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1.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(4): 566-570, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether there is an association between the body mass index z-score and waist-to-height ratio of children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a school in Santo André, SP, between June and August 2019. Body mass index was measured for all participants, adopting the z-score cutoff of +2 recommended by the World Health Organization. The waist-to-height ratio was determined in children over two years of age and considered abnormal when ≥0.5. The qualitative variables are presented as absolute numbers and percentages. To compare qualitative data, we used the χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. Pearson's test was applied to assess the correlation between BMI and waist-to-height ratio. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The body mass index was calculated for 518 children and the waist-to-height ratio for 473 children. Regarding body mass index, 60.6% of the participants had normal weight, 3.1% were underweight, and 36.3% were overweight. overweight (24.7%) and obesity (22.7%) were more prevalent in adolescents. The waist-to-height ratio was abnormal in 50.5% of the sample. There was an increasing association between body mass index and waist-to-height ratio with age, according to the Pearson correlation coefficients for the age groups <5 years (r=0.459; p<0.001), 5 to 10 years (r=0.687; p<0.001) and >10 years (r=0.805; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: There was a significant correlation between body mass index and waist-to-height ratio. This association was higher in adolescents. The waist-to-height ratio is easy to apply and may be useful as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Adolescente , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Magreza , Circunferência da Cintura
2.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 37-47, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422232

RESUMO

Background: Disability is a major determinant of impaired health and nutritional status. This study aims to assess the health and nutritional status of adults with disability and their relationship with socio-demographic factors. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 323 adults with disability in support-centers/schools of disability in Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria was conducted. The participants' socio-demographic factors, behavioural characteristics and 24-hour dietary recall were recorded. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements of height, weight, waist and hip circumference were obtained. The height and weight measurements of non-ambulatory participants were estimated from knee height and mid-arm circumference. Biochemical analyses of blood samples were also performed. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of socio-demographic factors on health and nutritional status. Results: The participants consisted of females (59.3%) within the age of 20 to 30 years (59.1%). The major area of difficulty was in physical mobility (51.1%) and this occurred mostly in females (26.9%). The participants' mean daily intakes of calorie, protein and fat were below the recommended dietary allowances. The participants were overweight (49.2%), obese (4.6%), hypertensive (29.7%) and diabetic (12.1%). Dyslipidemia (81.8%), anemia (63.6%) and zinc deficiency (51.1%) were highly prevalent among the study group. Gender difference was observed in alcohol consumption (p=0.000), smoking habit (p=0.001), waist circumference (WC)(p=0.000), waist-hip-ratio (WHR) (p=0.000), triglyceride (p=0.026) and haemoglobin concentration (p=0.007). Being boarder was a positive predictor of overweight/obesity (OR= 2.974, 95% CI=1.449-6.104), abnormal WHR (OR=2.893, 95% CI = 1.073-7.801) and hypertension (OR=8.381, 95% CI=1.598-13.959). Female gender was associated with abnormal WC (OR=7.219, 95% CI=3.116-14.228) and WHR (OR=3.590, 95% CI=2.095-6.150) whereas older age-group was associated with overweight/obesity (OR=1.908, 95% CI=1.137- 3.202). Being employed was a negative predictor of hypertension. Conclusion: Overweight/obesity, anemia, zinc deficiency and dyslipidemia were highly prevalent among persons living with disability in Enugu Metropolis.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Nível de Saúde , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/deficiência
3.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13611, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431165

