia sanitaria ha sufrido importantes cambios. La mayor esperanza de vida ha dado lugar a un envejecimiento de la población que, según las Naciones Unidas, está a punto de convertirse en una de las más importantes transformaciones sociales del siglo XXI. A nivel mundial, había 727 millones de personas de 65 años o más en 2020 (un 9,3% de la población total) y se estima que aumente al 16% en 2050 . En la Unión Europea (UE), el porcentaje de población de 65 años o más se ha incrementado de un 9,6% en 1960 a un 20,3% en 2019 y se proyecta que aumente a un 31,3% para 2100. Asistimos además a un proceso de envejecimiento de la población mayor, con una proporción de personas muy mayores (aquellas de 80 años y más) en la población total de la Unión Europea del 5,8% en 2019 . España es uno de los países con una mayor proporción de personas mayores, con un porcentaje de ciudadanos de 65 años o más en 2020 del 19,6% del total de la población, y con una proyección del 26,5% para 2035. Casi un tercio de esta población (6%) tienen 80 años o más.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Assistência de Longa Duração , Idoso , Humanos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Expectativa de Vida
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19700, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385106

RESUMO

The Diet, Physical Activity and Health (Alimentación, Actividad física y Salud, ALAS) program is an intervention implemented by the municipal health services of Madrid with the objective of reducing weight and preventing diabetes in high-risk population by improving diet and physical activity. The ALAS program combines individual visits with a 10-session group workshop that takes place over a 6-month period. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the ALAS intervention implemented under real-life conditions between 2016 and 2019. The intervention was evaluated with a pre- and post-intervention study with follow-up performed 6 and 12 months from the start of the program. The analyzed outcomes were a 5-10% reduction in the initial weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and a change in glycemic status in prediabetic participants. Statistical models were adjusted by sociodemographic variables. The participants were recruited from municipal community health centers or referred by municipal occupational health services. Between 2016 and 2019, 1629 people participated in the program. At 6 months, 85% of the participants had lost weight; 43% had lost 5% or more of their initial weight, and 12% had lost 10% or more. Regarding BMI, 22.3% of participants who were initially obese were no longer obese, and 15.2% of the overweight participants achieved normal weight. A total of 35.1% of the prediabetic participants reverted to normoglycemic status. The intervention was found to be more effective for men, for those who completed the intervention and those who accessed the program through the occupational health route. Among the participants who accessed the intervention via the community, the intervention was more effective in those with a high educational level. The evaluation demonstrated the effectiveness of the ALAS program for reducing weight and the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes when applied under real-life conditions. The effectiveness of the intervention differed according to gender, access route and educational level of the participants.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Masculino , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1005622, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388349

RESUMO

Introduction: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has become a useful tool to reduce the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in key populations. In this article we assessed the effectiveness, safety, adherence, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) dynamics, and frequency of anal dysplasia among a real-life cohort of PrEP users in Northwest Spain. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken in the Alvaro-Cunqueiro Hospital, Vigo which included every individual who started daily emtricitabine/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate (FTC/TDF) between November-2019 and October-2021. Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from the patient's medical records. The effectiveness and safety of FTC/TDF were assessed by HIV serology and renal function monitoring every 3 months. Anal, urethral, and oropharyngeal exudates were collected quarterly after the baseline visit. Results: A total of 126 individuals were considered eligible, most of the participants had previously been diagnosed with a STI (60.3%), 22% had consumed recreational drugs in the year prior, and 13% had engaged in chemsex. At the end of the follow-up, no cases of HIV infection were detected; 3 patients had discontinued FTC/TDF because of side effects but none of them had presented renal toxicity. In addition, the diagnosis of STIs during the follow-up was common (100 cases in 54 patients). Moreover, engagement in chemsex was more common within this latter group (22 vs. 6%, p = 0.013). Among the study population included in the anal screening programme, the frequency of dysplasia was 9%. Conclusions: FTC/TDF was effective, safe, and tolerable in a real-life cohort; adherence remained high throughout the study period (79%). However, a high number of STIs were diagnosed, especially among patients who engaged in chemsex.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(11): e0010846, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395110

