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1.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 24(1): 146, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The decision to maintain or halt antiplatelet medication in septic patients admitted to intensive care units presents a clinical dilemma. This is due to the necessity to balance the benefits of preventing thromboembolic incidents and leveraging anti-inflammatory properties against the increased risk of bleeding. METHODS: This study involves a secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study focusing on patients diagnosed with severe sepsis or septic shock. We evaluated the outcomes of 203 patients, examining mortality rates and the requirement for transfusion. The cohort was divided into two groups: those whose antiplatelet therapy was sustained (n = 114) and those in whom it was discontinued (n = 89). To account for potential biases such as indication for antiplatelet therapy, propensity score matching was employed. RESULTS: Therapy continuation did not significantly alter transfusion requirements (discontinued vs. continued in matched samples: red blood cell concentrates 51.7% vs. 68.3%, p = 0.09; platelet concentrates 21.7% vs. 18.3%, p = 0.82; fresh frozen plasma concentrates 38.3% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.7). 90-day survival was higher within the continued group (30.0% vs. 70.0%; p < 0.001) and the Log-rank test (7-day survivors; p = 0.001) as well as Cox regression (both matched samples) suggested an association between continuation of antiplatelet therapy < 7 days and survival (HR: 0.24, 95%-CI 0.10 to 0.63, p = 0.004). Sepsis severity expressed by the SOFA score did not differ significantly in matched and unmatched patients (both p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that continuing antiplatelet therapy in septic patients admitted to intensive care units could be associated with a significant survival benefit without substantially increasing the need for transfusion. These results highlight the importance of a nuanced approach to managing antiplatelet medication in the context of severe sepsis and septic shock.


Assuntos
Sepse , Choque Séptico , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
2.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 123, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis with the dual intent of assessing the impact of attaining aggressive vs. conservative beta-lactams PK/PD target on the clinical efficacy for treating Gram-negative infections in critical patients, and of identifying predictive factors of failure in attaining aggressive PK/PD targets. METHODS: Two authors independently searched PubMed-MEDLINE and Scopus database from inception to 23rd December 2023, to retrieve studies comparing the impact of attaining aggressive vs. conservative PK/PD targets on clinical efficacy of beta-lactams. Independent predictive factors of failure in attaining aggressive PK/PD targets were also assessed. Aggressive PK/PD target was considered a100%fT>4xMIC, and clinical cure rate was selected as primary outcome. Meta-analysis was performed by pooling odds ratios (ORs) extrapolated from studies providing adjustment for confounders using a random-effects model with inverse variance method. RESULTS: A total of 20,364 articles were screened, and 21 observational studies were included in the meta-analysis (N = 4833; 2193 aggressive vs. 2640 conservative PK/PD target). Attaining aggressive PK/PD target was significantly associated with higher clinical cure rate (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.15-2.49) and lower risk of beta-lactam resistance development (OR 0.06; 95% CI 0.01-0.29). Male gender, body mass index > 30 kg/m2, augmented renal clearance and MIC above the clinical breakpoint emerged as significant independent predictors of failure in attaining aggressive PK/PD targets, whereas prolonged/continuous infusion administration of beta-lactams resulted as protective factor. The risk of bias was moderate in 19 studies and severe in the other 2. CONCLUSIONS: Attaining aggressive beta-lactams PK/PD targets provided significant clinical benefits in critical patients. Our analysis could be useful to stratify patients at high-risk of failure in attaining aggressive PK/PD targets.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , beta-Lactamas , Humanos , Masculino , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia , beta-Lactamas/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Infusões Intravenosas
3.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 112, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately one in three survivors of critical illness suffers from intensive-care-unit-acquired weakness, which increases mortality and impairs quality of life. By counteracting immobilization, a known risk factor, active mobilization may mitigate its negative effects on patients. In this single-center trial, the effect of robotic-assisted early mobilization in the intensive care unit (ICU) on patients' outcomes was investigated. METHODS: We enrolled 16 adults scheduled for lung transplantation to receive 20 min of robotic-assisted mobilization and verticalization twice daily during their first week in the ICU (intervention group: IG). A control group (CG) of 13 conventionally mobilized patients after lung transplantation was recruited retrospectively. Outcome measures included the duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, muscle parameters evaluated by ultrasound, and quality of life after three months. RESULTS: During the first week in the ICU, the intervention group received a median of 6 (interquartile range 3-8) robotic-assisted sessions of early mobilization and verticalization. There were no statistically significant differences in the duration of mechanical ventilation (IG: median 126 vs. CG: 78 h), length of ICU stay, muscle parameters evaluated by ultrasound, and quality of life after three months between the IG and CG. CONCLUSION: In this study, robotic-assisted mobilization was successfully implemented in the ICU setting. No significant differences in patients' outcomes were observed between conventional and robotic-assisted mobilization. However, randomized and larger studies are necessary to validate the adequacy of robotic mobilization in other cohorts. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This single-center interventional trial was registered in clinicaltrials.gov as NCT05071248 on 27/08/2021.