RESUMO

Covariance components were estimated for growth traits (BW, birth weight; WW, weaning weight; YW, yearling weight), visual scores (BQ, breed quality; CS, conformation; MS, muscling; NS, navel; PS, finishing precocity), hip height (HH), and carcass traits (BF, backfat thickness; LMA, longissimus muscle area) measured at yearling. Genetic gains were obtained and validation models on direct and maternal effects for BW and WW were fitted. Genetic correlations of growth traits with CS, PS, MS, and HH ranged from 0.20 ± 0.01 to 0.94 ± 0.01 and were positive and low with NS (0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.20 ± 0.01) and favorable with BQ (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.37 ± 0.02). Null to moderate genetic correlations were obtained between growth and carcass traits. Genetic gains were positive and significant, except for BW. An increase of 0.76 and 0.72 kg is expected for BW and WW, respectively, per unit increase in estimated breeding value (EBV) for direct effect and an additional 0.74 and 1.43, respectively, kg per unit increase in EBV for the maternal effect. Monitoring genetic gains for HH and NS is relevant to maintain an adequate body size and a navel morphological correction, if necessary. Simultaneous selection for growth, morphological, and carcass traits in line with improve maternal performance is a feasible strategy to increase herd productivity.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Constituição Corporal/genética , Estatura/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Fenótipo
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444895

RESUMO

(1) Background: Early childhood malnutrition may result in increased fat mass (FM) among school-aged children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We explored whether South African children with shorter stature have greater overall and abdominal FM compared to normal stature children. (2) Methods: Baseline assessments of body composition and weight were determined among school-aged children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multiple linear regression models tested associations of children's height and degree of stunting with FM, fat free mass (FFM), truncal fat mass (TrFM), and truncal fat free mass (TrFFM) overall and by sex. (3) Results: A total of 1287 children (619 girls, 668 boys) were assessed at baseline. Reduced child height was associated with higher FM and lower FFM and TrFFM, but these associations were reversed with increases in height. Girls classified as mildly or moderately/severely stunted had higher FM and TrFM but lower FFM and TrFFM, while no association was found for boys. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that efforts to reduce the non-communicable disease burden in LMICs should target growth-impaired children who may have greater overall FM and greater abdominal FM.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444646

RESUMO

A poor understanding of malnutrition burden is a common reason for not prioritizing the care of small and nutritionally at-risk infants aged under-six months (infants u6m). We aimed to estimate the anthropometric deficit prevalence in infants u6m attending health centres, using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF), and to assess the overlap of different individual indicators. We undertook a two-week survey of all infants u6m visiting 18 health centres in two zones of the Oromia region, Ethiopia. We measured weight, length, and MUAC (mid-upper arm circumference) and calculated weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ). Overall, 21.7% (95% CI: 19.2; 24.3) of infants u6m presented CIAF, and of these, 10.7% (95% CI: 8.93; 12.7) had multiple anthropometric deficits. Low MUAC overlapped with 47.5% (95% CI: 38.0; 57.3), 43.8% (95% CI: 34.9; 53.1), and 42.6% (95% CI: 36.3; 49.2) of the stunted, wasted, and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Underweight overlapped with 63.4% (95% CI: 53.6; 72.2), 52.7% (95% CI: 43.4; 61.7), and 59.6% (95% CI: 53.1; 65.9) of the stunted, wasted, and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Anthropometric deficits, single and multiple, are prevalent in infants attending health centres. WAZ overlaps more with other forms of anthropometric deficits than MUAC.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Magreza
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444072

RESUMO

Previous canoe sprint studies evaluated the best paddlers of their categories. This investigation aimed to identify the importance of biological maturation and athletes' experience in kayaking performance and observe possible differences regarding anthropometry, years of practice, and performance. Eighty under 14 years of age (U14) and fifty under 16 years of age (U16) kayakers aged 13.40 ± 0.54 and 15.25 ± 0.61 years were evaluated. Kayakers were assessed for anthropometry (body mass (kg); stretch stature (cm); and sitting height (cm)), performance (time at 3000 m for U14 and 5000 m for U16 kayakers), and somatic maturation (predicted adult height (PAH) and maturity offset). In the U14 kayakers, years of practice, sitting height, and maturity offset showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the Top10 and Middle, and Middle and Bottom10 performance times. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) sitting heights were identified between the Top10 and Middle U16 kayakers. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for maturity offset and PAH% between the Top10 and Middle groups compared to the Bottom10 group. In conclusion, this research shows differences in the maturity status of young U14 and U16 kayakers, identifying that the more biologically mature individuals, with more years of specific practice, achieved better performances.