RESUMO

At a time of major global, societal, and environmental changes, the shifting distribution of pathogen vectors represents a real danger in certain regions of the world as generating opportunities for emergency. For example, the recent arrival of the Hyalomma marginatum ticks in southern France and the concurrent appearance of cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF)-a disease vectored by this tick species-in neighboring Spain raises many concerns about the associated risks for the European continent. This context has created an urgent need for effective methods for control, surveillance, and risk assessment for ticks and tick-borne diseases with a particular concern regarding Hyalomma sp. Here, we then review the current body of knowledge on different methods of tick control-including chemical, biological, genetical, immunological, and ecological methods-and the latest developments in the field, with a focus on those that have been tested against ticks from the genus Hyalomma. In the absence of a fully and unique efficient approach, we demonstrated that integrated pest management combining several approaches adapted to the local context and species is currently the best strategy for tick control together with a rational use of acaricide. Continued efforts are needed to develop and implement new and innovative methods of tick control.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia , Ixodidae , Carrapatos , Animais , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/genética , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/prevenção & controle , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277764, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395191

RESUMO

The Sentinel Schools project was designed to monitor and evaluate the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Catalonia, gathering evidence for health and education policies to inform the development of health protocols and public health interventions to control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in schools. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections and to identify their determinants among students and staff during February to June in the academic year 2020-2021. We performed two complementary studies, a cross-sectional and a longitudinal component, using a questionnaire to collect nominal data and testing for SARS-CoV-2 detection. We describe the results and perform a univariate and multivariate analysis. The initial crude seroprevalence was 14.8% (95% CI: 13.1-16.5) and 22% (95% CI: 18.3-25.8) for students and staff respectively, and the active infection prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.3-1) and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.1-2). The overall incidence for persons at risk was 2.73 per 100 person-month and 2.89 and 2.34 per 100 person-month for students and staff, respectively. Socioeconomic, self-reported knowledge, risk perceptions and contact pattern variables were positively associated with the outcome while sanitary measure compliance was negatively associated, the same significance trend was observed in multivariate analysis. In the longitudinal component, epidemiological close contact with SARS-CoV-2 infection was a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection while the highest socioeconomic status level was protective as was compliance with sanitary measures. The small number of active cases detected in these schools suggests a low transmission among children in school and the efficacy of public health measures implemented, at least in the epidemiological scenario of the study period. The major contribution of this study was to provide results and evidence that help analyze the transmission dynamic of SARS-CoV-2 and evaluate the associations between sanitary protocols implemented, and measures to avoid SARS-CoV-2 spread in schools.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criança , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Incidência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais , Espanha/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277754, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family clusters offer a good opportunity to study viral transmission in a stable setting. We aimed to analyze the specific role of children in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within households. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, observational study, including children with documented acute SARS-CoV-2 infection attending 22 summer-schools in Barcelona, Spain, was performed. Moreover, other patients and families coming from other school-like environments that voluntarily accessed the study were also studied. A longitudinal follow-up (5 weeks) of the family clusters was conducted to determine whether the children considered to be primary cases were able to transmit the virus to other family members. The household reproduction number (Re*) and the secondary attack rate (SAR) were calculated. RESULTS: 1905 children from the summer schools were screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 22 (1.15%) tested positive. Moreover, 32 additional children accessed the study voluntarily. Of these, 37 children and their 26 households were studied completely. In half of the cases (13/26), the primary case was considered to be a child and secondary transmission to other members of the household was observed in 3/13, with a SAR of 14.2% and a Re* of 0.46. Conversely, the SAR of adult primary cases was 72.2% including the kids that gave rise to the contact tracing study, and 61.5% without them, and the estimated Re* was 2.6. In 4/13 of the paediatric primary cases (30.0%), nasopharyngeal PCR was persistently positive > 1 week after diagnosis, and 3/4 of these children infected another family member (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Children may not be the main drivers of the infection in household transmission clusters in the study population. A prolonged positive PCR could be associated with higher transmissibility.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Espanha/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Características da Família
