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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612789

RESUMO

Numerous diseases can arise as a consequence of mitochondrial malfunction. Hence, there is a significant focus on studying the role of mitochondria in cancer, ageing, neurodegenerative diseases, and the field of developmental biology. Mitochondria could exist as discrete organelles in the cell; however, they have the ability to fuse, resulting in the formation of interconnected reticular structures. The dynamic changes between these forms correlate with mitochondrial function and mitochondrial health, and consequently, there is a significant scientific interest in uncovering the specific molecular constituents that govern these transitions. Moreover, the specialized mitochondria display a wide array of variable morphologies in their cristae formations. These inner mitochondrial structures are closely associated with the specific functions performed by the mitochondria. In multiple cases, the presence of mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to male sterility, as it has been observed to cause a range of abnormal spermatogenesis and sperm phenotypes in different species. This review aims to elucidate the dynamic alterations and functions of mitochondria in germ cell development during the spermatogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Sêmen , Masculino , Animais , Mitocôndrias , Espermatogênese , Espermatozoides
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8465, 2024 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605082

RESUMO

The relationship between oxygen sensing and autophagy in human sperms was explored in this study. Health semen and asthenozoospermia (astheno) semen were incubated with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) interferents, i.e., lificiguat (YC-1) or cobalt chloride (CoCl2), respectively. Label-free quantitative proteomic technology was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in human semen under the hypoxia condition. Selected proteins were detected with ELISA. It was found that the autophagy levels of sperm in the YC-1 + health group or CoCl2 + astheno group increased while the vitality decreased. A total of 17, 34 and 35 differentially expressed proteins were observed in the Astheno group, the YC-1 + health group and the CoCl2 + astheno group, respectively. These proteins were primarily associated with protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, Th17 cell differentiation, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, HIF-1 signaling pathway, biosynthesis of amino acids, and carbon metabolism. The expression levels of protein HIF-1α, LC3B, histone H4, cathepsin L and ENO1 changed significantly in the groups. The study suggests that hypoxia can increase sperm autophagy level and reduce their vitality through HIF-1 signaling pathway and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis signaling pathway. Furthermore, proteins histone H4, cathepsin L, glutathione synthetase and ENO1 are proposed as potential biomarkers of autophagy and vitality in asthenozoospermia sperm.


Assuntos
Astenozoospermia , Histonas , Humanos , Masculino , Catepsina L , Hipóxia Celular , Proteômica , Sêmen , Hipóxia , Cobalto , Autofagia , Espermatozoides , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia
3.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(4): e14709, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605477

RESUMO

AIMS: Although radiotherapy is a core treatment modality for various human cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), its clinical effects are often limited by radioresistance. The specific molecular mechanisms underlying radioresistance are largely unknown, and the reduction of radioresistance is an unresolved challenge in GBM research. METHODS: We analyzed and verified the expression of nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein (NASP) in gliomas and its relationship with patient prognosis. We also explored the function of NASP in GBM cell lines. We performed further mechanistic experiments to investigate the mechanisms by which NASP facilitates GBM progression and radioresistance. An intracranial mouse model was used to verify the effectiveness of combination therapy. RESULTS: NASP was highly expressed in gliomas, and its expression was negatively correlated with the prognosis of glioma. Functionally, NASP facilitated GBM cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and radioresistance. Mechanistically, NASP interacted directly with annexin A2 (ANXA2) and promoted its nuclear localization, which may have been mediated by phospho-annexin A2 (Tyr23). The NASP/ANXA2 axis was involved in DNA damage repair after radiotherapy, which explains the radioresistance of GBM cells that highly express NASP. NASP overexpression significantly activated the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. The combination of WP1066 (a STAT3 pathway inhibitor) and radiotherapy significantly inhibited GBM growth in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that NASP may serve as a potential biomarker of GBM radioresistance and has important implications for improving clinical radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Anexina A2 , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Masculino , Glioblastoma/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Anexina A2/genética , Anexina A2/metabolismo , Anexina A2/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sêmen/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
4.
Anal Chem ; 96(15): 5960-5967, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581372

