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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245329, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285618

RESUMO

Abstract The cold storage of milt implies potentials alterations in its quality because the storage generates as main process, free radicals that produce spermatozoa membrane lipids damage with the consequent motility and fertilising capacity disruptions. To decrease the damage generated by free radicals the cells have antioxidant defences (proteins, enzymes, and low molecular weight substances). The objective of the present study evaluated the time storage effect and different antioxidants prepared in spermatic diluents on sperm viability of O. mykiss milt stored at 4°C. The two-way ANOVA denoted that the time storage and antioxidant influence have significant effects separated or combined on viability parameters (sperm motility and viability, proteins concentrations and superoxide dismutase enzymatic activity in seminal plasma). In contrast, only the storage time affected the fertilising capacity and catalase enzymatic activity in seminal plasma. The resulting analysis can conclude that the antioxidant presence improves the viability of cold stored milt, especially the transport conditions and the antioxidants allow the fecundity despite motility decrease.


Resumo O armazenamento a frio de leite implica potenciais alterações em sua qualidade, pois gera como processo principal radicais livres que provocam danos aos lipídios da membrana dos espermatozoides, com as consequentes alterações na motilidade e na capacidade de fertilização. Para diminuir os danos causados pelos radicais livres, as células têm defesas antioxidantes (proteínas, enzimas e substâncias de baixo peso molecular). O presente estudo avaliou o efeito do tempo de armazenamento e diferentes antioxidantes preparados em diluentes espermáticos no armazenamento de viabilidade de O. mykiss milt a 4°C. A ANOVA de duas vias denotou que o armazenamento no tempo e a influência antioxidante têm efeitos significativos separados ou combinados nos parâmetros de viabilidade (motilidade espermática, viabilidade espermática, concentrações de proteínas e atividade enzimática da superóxido dismutase no plasma seminal), enquanto apenas o tempo de armazenamento afetou a capacidade de fertilização e atividade enzimática da catalase no plasma seminal. A análise resultante pode concluir que a presença de antioxidante melhora a viabilidade do leite frio, especialmente as condições de transporte, e os antioxidantes permitem a fecundidade apesar da diminuição da motilidade.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides , Criopreservação , Antioxidantes
2.
Mol Hum Reprod ; 28(1)2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954800

RESUMO

Sperm DNA damage is considered a predictive factor for the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing ART. Laboratory evidence suggests that zygotes and developing embryos have adopted specific response and repair mechanisms to repair DNA damage of paternal origin. We have conducted a systematic review in accordance with guidelines from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) to identify and review the maternal mechanisms used to respond and repair sperm DNA damage during early embryonic development, how these mechanisms operate and their potential clinical implications. The literature search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE and Embase databases until May 2021. Out of 6297 articles initially identified, 36 studies were found to be relevant through cross referencing and were fully extracted. The collective evidence in human and animal models indicate that the early embryo has the capacity to repair DNA damage within sperm by activating maternally driven mechanisms throughout embryonic development. However, this capacity is limited and likely declines with age. The link between age and decreased DNA repair capacity could explain decreased oocyte quality in older women, poor reproductive outcomes in idiopathic cases and patients who present high sperm DNA damage. Ultimately, further understanding mechanisms underlying the maternal repair of sperm DNA damage could lead to the development of targeted therapies to decrease sperm DNA damage, improved oocyte quality to combat incoming DNA insults or lead to development of methodologies to identify individual spermatozoa without DNA damage.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Idoso , Animais , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oócitos/fisiologia , Gravidez , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
3.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 157(3): 176-180, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491113