Assuntos
Esportes Aquáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Atletas , Estatura , Criança , Humanos , Navios
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444126

RESUMO

Although absolute jump heights should be considered an important factor in judging the performance requirements of volleyball players, limited data is available on age-appropriate categories. The purpose of this study is to determine the differences in specific anthropometric characteristics and jumping performance variables in under-19 female volleyball players in relation to playing position and performance level. The sample of subjects consisted of 354 players who prepared for the U19 Women's Volleyball European Championship 2020 (17.4 ± 0.8 years, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 67.5 ± 7.1 kg). Playing positions analyzed were setters (n = 55), opposites (n = 37), middle blockers (n = 82), outside hitters (n = 137), and liberos (n = 43). The results showed player position differences in every performance level group in variables of body height, spike, and block jump. Observed differences are a consequence of highly specific tasks of different positions in the composition of the team. Players of different performance levels are significantly different, with athletes of higher-ranked teams achieving better results. The acquired data could be useful for the selection and profiling of young volleyball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Voleibol , Antropometria , Atletas , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210043, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of self-reported body mass and height measurements in adolescents, adults and older adults according to sex, age, leisure-time physical activity level, nutritional status, and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: The study included 856 subjects, aged 12 years or older, who participated in the São Paulo Health Survey (ISA-2015) and who had their body mass and height measured and self-reported. Based on the Body Mass Index (BMI), a classification of nutritional status was made according to standardized criteria for each phase of life. The validation of self-reported data was examined by the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Bland-Altman and paired T-Test. Linear regression models were used to estimate the calibration coefficients, and sensitivity and specificity tests were performed. RESULTS: Self-reported body mass and height values tend to be very similar to measured values, with a few exceptions. For the adolescents, an underestimation of height was noted, while for the older adults, an overestimation. There was a consistent underestimation of self-reported body mass among women, and an overestimation of BMI among men who practiced less than 150 minutes of physical activity per week during leisure time. The calibration process of self-reported measures made them more consistent with the values measured, increasing the sensitivity in the classification of nutritional status among women and the specificity among men. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported measures of height, body mass and BMI provided valid and reliable measures, presenting a substantial improvement after calibration.


Assuntos
Estatura , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Adolescente , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371854

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between maternal insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration and food consumption frequency and the birth parameters of the newborn. A total of 157 mother-newborn pairs participated in the study. The study showed that more frequent consumption of sweet and salty snacks as well as fruit and fruit or vegetable juices may promote greater weight gain in pregnancy and higher newborn birth weight. A significantly higher insulin concentration was found among overweight women according to body mass index (BMI), and a significantly lower concentration of IGF-1 was demonstrated among women ≥35 years of age. There was no significant correlation between the concentration of insulin and IGF-1 in the mother's blood plasma and the birth weight and length of the newborn. A significant relationship was only found between the concentration of IGF-1 in the mother's blood and the Ponderal index of the newborn. A woman's eating habits during pregnancy have a significant impact on the mother's health and on the proper growth and development of the foetus.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Insulina/sangue , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Polônia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 328, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to analyze axial length, body height, hand length, and foot length to find new factors that predict myopia and to identify gender differences as one of the factors of high myopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted as a single observation. Body height, hand length, and foot length were measured according to standard anthropometric methods. Axial length, retinal thickness, and choroidal thickness were measured using the IOL Master 700 and the Heidelberg Spectralis-OCT. To account for body height differences among participants, foot length/body height and hand length/body height were analyzed using a mixed-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 80 eyes (men, n = 20, 40 eyes; women, n = 20, 40 eyes) were analyzed. The mean age was 33.5 years (range 21-59 years, SD: 9.6). For choroidal thickness, there was a significant association with axial length in men (p < 0.001) and a trend toward an association in women (p = 0.072). There was also a significant association between foot length/body height and axial length in men (p = 0.015), but not in women (p = 0.58). These results suggest that factors that determine body height and foot length may be related to axial length, although they vary by gender.