17.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 17(1): 418, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC), a known rare disease (RD) should be diagnosable within a year. This study sought: firstly, to ascertain how long it takes to obtain the diagnosis of a RD in Spain, along with its associated time trend; and secondly, to identify and measure diagnostic delay (defined by the IRDiRC as any period exceeding a year) by reference to the characteristics of RDs and the persons affected by them. METHODS: Using data sourced from the Spanish Rare Diseases Patient Registry, we performed a descriptive analysis of the time elapsed between symptom onset and diagnosis of each RD, by sex, age and date of symptom onset, and type of RD. We analysed the time trend across the period 1960-2021 and possible change points, using a Joinpoint regression model and assuming a Poisson distribution. The multivariate analysis was completed with backward stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS: Detailed information was obtained on 3304 persons with RDs: 56.4% had experienced delay in diagnosis of their RDs, with the mean time taken being 6.18 years (median = 2; IQR 0.2-7.5). Both the percentage of patients with diagnostic delay and the average time to diagnosis underwent a significant reduction across the study period (p < 0.001). There was a higher percentage of diagnostic delays: in women (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.07-1.45); in cases with symptom onset at age 30-44 years (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.19-1.84): and when analysed by type of RD, in mental and behavioural disorders (OR 4.21; 95% CI 2.26-7.85), followed by RDs of the nervous system (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.02-1.88). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to quantify time to diagnosis of RDs in Spain, based on data from a national registry open to any RD. Since over half of all persons affected by RDs experience delay in diagnosis, new studies are needed to ascertain the factors associated with this delay and the implications this has on the lives of patients and their families.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Doenças Raras , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros
18.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 97(11): 2005-2015, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of a healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI) and an unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI) with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Spanish adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 11,825 individuals 18 years of age or older, representative of the Spanish population, recruited between 2008 and 2010 and followed-up to 2020. Food consumption was collected at baseline using a validated dietary history, which served to calculate two plant-based diet indices based on 18 major food groups (range, 18-90 points). For (1) hPDI only the consumption of healthy plant foods (whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, vegetable oils, and tea/coffee) received positive scores; whereas for (2) uPDI, only the consumption of less healthy plant foods (fruit juices, sugar-sweetened beverages, refined grains, potatoes, and sweets/desserts) received positive scores. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models were used to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 10.9 and 9.8 years, 699 all-cause and 157 CVD deaths were ascertained, respectively. Each 10-point increase in hPDI was associated with 14% lower risk of all-cause death (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.99), and 37% lower risk of CVD death (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.85). No significant associations were found for uPDI. CONCLUSION: Higher adherence to an hPDI diet, but not to a uPDI, was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality. This suggests that the quality of the plant food consumed is paramount to achieve diet-related benefits in mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02804672.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Dieta Vegetariana , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 990262, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339228

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiological studies about acute poisoning are useful for developing clinical toxicology, especially those carried out in hospital emergency departments. We aimed to evaluate acute intoxication clinical and sociodemographic profile in South Aragon Hospital, Spain. Methods: We carried out a retrospective cross-sectional study. We included 442 patients treated for acute poisoning in the emergency department during the 3 years 2015-2018. In the inferential analysis, the Chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare ranges. A confidence level of 95 per cent was considered in all tests. Results: The mean age was 44.1 years. 57.2% were men. Drugs of abuse were present in 243 patients (55%), drugs in 172 (38.9%), chemicals in 57 (12.9%) and three patients (0.7%) were poisoned by mushrooms. Nine different drugs of abuse, 73 drugs, 15 chemical compounds and 2 varieties of mushrooms were registered. Of the intoxicated patients, 92.3% had symptoms, 84.2% received treatment and 78.7% were discharged from the emergency department. Conclusions: We obtain a clear clinical and sociodemographic profile of intoxicated patients who come to the emergency department; the five toxins that cause most acute poisoning are: alcohol, benzodiazepines, antiarrhythmics, cannabis and carbon monoxide.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Espanha/epidemiologia
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