Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.042
Filtrar
1.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(4): 559-569, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479344

RESUMO

Approximately 5% of COVID-19 patients will have a severe disease requiring invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. In this conditions, sedatives and analgesics are fundamental to promote tolerance, comfort and synchrony with the mechanical ventilator. High and unusual requirements for sedation, analgesics and neuromuscular blockers have been reported in these patients, contributing to prolonged exposure, a high rate of delirium and prolongation of mechanical ventilation. These factors, added to the progressive shortage of these drugs, a high demand for care and less capacity for personalized attention, have created an adverse scenario for their proper and rational use. This paper proposes different pharmacotherapeutic optimization strategies for a rational management of sedation, analgesia and neuromuscular block in critically ill patients with COVID-19, with the therapeutic alternatives available in Chile.


Assuntos
Analgesia , COVID-19 , Chile , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(10): 1001-1011, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) can progress to an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which involves alveolar infiltration by activated neutrophils. The beta-blocker metoprolol has been shown to ameliorate exacerbated inflammation in the myocardial infarction setting. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of metoprolol on alveolar inflammation and on respiratory function in patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS. METHODS: A total of 20 COVID-19 patients with ARDS on invasive mechanical ventilation were randomized to metoprolol (15 mg daily for 3 days) or control (no treatment). All patients underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) before and after metoprolol/control. The safety of metoprolol administration was evaluated by invasive hemodynamic and electrocardiogram monitoring and echocardiography. RESULTS: Metoprolol administration was without side effects. At baseline, neutrophil content in BAL did not differ between groups. Conversely, patients randomized to metoprolol had significantly fewer neutrophils in BAL on day 4 (median: 14.3 neutrophils/µl [Q1, Q3: 4.63, 265 neutrophils/µl] vs median: 397 neutrophils/µl [Q1, Q3: 222, 1,346 neutrophils/µl] in the metoprolol and control groups, respectively; P = 0.016). Metoprolol also reduced neutrophil extracellular traps content and other markers of lung inflammation. Oxygenation (PaO2:FiO2) significantly improved after 3 days of metoprolol treatment (median: 130 [Q1, Q3: 110, 162] vs median: 267 [Q1, Q3: 199, 298] at baseline and day 4, respectively; P = 0.003), whereas it remained unchanged in control subjects. Metoprolol-treated patients spent fewer days on invasive mechanical ventilation than those in the control group (15.5 ± 7.6 vs 21.9 ± 12.6 days; P = 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot trial, intravenous metoprolol administration to patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS was safe, reduced exacerbated lung inflammation, and improved oxygenation. Repurposing metoprolol for COVID-19-associated ARDS appears to be a safe and inexpensive strategy that can alleviate the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Estado Terminal/terapia , Metoprolol/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Respiração Artificial/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050881, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433607

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Critical care is essential in saving lives of those that are critically ill, however, provision of critical care can be costly and heterogeneous across lower-resource settings. This paper describes the protocol for a systematic review of the literature that aims to identify the reported costs and resources available for the provision of critical care and the forms of critical care provision in Tanzania. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase and Global Health) will be searched to identify articles that report the forms of critical care, resources used in the provision of critical care in Tanzania, their availability and the associated costs. The search strategy will be developed from four key concepts; critical care provision, critical illness, resource use, Tanzania. The articles that fulfil the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be assessed for quality using the Reference Case for Estimating the Costs of Global Health Services and Interventions checklist. The extracted data will be summarised using descriptive statistics including frequencies, mean and median of the quantity and costs of resources used in the components of critical care services, depending on the data availability. This study will be carried out between February and November 2021. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is a review of secondary data and ethical clearance was sought from and granted by the Tanzanian National Institute of Medical Research (reference: NIMR/HQ/R.8a/Vol. IX/3537) and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (ethics ref: 22866). We will publish the review in a peer-reviewed journal as an open access article in addition to presenting the findings at conferences and public scientific gatherings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: The protocol was registered with PROSPERO; registration number: CRD42020221923.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Londres , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Tanzânia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26973, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414969