Assuntos
Deambulação Precoce , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Grupos Controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Respiração Artificial , Estado Terminal/terapia
4.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612956

RESUMO

Refeeding syndrome (RFS) is a potentially life-threatening complication in malnourished (critically ill) patients. The presence of various accepted RFS definitions and the inclusion of heterogeneous patient populations in the literature has led to discrepancies in reported incidence rates in patients requiring treatment at an intensive care unit (ICU). We conducted a prospective observational study from 2010 to 2013 to assess the RFS incidence and clinical characteristics among medical ICU patients at a large tertiary center. RFS was defined as a decrease of more than 0.16 mmol/L serum phosphate to values below 0.65 mmol/L within seven days after the start of medical nutrition therapy or pre-existing serum phosphate levels below 0.65 mmol/L. Overall, 195 medical patients admitted to the ICU were included. RFS was recorded in 92 patients (47.18%). The presence of RFS indicated significantly altered phosphate and potassium levels and was accompanied by significantly more electrolyte substitutions (phosphate, potassium, and magnesium). No differences in fluid balance, energy delivery, and insulin requirements were detected. The presence of RFS had no impact on ICU length of stay and ICU mortality. Screening for RFS using simple diagnostic criteria based on serum phosphate levels identified critically ill patients with an increased demand for electrolyte substitutions. Therefore, stringent monitoring of electrolyte levels is indicated to prevent life-threatening complications.


Assuntos
Hipofosfatemia , Terapia Nutricional , Síndrome da Realimentação , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Eletrólitos , Hipofosfatemia/etiologia , Fosfatos , Potássio , Síndrome da Realimentação/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Ann Saudi Med ; 44(2): 84-92, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the beneficial effects, RBC transfusion can be associated with infectious and non-infectious complications in critically ill patients. OBJECTIVES: Investigate current RBC transfusion practices and their effect on the clinical outcomes of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Three mixed medical-surgical adult ICUs of a large academic tertiary hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From March 2018 to February 2020, all adult patients admitted to medical or surgical ICU. Patients who received one or more RBC transfusions during the first month of ICU admission were included in the "transfusion" group, while the remaining patients were assigned to the "non-transfusion" group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality and length of ICU and hospital stay. SAMPLE SIZE: 2159 patients. RESULTS: Of 594 patients who recieved transfusions, 27% of patients received red blood cell (RBC) products. The mean pre-transfusion hemoglobin (Hb) level was 8.05 (1.46) g/dL. There was a significant relationship between higher APACHE II scores and ICU mortality in patients with Hb levels of 7-9 g/dL (OR adjusted=1.05). Also, ICU mortality was associated with age (OR adjusted=1.03), APACHE II score (OR adjusted=1.08), and RBC transfusion (OR adjusted=2.01) in those whose Hb levels were >9 (g/dl). CONCLUSION: RBC transfusion was associated with an approximately doubled risk of ICU mortality in patients with Hb>9 g/dL. High APACHE II score and age increase the chance of death in the ICU by 8% and 3%, respectively. Hence, ICU physicians should consider a lower Hb threshold for RBC transfusion, and efforts must be made to optimize RBC transfusion practices. LIMITATIONS: Single-center and retrospective study.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Adulto , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hospitais de Ensino
6.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 114, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is a hallmark of critical illness, which is largely inflammatory driven. We hypothesized that the use of anti-inflammatory agents limits the development of anemia and reduces the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in patients with a hyper-inflammatory condition due to COVID-19. METHODS: An observational cohort (n = 772) and a validation cohort (a subset of REMAP-CAP, n = 119) of critically ill patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 were analyzed, who either received no treatment, received steroids or received steroids plus IL-6 blocking agents. The trajectory of hemoglobin (Hb) decline and the need for RBC transfusions were compared using descriptive statistics as well as multivariate modeling. RESULTS: In both cohorts, Hb level was higher in the treated groups compared to the untreated group at all time points. In the observational cohort, incidence and number of transfused patients were lower in the group receiving the combination treatment compared to the untreated groups. In a multivariate analysis controlling for baseline Hb imbalance and mechanical ventilation, receipt of steroids remained associated with a slower decline in Hb level and the combination treatment remained associated with a slower decline of Hb and with less transfusions. Results remained the same in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: Immunomodulatory treatment was associated with a slower decline in Hb level in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and with less transfusion. Findings point toward inflammation as an important cause for the occurrence of anemia in the critically ill.