RESUMO

Nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) is an important cause of infertility, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the mainstay of treatment for these patients. In cases where a sufficient number of sperm (usually 1-2) is not available, the selection of oocytes for ICSI is a difficult problem that must be solved. Here, we constructed a dual-activated oxidative stress-responsive AIE probe, b-PyTPA. The strong donor-acceptor configuration of b-PyTPA leads to twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) effect that quenches the fluorescence of the probe, however, H2O2 would specifically remove the boronatebenzyl unit and release a much weaker acceptor, which inhibits TICT and restores the fluorescence. In addition, the presence of a pyridine salt makes b-PyTPA more hydrophilic, whereas removal of the pyridine salt increases the hydrophobicity of PyTPA, which triggers aggregation and further enhances fluorescence. Thus, the higher the intracellular level of oxidative stress, the stronger the fluorescence. In vitro, this dual-activated fluorescent probe is capable of accurately detecting senescent cells (high oxidative stress). More importantly, b-PyTPA was able to characterize senescent oocytes, as assessed by the level of oxidative stress. It is also possible to identify high quality oocytes from those obtained for subsequent ICSI. In conclusion, this dual-activated oxidative stress-assessment probe enables the quality assessment of oocytes and has potential application in ICSI.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/terapia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Oócitos , Piridinas/farmacologia
5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 174, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597936

RESUMO

Mature spermatozoa with normal morphology and motility are essential for male reproduction. The epididymis has an important role in the proper maturation and function of spermatozoa for fertilization. However, factors related to the processes involved in spermatozoa modifications are still unclear. Here we demonstrated that CCDC28A, a member of the CCDC family proteins, is highly expressed in testes and the CCDC28A deletion leads to male infertility. We found CCDC28A deletion had a mild effect on spermatogenesis. And epididymal sperm collected from Ccdc28a-/- mice showed bent sperm heads, acrosomal defects, reduced motility and decreased in vitro fertilization competence whereas their axoneme, outer dense fibers, and fibrous sheath were all normal. Furthermore, we found that CCDC28A interacted with sperm acrosome membrane-associated protein 1 (SPACA1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3a (GSK3A), and deficiencies in both proteins in mice led to bent heads and abnormal acrosomes, respectively. Altogether, our results reveal the essential role of CCDC28A in regulating sperm morphology and motility and suggesting a potential marker for male infertility.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides/genética , Sêmen , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Cabeça do Espermatozoide , Espermatozoides
6.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 170, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597976

RESUMO

In our prior investigation, we discerned loss-of-function variants within the gene encoding glutamine-rich protein 2 (QRICH2) in two consanguineous families, leading to various morphological abnormalities in sperm flagella and male infertility. The Qrich2 knockout (KO) in mice also exhibits multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) phenotype with a significantly decreased sperm motility. However, how ORICH2 regulates the formation of sperm flagella remains unclear. Abnormal glutamylation levels of tubulin cause dysplastic microtubules and flagella, eventually resulting in the decline of sperm motility and male infertility. In the current study, by further analyzing the Qrich2 KO mouse sperm, we found a reduced glutamylation level and instability of tubulin in Qrich2 KO mouse sperm flagella. In addition, we found that the amino acid metabolism was dysregulated in both testes and sperm, leading to the accumulated glutamine (Gln) and reduced glutamate (Glu) concentrations, and disorderly expressed genes responsible for Gln/Glu metabolism. Interestingly, mice fed with diets devoid of Gln/Glu phenocopied the Qrich2 KO mice. Furthermore, we identified several mitochondrial marker proteins that could not be correctly localized in sperm flagella, which might be responsible for the reduced mitochondrial function contributing to the reduced sperm motility in Qrich2 KO mice. Our study reveals a crucial role of a normal Gln/Glu metabolism in maintaining the structural stability of the microtubules in sperm flagella by regulating the glutamylation levels of the tubulin and identifies Qrich2 as a possible novel Gln sensor that regulates microtubule glutamylation and mitochondrial function in mouse sperm.


Assuntos
Glutamina , Infertilidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Tubulina (Proteína) , Sêmen , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides , Microtúbulos , Ácido Glutâmico , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias , Proteínas Mitocondriais
7.
Nucleus ; 15(1): 2339220, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594652

RESUMO

Species' continuity depends on gametogenesis to produce the only cell types that can transmit genetic information across generations. Spermiogenesis, which encompasses post-meiotic, haploid stages of male gametogenesis, is a process that leads to the formation of sperm cells well-known for their motility. Spermiogenesis faces three major challenges. First, after two rounds of meiotic divisions, the genome lacks repair templates (no sister chromatids, no homologous chromosomes), making it incredibly vulnerable to any genomic insults over an extended time (typically days-weeks). Second, the sperm genome becomes transcriptionally silent, making it difficult to respond to new perturbations as spermiogenesis progresses. Third, the histone-to-protamine transition, which is essential to package the sperm genome, counterintuitively involves DNA break formation. How spermiogenesis handles these challenges remains poorly understood. In this review, we discuss each challenge and their intersection with the biology of protamines. Finally, we discuss the implication of protamines in the process of evolution.


