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2.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 23(1): 37, 2023 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High ratio of the carbon dioxide veno-arterial difference to the oxygen arterial-venous difference (PvaCO2/CavO2) is associated with fluid bolus (FB) induced increase in oxygen consumption (VO2). This study investigated whether PvaCO2/CavO2 was associated with decreases in blood-lactate levels FB in critically ill patients with hyperlactatemia. METHODS: This prospective observational study examined adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with lactate levels > 1.5 mmol/L who received FBs. Blood-lactate levels were measured before and after FB under unchanged metabolic, respiratory, and hemodynamic conditions. The primary outcome was blood-lactate levels after FB. Significant decreases in blood-lactate levels were considered as blood-lactate levels < 1.5 mmol/L or a decrease of more than 10% compared to baseline. RESULTS: The study enrolled 40 critically ill patients, and their median concentration of blood lactate was 2.6 [IQR:1.9 - 3.8] mmol/L. There were 27 (68%) patients with PvaCO2/CavO2 ≥ 1.4 mmHg/ml, and 10 of them had an increase in oxygen consumption (dVO2) ≥ 15% after FB, while 13 (32%) patients had PvaCO2/CavO2 < 1.4 mmHg/ml before FB, and none of them had dVO2 ≥ 15% after FB. FB increased the cardiac index in patients with high and low preinfusion PvaCO2/CavO2 (13.4% [IQR: 8.3 - 20.2] vs. 8.8% [IQR: 2.9 - 17.4], p = 0.34). Baseline PvaCO2/CavO2 was not found to be associated with a decrease in blood lactate after FB (OR: 0.88 [95% CI: 0.39 - 1.98], p = 0.76). A positive correlation was observed between changes in blood lactate and baseline PvaCO2/CavO2 (r = 0.35, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with hyperlactatemia, PvaCO2/CavO2 before FB cannot be used to predict decreases in blood-lactate levels after FB. Increased PvaCO2/CavO2 is associated with less decrease in blood-lactate levels.


Assuntos
Hiperlactatemia , Ácido Láctico , Adulto , Humanos , Dióxido de Carbono , Estado Terminal/terapia , Oxigênio
4.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678158

RESUMO

Administration of enteral nutrition (EN) in critically ill pediatric patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) constitutes a major challenge due to the increased risk of complications, as well as the lack of well-trained healthcare professionals. EN is usually delivered via cyclic, continuous, or intermittent feeding; however, a number of potential barriers have been reported in the literature regarding different feeding regimens. The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of continuous and intermittent bolus feeding on critically ill children. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a clinical trial registry up to September 2022, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the English language. Four studies met the inclusion criteria with a total population of 288 patients admitted to the PICU. Three studies were rated with a high risk of bias and one with some concerns. There was high heterogeneity between the studies in regard to the reporting of outcomes. Three studies measured the total time needed to reach prescribed caloric intake with conflicting results, while two studies evaluated the length of stay (LOS) in PICU with no difference between the two arms. One study assessed the time weaning from mechanical ventilation, favoring the bolus group. No data were provided for gastric residual volume (GRV), anthropometric measurements, and biochemical markers. Additional randomized trials with better methodology are needed to assess the efficacy of the two enteral feeding regimens in critically ill PICU patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Nutrição Enteral , Humanos , Criança , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Tempo de Internação , Hospitalização , Ingestão de Energia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 24(1): 34-40, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Discussion of prognosis is an essential component of decision-making family conferences in critical care. We do not know how clinicians convey prognosis to families of critically ill children. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the frequency of prognostic statements and the message and meaning conveyed through each statement during PICU family conferences. DESIGN: Retrospective, mixed-methods study. SETTING: PICU of a single quaternary medical center. PATIENTS: Critically ill children and their families participating in PICU family conferences of critical medical decision-making. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We analyzed 72 transcripts from audio-recorded PICU family conferences to identify prognostic statements. Descriptive, thematic content analysis was used to elucidate the message and meaning of each prognostic statement. Prognosis was not discussed in 26% (19/72) of family conferences. Of the other (53/72) conferences where prognostic statements were made, 60% (67/112) of statements conveyed a message (i.e., prognostic medical information) and a meaning (i.e., anticipated impact on patient/family). "Messages" of prognostic statements fell within eight themes: uncertain recovery, delayed recovery, progressive decline, escalation of support, attributable complications, no progress, irreversible, and probability of death. "Meanings" of prognostic statements fell within six themes: restoration of health, activities of daily living, additional equipment, prolonged care needs, brain dysfunction, and death. Broadly, clinicians discussed prognostic information in three categories: loss of Time (i.e., prolonged care needs), Function (i.e., additional medical equipment), or Cure (i.e., death). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly in half of discussions (32/72, 44%) where families were asked to make critical medical decisions, clinicians did not provide a prognostic statement including a message and meaning. When discussed, prognostic information was conveyed in three categories: loss of time, function, or cure. Providing families context in this framework, particularly in times of uncertainty, may improve the family's ability to make informed, value-driven medical decisions for their child.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Prognóstico , Relações Profissional-Família , Família