Assuntos
Anemia , COVID-19 , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Anemia/terapia , Anemia/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , Esteroides
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7793, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565898

RESUMO

An estimated 70% of critically ill patients receive antibiotics, most frequently beta-lactams. The pharmacokinetic properties of these substances in this patient population are poorly predictable. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is helpful in making personalized decisions in this field, but its overall impact as a clinical decision-supporting tool is debated. We aimed to evaluate the clinical implications of adjusting beta-lactam dosages based on TDM in the critically ill population by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of available investigations. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies were retrieved by searching three major databases. The intervention group received TDM-guided beta-lactam treatment, that is, at least one dose reconsideration based on the result of the measurement of drug concentrations, while TDM-unadjusted dosing was employed in the comparison group. The outcomes were evaluated using forest plots with random-effects modeling and subgroup analysis. Eight eligible studies were identified, including 1044 patients in total. TDM-guided beta-lactam treatment was associated with improved clinical cure from infection [odds ratio (OR): 2.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.78-2.76)] and microbiological eradication [OR: 1.72 (CI: 1.05-2.80)], as well as a lower probability of treatment failure [OR: 0.47 (CI: 0.36-0.62)], but the heterogeneity of studies was remarkably high, especially in terms of mortality (70%). The risk of bias was moderate. While the TDM-guided administration of beta-lactams to critically ill patients has a favorable impact, standardized study designs and larger sample sizes are required for developing evidence-based protocols in this field.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , beta-Lactamas , Adulto , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Antibacterianos
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e081637, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580355

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An association between deep sedation and adverse short-term outcomes has been demonstrated although this evidence has been inconsistent. The A2B (alpha-2 agonists for sedation in critical care) sedation trial is designed to determine whether the alpha-2 agonists clonidine and dexmedetomidine, compared with usual care, are clinically and cost-effective. The A2B intervention is a complex intervention conducted in 39 intensive care units (ICUs) in the UK. Multicentre organisational factors, variable cultures, perceptions and practices and the involvement of multiple members of the healthcare team add to the complexity of the A2B trial. From our pretrial contextual exploration it was apparent that routine practices such as type and frequency of pain, agitation and delirium assessment, as well as the common sedative agents used, varied widely across the UK. Anticipated challenges in implementing A2B focused on the impact of usual practice, perceptions of risk, ICU culture, structure and the presence of equipoise. Given this complexity, a process evaluation has been embedded in the A2B trial to uncover factors that could impact successful delivery and explore their impact on intervention delivery and interpretation of outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a mixed-methods process evaluation guided by the A2B intervention logic model. It includes two phases of data collection conducted during and at the end of trial. Data will be collected using a combination of questionnaires, stakeholder interviews and routinely collected trial data. A framework approach will be used to analyse qualitative data with synthesis of data within and across the phases. The nature of the relationship between delivery of the A2B intervention and the trial primary and secondary outcomes will be explored. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All elements of the A2B trial, including the process evaluation, are approved by Scotland A Research Ethics Committee (Ref. 18/SS/0085). Dissemination will be via publications, presentations and media engagement. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03653832.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2 , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Rev Med Suisse ; 20(865): 555-556, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482763