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: So far, only a few studies have examined and confirmed the correlation between end-expiratory carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETCO2) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) during invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. This study aimed to observe the correlation between PaCO2 and PETCO2 in patients on invasive mechanical ventilation.This was a cross-sectional study of adult patients on invasive mechanical ventilation enrolled between June 2018 and March 2019. Patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation underwent one of the following mechanical ventilation modes: assisted/controlled ventilation, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation, and spontaneous breathing. Subsequently, the difference and correlation between PETCO2 and PaCO2 were analyzed.A total of 184 patients with 298 pairs of PETCO2-PaCO2 data were included in the analysis. Without distinguishing the ventilator mode, there was significant positive correlation between PETCO2 and PaCO2. In different ventilator modes, the correlation coefficient was 0.81 for synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation, 0.47 for assisted/controlled ventilation, and 0.55 for spontaneous breathing, respectively. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (r = 0.80), multiple trauma (r = 0.64), severe pneumonia (r = 0.60), gastrointestinal surgery (r = 0.57), and cerebrovascular diseases (r = 0.53), PETCO2 and PaCO2 were positively correlated. For oxygenation index <200 mm Hg, correlation coefficient r = 0.69, P < .001; oxygenation index ≥200, r = 0.73, P < .001. Under different oxygenation indexes, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 correlation coefficients. Among 116 pairs of data with oxygenation index <200 mm Hg, the difference of PaCO2-PETCO2 ≥10 mm Hg was found in 25 pairs (21.55%); in 182 pairs of data with oxygenation index ≥200 mm Hg, the difference of PaCO2-PETCO2 ≥10 mm Hg was found in 26 pairsIn patients on invasive mechanical ventilation, there was a good correlation between PETCO2 and PaCO2 in different ventilator modes, different disease types, and different oxygenation indexes, especially in synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation mode and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Estado Terminal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Testes Respiratórios , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Estado Terminal/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue , Pressão Parcial
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26856, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397894

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Rapid response systems (RRS) have been introduced worldwide to reduce unpredicted in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and in-hospital mortality. The role of advance care planning (ACP) in the management of critical patients has not yet been fully determined in Japan.We retrospectively assessed the characteristics of all inpatients with unpredicted IHCA in our hospital between 2016 and 2018. Yearly changes in the number of RRS activations and the incidence of unpredicted IHCA with or without code status discussion were evaluated from 2014 to 2018. Hospital standardized mortality ratios were assessed from the data reported in the annual reports by the National Hospital Organization.A total of 81 patients (age: 70.9 ±â€Š13.3 years) suffered an unpredicted IHCA and had multiple background diseases, including heart disease (75.3%), chronic kidney disease (25.9%), and postoperative status (cardiovascular surgery, 18.5%). Most of the patients manifested non-shockable rhythms (69.1%); survival to hospital discharge rate was markedly lower than that with shockable rhythms (26.8% vs 72.0%, P < .001). The hospital standardized mortality ratios was maintained nearly constant at approximately 50.0% for 3 consecutive years. The number of cases of RRS activation markedly increased from 75 in 2014 to 274 patients in 2018; conversely, the number of unpredicted IHCA cases was reduced from 40 in 2014 to 18 in 2018 (P < .001). Considering the data obtained in 2014 and 2015 as references, the RRS led to a reduction in the relative risk of unpredicted IHCA from 2016 to 2018 (ie, 0.618, 95% confidence interval 0.453-0.843). The reduction in unpredicted IHCA was attributed partly to the increased number of patients who had discussed the code status, and a significant correlation was observed between these parameters (R2 = 0.992, P < .001). The reduction in the number of patients with end-stage disease, including congestive heart failure and chronic renal failure, paralleled the incidence of unpredicted IHCA.Both RRS and ACP reduced the incidence of unpredicted IHCA; RRS prevents progression to unpredicted IHCA, whereas ACP decreases the number of patients with no code status discussion and thus potentially reducing the patient subgroup progressing to an unpredicted IHCA.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Estado Terminal , Parada Cardíaca , Equipe de Respostas Rápidas de Hospitais , Hospitais Urbanos , Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/organização & administração , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Equipe de Respostas Rápidas de Hospitais/organização & administração , Equipe de Respostas Rápidas de Hospitais/normas , Hospitais Urbanos/organização & administração , Hospitais Urbanos/normas , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco
6.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 295, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive Care Resources are heavily utilized during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, risk stratification and prediction of SARS-CoV-2 patient clinical outcomes upon ICU admission remain inadequate. This study aimed to develop a machine learning model, based on retrospective & prospective clinical data, to stratify patient risk and predict ICU survival and outcomes. METHODS: A Germany-wide electronic registry was established to pseudonymously collect admission, therapeutic and discharge information of SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients retrospectively and prospectively. Machine learning approaches were evaluated for the accuracy and interpretability of predictions. The Explainable Boosting Machine approach was selected as the most suitable method. Individual, non-linear shape functions for predictive parameters and parameter interactions are reported. RESULTS: 1039 patients were included in the Explainable Boosting Machine model, 596 patients retrospectively collected, and 443 patients prospectively collected. The model for prediction of general ICU outcome was shown to be more reliable to predict "survival". Age, inflammatory and thrombotic activity, and severity of ARDS at ICU admission were shown to be predictive of ICU survival. Patients' age, pulmonary dysfunction and transfer from an external institution were predictors for ECMO therapy. The interaction of patient age with D-dimer levels on admission and creatinine levels with SOFA score without GCS were predictors for renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Using Explainable Boosting Machine analysis, we confirmed and weighed previously reported and identified novel predictors for outcome in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Using this strategy, predictive modeling of COVID-19 ICU patient outcomes can be performed overcoming the limitations of linear regression models. Trial registration "ClinicalTrials" (clinicaltrials.gov) under NCT04455451.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 283, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intensity of ventilation, reflected by driving pressure (ΔP) and mechanical power (MP), has an association with outcome in invasively ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is uncertain if a similar association exists in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: We aimed to investigate the impact of intensity of ventilation on patient outcome. The PRoVENT-COVID study is a national multicenter observational study in COVID-19 patients receiving invasive ventilation. Ventilator parameters were collected a fixed time points on the first calendar day of invasive ventilation. Mean dynamic ΔP and MP were calculated for individual patients at time points without evidence of spontaneous breathing. A Cox proportional hazard model, and a double stratification analysis adjusted for confounders were used to estimate the independent associations of ΔP and MP with outcome. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: In 825 patients included in this analysis, 28-day mortality was 27.5%. ΔP was not independently associated with mortality (HR 1.02 [95% confidence interval 0.88-1.18]; P = 0.750). MP, however, was independently associated with 28-day mortality (HR 1.17 [95% CI 1.01-1.36]; P = 0.031), and increasing quartiles of MP, stratified on comparable levels of ΔP, had higher risks of 28-day mortality (HR 1.15 [95% CI 1.01-1.30]; P = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of critically ill invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure, we show an independent association of MP, but not ΔP with 28-day mortality. MP could serve as one prognostic biomarker in addition to ΔP in these patients. Efforts aiming at limiting both ΔP and MP could translate in a better outcome. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov (study identifier NCT04346342).