Assuntos
Sêmen , Espermatogênese , Masculino , Humanos , Sêmen/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Protaminas/genética , Protaminas/metabolismo
8.
Hum Fertil (Camb) ; 27(1): 2338290, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602121

RESUMO

This study aims to compare the embryological and clinical parameters of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles using testicular versus ejaculated sperm in male patients with elevated sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF). A total of 73 ICSI cycles were examined in couples where the male partner exhibited high levels of SDF. ICSI was performed using either ejaculated or testicular sperm. The primary outcomes were rates of blastocyst formation, high-quality embryo development, and clinical pregnancy. The DNA fragmentation index (DFI) for testicular sperm (16.81 ± 17.51) was significantly lower than that of ejaculated sperm (56.96 ± 17.56). While the blastocyst formation rate was significantly higher in the testicular sperm group compared to the ejaculated sperm group, no statistically significant differences were noted in fertilization rate (72.15% vs. 77.23%), rate of high-quality embryo formation (47.17% vs. 46.53%), clinical pregnancy (50% vs. 56.52%), Cumulative pregnancy (70.2% vs. 55.6%), or live birth rate (43.75% vs.43.48%). Testicular spermatozoa have no additional advantage over ejaculated spermatozoa except for blastocyst quality in patients with high SDF, the use of testicular spermatozoa for the first ICSI cycle in male infertility patients with high SDF should be undertaken after much consideration at present.


Assuntos
Ejaculação , Infertilidade Masculina , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fragmentação do DNA , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Infertilidade Masculina/terapia , Taxa de Gravidez
9.
Development ; 151(7)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602507

RESUMO

CFAP58 is a testis-enriched gene that plays an important role in the sperm flagellogenesis of humans and mice. However, the effect of CFAP58 on bull semen quality and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis remain unknown. Here, we identified two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs110610797, A>G and rs133760846, G>T) and one indel (g.-1811_ g.-1810 ins147bp) in the promoter of CFAP58 that were significantly associated with semen quality of bulls, including sperm deformity rate and ejaculate volume. Moreover, by generating gene knockout mice, we found for the first time that the loss of Cfap58 not only causes severe defects in the sperm tail, but also affects the manchette structure, resulting in abnormal sperm head shaping. Cfap58 deficiency causes an increase in spermatozoa apoptosis. Further experiments confirmed that CFAP58 interacts with IFT88 and CCDC42. Moreover, it may be a transported cargo protein that plays a role in stabilizing other cargo proteins, such as CCDC42, in the intra-manchette transport/intra-flagellar transport pathway. Collectively, our findings reveal that CFAP58 is required for spermatogenesis and provide genetic markers for evaluating semen quality in cattle.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen , Sêmen , Humanos , Bovinos , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Cabeça do Espermatozoide , Espermatozoides , Camundongos Knockout
10.
Am J Mens Health ; 18(2): 15579883241241060, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606758

RESUMO

Varicoceles are a common cause of male infertility, affecting up to 35% of men undergoing fertility evaluations. This study aims to investigate the potential influence of altitude and residence time on the occurrence of varicoceles, as well as on sperm quality and sterility in plateau areas. A total of 168 patients with varicocele were enrolled in the study, and the study population was divided into groups based on their direct exposure to different high altitudes due to their living locations. The internal diameter in Quiet breath (Dr), internal diameter in Valsalva maneuver (Dv), reflux peak value, and reflux time are gradually increased accompanied with altitude elevation and residence time extension. The number of cases above 4,500 m also increased with the severity of varicocele, and the altitude of clinical types was higher than that of subclinical types of varicocele. Especially above 4,500 m, the Dv, Dr, reflux peak value, and reflux time all increased with the severity of varicocele. The severity of varicocele was positively correlated with the residence time in plateau area. Patients with residence time of more than 1 year had higher values of Dr, Dv, differentiation time, reflux peak value, and reflux time than those with residence time of less than 1 year. Compared to 3,650 m, patients with varicocele in 4,500 m also have worse semen quality. Both altitude and residence time are strongly positively related to the severity and incidence rate of varicocele in plateau areas.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Varicocele , Humanos , Masculino , Varicocele/epidemiologia , Varicocele/complicações , Análise do Sêmen , Tibet , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Infertilidade Masculina/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , China/epidemiologia
11.
Cells ; 13(7)2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607002