RESUMO

Malnutrition is a common condition among hospitalized patients and has an important impact on morbidity and mortality. Despite enteral nutrition being the preferred option for patients requiring artificial alimentation, parenteral nutrition (PN) can be required. This article emphasizes the importance of choosing the adequate vascular access based on the chosen PN. Furthermore, it reviews indications, contraindications and complications of PN.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Desnutrição , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Nutrição Parenteral , Desnutrição/terapia , Nutrição Enteral , Contraindicações
11.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 12(4): 277-284, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514241

RESUMO

Stress hyperglycaemia, hypoglycaemia, and diabetes are common in critically ill patients and related to clinical endpoints. To avoid complications related to hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, it is recommended to start insulin therapy for the majority of critically ill patients with persistent blood glucose concentrations higher than 10·0 mmol/L (>180 mg/dL), targeting a range of 7·8-10·0 mmol/L (140-180 mg/dL). However, management and evidence-based targets for blood glucose control are under debate, particularly for patients with diabetes. Recent randomised controlled clinical trials now challenge current recommendations. In this Personal View, we aim to highlight these developments and the important differences between critically ill patients with and without diabetes, taking into account the considerable heterogeneity in this patient group. We critically discuss evidence from prospective randomised controlled trials and observational studies on the safety and efficacy of glycaemic control, specifically in the context of patients with diabetes in intensive care units.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Hipoglicemia , Humanos , Glicemia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Controle Glicêmico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
12.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300605, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517914

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is one possible strategy to ameliorate respiratory muscle weakness due to invasive mechanical ventilation. Recent systematic reviews have focused on respiratory outcomes with minimal attention to physical function. The newest systematic review searched the literature until September 2017 and a recent preliminary search identified 5 new randomized controlled trials focusing on IMT in critical care. As such, a new systematic review is warranted to summarize the current body of evidence and to investigate the effect of IMT on physical function in critical care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We will search for three main concepts ("critical illness", "inspiratory muscle training", "RCT") across six databases from their inception (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Emcare, AMED, CINAHL, CENTRAL) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Two reviewers will independently screen titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility using the Covidence web-based software. Eligible studies must include: (1) adult (≥18 years) patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) who required invasive mechanical ventilation for ≥24 hours, (2) an IMT intervention using a threshold device with the goal of improving inspiratory muscle strength, with or without usual care, and (3) randomized controlled trial design. The primary outcome of interest will be physical function. We will use the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tools (ROB2) and will assess the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) tool. This protocol has been reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA- P) guidelines and is registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). CONCLUSION: Results will summarize the body of evidence of the effect of IMT on physical function in critically ill patients. We will submit our findings to a peer-reviewed journal and share our results at conferences.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Respiração Artificial , Adulto , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Metanálise como Assunto , Músculos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
JAMA ; 331(14): 1195-1204, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501205