RESUMO

Mammalian sperm have to undergo several physiological and biochemical changes to be fertilization-competent. These changes are collectively called "capacitation". Capacitated sperm show frantic whiplash-like flagellar movement called "hyperactivation". Recently, it has been reported that treatments of sperm to enhance hyperactivation improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) and development of the fertilized embryos. This fact indicates that hyperactivation is an attractive target to improve assisted reproductive technologies. However, the detailed mechanisms which regulate hyperactivation have not been fully elucidated. Recently, it was found out that Na+ and K+ concentration of the oviductal fluid considerably differs from those in the medium used for IVF. Thus, the effect of the Na+ and K+ concentration on sperm hyperactivation was investigated using hamsters as a model. The results revealed that hamster sperm hyperactivation was suppressed by extracellular Na+ via an action of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Moreover, it was shown that the activity of testis specific isoform of Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA) α subunit, α4, is necessary for the hyperactivation-associated change of the flagellar movement. By contrast, there was no significant effect of raising the K+ concentration up to 20 mM on sperm hyperactivation although it significantly depolarized the membrane potential. These results suggests that transporters involved in primary and secondary active transport which regulates cellular Na+ homeostasis has a crucial role in the regulation of hyperactivation, and these transporters can be an attractive target for the improvement of assisted reproductive technologies.


Assuntos
ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio , Espermatozoides , Animais , Cricetinae , Homeostase , Masculino , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
4.
Biol Lett ; 18(5): 20220058, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506236

RESUMO

Male-male competition after mating (sperm competition) favours adaptations in male traits, such as elevated sperm numbers facilitated by larger testes. Ultimately, patterns of female distribution will affect the strength of sperm competition by dictating the extent to which males are able to prevent female remating. Despite this, our understanding of how the spatial and temporal distributions of mating opportunities have shaped the evolutionary course of sperm competition is limited. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative methods to explore interspecific variation in testes size in relation to patterns of female distribution in Australian rodents. We find that as mating season length (temporal distribution of females) increases, testes size decreases, which is consistent with the idea that it is difficult for males to prevent females from remating when overlap among oestrous females is temporally concentrated. Additionally, we find that social species (spatially clustered) have smaller testes than non-social species (spatially dispersed). This result suggests that males may be effective in monopolizing reproduction within social groups, which leads to reduced levels of sperm competition relative to non-social species where free-ranging females cannot be controlled. Overall, our results show that patterns of female distribution, in both space and time, can influence the strength of post-mating sexual selection among species.


Assuntos
Espermatozoides , Testículo , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Roedores
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(17): e29193, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512075

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Although many studies suggest that varicocelectomy leads to improvement in semen parameters and morphology, its clinical efficacy remains controversial. The detailed morphological parameters described in the World Health Organization guidelines are important in terms of showing the effect of microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy on morphological changes.An observational, retrospective clinical cohort study was conducted with patients followed up from January 2018 to August 2021. This study included the data of 79 patients who met the criterion of undergoing at least 2 detailed morphological evaluations before and after surgery. All operations were performed by the same surgical team using the microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy technique.The mean age of the patients was 30.25 years. Of the patients, 63 underwent left-sided varicocelectomy and 16 underwent bilateral surgery. The sperm analysis revealed statistically significant increases in sperm volume (P = .006), sperm concentration (P = .003), total sperm count (P = .001), progressive sperm motility (P < .001), and normal morphology (P < .001). In the detailed morphological evaluation, except for the elongated head anomaly (P = .037), no other statistically significant changes were found in relation to sperm head, tail, and neck anomalies after surgery.This study makes an important contribution to the literature, being the first to use the subinguinal microscopic varicocelectomy technique in detailed morphological semen evaluation. We consider that detailed morphology examination in the selection and treatment of infertile patients may be useful in evaluating the efficacy of varicocelectomy.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Varicocele , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/cirurgia , Masculino , Microcirurgia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides , Varicocele/cirurgia
6.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 344, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gaur (Bos gaurus) is the largest extant wild bovine species, native to South and Southeast Asia, with unique traits, and is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). RESULTS: We report the first gaur reference genome and identify three biological pathways including lysozyme activity, proton transmembrane transporter activity, and oxygen transport with significant changes in gene copy number in gaur compared to other mammals. These may reflect adaptation to challenges related to climate and nutrition. Comparative analyses with domesticated indicine (Bos indicus) and taurine (Bos taurus) cattle revealed genomic signatures of artificial selection, including the expansion of sperm odorant receptor genes in domesticated cattle, which may have important implications for understanding selection for male fertility. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from aiding dissection of economically important traits, the gaur genome will also provide the foundation to conserve the species.