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Respiração Artificial/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371948

RESUMO

Patients suffering from critical illness have host inflammatory responses against injuries, such as infection and trauma, that can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. Modulation of host immune response as well as infection and damage control are detrimental factors in the management of systemic inflammation. The gut is the motor of multiple organ failure following injury, and it is recognized that gut dysfunction is one of the causative factors of disease progression. The gut microbiota has a role in maintaining host immunity, and disruption of the gut microbiota might induce an immunosuppressive condition in critically ill patients. Treatment with probiotics and synbiotics has been reported to attenuate systemic inflammation by maintaining gut microbiota and to reduce postoperative infectious complications and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The administration of prophylactic probiotics/synbiotics could be an important treatment option for preventing infectious complications and modulating immunity. Further basic and clinical research is needed to promote intestinal therapies for critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Imunidade , Imunomodulação , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Simbióticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Inflamação/terapia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/microbiologia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371872

RESUMO

The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate gastrointestinal tolerance and protein absorption markers with a new enteral peptide formula (PF) compared to an isocaloric enteral intact protein standard formula (SF) containing the same amount of protein in ICU patients. Patients admitted to a cardio-thoracic intensive care unit expected to receive tube feeding for ≥5 days were randomized to receive either PF (1.5 kcal/mL) or SF in a double-blind manner for ≤14 days. Twenty-six patients were randomized (13 SF and 13 PF) and 23 (12 SF and 11 PF) completed at least 5 days of product administration. There were no statistically significant differences between the feeds during the first 5 days of intervention for diarrhea (SF:3 (23%); PF:5 (39%), p = 0.388), vomiting (SF:1 (8%); PF:2 (15%), p = 0.549), constipation (SF:7 (54%), PF:3 (23%), p = 0.115), and high gastric residual volume (>500 mL: SF:1 (8%); PF: 2 (15%), p = 0.535). There were no differences in plasma amino acids or urinary markers of protein absorption and metabolism. In conclusion, no major differences were found in tolerability and protein absorption markers between the standard intact protein formula and the peptide formula.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Nutrição Enteral , Alimentos Formulados , Absorção Intestinal , Valor Nutritivo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Alimentos Formulados/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hidrolisados de Proteína/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 111, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344449