RESUMO

Importance: Among critically ill adults, randomized trials have not found oxygenation targets to affect outcomes overall. Whether the effects of oxygenation targets differ based on an individual's characteristics is unknown. Objective: To determine whether an individual's characteristics modify the effect of lower vs higher peripheral oxygenation-saturation (Spo2) targets on mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: A machine learning model to predict the effect of treatment with a lower vs higher Spo2 target on mortality for individual patients was derived in the Pragmatic Investigation of Optimal Oxygen Targets (PILOT) trial and externally validated in the Intensive Care Unit Randomized Trial Comparing Two Approaches to Oxygen Therapy (ICU-ROX) trial. Critically ill adults received invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU) in the United States between July 2018 and August 2021 for PILOT (n = 1682) and in 21 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand between September 2015 and May 2018 for ICU-ROX (n = 965). Exposures: Randomization to a lower vs higher Spo2 target group. Main Outcome and Measure: 28-Day mortality. Results: In the ICU-ROX validation cohort, the predicted effect of treatment with a lower vs higher Spo2 target for individual patients ranged from a 27.2% absolute reduction to a 34.4% absolute increase in 28-day mortality. For example, patients predicted to benefit from a lower Spo2 target had a higher prevalence of acute brain injury, whereas patients predicted to benefit from a higher Spo2 target had a higher prevalence of sepsis and abnormally elevated vital signs. Patients predicted to benefit from a lower Spo2 target experienced lower mortality when randomized to the lower Spo2 group, whereas patients predicted to benefit from a higher Spo2 target experienced lower mortality when randomized to the higher Spo2 group (likelihood ratio test for effect modification P = .02). The use of a Spo2 target predicted to be best for each patient, instead of the randomized Spo2 target, would have reduced the absolute overall mortality by 6.4% (95% CI, 1.9%-10.9%). Conclusion and relevance: Oxygenation targets that are individualized using machine learning analyses of randomized trials may reduce mortality for critically ill adults. A prospective trial evaluating the use of individualized oxygenation targets is needed.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Oxigênio , Adulto , Humanos , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Prospectivos , Oxigenoterapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
14.
JAMA ; 331(14): 1225-1226, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501213

RESUMO

This JAMA Guide to Statistics and Methods article explains effect score analyses, an approach for evaluating the heterogeneity of treatment effects, and examines its use in a study of oxygen-saturation targets in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Modelos Estatísticos , Gravidade do Paciente , 60534 , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Oximetria , Oxigênio/análise , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Intensive Care Med ; 50(4): 539-547, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478027

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Early recognition and effective treatment of sepsis improves outcomes in critically ill patients. However, antibiotic exposures are frequently suboptimal in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. We describe the feasibility of the Bayesian dosing software Individually Designed Optimum Dosing Strategies (ID-ODS™), to reduce time to effective antibiotic exposure in children and adults with sepsis in ICU. METHODS: A multi-centre prospective, non-randomised interventional trial in three adult ICUs and one paediatric ICU. In a pre-intervention Phase 1, we measured the time to target antibiotic exposure in participants. In Phase 2, antibiotic dosing recommendations were made using ID-ODS™, and time to target antibiotic concentrations were compared to patients in Phase 1 (a pre-post-design). RESULTS: 175 antibiotic courses (Phase 1 = 123, Phase 2 = 52) were analysed from 156 participants. Across all patients, there was no difference in the time to achieve target exposures (8.7 h vs 14.3 h in Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively, p = 0.45). Sixty-one courses in 54 participants failed to achieve target exposures within 24 h of antibiotic commencement (n = 36 in Phase 1, n = 18 in Phase 2). In these participants, ID-ODS™ was associated with a reduction in time to target antibiotic exposure (96 vs 36.4 h in Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively, p < 0.01). These patients were less likely to exhibit subtherapeutic antibiotic exposures at 96 h (hazard ratio (HR) 0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.05, p < 0.01). There was no difference observed in in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Dosing software may reduce the time to achieve target antibiotic exposures. It should be evaluated further in trials to establish its impact on clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Sepse , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Teorema de Bayes , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Software
16.
J Infect Public Health ; 17(5): 843-853, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colistin is a viable option for multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria emerged from inappropriate antibiotic use. Nonetheless, suboptimal colistin concentrations and nephrotoxicity risks hinder its clinical use. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate clinical outcomes in correlation with pharmacokinetic differences and infection types in critically ill patients on intravenous colistin methanesulfornate sodium (CMS). METHODS: A systematic literature search of Embase, Google Scholars, and PubMed was performed to identify clinical trials evaluating pharmacokinetic parameters along with clinical outcomes of CMS treatment from inception to July 2023. The pooled analyses of clinical impact of CMS on nephrotoxicity, mortality, clinical cure, and colistin concentration at steady state (Css,avg) were performed. This study was registered in the PROSPERO (CRD 42023456120). RESULTS: Total of 695 critically ill patients from 17 studies were included. The mortality was substantially lower in clinically cured patients (OR 0.05; 95% CI 0.02 - 0.14), whereas the mortality rate was statistically insignificant between nephrotoxic and non-nephrotoxic patients. Inter-patient variability of pharmacokinetic parameters of CMS and colistin was observed in critically ill patients. The standard mean differences of Css,avg were statistically insignificant between clinically cure and clinically failure groups (standard mean difference (SMD) -0.25; 95% CI -0.69 - 0.19) and between nephrotoxic and non-nephrotoxic groups (SMD 0.67; 95% CI -0.27-1.61). The clinical cure rate is substantially lower in pneumonia patients (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.01 - 0.56), and pharmacokinetic parameters pertaining to microbiological cure were different among strains. CONCLUSION: The mortality rate was substantially lower in clinically cured patients with CMS. However, no significant differences in Css,avg of colistin were examined to determine the impact of pharmacokinetic differences on clinical outcomes including mortality rate and nephrotoxicity risk. Nevertheless, the clinical cure rate is substantially lower in patients with respiratory infection than patients with urinary tract infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Humanos , Colistina/efeitos adversos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Bactérias , Mesilatos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia
17.
Intensive Care Med ; 50(4): 548-560, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483559