6.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 43, 2023 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707883

RESUMO

Although numerous observational studies associated underfeeding with poor outcome, recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that early full nutritional support does not benefit critically ill patients and may induce dose-dependent harm. Some researchers have suggested that the absence of benefit in RCTs may be attributed to overrepresentation of patients deemed at low nutritional risk, or to a too low amino acid versus non-protein energy dose in the nutritional formula. However, these hypotheses have not been confirmed by strong evidence. RCTs have not revealed any subgroup benefiting from early full nutritional support, nor benefit from increased amino acid doses or from indirect calorimetry-based energy dosing targeted at 100% of energy expenditure. Mechanistic studies attributed the absence of benefit of early feeding to anabolic resistance and futile catabolism of extra provided amino acids, and to feeding-induced suppression of recovery-enhancing pathways such as autophagy and ketogenesis, which opened perspectives for fasting-mimicking diets and ketone supplementation. Yet, the presence or absence of an anabolic response to feeding cannot be predicted or monitored and likely differs over time and among patients. In the absence of such monitor, the value of indirect calorimetry seems obscure, especially in the acute phase of illness. Until now, large feeding RCTs have focused on interventions that were initiated in the first week of critical illness. There are no large RCTs that investigated the impact of different feeding strategies initiated after the acute phase and continued after discharge from the intensive care unit in patients recovering from critical illness.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Nutrição Enteral , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Apoio Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
7.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 7, 2023 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines suggest the introduction of early nutrition support within the first 48 h of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) for patients who cannot eat. In that context, we aimed to describe nutrition practices in the ICU and study the association between the introduction of early nutrition support (< 48 h) in the ICU and patient mortality at day 28 (D28) using data from a multicentre prospective cohort. METHODS: The 'French-Speaking ICU Nutritional Survey' (FRANS) study was conducted in 26 ICUs in France and Belgium over 3 months in 2015. Adult patients with a predicted ICU length of stay > 3 days were consecutively included and followed for 10 days. Their mortality was assessed at D28. We investigated the association between early nutrition (< 48 h) and mortality at D28 using univariate and multivariate propensity-score-weighted logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: During the study period, 1206 patients were included. Early nutrition support was administered to 718 patients (59.5%), with 504 patients receiving enteral nutrition and 214 parenteral nutrition. Early nutrition was more frequently prescribed in the presence of multiple organ failure and less frequently in overweight and obese patients. Early nutrition was significantly associated with D28 mortality in the univariate analysis (crude odds ratio (OR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-2.34) and propensity-weighted multivariate analysis (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10). In subgroup analyses, this association was stronger in patients ≤ 65 years and with SOFA scores ≤ 8. Compared with no early nutrition, a significant association was found of D28 mortality with early enteral (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11) but not early parenteral nutrition (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98-1.11). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective cohort study, early nutrition support in the ICU was significantly associated with increased mortality at D28, particularly in younger patients with less severe disease. Compared to no early nutrition, only early enteral nutrition appeared to be associated with increased mortality. Such findings are in contrast with current guidelines on the provision of early nutrition support in the ICU and may challenge our current practices, particularly concerning patients at low nutrition risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02599948. Retrospectively registered on November 5th 2015.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Apoio Nutricional , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Nutricional , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação
8.
