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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170582, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309349

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) loss caused by the irrational use of manure organic fertilizer has become a worldwide environmental problem, which has caused a potential threat to water safety and intensified agricultural non-point source pollution. Hydrothermal carbonization is method with a low-energy consumption and high efficiency to deal with environmental problems. Application of pig manure-derived hydrochar (PMH) to soil exhibited potential of sustainable development compared with the pristine pig manure (PM). However, the effects of PMH on the distribution of P among the fractions/forms and the interaction between microorganisms and P forms and its relevance to the potential loss of P in paddy fields has not been clarified. Therefore, in this study, a soil column experiment was conducted using the untreated soil (control), and the PM, PMH1 (PMH derived at 180 °C), and PMH2 (PMH derived at 260 °C) treated soils (at the dose of 0.05 %) and rice was cultivated to investigate the effects of PM and PMH on the P fractions, mobilization, ad potential loss via the induced changes on soil microbial community after a complete growing season of rice. The trend of P utilization was evaluated by P speciation via continuous extraction and 31P NMR. The addition of PMH reduced the proportion of residual P in soil by 23.8-26.3 %, and increased the proportion of HCl-P and orthophosphate by 116.2-158.6 % and 6.1-6.8 % compared to PM. The abundance of gcd gene developed after the application of PMH2, which enhanced the mobile forms of soil P utilization via secreting gluconic acid. The network diagram analysis concluded that the changes in various P forms were mainly related to Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Acidobacteria. The results illustrated that PMH mitigate the potential risk of P loss more than PM by altering P fractions and affecting soil microbial community.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oryza , Suínos , Animais , Solo/química , Oryza/microbiologia , Esterco , Fósforo/análise , Fertilizantes/análise
2.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120233, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330838

RESUMO

Methane (CH4) emissions from manure management on livestock farms are a key source of greenhouse gas emissions in some regions and for some production systems, and the opportunities for mitigation may be significant if emissions can be adequately documented. We investigated a method for estimating CH4 emissions from liquid manure (slurry) that is based on anaerobic incubation of slurry collected from commercial farms. Methane production rates were used to derive a parameter of the Arrhenius temperature response function, lnA', representing the CH4 production potential of the slurry at the time of sampling. Results were used for parameterization of an empirical model to estimate annual emissions with daily time steps, where CH4 emissions from individual sources (barns, outside storage tanks) can be calculated separately. A monitoring program was conducted in four countries, i.e., Denmark, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands, during a 12-month period where slurry was sampled to represent barn and outside storage on finishing pig and dairy farms. Across the four countries, lnA' was higher in pig slurry compared to cattle slurry (p < 0.01), and higher in slurry from barns compared to outside storage (p < 0.01). In a separate evaluation of the incubation method, in-vitro CH4 production rates were comparable with in-situ emissions. The results indicate that lnA' in barns increases with slurry age, probably due to growth or adaptation of the methanogenic microbial community. Using lnA' values determined experimentally, empirical models with daily time steps were constructed for finishing pig and dairy farms and used for scenario analyses. Annual emissions from pig slurry were predicted to be 2.5 times higher than those from cattle slurry. Changing the frequency of slurry export from the barn on the model pig farm from 40 to 7 d intervals reduced total annual CH4 emissions by 46 %; this effect would be much less on cattle farms with natural ventilation. In a scenario with cattle slurry, the empirical model was compared with the current IPCC methodology. The seasonal dynamics were less pronounced, and annual CH4 emissions were lower than with the current methodology, which calls for further investigations. Country-specific models for individual animal categories and point sources could be a tool for assessing CH4 emissions and mitigation potentials at farm level.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Esterco , Animais , Suínos , Bovinos , Fazendas , Esterco/análise , Metano/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Temperatura
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3019, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321176

RESUMO

Mixing animal waste and agricultural waste in certain proportions forms agricultural compost through appropriate air, time, and water supply. One of their use areas is directly used as fertilizer, and the other one is used as a material that can partially or completely replace P (peat) in the PGM (plant growth media). In this study, the initial mixtures with an appropriate C/N ratio and moisture content, which were created by mixing cow manure, chicken manure, hazelnut husk, hazelnut pruning wastes, vegetable and fruit wastes, and dry leaves, were composted for 180 days. The physicochemical properties of the mature composts were determined. Their effects on the fruit yield (weight of fruits) and plant height of pepper seedlings were evaluated in pot and field experiments. N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), Cu (copper), and Zn (zinc) content were the highest in C4 (2.59%, 1.12%, 83.11 mg/kg, and 605.3 mg/kg). K (potassium) and Mn (manganese) content in C3 (1.79% and 750.5 mg/kg) and Fe (iron) content in C1 (4025 mg/kg) were determined to be the highest. There was no phytotoxic effect of all composts on Lepidium sativum seeds. Except for pH and organic matter, C1 45%, C1 20%, C4 45%, C4 20%, and P 90% met the requirements for ideal media. The mean height of eight-week seedlings increased in media of C1 20%, C1 45%, C2 20%, C2 45%, and C4 20%, but decreased in media of C3 90%. In field studies, while the highest yield was determined in C3 as 1530 g/plant, the lowest yield was 765.5 g/plant in control. The highest mean height was observed in C3 at 76.33 cm; the lowest was 63.03 cm in control.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Compostagem , Corylus , Animais , Plântula , Esterco , Solo/química
4.
Waste Manag ; 176: 169-191, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301601