Assuntos
Receptores Odorantes , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Genoma , Genômica , Masculino , Mamíferos , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Espermatozoides , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida
7.
J Vis Exp ; (182)2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532241

RESUMO

The conventional semen parameter analysis is widely used to assess male fertility. However, studies have found that ~15% of infertile patients show no abnormalities in conventional semen parameters. Additional technologies are needed to explain the idiopathic infertility and detect subtle sperm defects. Currently, biomarkers of sperm function, including sperm apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA damage, reveal sperm physiology at the molecular level and are capable of predicting male fertility. With flow cytometry (FCM) techniques, each of these markers can be rapidly, accurately, and precisely measured in human semen samples, but time costs substantially increase and results could be obstructed if all the biomarkers need to be tested with a single cytometer. In this protocol, after collection and immediate incubation at 37 °C for liquefication, semen samples were further analyzed for sperm apoptosis using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining. The MMP was labeled with 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-benzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) probe, and DNA damage was assessed using the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) with acridine orange (AO) staining. Thus, flow cytometric analysis of sperm function markers can be a practical and reliable toolkit for the diagnosis of infertility and evaluation of sperm function at both bench and bed.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Espermatozoides , Biomarcadores , Cromatina , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz
9.
Asian J Androl ; 24(3): 260-265, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532568

RESUMO

Obtaining high-quality embryos is one of the key factors to improve the clinical pregnancy rate of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). So far, the clinical evaluation of embryo quality depends on embryo morphology. However, the clinical pregnancy rate is still low. Therefore, new indicators are needed to further improve the evaluation of embryo quality. Several studies have shown that the decrease of sperm-specific protein actin-like 7A (ACTL7A) leaded to low fertilization rate, poor embryo development, and even infertility. The aim of this study was to study whether the different expression levels of ACTL7A on sperm can be used as a biomarker for predicting embryo quality. In this study, excluding the factors of severe female infertility, a total of 281 sperm samples were collected to compare the ACTL7A expression levels of sperms with high and low effective embryo rates and analyze the correlation between protein levels and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory outcomes. Our results indicated that the ACTL7A levels were significantly reduced in sperm samples presenting poor embryo quality. Furthermore, the protein levels showed a significant correlation with fertilization outcomes of ART. ACTL7A has the potential to be a biomarker for predicting success rate of fertilization and effective embryo and the possibility of embryo arrest. In conclusion, sperm-specific protein ACTL7A has a strong correlation with IVF laboratory outcomes and plays important roles in fertilization and embryo development.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilização , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
10.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 47(1): 63-71, 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545364