Antivir Ther ; 28(1): 13596535221150746, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist for dosing of zanamivir in the setting of CVVH in the intensive care unit (ICU). Our objective is to report the pharmacokinetics and sieving coefficient (Sv) of zanamivir in patients receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). METHODS: In this prospective observational study, patients of ≥18 years admitted to the ICU with a life-threatening Influenza A or B infection, treated with zanamivir i.v. undergoing CVVH were included. Patients received a zanamivir loading dose of 600 mg i.v., 12 h later followed by maintenance dosages two times daily according to the treating physician. Per patient, nine CFT plasma and nine ultrafiltrate samples were drawn on day 2 of treatment and analysed with a validated HPLC-MS/MS method. RESULTS: Four patients were included in the study. The zanamivir elimination half-life was prolonged with 5.6-9.9 h, compared to patients with normal renal function. A Sv of approximately 1.0 was identified, with unrestricted transport of zanamivir to the ultrafiltrate. CONCLUSIONS: Zanamivir is well cleared by CVVH. In absence of the possibility for therapeutic drug monitoring, the ultrafiltration rate seems as a good surrogate parameter to estimate the CLCVVH and may help guide the dosing of zanamivir.


Assuntos
Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua , Hemofiltração , Humanos , Zanamivir/uso terapêutico , Hemofiltração/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 31(1): 5, 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain management in the pre-hospital setting remains a particular challenge for paramedics and emergency physicians, especially in children. This study evaluates the pre-hospital use and effect of analgesics in children with trauma or pain due to other reasons. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of the database of a German air rescue service and was conducted over a period of 9 years (2012-2020) to assess pain in general and whether patients with trauma pain due to other reasons received treatment with analgesics. We included all patients in the registry under the age of 16 years. Patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 3 at hospital admission and incomplete records were excluded. The intensity of pain was determined by the emergency physician on scene at arrival and hospital admission in a ten-point rating scale (0 = no pain). Effective pain reduction was analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 227,458 cases, a total of 22,025 emergency cases involved pediatric patients aged 0-16 years. 20,405 cases were included in the study. 12,000 (58.8%) children had suffered a trauma, 8108 (39.7%) had pain due to other reasons and 297 (1.5%) had both. In total, 4,608 (38.4%) of the children with trauma were assessed having a numerical rating scale (NRS) > 4 at EMS arrival. These patients received mainly ketamine (34.5%) and the opioids fentanyl (38.7%) and piritramide (19.1%). The value on the NRS was significantly lower at admission to hospital (mean 1.9) compared with the EMS arrival (mean 6.9). In 4.9% the NRS at hospital admission was still > 4. 282 patients within the non-trauma group had a pre-hospital NRS of > 4. The pain therapy consisted of opioids (35.8%) and ketamine (2.8%). 28.4% patients in the non-trauma group received no pain medication. In 16.0% the NRS at hospital admission was still > 4. CONCLUSIONS: German emergency physicians achieved a sufficient pain therapy in pediatric patients with a NRS > 4 after trauma. In case of non-trauma, the pain management by the emergency physicians is restrained and less successful. The most common analgesic medications administered were ketamine and fentanyl, followed by piritramide. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been retrospectively registered at DRKS (DRKS00026222).


Assuntos
Analgesia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ketamina , Humanos , Criança , Manejo da Dor , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Pirinitramida/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Fentanila , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Hospitais
10.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 23(1): 25, 2023 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To observe if blood return, also defined as the blood infusion test (BIT) could predict fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure and renal replacement therapy (RRT). METHODS: This was a single-center, prospective, diagnostic accuracy study. Before BIT, the passive leg raise test (PLRT) was performed to record the change of cardiac output (ΔCO) by pulse contour analysis, and ΔCO > = 10% was defined as the fluid responder. Meanwhile, the change in velocity time integral (ΔVTI) was recorded by ultrasound. Later, the ΔCO and ΔVTI during BIT were recorded 5-10 min after PLRT. The receiver-operating characteristic curves of ΔCO and ΔVTI of BIT were performed in predicting the fluid responder defined by PLRT. RESULTS: A total of 43 patients with acute circulatory failure undergoing RRT were enrolled in the present study, and 25 patients (58.1%) were recognized as responders during PLRT. According to the receiver-operating characteristic curves, the cutoff value of ΔCO was 10% and ΔVTI was 9% during BIT with the area under curve of 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: BIT in RRT could identify fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients with shock. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-DDD-17010534. Registered on 30/01/2017 (retrospective registration).