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic limited hospital resources and necessitated interhospital transport of ICU-patients in order to provide critical care to all patients in the Netherlands. However, not all hospitals have an approved landing site. The ICU-transport operation was executed under HEMS-license and landing on non-aerodrome terrain was permitted. This allowed the search for an ad-hoc landing site in the direct vicinity of the ICU. The following characteristics were judged: slope, obstacles, size, soil conditions and the presence of foreign objects.Before the start of this transport operation, in two days, all hospitals in the Netherlands were visited and presumed landing sites explored, described, photographed and recorded in the electronic flight bag. At 71 (87,6 %) of the hospitals it was possible to install a temporary approved landing site in the direct vicinity of the ICU. 110 landings were made on these landing sites and 114 landings on approved heliports. Only 11 patients required secondary transport to or from the helicopter landings site. This occurred only in two patients from a heliport to a receiving hospital.The construction of pre-explored approved landing sites in the vicinity of hospitals allows safe transportation of patients by helicopter to hospitals without a heliport.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estado Terminal , Aeronaves , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255644, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In severe COVID-19 pneumonia, the appropriate timing and dosing of corticosteroids (CS) is not known. Patient subgroups for which CS could be more beneficial also need appraisal. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of early CS in COVID-19 pneumonia patients admitted to the ICU on the occurrence of 60-day mortality, ICU-acquired-bloodstream infections(ICU-BSI), and hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia(HAP-VAP). METHODS: We included patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to 11 ICUs belonging to the French OutcomeReaTM network from January to May 2020. We used survival models with ponderation with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). RESULTS: The study population comprised 303 patients having a median age of 61.6 (53-70) years of whom 78.8% were male and 58.6% had at least one comorbidity. The median SAPS II was 33 (25-44). Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in 34.8% of the patients. Sixty-six (21.8%) patients were in the Early-C subgroup. Overall, 60-day mortality was 29.4%. The risks of 60-day mortality (IPTWHR = 0.86;95% CI 0.54 to 1.35, p = 0.51), ICU-BSI and HAP-VAP were similar in the two groups. Importantly, early CS treatment was associated with a lower mortality rate in patients aged 60 years or more (IPTWHR, 0.53;95% CI, 0.3-0.93; p = 0.03). In contrast, CS was associated with an increased risk of death in patients younger than 60 years without inflammation on admission (IPTWHR = 5.01;95% CI, 1.05, 23.88; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: For patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, early CS treatment was not associated with patient survival. Interestingly, inflammation and age can significantly influence the effect of CS.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Redes Comunitárias , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Esquema de Medicação , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(Suppl 2): 79, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analgesia and sedation therapy are commonly used for critically ill patients, especially mechanically ventilated patients. From the initial nonsedation programs to deep sedation and then to on-demand sedation, the understanding of sedation therapy continues to deepen. However, according to different patient's condition, understanding the individual patient's depth of sedation needs remains unclear. METHODS: The public open source critical illness database Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III was used in this study. Latent profile analysis was used as a clustering method to classify mechanically ventilated patients based on 36 variables. Principal component analysis dimensionality reduction was used to select the most influential variables. The ROC curve was used to evaluate the classification accuracy of the model. RESULTS: Based on 36 characteristic variables, we divided patients undergoing mechanical ventilation and sedation and analgesia into two categories with different mortality rates, then further reduced the dimensionality of the data and obtained the 9 variables that had the greatest impact on classification, most of which were ventilator parameters. According to the Richmond-ASS scores, the two phenotypes of patients had different degrees of sedation and analgesia, and the corresponding ventilator parameters were also significantly different. We divided the validation cohort into three different levels of sedation, revealing that patients with high ventilator conditions needed a deeper level of sedation, while patients with low ventilator conditions required reduction in the depth of sedation as soon as possible to promote recovery and avoid reinjury. CONCLUSION: Through latent profile analysis and dimensionality reduction, we divided patients treated with mechanical ventilation and sedation and analgesia into two categories with different mortalities and obtained 9 variables that had the greatest impact on classification, which revealed that the depth of sedation was limited by the condition of the respiratory system.