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As a remedy for the failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF), rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (R-ICSI) has been widely carried out, but it has failed to significantly improve the fertilization rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was highly correlated with pregnancy outcome of artificial assisted reproduction. This study aims to investigate the effect of the sperm DFI on the outcome of R-ICSI and the clinical value of R-ICSI. METHODS: This retrospective analysis was conducted among 140 infertile couples receiving R-ICSI in from January 2014 to December 2019. The subjects were assigned into a total fertilization failure (TFF)+low DFI group (R-ICSI after TFF and DFI<30%) (n=63), a TFF+high DFI group (R-ICSI after TFF and DFI≥30%) (n=16), a partial fertilization failure (PFF)+low DFI group (R-ICSI after PFF and DFI<30%) (n=52), a PFF+high DFI group (R-ICSI after PFF and DFI≥30%) (n=9). All transferred embryos were come from R-ICSI. The general clinical data [infertility duration, male age, female age, basal serum level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), basal serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH), antral follicle count, endometrial thickness of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) day, and eggs] and R-ICSI cycle outcomes (fertilization rate, normal fertilization rate, cleavage rate, good embryo rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate) were analyzed. In addition, the effect of R-ICSI on the fertilization outcome of conventional IVF total fertilization failure and partial fertilization failure was explored. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the general clinical data and R-ICSI cycle outcome between the TFF+low DFI group and the TFF+high DFI group (all P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the general clinical data between the PFF+low DFI group and the PFF+high DFI group (all P>0.05). The fertilization rate and normal fertilization rate in the PFF+low DFI group were significantly higher than those in the PFF+high DFI group (85.40% vs 72.41%, 71.90% vs 58.62%, respectively; both P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in cleavage rate, good embryo rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate between the 2 groups (all P>0.05). The R-ICSI cycle of TFF: A total of 79 fresh cycles, 57 fresh transplant cycles, a total of 761 unfertilized oocytes, and 584 M II oocytes were treated with R-ICSI, the fertilization rate was 83.22%, the normal fertilization rate was 75.51%, the cleavage rate was 98.15%, the good embryo rate was 40.74%, the implantation rate was 30.56%, and the clinical pregnancy rate was 43.86%; 29 live births were obtained. The R-ICSI cycle of PFF: A total of 61 fresh cycles, 31 fresh transplant cycles, a total of 721 unfertilized oocytes, and 546 M II oocytes were treated with R-ICSI; the fertilization rate was 83.33%, the normal fertilization rate was 69.78%, the cleavage rate was 97.36%, the good embryo rate was 44.39%, the implantation rate was 25.42%, and the clinical pregnancy rate was 45.16%; 12 live births were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: In the case of partial fertilization failure of IVF, the sperm DFI affects the fertilization rate and normal fertilization rate of R-ICSI; whether it is a TFF of IVF or PFF of IVF, ICSI can be used as an effective remedy way.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Fragmentação do DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espermatozoides
11.
J Int Med Res ; 50(5): 3000605221097492, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to determine the effect of swim-up (SU) and density gradient centrifugation (DGC) on sperm survival and DNA fragmentation. METHODS: Individual semen samples were analyzed before each was divided into two aliquots (half for SU and half for DGC) for calculation of sperm survival and the DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Sperm DNA fragmentation was determined using the sperm chromatin dispersion test. RESULTS: The DFI of the 63 semen samples processed using both procedures was lower than that of the fresh semen samples. The DFI was significantly lower for samples processed using the SU than DGC method. In the sperm survival test, the SU technique was associated with increased sperm motility and vitality following preparation. After 24 hours, however, the concentration and percentage of surviving sperm were significantly lower in the SU than DGC group. CONCLUSIONS: Both semen preparation techniques help to minimize sperm DNA fragmentation; however, when the DFI is <30%, the SU technique is more appropriate than DGC. While DGC may be superior for intrauterine insemination, the SU method may be preferable for in vitro fertilization or maturation.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen , Motilidade Espermática , Centrifugação com Gradiente de Concentração/métodos , Fragmentação do DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Espermatozoides
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7407, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523907

RESUMO

The assessment of the impact of chemotherapies on in vitro spermatogenesis in experimental models is required before considering the application of this fertility restoration strategy to prepubertal boys who received these treatments before testicular tissue cryopreservation. The present work investigated the effects of exposure of prepubertal mice to mono- (vincristine or cyclophosphamide) and polychemotherapy (a combination of vincristine and cyclophosphamide) on the first wave of in vitro spermatogenesis. When testicular tissue exposed to monochemotherapy was preserved, polychemotherapy led to severe alterations of the seminiferous epithelium and increased apoptosis in prepubertal testes prior in vitro maturation, suggesting a potential additive gonadotoxic effect. These alterations were also found in the testicular tissues of polychemotherapy-treated mice after 30 days of organotypic culture and were associated with a reduction in the germ cell/Sertoli cell ratio. The different treatments neither altered the ability of spermatogonia to differentiate in vitro into spermatozoa nor the yield of in vitro spermatogenesis. However, more spermatozoa with morphological abnormalities and fragmented DNA were produced after administration of polychemotherapy. This work therefore shows for the first time the possibility to achieve a complete in vitro spermatogenesis after an in vivo exposure of mice to a mono- or polychemotherapy before meiotic entry.