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica , Choque , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Hidratação , Débito Cardíaco , Choque/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Volume Sistólico
11.
BMC Nephrol ; 24(1): 11, 2023 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperlactatemia occurs frequently in critically ill patients, and this pathologic condition leads to worse outcomes in several disease subsets. Herein, we addressed whether hyperlactatemia is associated with the risk of mortality in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) due to acute kidney injury. METHODS: A total of 1,661 patients who underwent CRRT for severe acute kidney injury were retrospectively reviewed between 2010 and 2020. The patients were categorized according to their serum lactate levels, such as high (≥ 7.6 mmol/l), moderate (2.1-7.5 mmol/l) and low (≤ 2 mmol/l), at the time of CRRT initiation. The hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of in-hospital mortality were calculated with adjustment of multiple variables. The increase in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for the mortality risk was evaluated after adding serum lactate levels to the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score-based models. RESULTS: A total of 802 (48.3%) and 542 (32.6%) patients had moderate and high lactate levels, respectively. The moderate and high lactate groups had a higher risk of mortality than the low lactate group, with HRs of 1.64 (1.22-2.20) and 4.18 (2.99-5.85), respectively. The lactate-enhanced models had higher AUROCs than the models without lactates (0.764 vs. 0.702 for SOFA score; 0.737 vs. 0.678 for APACHE II score). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperlactatemia is associated with mortality outcomes in patients undergoing CRRT for acute kidney injury. Serum lactate levels may need to be monitored in this patient subset.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua , Hiperlactatemia , Humanos , Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hiperlactatemia/complicações , APACHE , Ácido Láctico , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Estado Terminal/terapia , Prognóstico
12.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 1, 2023 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While early mobilization is commonly implemented in intensive care unit treatment guidelines to improve functional outcome, the characterization of the optimal individual dosage (frequency, level or duration) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that artificial intelligence-based clustering of a large ICU cohort can provide individualized mobilization recommendations that have a positive impact on the likelihood of being discharged home. METHODS: This study is an analysis of a prospective observational database of two interdisciplinary intensive care units in Munich, Germany. Dosage of mobilization is determined by sessions per day, mean duration, early mobilization as well as average and maximum level achieved. A k-means cluster analysis was conducted including collected parameters at ICU admission to generate clinically definable clusters. RESULTS: Between April 2017 and May 2019, 948 patients were included. Four different clusters were identified, comprising "Young Trauma," "Severely ill & Frail," "Old non-frail" and "Middle-aged" patients. Early mobilization (< 72 h) was the most important factor to be discharged home in "Young Trauma" patients (ORadj 10.0 [2.8 to 44.0], p < 0.001). In the cluster of "Middle-aged" patients, the likelihood to be discharged home increased with each mobilization level, to a maximum 24-fold increased likelihood for ambulating (ORadj 24.0 [7.4 to 86.1], p < 0.001). The likelihood increased significantly when standing or ambulating was achieved in the older, non-frail cluster (ORadj 4.7 [1.2 to 23.2], p = 0.035 and ORadj 8.1 [1.8 to 45.8], p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: An artificial intelligence-based learning approach was able to divide a heterogeneous critical care cohort into four clusters, which differed significantly in their clinical characteristics and in their mobilization parameters. Depending on the cluster, different mobilization strategies supported the likelihood of being discharged home enabling an individualized and resource-optimized mobilization approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT03666286, retrospectively registered 04 September 2018.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Cuidados Críticos , Hospitalização , Deambulação Precoce
14.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 26, 2023 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determine if apneic oxygenation (AO) delivered via nasal cannula during the apneic phase of tracheal intubation (TI), reduces adverse TI-associated events (TIAEs) in children. METHODS: AO was implemented across 14 pediatric intensive care units as a quality improvement intervention during 2016-2020. Implementation consisted of an intubation safety checklist, leadership endorsement, local champion, and data feedback to frontline clinicians. Standardized oxygen flow via nasal cannula for AO was as follows: 5 L/min for infants (< 1 year), 10 L/min for young children (1-7 years), and 15 L/min for older children (≥ 8 years). Outcomes were the occurrence of adverse TIAEs (primary) and hypoxemia (SpO2 < 80%, secondary). RESULTS: Of 6549 TIs during the study period, 2554 (39.0%) occurred during the pre-implementation phase and 3995 (61.0%) during post-implementation phase. AO utilization