RESUMO

(1) Background: Spermatozoa acquired motility and matured in epididymis after production in the testis. However, there is still limited understanding of the specific characteristics of sperm development across different species. In this study, we employed a comprehensive approach to analyze cell compositions in both testicular and epididymal tissues, providing valuable insights into the changes occurring during meiosis and spermiogenesis in mouse and pig models. Additionally, we identified distinct gene expression signatures associated with various spermatogenic cell types. (2) Methods: To investigate the differences in spermatogenesis between mice and pigs, we constructed a single-cell RNA dataset. (3) Results: Our findings revealed notable differences in testicular cell clusters between these two species. Furthermore, distinct gene expression patterns were observed among epithelial cells from different regions of the epididymis. Interestingly, regional gene expression patterns were also identified within principal cell clusters of the mouse epididymis. Moreover, through analysing differentially expressed genes related to the epididymis in both mouse and pig models, we successfully identified potential marker genes associated with sperm development and maturation for each species studied. (4) Conclusions: This research presented a comprehensive single-cell landscape analysis of both testicular and epididymal tissues, shedding light on the intricate processes involved in spermatogenesis and sperm maturation, specifically within mouse and pig models.


Assuntos
Sêmen , Testículo , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Suínos , Testículo/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Epididimo/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/genética
12.
Cells ; 13(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607031

RESUMO

Preclinical research has provided compelling evidence indicating that exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH) results in a deterioration of spermatogenesis. This adverse effect extends to the underlying molecular mechanisms, progressively leading to impairments in the seminiferous epithelium and germ cells and alterations in semen parameters. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated that animals exposed to HH, whether in natural high-altitude environments or under simulated hypoxic conditions, exhibit damage to the self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogenesis, an increase in germline cell apoptosis, and structural alterations in the seminiferous tubules. One of the primary mechanisms associated with the inhibition of differentiation and an increase in apoptosis among germ cells is an elevated level of oxidative stress, which has been closely associated with HH exposure. Human studies have shown that individuals exposed to HH, such as mountaineers and alpinists, exhibit decreased sperm count, reduced motility, diminished viability, and increased sperm with abnormal morphology in their semen. This evidence strongly suggests that exposure to HH may be considered a significant risk factor that could elevate the prevalence of male infertility. This literature review aims to provide a comprehensive description and propose potential mechanisms that could elucidate the infertility processes induced by HH. By doing so, it contributes to expanding our understanding of the challenges posed by extreme environments on human physiology, opening new avenues for research in this field.


Assuntos
Altitude , Sêmen , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Hipóxia , Espermatogênese , Espermatozoides
13.
Cells ; 13(7)2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607064

RESUMO

The global fall in male fertility is a complicated process driven by a variety of factors, including environmental exposure, lifestyle, obesity, stress, and aging. The availability of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has allowed older couples to conceive, increasing the average paternal age at first childbirth. Advanced paternal age (APA), most often considered male age ≥40, has been described to impact several aspects of male reproductive physiology. In this prospective cohort study including 200 normozoospermic patients, 105 of whom were ≤35 years (non-APA), and 95 of whom were ≥42 years (APA), we assessed the impact of paternal age on different endpoints representative of sperm quality and cryopreservation tolerance. Non-APA patients had superior fresh semen quality; DNA fragmentation was notably increased in APA as compared to non-APA individuals (21.7% vs. 15.4%). Cryopreservation further increased the DNA fragmentation index in APA (26.7%) but not in non-APA patients. Additionally, APA was associated with increased mtDNAcn in both fresh and frozen/thawed sperm, which is indicative of poorer mitochondrial quality. Cryopreservation negatively impacted acrosome integrity in both age groups, as indicated by reduced incidences of unreacted acrosome in relation to fresh counterparts in non-APA (from 71.5% to 57.7%) and APA patients (from 75% to 63%). Finally, cryopreservation significantly reduced the phosphorylation status of proteins containing tyrosine residues in sperm from young males. Therefore, the present findings shed light on the effects of paternal age and cryopreservation on sperm quality and serve as valuable new parameters to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying sperm developmental competence that are under threat in current ART practice.