Assuntos
Espermatogênese , Espermatogônias , Animais , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatozoides , Testículo , Vincristina
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 163: 112979, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398183

RESUMO

The present study investigated the protective effect of dried white Mulberry extract (DWME) against carmustine (Crm) induced biochemical alterations and spermatological, histopathological, and fertility damage in Wistar albino rats. Male rats were divided into four groups (control, Crm, Crm + DWME, and DWME group). It was found that Crm decreased the motility. Crm decreased the concentration (not different from control group) compared to DWME groups. Total blood MDA levels were reduced during the recovery period. Also, the recovery period reduced the MDA levels in the Crm group/testicular tissue. The GSH levels in the Crm + DWME group were the highest among all groups in the testicular tissue/experiment period. In the immunohistochemical evaluation of the testicular tissue, a high level of caspase-3 was observed in the cells that underwent meiosis in the Crm group. The most pronounced DNA damage was also detected in the Crm group. The Crm + DWME group showed the highest number of offspring born during recovery period. In conclusion, dried white mulberry extract protects against the spermatological damages caused by carmustine. Moreover, recovery period played a positive effect on spermatological parameters and fertility.


Assuntos
Morus , Testículo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carmustina/metabolismo , Carmustina/toxicidade , Fertilidade , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espermatozoides
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409054

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a protein widely expressed in numerous cell types, with different biological roles mainly related to the renin-angiotensin system. Recently, ACE2 has been in the spotlight due to its involvement in the SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. There are no data available regarding the expression of ACE2 and its short-ACE2 isoform at the protein level on human spermatozoa. Here, protein expression was demonstrated by western blot and the percentage of sperm displaying surface ACE2 was assessed by flow cytometry. Immunocytochemistry assays showed that full-length ACE2 was mainly expressed in sperm midpiece, while short ACE2 was preferentially distributed on the equatorial and post-acrosomal region of the sperm head. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the expression of protein ACE2 on spermatozoa. Further studies are warranted to determine the role of ACE2 isoforms in male reproduction.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
16.
Theriogenology ; 185: 127-133, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397308

RESUMO

Eurasian perch is an important fish species for European aquaculture diversification, but the quality of reproduction still remains one of the main limitations for further industry development. In particular, the optimal condition to obtain the best quality of sperm is poorly understood. The aim of our study was to measure the possible effects of two experimental rearing temperatures (6 °C and the conventionally used 12 °C) and of hormonal stimulation, on the motility parameters (pMOT, VCL, VSL, LIN, ALH, BCF), osmolality and fertilizing capacity of Eurasian perch sperm at the end of the reproductive cycle. A prior untested, large-scale (5 mL cryotube and Polystyrene box) cryopreservation method was implemented using fresh sperm obtained from the two above mentioned temperature groups. Males were injected with 100 µg body weight kg-1 sGnRHa. No significant difference was recorded between the two rearing temperatures and between the saline control and sGnRHa treated groups on the different features of sperm quality. A similar fertilization rate was monitored in all sGnRHa treated (6 °C: 69 ± 13%, 12 °C: 81 ± 11%) and saline control groups (6 °C: 79 ± 10%, 12 °C: 87 ± 4%). Correspondingly, no significant difference in hatching rate was observed in the sGnRHa injected (6 °C: 27 ± 9%, 12 °C: 40 ± 20%) and saline control (6 °C: 35 ± 18%, 12 °C: 36 ± 7%) males. However, a notable negative effect of freezing process on sperm movement was observed following thawing in both temperature groups. No significant difference in the motility parameters was measured between the two temperature groups following large-scale cryopreservation. Furthermore, a similar result was observed in the fertilizing capacity (6 °C: 79 ± 10%, 12 °C: 75 ± 8) of thawed sperm as well as in the hatching rate (6 °C: 52 ± 13%, 12 °C: 46 ± 19%). Our results indicate that fresh Eurasian perch sperm can tolerate a reduced rearing temperature following hormonal treatment. The adopted large-scale cryopreservation method could be used efficiently in the future for the fertilization of large amounts of Eurasian perch eggs following a precise standardization process.