increased from 23 to 68%, p < 0.001. AO was utilized less often when intubating infants, those with a primary cardiac diagnosis or difficult airway features, and patient intubated due to respiratory or neurological failure or shock. Conversely, AO was used more often in TIs done for procedures and those assisted by video laryngoscopy. AO utilization was associated with a lower incidence of adverse TIAEs (AO 10.5% vs. without AO 13.5%, p < 0.001), aOR 0.75 (95% CI 0.58-0.98, p = 0.03) after adjusting for site clustering (primary analysis). However, after further adjusting for patient and provider characteristics (secondary analysis), AO utilization was not independently associated with the occurrence of adverse TIAEs: aOR 0.90, 95% CI 0.72-1.12, p = 0.33 and the occurrence of hypoxemia was not different: AO 14.2% versus without AO 15.2%, p = 0.43. CONCLUSION: While AO use was associated with a lower occurrence of adverse TIAEs in children who required TI in the pediatric ICU after accounting for site-level clustering, this result may be explained by differences in patient, provider, and practice factors. Trial Registration Trial not registered.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Intubação Intratraqueal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Hipóxia/etiologia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Oxigênio , Respiração Artificial/métodos
15.
Eur J Med Res ; 28(1): 35, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of central venous pressure (CVP) measurements among (intensive care unit) ICU patients with severe coma has been questioned. This study aimed to investigate the application value of CVP in this population. METHODS: Data stored in the ICU Collaborative Research Database (eICU-CRD) and Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III) database were reviewed. Critically ill patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3-8 were included. The primary outcome was the in-hospital mortality rate. The statistical approaches used included multivariable Cox regression, propensity score matching (PSM), inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW), stabilized IPTW, and restricted cubic splines (RCS) to ensure the robustness of our findings. RESULTS: In total, 7386 patients were included in the study. Early CVP measurement was independently associated with in-hospital mortality [hazard ratio, 0.63; p < 0.001] in patients with severe-to-moderate coma. This result was robust in the PSM, sIPTW, and IPTW cohorts. For all patients with CVP measurements, the RCS curves showed that the risk of in-hospital mortality increased as the initial CVP time was delayed. In addition, early CVP measurement was significantly associated with lower ICU mortality, 28-day mortality, and 365-day mortality and a significantly higher number of ventilator-free days. CONCLUSION: Early CVP measurement could improve clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with severe coma.


Assuntos
Coma , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Pressão Venosa Central , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Mortalidade Hospitalar
16.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 24(2): 84-92, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Guidelines recommend against RBC transfusion in hemodynamically stable (HDS) children without cardiac disease, if hemoglobin is greater than or equal to 7 g/dL. We sought to assess the clinical and economic impact of compliance with RBC transfusion guidelines. DESIGN: A nonprespecified secondary analysis of noncardiac, HDS patients in the randomized trial Age of Blood in Children (NCT01977547) in PICUs. Costs analyzed included ICU stay and physician fees. Stabilized inverse propensity for treatment weighting was used to create a cohort balanced with respect to potential confounding variables. Weighted regression models were fit to evaluate outcomes based on guideline compliance. SETTING: Fifty international tertiary care centers. PATIENTS: Critically ill children 3 days to 16 years old transfused RBCs at less than or equal to 7 days of ICU admission. Six-hundred eighty-seven subjects who met eligibility criteria were included in the analysis. INTERVENTIONS: Initial RBC transfusions administered when hemoglobin was less than 7 g/dL were considered "compliant" or "non-compliant" if hemoglobin was greater than or equal to 7 g/dL. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Frequency of new or progressive multiple organ system dysfunction (NPMODS), ICU survival, and associated costs. The hypothesis was formulated after data collection but exposure groups were masked until completion of planned analyses. Forty-nine percent of patients (338/687) received a noncompliant initial transfusion. Weighted cohorts were balanced with respect to confounding variables (absolute standardized differences < 0.1). No differences were noted in NPMODS frequency (relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.61-1.22; p = 0.4). Patients receiving compliant transfusions had more ICU-free days (mean difference, 1.73; 95% CI, 0.57-2.88; p = 0.003). Compliance reduced mean costs in ICU by $38,845 U.S. dollars per patient (95% CI, $65,048-$12,641). CONCLUSIONS: Deferring transfusion until hemoglobin is less than 7 g/dL is not associated with increased organ dysfunction in this population but is independently associated with increased likelihood of live ICU discharge and lower ICU costs.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Cardiopatias , Humanos , Criança , Estado Terminal/terapia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica
19.