Assuntos
Idade Paterna , Análise do Sêmen , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sêmen , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Criopreservação
14.
Development ; 151(7)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607588

RESUMO

The germline provides the genetic and non-genetic information that passes from one generation to the next. Given this important role in species propagation, egg and sperm precursors, called primordial germ cells (PGCs), are one of the first cell types specified during embryogenesis. In fact, PGCs form well before the bipotential somatic gonad is specified. This common feature of germline development necessitates that PGCs migrate through many tissues to reach the somatic gonad. During their journey, PGCs must respond to select environmental cues while ignoring others in a dynamically developing embryo. The complex multi-tissue, combinatorial nature of PGC migration is an excellent model for understanding how cells navigate complex environments in vivo. Here, we discuss recent findings on the migratory path, the somatic cells that shepherd PGCs, the guidance cues somatic cells provide, and the PGC response to these cues to reach the gonad and establish the germline pool for future generations. We end by discussing the fate of wayward PGCs that fail to reach the gonad in diverse species. Collectively, this field is poised to yield important insights into emerging reproductive technologies.


Assuntos
Células Germinativas , Sêmen , Masculino , Humanos , Espermatozoides , Sinais (Psicologia) , Movimento Celular
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612438

RESUMO

Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) is a well-known sperm selection technique, which is able to remove apoptotic spermatozoa from semen samples using the classic annexinV based method. Leukocytes and erythrocytes in semen samples or in testicular tissue processed for in vitro fertilization (IVF) could exert detrimental effects on sperm. In the current study, we rethought the aforementioned technique and used magnetic microbeads conjugated with anti-CD45/CD235a antibodies to eliminate contaminating leukocytes and erythrocytes from leukocytospermic semen samples and testicular tissue samples gained via testicular sperm extraction (TESE). With this technique, a 15.7- and a 30.8-fold reduction could be achieved in the ratio of leukocytes in semen and in the number of erythrocytes in TESE samples, respectively. Our results show that MACS is a method worth to reconsider, with more potential alternative applications. Investigations to find molecules labeling high-quality sperm population and the development of positive selection procedures based on these might be a direction of future research.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Sêmen , Masculino , Humanos , Secreções Corporais , Espermatozoides , Fenômenos Magnéticos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612464

RESUMO

Immunodominant alloantigens in pig sperm membranes include 15 known gene products and a previously undiscovered Mr 20,000 sperm membrane-specific protein (SMA20). Here we characterize SMA20 and identify it as the unannotated pig ortholog of PMIS2. A composite SMA20 cDNA encoded a 126 amino acid polypeptide comprising two predicted transmembrane segments and an N-terminal alanine- and proline (AP)-rich region with no apparent signal peptide. The Northern blots showed that the composite SMA20 cDNA was derived from a 1.1 kb testis-specific transcript. A BLASTp search retrieved no SMA20 match from the pig genome, but it did retrieve a 99% match to the Pmis2 gene product in warthog. Sequence identity to predicted PMIS2 orthologs from other placental mammals ranged from no more than 80% overall in Cetartiodactyla to less than 60% in Primates, with the AP-rich region showing the highest divergence, including, in the extreme, its absence in most rodents, including the mouse. SMA20 immunoreactivity localized to the acrosome/apical head of methanol-fixed boar spermatozoa but not live, motile cells. Ultrastructurally, the SMA20 AP-rich domain immunolocalized to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, the outer acrosomal membrane, and the acrosomal contents of ejaculated spermatozoa. Gene name search failed to retrieve annotated Pmis2 from most mammalian genomes. Nevertheless, individual pairwise interrogation of loci spanning Atp4a-Haus5 identified Pmis2 in all placental mammals, but not in marsupials or monotremes. We conclude that the gene encoding sperm-specific SMA20/PMIS2 arose de novo in Eutheria after divergence from Metatheria, whereupon rapid molecular evolution likely drove the acquisition of a species-divergent function unique to fertilization in placental mammals.


Assuntos
Placenta , Sêmen , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Suínos , Animais , Camundongos , DNA Complementar , Espermatozoides , Eutérios , Alanina , Isoantígenos/genética , Fertilização/genética
17.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 362024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589340