Assuntos
Percas , Preservação do Sêmen , Animais , Criopreservação/métodos , Criopreservação/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Percas/fisiologia , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Temperatura
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6057, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411022

RESUMO

Motility is an indicator of sperm cell viability due to higher probability in swimming through the female reproductive tract and undergo fertilization with the egg cell. Centrifugation method is a technique to process high volume semen and isolate motile sperm cells but decreases the biochemical integrity of spermatozoa due to the contact with reactive oxygen species (ROS) from dead cells released during centrifugation. This study uses solution electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) membranes as an alternative in isolating motile spermatozoa by utilizing a rationally designed 3D printed module set up, providing the same benefits as commercially available techniques with minimal processing time, and bypassing the centrifugation step to provide higher quality sperm cells. The membranes, with nominal pore size distributions ranging from 5 to 6 µm are highly porous structures suitable for establishing baseline data for sperm cell sorting by motility. The proposed method allows for isolation of motile sperm cells with 74% purity, while decreasing the processing time by 98% when compared to centrifugation techniques. This novel approach provides a facile method for isolating motile spermatozoa directly from frozen semen samples without any pretreatments and is easily scalable for small and medium scale farms as well as larger industries.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Motilidade Espermática , Separação Celular/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409285

RESUMO

In mammals, sperm fertilization potential relies on efficient progression within the female genital tract to reach and fertilize the oocyte. This fundamental property is supported by the flagellum, an evolutionarily conserved organelle that provides the mechanical force for sperm propulsion and motility. Importantly several functional maturation events that occur during the journey of the sperm cells through the genital tracts are necessary for the activation of flagellar beating and the acquisition of fertilization potential. Ion transporters and channels located at the surface of the sperm cells have been demonstrated to be involved in these processes, in particular, through the activation of downstream signaling pathways and the promotion of novel biochemical and electrophysiological properties in the sperm cells. We performed a systematic literature review to describe the currently known genetic alterations in humans that affect sperm ion transporters and channels and result in asthenozoospermia, a pathophysiological condition defined by reduced or absent sperm motility and observed in nearly 80% of infertile men. We also present the physiological relevance and functional mechanisms of additional ion channels identified in the mouse. Finally, considering the state-of-the art, we discuss future perspectives in terms of therapeutics of asthenozoospermia and male contraception.


Assuntos
Astenozoospermia , Animais , Astenozoospermia/genética , Astenozoospermia/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Motilidade Espermática/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409288

RESUMO

Gamete membrane fusion is a critical cellular event in sexual reproduction. In addition, the generation of knockout models has provided a powerful tool for testing the functional relevance of proteins thought to be involved in mammalian fertilization, suggesting IZUMO1 and TMEM95 (transmembrane protein 95) as essential proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the process remain largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to summarize the current knowledge about IZUMO1 and TMEM95 during mammalian fertilization. Hence, three distinct databases were consulted-PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science-using single keywords. As a result, a total of 429 articles were identified. Based on both inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final number of articles included in this study was 103. The results showed that IZUMO1 is mostly studied in rodents whereas TMEM95 is studied primarily in bovines. Despite the research, the topological localization of IZUMO1 remains controversial. IZUMO1 may be involved in organizing or stabilizing a multiprotein complex essential for the membrane fusion in which TMEM95 could act as a fusogen due to its possible interaction with IZUMO1. Overall, the expression of these two proteins is not sufficient for sperm-oocyte fusion; therefore, other molecules must be involved in the membrane fusion process.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana , Interações Espermatozoide-Óvulo , Animais , Bovinos , Fertilização , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Mamíferos/genética , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409429

RESUMO

Fertilization requires sperm migration toward oocytes and subsequent fusion. Sperm chemotaxis, a process in which motile sperm are attracted by factors released from oocytes or associated structures, plays a key role in sperm migration to oocytes. Here, we studied sperm chemotaxis in the nematode Ascaris suum. Our data show that uterus-derived factor (UDF), the protein fraction of uterine extracts, can attract spermatozoa. UDF is heat resistant, but its activity is attenuated by certain proteinases. UDF binds to the surface of spermatozoa but not spermatids, and this process is mediated by membranous organelles that fuse with the plasma membrane. UDF induces spermatozoa to release ATP from intracellular storage sites to the extracellular milieu, and extracellular ATP modulates sperm chemotaxis. Moreover, UDF increases protein serine phosphorylation (pS) levels in sperm, which facilitates sperm chemotaxis. Taken together, we revealed that both extracellular ATP and intracellular pS signaling are involved in Ascaris sperm chemotaxis. Our data provide insights into the mechanism of sperm chemotaxis in Ascaris suum.


Assuntos
Ascaris suum , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Quimiotaxia , Feminino , Masculino , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Útero
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