RESUMO

A range of issues related to sustainability in the agrifood industry have spurred interest in mass production of insects as human food and animal feed alternatives. This rapidly evolving sector addresses several challenges, including the management of food waste or agrifood by-products and the production of alternative animal proteins demonstrating low environmental impacts that improve sector circularity. The mass production of insects on agrifood processing wastes or by-products represents an opportunity to address these challenges. While the production of insects offers prospects for sustainable protein production, a major side stream is the production of frass or larval excrement including uneaten feed and chitin-rich exuviae (derived from multiple larval moults). The production of each tonne of edible insects generates 2 to 4 tonnes of frass with an interesting potential in agriculture versus traditional organic amendments (compost, manure, biochar). This review aims to demonstrate the characteristics of frass, its common harvest and conditioning methods, its optimal application rates for planting crops, the mechanisms by which it can protect plants against biotic and abiotic stresses and demystify the risks and potential associated with its application in agriculture. The characteristics of frass are compared with those of conventional fertilizers or other. This report also compiles the Canadian, US and European regulatory frameworks as a novel plant fertilizer and aims to pave the way for future research necessary for its valorization in plant production.


Assuntos
Esterco , Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Humanos , Canadá , Insetos , Produtos Agrícolas , Fertilizantes/análise , Solo
5.
Water Res ; 252: 121243, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330718

RESUMO

The sustainability of direct land application of dairy manure is challenged by significant nutrient losses. Bioelectrochemical systems for ammonia recovery offer a manure management strategy that can recover both ammoniacal and organic nitrogen as a stable ammonia fertilizer. In this research, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was used to treat two types of dairy manure under a variety of imposed anode compartment conditions. The system achieved a maximum coulombic efficiency of 20 ± 18 % and exhibited both COD and total nitrogen removals of approximately 60 %. Furthermore, the MFC showed a maximum organic nitrogen removal of 73.8 ± 12.1 %, and no differences in organic nitrogen (orgN) removal were detected among different conditions tested. Decreasing concentrations of anolyte ammonia nitrogen coupled with the observed orgN removal from the anolyte indicate that the MFC is effective at recovering orgN in dairy manure as ammoniacal nitrogen in the catholyte. Additionally, ion competition between NH4+ and other relevant cations (Na+, K+, and Mg2+) for transport across the CEM was investigated, with only K+ showing minor competitive effects. Based on the results of this research, we propose three key processes and two sub-processes that contribute to the successful operation of the MFC for nitrogen recovery from dairy manure. Bioelectrochemical systems for nitrogen recovery from dairy manure offer a novel, robust technology for producing a valuable ammonia nitrogen fertilizer, a thus far untapped resource in dairy manure streams.


Assuntos
Amônia , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Amônia/metabolismo , Esterco , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(11): 16328-16341, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316741

RESUMO

As an emerging contaminant, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have attracted growing attention, owing to their widespread dissemination and potential risk in the farming environment. However, ARG pollution from family livestock farms in the Yellow River basin, one of the main irrigation water sources in the North China Plain, remains unclear. Herein, we targeted 21 typical family farms to assess the occurrence patterns of ARGs in livestock waste and its influence on ARGs in receiving environment by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results showed that common ARGs were highly prevalent in family livestock waste, and tet-ARGs and sul-ARGs were the most abundant in these family farms. Most ARG levels in fresh feces of different animals varied, as the trend of chicken farms (broilers > laying hens) > swine farms (piglets > fattening pigs > boars and sows) > cattle farms (dairy cattle > beef cattle). The effect of natural composting on removing ARGs for chicken manure was better than that for cattle manure, while lagoon storage was not effective in removing ARGs from family livestock wastewater. More troublesomely, considerable amounts of ARGs were discharged with manure application, further leading to the ARG increase in farmland soil (up to 58-119 times), which would exert adverse impacts on human health and ecological safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Feminino , Masculino , Bovinos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/análise , Fazendas , Galinhas/genética , Esterco/análise , Rios , Genes Bacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Gado
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(3): 106, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363349