RESUMO

Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples trying to conceive. Male-related causes account for roughly 50% of cases, with obesity emerging as a possible significant factor. Obesity, defined as a body mass index of 30.0 or higher, has become a widespread epidemic associated with numerous health issues, including a decrease of fertility. This review discusses the relationship between obesity and male infertility, particularly focusing on sperm quality and function. An overview of the literature suggests that obesity may influence the male reproductive system via disruptions in hormonal profiles, oxidative stress, and inflammation, leading to changes in sperm parameters. Several studies have discussed if obesity causes a decrease in sperm concentration, motility, and normal morphology, so far without a consensus being reached. However, available evidence suggests an impairment of sperm function in obese men, due to an increase in DNA damage and oxidative stress, impaired mitochondrial function and acrosome reaction in response to progesterone. Finally, the relationship between obesity and assisted reproductive technologies outcomes remains debatable, with conflicting evidence regarding the influence on fertilisation, pregnancy, and live birth rates. Therefore, the actual impact of obesity on human spermatozoa still needs to be clarified, due to the multiple factors potentially in play.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Sêmen , Gravidez , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Obesidade , Espermatozoides
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(16): e2322211121, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593080

RESUMO

Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) is a universal signaling molecule that acts as a second messenger in various organisms. It is well established that cAMP plays essential roles across the tree of life, although the function of cAMP in land plants has long been debated. We previously identified the enzyme with both adenylyl cyclase (AC) and cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity as the cAMP-synthesis/hydrolysis enzyme COMBINED AC with PDE (CAPE) in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. CAPE is conserved in streptophytes that reproduce with motile sperm; however, the precise function of CAPE is not yet known. In this study, we demonstrate that the loss of function of CAPE in M. polymorpha led to male infertility due to impaired sperm flagellar motility. We also found that two genes encoding the regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-R) were also involved in sperm motility. Based on these findings, it is evident that CAPE and PKA-Rs act as a cAMP signaling module that regulates sperm motility in M. polymorpha. Therefore, our results have shed light on the function of cAMP signaling and sperm motility regulators in land plants. This study suggests that cAMP signaling plays a common role in plant and animal sperm motility.


Assuntos
Marchantia , Masculino , Animais , Marchantia/genética , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
19.
J Phys Chem B ; 128(14): 3329-3339, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557033

RESUMO

In nature, DNA exists primarily in a highly compacted form. The compaction of DNA in vivo is mediated by cationic proteins: histones in somatic nuclei and protamines in sperm chromatin. The extreme, nearly crystalline packaging of DNA by protamines in spermatozoa is thought to be essential for both efficient genetic delivery as well as DNA protection against damage by mutagens and oxidative species. The protective role of protamines is required in sperm, as they are sensitive to ROS damage due to the progressive loss of DNA repair mechanisms during maturation. The degree to which DNA packaging directly relates to DNA protection in the condensed state, however, is poorly understood. Here, we utilized different polycation condensing agents to achieve varying DNA packaging densities and quantify DNA damage by free radical oxidation within the condensates. Although we see that tighter DNA packaging generally leads to better protection, the length of the polycation also plays a significant role. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that longer polyarginine chains offer increased protection by occupying more space on the DNA surface and forming more stable interactions. Taken together, our results suggest a complex interplay among polycation properties, DNA packaging density, and DNA protection against free radical damage within condensed states.


Assuntos
DNA , Polieletrólitos , Sêmen , Masculino , Humanos , DNA/química , Cromatina , Protaminas/química , Espermatozoides , Empacotamento do DNA , Dano ao DNA
20.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 96(1): 12186, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Various factors, such as obstructive azoospermia, cause infertility in men. Biochemical examination of ejaculate, especially measurement of fructose, can be an additional investigation that can be used for this diagnosis in reproductive health. Examination of fructose is carried out after routine ejaculate analysis, resulting in prolonging the examination time so that it will affect the measurement of fructose level in the ejaculate and the accuracy of the diagnosis. This study aims to determine the best timing and procedure for measurement of fructose using a semiautomatic method. METHODS: This research is an analytic observational study conducted at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya. A total of 13 ejaculate samples from infertile male patients who met the inclusion criteria were evaluated. Each ejaculate was divided into eight aliquots that were examined for fructose using a semiautomated method after different intervals of time and centrifugation modalities. RESULTS: This study showed a significant difference in fructose levels when aliquots were centrifuged and examined immediately or after different interval of time (p=0.036). In addition, aliquots left standing for more than 60 minutes (p=0.012) and 120 minutes (p<0.001) before centrifugation, showed significantly lower levels compared to aliquots that were centrifuged and then immediately examined. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that measuring fructose immediately after centrifugation is more reliable than measuring fructose left standing before or after centrifugation. Leaving the ejaculate standing will reduce the fructose level so that it does not resemble its real level.


Assuntos
Azoospermia , Infertilidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Frutose , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Centrifugação , Espermatozoides
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