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide consensus recommendations regarding hemodynamic data reporting in studies investigating fluid responsiveness and fluid challenge (FC) use in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: The Executive Committee of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) commissioned and supervised the project. A panel of 18 international experts and a methodologist identified main domains and items from a systematic literature, plus 2 ancillary domains. A three-step Delphi process based on an iterative approach was used to obtain the final consensus. In the Delphi 1 and 2, the items were selected with strong (≥ 80% of votes) or week agreement (70-80% of votes), while the Delphi 3 generated recommended (≥ 90% of votes) or suggested (80-90% of votes) items (RI and SI, respectively). RESULTS: We identified 5 main domains initially including 117 items and the consensus finally resulted in 52 recommendations or suggestions: 18 RIs and 2 SIs statements were obtained for the domain "ICU admission", 11 RIs and 1 SI for the domain "mechanical ventilation", 5 RIs for the domain "reason for giving a FC", 8 RIs for the domain pre- and post-FC "hemodynamic data", and 7 RIs for the domain "pre-FC infused drugs". We had no consensus on the use of echocardiography, strong agreement regarding the volume (4 ml/kg) and the reference variable (cardiac output), while weak on administration rate (within 10 min) of FC in this setting. CONCLUSION: This consensus found 5 main domains and provided 52 recommendations for data reporting in studies investigating fluid responsiveness in ICU patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Consenso , Cuidados Críticos , Coração , Técnica Delfos
18.
Crit Care Med ; 52(5): e234-e244, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502807