Crit Care Med ; 51(2): 241-253, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether targeting a higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared with a lower MAP in adults with shock results in differences in patient important outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov through May 2021. STUDY SELECTION: Titles and abstracts were screened independently and in duplicate to identify potentially eligible studies, then full text for final eligibility. We included parallel-group randomized controlled trials in adult patients with a diagnosis of shock requiring vasoactive medications. The higher MAP group was required to receive vasoactive medications to target a higher MAP as established by study authors, whereas the lower MAP group received vasoactive medications to target lower MAP. DATA EXTRACTION: In triplicate, reviewers independently extracted data using a prepiloted abstraction form. Statistical analyses were conducted using the RevMan software Version 5.3. DATA SYNTHESIS: Six randomized controlled trials (n = 3,690) met eligibility criteria. Targeting a higher MAP (75-85 mm Hg) compared with lower MAP of 65 mm Hg resulted in no difference in mortality (relative risk [RR], 1.06; 95% CI, 0.98-1.15; I2 = 0%; p = 0.12; moderate certainty. Targeting a higher MAP resulted in no difference in the risk of undergoing renal replacement therapy (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.83-1.11; I2 = 24%; p = 0.57; moderate certainty); however, a subgroup analysis comparing patients with and without chronic hypertension demonstrated that a higher MAP may reduce the risk of undergoing renal replacement therapy (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.98; I2 = 0%; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated with moderate certainty that there is no difference in mortality when a higher MAP is targeted in critically ill adult patients with shock. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of mean arterial pressure on need for renal replacement therapy in this population.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Adulto , Estado Terminal/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
20.
Crit Care Med ; 51(2): 301-309, 2023 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy of a bedside, real-time deployment of a deep learning (DL) model capable of distinguishing between normal (A line pattern) and abnormal (B line pattern) lung parenchyma on lung ultrasound (LUS) in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study evaluating the performance of a previously trained LUS DL model. Enrolled patients received a LUS examination with simultaneous DL model predictions using a portable device. Clip-level model predictions were analyzed and compared with blinded expert review for A versus B line pattern. Four prediction thresholding approaches were applied to maximize model sensitivity and specificity at bedside. SETTING: Academic ICU. PATIENTS: One-hundred critically ill patients admitted to ICU, receiving oxygen therapy, and eligible for respiratory imaging were included. Patients who were unstable or could not undergo an LUS examination were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 100 unique ICU patients (400 clips) were enrolled from two tertiary-care sites. Fifty-six patients were mechanically ventilated. When compared with gold standard expert annotation, the real-time inference yielded an accuracy of 95%, sensitivity of 93%, and specificity of 96% for identification of the B line pattern. Varying prediction thresholds showed that real-time modification of sensitivity and specificity according to clinical priorities is possible. CONCLUSIONS: A previously validated DL classification model performs equally well in real-time at the bedside when platformed on a portable device. As the first study to test the feasibility and performance of a DL classification model for LUS in a dedicated ICU environment, our results justify further inquiry into the impact of employing real-time automation of medical imaging into the care of the critically ill.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
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