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Respiração Artificial , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Manejo da Dor
13.
CMAJ Open ; 9(3): E757-E764, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 3 Wishes Project (3WP) promotes a personalized dying experience by eliciting and facilitating individualized terminal wishes for patients, families and the clinicians caring for them. We aimed to evaluate the adaptability of the 3WP to a community intensive care unit (ICU), and to describe the patients cared for with this palliative approach, as well as local implementation strategies. METHODS: The 3WP was implemented in a 15-bed community hospital ICU in southern Ontario from 2017 to 2019. In this observational, descriptive study, we invited adult patients (≥ 18 yr) whose risk of death was deemed to be 95% or greater by the attending physician, or patients undergoing withdrawal of life-support to participate. We abstracted patient data from medical records, as well as the type, timing and cost of each wish, which person or service made and facilitated each wish, and if and why wishes were completed or not. We summarized data both narratively and quantitatively. RESULTS: The 3WP helped to realize 479 (99.2%) of 483 terminal wishes for 101 dying patients. This initiative was introduced as an interprofessional intervention and championed by nursing staff who were responsible for most patient enrolment and wish facilitation. Wishes included humanizing the ICU environment for the patient with belongings and blankets, musical performances, smudging and bathing ceremonies, and keepsakes. The cost was $5.39 per patient (standard deviation $22.40), with 430 (89.8%) wishes incurring no cost. Wishes made directly by patients accounted for 30 (6.2%) of wishes; those from family members and ICU staff accounted for 236 (48.9%) and 238 (49.3%) of wishes, respectively. The program comforted patients and their loved ones, motivating clinicians to sustain this end-of-life intervention. INTERPRETATION: We documented successful implementation of the 3WP in a community hospital, showing program adaptability and uptake outside of academic centres at relatively low cost. The lack of strict protocolization and personalized design of this intervention underscores its inherent flexibility, with potential to promote individualized end-of-life care in nonacademic hospital wards, homes or hospice.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Assistência Terminal , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Cuidados Paliativos , Assistência Terminal/métodos
14.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 33(2): 196-205, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify more severe COVID-19 presentations. METHODS: Consecutive intensive care unit-admitted patients were subjected to a stepwise clustering method. RESULTS: Data from 147 patients who were on average 56 ± 16 years old with a Simplified Acute Physiological Score 3 of 72 ± 18, of which 103 (70%) needed mechanical ventilation and 46 (31%) died in the intensive care unit, were analyzed. From the clustering algorithm, two well-defined groups were found based on maximal heart rate [Cluster A: 104 (95%CI 99 - 109) beats per minute versus Cluster B: 159 (95%CI 155 - 163) beats per minute], maximal respiratory rate [Cluster A: 33 (95%CI 31 - 35) breaths per minute versus Cluster B: 50 (95%CI 47 - 53) breaths per minute], and maximal body temperature [Cluster A: 37.4 (95%CI 37.1 - 37.7)°C versus Cluster B: 39.3 (95%CI 39.1 - 39.5)°C] during the intensive care unit stay, as well as the oxygen partial pressure in the blood over the oxygen inspiratory fraction at intensive care unit admission [Cluster A: 116 (95%CI 99 - 133) mmHg versus Cluster B: 78 (95%CI 63 - 93) mmHg]. Subphenotypes were distinct in inflammation profiles, organ dysfunction, organ support, intensive care unit length of stay, and intensive care unit mortality (with a ratio of 4.2 between the groups). CONCLUSION: Our findings, based on common clinical data, revealed two distinct subphenotypes with different disease courses. These results could help health professionals allocate resources and select patients for testing novel therapies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Fenótipo , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 649405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220705