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the development of albumin administration in patients admitted to the adult ICU. In addition, we assessed the impact of albumin administration on serum hemoglobin concentration. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective single-center study including all patients who were admitted to the ICU from January 2013 to December 2021 and stayed at least 24 hours. SETTING: The study was conducted in an academic hospital (University Hospital Basel, Switzerland). PATIENTS: A total of 20,927 admissions were included, of which 3748 received albumin at least once during their ICU stay. To analyze volume expansion, 2006 admissions met the inclusion criteria, namely at least two hemoglobin measurements within 12 hours, one albumin delivery, and experienced no bleeding, dialysis, or transfusions during this period. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS: We examined the hemoglobin levels before and after albumin administration and compared them with a matched control group to assess the amount and duration of volume expansion. MAIN RESULTS: From 2013 to 2021 the proportion of critically ill patients treated with albumin rose from 5.0% to 32.5%. An overproportioned increase in albumin use could be seen in surgical patients (4.7-47.2%) and in those receiving RBC transfusion (13.7-72.6%). In those patients receiving albumin, a significant drop in hemoglobin of around 5 g/L on average could be observed following treatment with albumin. CONCLUSION: Hemodilution was observable for at least 12 hours after albumin administration and may have caused a decrease in hemoglobin concentration of greater than 8 g/L when isooncotic albumin solution (5%, 25 g in 500 mL) was administered. This makes albumin, especially in its isooncotic form, an ideal colloid to achieve long-lasting volume expansion. However, RBC transfusions may increase under albumin therapy, as transfusion thresholds may be undershot after albumin administration.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Diálise Renal , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Transfusão de Sangue
19.
Nutrition ; 122: 112387, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare how immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients responded differently to enteral nutrition (EN) support in intensive care units (ICUs) during the COVID-19 pandemic, including serum nutritional biomarkers, inflammatory biomarkers, gastrointestinal (GI) intolerance symptoms, and clinical outcomes. METHODS: An observational, retrospective study was conducted in the ICUs of a teaching hospital in southwest China. We recruited a convenience sample of 154 patients between December 2022 and February 2023. We defined immunocompromise as primary immunodeficiency diseases, active malignancy, receiving cancer chemotherapy, HIV infection, solid organ transplantation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, receiving corticosteroid therapy with a target dose, receiving biological immune modulators, or receiving disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or other immunosuppressive drugs. We conducted a Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test, or generalized estimation equation model to explore the differences between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. RESULTS: Among the 154 study participants, 41 (27%) were defined as immunocompromised. The immunocompromised patients were younger than the immunocompetent patients. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to serum nutritional biomarkers, inflammatory biomarkers, incidence of GI intolerance symptoms, and in-hospital mortality. However, the immunocompromised patients exhibited a longer hospitalization duration than the immunocompetent patients. CONCLUSION: We found that the immunocompromised patients spent more time in the hospital. These findings may help us to standardize the participants before EN interventional studies better and better individualize EN supports based on patients' immunity status.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastroenteropatias , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pandemias , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Estado Terminal/terapia
20.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 66, 2024 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429791

RESUMO

Molecular oxygen is typically delivered to patients via oxygen inhalation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), potentially resulting in systemic hyperoxia from liberal oxygen inhalation or localized hyperoxia in the lower body from peripheral venoarterial (VA) ECMO. Consequently, this exposes the gastrointestinal tract to excessive oxygen levels. Hyperoxia can trigger organ damage due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and is associated with increased mortality. The gut and gut microbiome play pivotal roles in critical illnesses and even small variations in oxygen levels can have a dramatic influence on the physiology and ecology of gut microbes. Here, we reviewed the emerging preclinical evidence which highlights how excessive inhaled oxygen can provoke diffuse villous damage, barrier dysfunction in the gut, and gut dysbiosis. The hallmark of this dysbiosis includes the expansion of oxygen-tolerant pathogens (e.g., Enterobacteriaceae) and the depletion of beneficial oxygen-intolerant microbes (e.g., Muribaculaceae). Furthermore, we discussed potential impact of oxygen on the gut in various underlying critical illnesses involving inspiratory oxygen and peripheral VA-ECMO. Currently, the available findings in this area are somewhat controversial, and a consensus has not yet to be reached. It appears that targeting near-physiological oxygenation levels may offer a means to avoid hyperoxia-induced gut injury and hypoxia-induced mesenteric ischemia. However, the optimal oxygenation target may vary depending on special clinical conditions, including acute hypoxia in adults and neonates, as well as particular patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery or VA-ECMO support. Last, we outlined the current challenges and the need for future studies in this area. Insights into this vital ongoing research can assist clinicians in optimizing oxygenation for critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Hiperóxia , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Hiperóxia/complicações , Estado Terminal/terapia , Disbiose , Oxigênio/efeitos adversos , Hipóxia
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