Assuntos
Comprimento Axial do Olho , Miopia , Adulto , Comprimento Axial do Olho/anatomia & histologia , Estatura , Corioide , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from the research project "Fitness clubs-a venue for public health?" provided an opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height, and subsequent Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as the "trueness" of novice exercisers perception of weight status category, which has not been examined in this population. The aims were to examine self-reported body weight, height, and calculated BMI data from an online survey compared with measured data at fitness club start-up, investigate how accurately novice exercisers place themselves within self-classified weight group (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), and compare this with fitness club attendance at three months follow-up. METHODS: Prior to anthropometric measurements, 62 men and 63 women responded to an online questionnaire, including body weight (kilogram, kg) and height (centimeters, cm), and self-classified weight group ("I think I am … underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese"). We used the following statistical analysis: Paired sample t-tests, a Bland-Altman plot kappa statistics, chi-squared tests, and a logistic regression. RESULTS: Mean difference of BMI calculated from self-reported and measured data was 0.06 (95% CI -0.29 to 0.17, p = 0.593) in men, and 0.16 (95% CI -0.40 to 0.09, p = 0.224) in women, with four participants being outliers of the 95% limits of agreement (Bland-Altman plot). Allowing a difference of 0.5 kg between self-reported and measured weight, we found that 16% reported their weight correctly, 31.2% underreported (-1.89 ± 1.59 kg), and 52.8% overreported (1.85 ± 1.23 kg), with no sex differences (p = 0.870). Further, our results suggest that both sexes may have difficulty recognizing overweight/obesity in themselves, and particularly men are likely to underreport their perceived weight group compared with women. More than half (53.3%) of the overweight men perceived themselves to be normal weight (women: 14%), and only 33.3% of obese men and women correctly classified themselves as being obese. We did not find any difference between participants correctly or incorrectly classifying weight group and fitness club attendance (≥2 times a week) at three months follow-up. CONCLUSION: Both sexes reported body weight and height reasonably accurately, and BMI based on self-report appears to be valid measure. Still, a large proportion of novice exercisers do not recognise their own overweight or obesity status, which may in part explain why public health campaigns do not reach risk populations.


Assuntos
Estatura , Obesidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem
12.
Nat Genet ; 53(8): 1135-1142, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282336

RESUMO

Birth weight is a common measure of fetal growth that is associated with a range of health outcomes. It is directly affected by the fetal genome and indirectly by the maternal genome. We performed genome-wide association studies on birth weight in the genomes of the child and parents and further analyzed birth length and ponderal index, yielding a total of 243 fetal growth variants. We clustered those variants based on the effects of transmitted and nontransmitted alleles on birth weight. Out of 141 clustered variants, 22 were consistent with parent-of-origin-specific effects. We further used haplotype-specific polygenic risk scores to directly test the relationship between adult traits and birth weight. Our results indicate that the maternal genome contributes to increased birth weight through blood-glucose-raising alleles while blood-pressure-raising alleles reduce birth weight largely through the fetal genome.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Adulto , Glicemia/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Islândia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 710-717, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226460