RESUMO

The finding that high-dose dexamethasone improves survival in those requiring critical care due to COVID-19 will mean much greater usage of glucocorticoids in the subsequent waves of coronavirus infection. Furthermore, the consistent finding of adverse outcomes from COVID-19 in individuals with obesity, hypertension and diabetes has focussed attention on the metabolic dysfunction that may arise with critical illness. The SARS coronavirus itself may promote relative insulin deficiency, ketogenesis and hyperglycaemia in susceptible individuals. In conjunction with prolonged critical care, these components will promote a catabolic state. Insulin infusion is the mainstay of therapy for treatment of hyperglycaemia in acute illness but what is the effect of insulin on the admixture of glucocorticoids and COVID-19? This article reviews the evidence for the effect of insulin on clinical outcomes and intermediary metabolism in critical illness.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Metabólicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/complicações , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/mortalidade , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203015

RESUMO

The interplay between inflammation and oxidative stress is a vicious circle, potentially resulting in organ damage. Essential micronutrients such as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) support anti-oxidative defense systems and are commonly depleted in severe disease. This single-center retrospective study investigated micronutrient levels under Se and Zn supplementation in critically ill patients with COVID-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and explored potential relationships with immunological and clinical parameters. According to intensive care unit (ICU) standard operating procedures, patients received 1.0 mg of intravenous Se daily on top of artificial nutrition, which contained various amounts of Se and Zn. Micronutrients, inflammatory cytokines, lymphocyte subsets and clinical data were extracted from the patient data management system on admission and after 10 to 14 days of treatment. Forty-six patients were screened for eligibility and 22 patients were included in the study. Twenty-one patients (95%) suffered from severe ARDS and 14 patients (64%) survived to ICU discharge. On admission, the majority of patients had low Se status biomarkers and Zn levels, along with elevated inflammatory parameters. Se supplementation significantly elevated Se (p = 0.027) and selenoprotein P levels (SELENOP; p = 0.016) to normal range. Accordingly, glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) activity increased over time (p = 0.021). Se biomarkers, most notably SELENOP, were inversely correlated with CRP (rs = -0.495), PCT (rs = -0.413), IL-6 (rs = -0.429), IL-1ß (rs = -0.440) and IL-10 (rs = -0.461). Positive associations were found for CD8+ T cells (rs = 0.636), NK cells (rs = 0.772), total IgG (rs = 0.493) and PaO2/FiO2 ratios (rs = 0.504). In addition, survivors tended to have higher Se levels after 10 to 14 days compared to non-survivors (p = 0.075). Sufficient Se and Zn levels may potentially be of clinical significance for an adequate immune response in critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Deficiências Nutricionais/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/complicações , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucinas/sangue , Masculino , Micronutrientes/sangue , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Selênio/sangue , Selênio/deficiência , Selenoproteína P/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/deficiência
17.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 1104-1114, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical use of serum creatine (sCr) and cystatin C (CysC) in kidney function evaluation of critically ill patients has been in continuous discussion. The difference between estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated by sCr (eGFRcr) and CysC (eGFRcysc) of critically ill COVID-19 patients were investigated in this study. METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-center study of critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) at Wuhan, China. Control cases were moderate COVID-19 patients matched in age and sex at a ratio of 1:1. The eGFRcr and eGFRcysc were compared. The association between eGFR and death were analyzed in critically ill cases. The potential factors influencing the divergence between eGFRcr and eGFRcysc were explored. RESULTS: A total of 76 critically ill COVID-19 patients were concluded. The mean age was 64.5 ± 9.3 years. The eGFRcr (85.45 (IQR 60.58-99.23) ml/min/1.73m2) were much higher than eGFRcysc (60.6 (IQR 34.75-79.06) ml/min/1.73m2) at ICU admission. About 50 % of them showed eGFRcysc < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 while 25% showed eGFRcr < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (χ2 = 10.133, p = 0.001). This divergence was not observed in moderate group. The potential factors influencing the divergence included serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) level as well as APACHEII, SOFA scores. Reduced eGFRcr (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was associated with death (HR = 1.939, 95%CI 1.078-3.489, p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: The eGFRcr was generally higher than eGFRcysc in critically ill COVID-19 cases with severe inflammatory state. The divergence might be affected by inflammatory condition and illness severity. Reduced eGFRcr predicted in-hospital death. In these patients, we advocate for caution when using eGFRcysc.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Creatina/sangue , Cistatina C/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205461