RESUMO

Growth in children is influenced by multiple factors, including endocrine diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM). Data on growth parameters in children with type 1 DM (T1DM) are scarce in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study, aimed to evaluate the anthropometric parameters of children with T1DM, was conducted at the Changing Diabetes in Children (CDiC), Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders General Hospital-2 (BIRDEM-2), Dhaka, Bangladesh from May 2018 to April 2019. Data on anthropometric parameters (standing height, weight, body mass index [BMI]) were collected in 2 groups, Group A: 82 children with T1DM and Group B: 82 age-sex matched otherwise healthy children having no DM. The age range of the study subjects was 2-9 years; there were 43 males and 39 females in each group. Height for age Z scores (HAZ) and percentile distribution, weight for age Z (WAZ) scores and percentile distribution, body mass index (BMI), body mass for age Z scores (BAZ) and percentile distribution were calculated using the reference values suggested by Indian Association of Pediatrics. Metabolic control was evaluated by measuring glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). With slight male predominance (52.44%), the mean age of Group A and Group B was 14.27±3.77 years. The percentile distribution of height for age revealed significantly higher number of stunted subjects in Group A compared to Group B, both in male and female (p<0.05). The percentile distribution of weight showed higher number of underweight subjects in Group A than in Group B, both in males and females though the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05) only in males. Incase of males, the frequency of underweight respondents (according to weight for age Z scores) was significantly higher in Group A than in Group B. The mean of height in Group A (1.48±0.2 meter) was lower than in Group B (1.57±0.16 meter) and the mean weight in Group A (47.16±15.34kg) was also lower than Group B (49.82±14.77kg), though, these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The HAZ and WAZ scores were lower in Group A than in Group B both in male and female subjects, though only in male respondents the difference of WAZ was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean difference of HbA1c level was statistically significant in between the groups both incase of weight for age distribution and body mass for age distribution (p<0.05). This study concludes that children and adolescent with T1DM were shorter and lighter compared to their non-diabetic, otherwise healthy peers.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021225, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimation of age, stature, sex, and ancestry contributes to the establishment of the biological profile of the deceased in forensic examinations. Assessment of the body weight aids in the approximation of the overall body size of the individual which may help in the forensic identification process. In clinical examinations, body weight assessment assumes importance in cases where body weight measurement is a challenging task due to illness and body deformity. OBJECTIVE: The present research was conducted to estimate the body weight from the percutaneous width of the bones and joints with the help of prediction equations. METHODS: The study was carried out on 344 adults (172 Females and 172 Males) aged between 18 and 25 years from the Himachal Pradesh State of North India. Eleven anthropometric measurements including height vertex, mid-arm circumference, humerus bicondylar width, transverse chest breadth, sagittal chest breadth, bi-iliac breadth, handbreadth, femur bicondylar breadth, ankle breadth, foot breadth, and body weight were taken on each individual. The sex differences were evaluated by using independent student t-test and Mann-Whitney U test and the correlation between the body weight and the anthropometric variables was investigated by using both Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient depending upon the normality of the data. Regression models for the estimation of body weight were calculated. Further, a validation study was carried out to check the accuracy and utility of the derived regression models by calculating the mean absolute percent prediction error (MAPPE). RESULTS: Significant sex differences were observed among all the anthropometric variables. The transverse chest breadth and mid-arm circumference were strongly correlated with the body weight, whereas, a good correlation was also observed in other measurements except for the ankle breadth. The SEE (Standard error of estimate) of the derived linear regression models was compared, and it was found that multiple linear regression models show better accuracy than simple linear regression models. The MAPPE was found to be less in the case of multiple linear regression models than the linear ones. CONCLUSION: The present investigation concludes that regression models can be used in the estimation of body weight from the percutaneous measurements and joint widths with reasonable accuracy in an Indian population.


Assuntos
Estatura , Antropologia Forense , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(5): 1602-1616, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160079

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy rates and trends in forensic anthropology casework concerning the estimation of the biological profile (sex, age, ancestry, and stature). Identified cases from the Forensic Anthropology Database for Assessing Methods Accuracy (FADAMA; n = 359) were analyzed to explore the following: accuracy rates per biological profile component, case-level performance in assessing the biological profile, and factors related to inaccuracy rates. Accuracy rates for the four biological profile components ranged from 83% to 98%, with sex estimation performing the best and stature performing the poorest. While the overall sex estimation inaccuracies were the lowest of any biological profile component, we found that females are missexed approximately ten times more often than males. Inaccurate age estimates were more frequently the result of overestimation than underestimation, while the trends are reversed for stature estimation. Regarding ancestry estimation performance, African American/Black and White decedents had the lowest inaccuracy rates, while Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander decedents demonstrated greater inaccuracy rates. When examining accuracy rates for each case, 81% of cases had no inaccurate biological profile estimates, while 17% and 2% inaccurately estimated one and two biological profile components, respectively. The demographic trends of identified forensic anthropology cases reflect the national unidentified decedent demographics. Biological profile accuracy rates were generally comparable to previous studies. The findings highlight the current status of forensic anthropologists' casework performance, with a greater amount of case-level inaccuracy rates than previously thought, and demonstrate the potential methodological and sampling strategies that could improve accuracy rates.