RESUMO

Malnourishment is prevalent in patients suffering from head and neck cancer. The postoperative period is crucial in terms of nutritional support, especially after composite resection and reconstruction surgery. These patients present with a number of risk factors that aggravate feeding intolerance, including postoperative status, prolonged immobility, decreased head elevation, mechanical ventilation, and applied sedative agents. Routine management protocols for feeding intolerance include prokinetic drug use and post-pyloric tube insertion, which could be both limited and accompanied by detrimental adverse events. This single-blind clinical trial aimed to investigate the effects of acupuncture in postoperative feeding intolerance in critically ill oral and hypopharyngeal cancer patients. Twenty-eight patients were randomized into two groups: Intervention group and Control group. Interventions were administered daily over three consecutive postoperative days. The primary outcome revealed that the intervention group reached 70% and 80% of target energy expenditure (EE) significantly earlier than the control group (4.00 ± 1.22 versus 6.69 ± 3.50 days, p = 0.012), accompanied by higher total calorie intake within the first postoperative week (10263.62 ± 1086.11 kcals versus 8384.69 ± 2120.05 kcals, p = 0.004). Furthermore, the intervention group also needed less of the prokinetic drug (Metoclopramide, 20.77 ± 48.73 mg versus 68.46 ± 66.56 mg, p = 0.010). In conclusion, digestion-specific acupuncture facilitated reduced postoperative feeding intolerance in oral and hypopharyngeal cancer patients.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Estado Terminal/terapia , Digestão , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/terapia , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Idoso , China , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/terapia , Metoclopramida/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281177

RESUMO

Hypercoagulation is one of the major risk factors for ICU treatment, mechanical ventilation, and death in critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. At the same time, hypoalbuminemia is one risk factor in such patients, independent of age and comorbidities. Especially in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-infection, albumin infusion may be essential to improve hemodynamics and to reduce the plasma level of the main marker of thromboembolism, namely, the D-dimer plasma level, as suggested by a recent report. Albumin is responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure in the vessels. This is necessary to keep enough water within the systemic circulatory system and for the maintenance of sufficient blood pressure, as well as for sufficient blood supply for vital organs like the brain, lungs, heart, and kidney. The liver reacts to a decrease in oncotic pressure with an increase in albumin synthesis. This is normally possible through the use of amino acids from the proteins introduced with the nutrients reaching the portal blood. If these are not sufficiently provided with the diet, amino acids are delivered to the liver from muscular proteins by systemic circulation. The liver is also the source of coagulation proteins, such as fibrinogen, fibronectin, and most of the v WF VIII, which are physiological components of the extracellular matrix of the vessel wall. While albumin is the main negative acute-phase protein, fibrinogen, fibronectin, and v WF VIII are positive acute-phase proteins. Acute illnesses cause the activation of defense mechanisms (acute-phase reaction) that may lead to an increase of fibrinolysis and an increase of plasma level of fibrinogen breakdown products, mainly fibrin and D-dimer. The measurement of the plasma level of the D-dimer has been used as a marker for venous thromboembolism, where a fourfold increase of the D-dimer plasma level was used as a negative prognostic marker in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. Increased fibrinolysis can take place in ischemic peripheral sites, where the mentioned coagulation proteins can become part of the provisional clot (e.g., in the lungs). Although critically ill SARS-CoV-2-infected patients are considered septic shock patients, albumin infusions have not been considered for hemodynamic resuscitation and as anticoagulants. The role of coagulation factors as provisional components of the extracellular matrix in case of generalized peripheral ischemia due to hypoalbuminemia and hypovolemia is discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Albuminas/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/terapia , Hemodiluição/métodos , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/metabolismo , Estado Terminal/terapia , Fibrinólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Tromboelastografia
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 690, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the effect of applying a comprehensive unit-based safety program (CUSP) in the intrahospital transfer of patients with critical diseases. METHODS: A total of 426 critically ill patients in the first affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from August 2018 to February 2019 were divided into two groups according to the time of admission. Overall, 202 patients in the control group were treated with the routine transfer method, and 224 patients in the observational group were treated with the transfer method based on the CUSP model. The safety culture assessment data of medical staff, the occurrence rate of adverse events and related causes, the time of transfer, and the satisfaction of patients' relatives to the transfer process were compared before and after implementation of the transfer model between the two groups. RESULTS: Before and after the implementation of the CUSP mode transfer program, there were significant differences in the scores of all dimensions of the safety culture assessment of medical staff (P < 0.05), and the occurrence rate of adverse events and the causes in the observational group were significantly lower than those in the control group (disease-related, staff-related, equipment-related, environment-related) (P < 0.05). The transfer time for Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), operating room, and the interventional room was significantly shorter in the observational group than that in the control group (P < 0.05), while the satisfaction of relatives to the transfer process was significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The implementation of CUSP model for the intrahospital transfer of critically ill patients can significantly shorten the in-hospital transfer time, improve the attitude of medical staff towards safety, reduce the occurrence rate of adverse events, and improve the satisfaction of patients' relatives to the transfer process.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Gestão da Segurança , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...