Assuntos
Antropologia Forense/normas , Competência Profissional , Adolescente , Adulto , Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estatura , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Antropologia Forense/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação do Sexo pelo Esqueleto , Adulto Jovem
16.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(4): 458-463, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101704

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Short stature is a common clinical manifestation in children. Yet, a cause is often unidentifiable in the majority of children with short stature by a routine screening approach. The purpose of this review is to describe the optimal genetic approach for evaluating short stature, challenges of genetic testing, and recent advances in genetic testing for short stature. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic testing, such as karyotype, chromosomal microarray, targeted gene sequencing, or exome sequencing, has served to identify the underlying genetic causes of short stature. When determining which short stature patient would benefit from genetic evaluation, it is important to consider whether the patient would have a single identifiable genetic cause. Specific diagnoses permit clinicians to predict responses to growth hormone treatment, to understand the phenotypic spectrum, and to understand any associated co-morbidities. SUMMARY: The continued progress in the field of genetics and enhanced capabilities provided by genetic testing methods expands the ability of physicians to evaluate children with short stature for underlying genetic defects. Continued effort is needed to elaborate new genetic causes of linear growth disorders, therefore, we expand the list of known genes for short stature, which will subsequently increase the rate of genetic diagnosis for children with short stature.


Assuntos
Nanismo , Estatura/genética , Criança , Nanismo/diagnóstico , Nanismo/genética , Testes Genéticos , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Appl Ergon ; 96: 103487, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111769

RESUMO

AIM: To determine how anthropometric characteristics cluster in the New Zealand Defence Force, and to describe the characteristics of each cluster. This information can inform the development of new uniform sizing systems for the New Zealand Defence Force. METHODS: Anthropometric data (n = 84 variables) from 1,003 participants (212 females; 791 males) in the New Zealand Defence Force Anthropometry Survey (NZDFAS) were used. The dataset was stratified by gender and variables isolated based on their relevance to shirt and trouser sizing. Principal Component Analysis was used to identify the most important variables for clustering. A combination of two-step and k-means clustering was used to derive cluster characteristics. RESULTS: The PCA identified optimal clothing (shirt = body height and waist girth; and trouser = inseam length and hip girth for females; inseam length and waist girth for males) variables. Two-step and k-means clustering identified optimal cluster numbers of 6 and 10 for female and male clothing, respectively. The female clothing clusters were more variable (intra-cluster) and further apart (inter-cluster) compared to males. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric measurements in combination with clustering techniques show promise for partitioning individuals into distinct groups. The anthropometry dimensions associated with each cluster can be used by the garment industry to develop specific sizing systems for the New Zealand Defence Force population.


Assuntos
Militares , Antropometria , Estatura , Vestuário , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26274, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115026

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to explore the characteristics of changes in the sagittal arrangement of the spine between adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and normal adolescents, the risk factors for AIS and the factors affecting the progress of AIS.X-ray images of the full length of the spine in standing position were taken in AIS patients and normal adolescents. Radiographic measurements made at intermediate follow-up included the following:C1 and C2 cervical lordosis and C2 - C7 curvature of cervical lordosis, C2-C7sagittal horizontal distance (C2-C7SagittalVerticalAxis, C2-C7SVA), TS-CL, after thoracic lobe (Thoracic Kyphosis, TK), thoracic lumbar segment Angle (thoracolumbar kyphosis, [TLK]), lumbar lordosis Angle (Lumbar Lordosis, LL), sacral slope Angle (Sacrum Slope, SS), pelvic tilt Angle (Pelvic Tilt, PT), pelvic incidence (PI), L5 Incidence (Lumbar5 Slope (L5S), L5 incidence (Lumbar5 Incidence (L5I), sagittal horizontal distance (CSVA), lower depression Angle of the 2nd cervical spine. The difference of sagittal plane parameters between AIS group and normal adolescent group was compared. To evaluate the progress of AIS, correlation analysis was conducted between diagonal 2 and other parameters. The main risk factors of AIS were determined by binary Logistic analysis.The CSVA of AIS patients was higher than that of healthy adolescents (AIS: 27.64 ±â€Š19.56) mm. Healthy adolescents: (17.74 ±â€Š12.8) mm), L5S (AIS: 19.93°= 7.07° and healthy adolescents: 15.38°= 7.78°, P = .024 < .05), C2 downward sag Angle (AIS: 15.12°= 2.7°;Healthy adolescents: 12.97°= 4.56°); AIS patients had lower TS-CL (AIS: 22.48 ±â€Š6.09 and healthy adolescents: 28.26°= 10.32°), PT (AIS: 10.42°= 4.53° and healthy adolescents: 15.80°=7.68°), (AIS: 41.87°=9.72° and healthy adolescents: 48.75°= 8.22°). The main risk factor for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents was L5 (OR = 1.239, 95%CI = 1.049-1.463, P = .012 < .05).L5S is a major risk factor for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. The larger PI is, the higher the risk of scoliosis progression is. In AIS patients, lumbar lordosis is increased, cervical lordosis is reduced, and even cervical kyphosis occurs.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Radiografia/métodos , Medição de Risco , Escoliose , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Biometria/métodos , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/patologia , Coluna Vertebral/patologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065525

RESUMO

This study aimed to consolidate the body height, body weight, BMI, and nutrition status data of the overall young male population from the Municipality of Berane in order to assess the trajectories of those variables from 1979 to 1987. The sample of respondents included 8740 adolescents who were divided into nine groups according to their age. The sample of variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, and nutrition status, which were presented based on a long-established BMI categorization (underweight, normal weight, pre-obese, and obese). The descriptive statistics are expressed as the mean and standard deviation for each variable; the analysis of nutrition status was calculated based on BMI, while LSD post hoc testing with ANOVA was employed to investigate differences between the means. The results indicate that a secular trend is visible regarding body height and body weight, while no trend is visible for the BMI and nutrition status. This study's contribution is that it provides insight into more recently published data for the studied period and in this municipality, which can significantly aid in following the secular trend throughout Montenegro.


Assuntos
Estatura , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Masculino , Montenegro
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065622

RESUMO

In the present study, we aimed to identify the impact of chosen anthropometric measurements on the special physical fitness of elite junior table tennis players at different stages of sport training. A total of 87 table tennis players aged 13.4 ± 1.74 years (43.7% girls and 56.3% boys) from two Polish teams were analyzed. The anthropometry measurements included height, sitting height, body weight, arm span, humerus and femur breadths, five skinfold thicknesses, and five girths were assessed. Participants' somatotypes were also calculated using the Heath-Carter method as well as body mass index (BMI), which was constructed using the lambda, mu, sigma (LMS) method. Body composition via a bioelectric impedance analysis was also analyzed. The level of special fitness of athletes was determined using tests from the Table Tennis Specific Battery Test, assessing reaction and displacement speeds. Mesomorphic (4.1) and ectomorphic (3.8) profiles were registered for boys and girls, respectively. Boys achieved higher scores than girls for almost all variables, with the exception of ectomorphic somatotype (p = 0.274), skinfold triceps (p = 0.444), and calf skinfold medial (p = 0.609). The relationship between the body height, thickness of the skinfolds of the triceps and suprailiac, biceps, and waist circumference and arm span in all three motor tests was observed, simultaneously significantly higher results were obtained by competitors at the specialist stage of training. Knowledge of the somatic and motor characteristics of young athletes can help coaches in creating a specific training program for improved health and performance, taking into consideration the athletes' biological development, potential, and pre-disposition.


Assuntos
Tênis , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Somatotipos
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