RESUMO

Uncaria rhynchophylla is an important herbal medicine, and the predominant issues affecting its cultivation include a single method of fertilizer application and inappropriate chemical fertilizer application. To reduce the use of inorganic nitrogen fertilization and increase the yield of Uncaria rhynchophylla, field experiments in 2020-2021 were conducted. The experimental treatments included the following categories: S1, no fertilization; S2, application of chemical NPK fertilizer; and S3-S6, application of chemical fertilizers and green manures, featuring nitrogen fertilizers reductions of 0%, 15%, 30%, and 45%, respectively. The results showed that a moderate application of nitrogen fertilizer when combined with green manure, can help alleviate soil acidification and increase urease activity. Specifically, the treatment with green manure provided in a 14.71-66.67% increase in urease activity compared to S2. Metagenomics sequencing results showed a decrease in diversity in S3, S4, S5, and S6 compared to S2, but the application of chemical fertilizer with green manure promoted an increase in the relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. In addition, the nitrification pathway displayed a progressive augmentation in tandem with the reduction in nitrogen fertilizer and application of green manure, reaching its zenith at S5. Conversely, other nitrogen metabolism pathways showed a decline in correlation with diminishing nitrogen fertilizer dosages. The rest of the treatments showed an increase in yield in comparison to S1, S5 showing significant differences (p < 0.05). In summary, although S2 demonstrate the ability to enhance soil microbial diversity, it is important to consider the long-term ecological impacts, and S5 may be a better choice.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Uncaria , Vicia sativa , Solo , Agricultura/métodos , Esterco , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Urease , Microbiota/genética , Microbiologia do Solo , Fertilização
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 466: 133619, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310841

RESUMO

Soil remediation techniques are promising approaches to relieve the adverse environmental impacts in soils caused by neonicotinoids application. This study systematically investigated the remediation mechanisms for peanut shell biochar (PSB) and composted chicken manure (CCM) on neonicotinoid-contaminated soils from the perspective of transformation of geochemical fractions by combining a 3-step sequential extraction procedure and non-steady state model. The neonicotinoid geochemical fractions were divided into labile, moderate-adsorbed, stable-adsorbed, bound, and degradable fractions. The PSB and CCM addition stimulated the neonicotinoid transformation in soils from labile fraction to moderate-adsorbed and stable-adsorbed fractions. Compared with unamended soils, the labile fractions decreased from 47.6% ± 11.8% of the initial concentrations to 12.1 ± 9.3% in PSB-amended soils, and 7.1 ± 4.9% in PSB and CCM-amended soils, while the proportions of moderate-adsorbed and stable-adsorbed fractions correspondingly increased by 1.8-2.4 times and 2.3-4.8 times, respectively. A small proportion (<4.8%) in bound fractions suggested there were rather limited bound-residues after 48 days incubation. The PSB stimulated the -NO2-containing neonicotinoid-degraders, which promoted the degradable fractions of corresponding neonicotinoids by 8.2 ± 6.3%. Degradable fraction of neonicotinoids was the dominant fate in soils, which accounted for 58.3 ± 16.7%. The findings made beneficial theoretical supplements and provided valuable empirical evidence for the remediation of neonicotinoid-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Arachis , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Esterco , Galinhas , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Solo/química , Neonicotinoides
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 395: 130393, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301942

RESUMO

Hydrothermal carbonization temperature is a key factor in controlling the physico-chemical properties of hydrochar and affecting its function. In this study, effects of hydrochar and Fe-modified hydrochar (Fe-HC) prepared at 180 °C (180C-Fe), 220 °C (220C-Fe) and 260 °C (260C-Fe) on anaerobic digestion (AD) performance of swine manure was investigated. Among the three Fe-HCs, 220C-Fe had the highest amount of Fe and Fe2+ on the surface. The relative methane production of control reached 174 %-189 % in the 180C-Fe and 220C-Fe treatments between days 11 and 12. The degradation efficiency of swine manure was highest in the 220C-Fe treatment (61.3 %), which was 14.8 % higher than in the control. Fe-HC could act as an electron shuttle, stimulate the coenzyme F420 formation, increase the relative abundance of Methanosarcina and promote electron transport for acetotrophic methanogenesis in the AD. These findings are helpful for designing an efficient process for treating swine manure and utilizing digestate.


Assuntos
Esterco , Methanosarcina , Animais , Suínos , Anaerobiose , Temperatura , Transporte de Elétrons , Metano
10.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120145, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306857

RESUMO

This work aimed to investigate the microbial mechanisms for the improvement of composting efficiency driven by the compound microbial inoculum (MI) (Bacillus subtilis SL-44, Enterobacter hormaechei Rs-189 and Trichoderma reesei) during co-composting of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and chicken manure (CM). The treatments used in the study were as follows: 1) MI (inoculation with microbial inoculum), 2) CI (inoculation with commercial microbial inoculum), and 3) CK (without inoculation). The results demonstrated that MI increased the seed germination index (GI) by 25.11%, and contents of humus, humic acid (HA) and available phosphorus (AP) were correspondingly promoted by 12.47%, 25.93% and 37.16%, respectively. The inoculation of MI increased the temperature of the thermophilic stage by 3-7 °C and achieved a cellulose degradation rate of 52.87%. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that Actinobacteria (11.73-61.61%), Firmicutes (9.46-65.07%), Proteobacteria (2.86-32.17%) and Chloroflexi (0.51-10.92%) were the four major phyla during the inoculation composting. Bacterial metabolic functional analysis revealed that pathways involved in amino acid and glycan biosynthesis and metabolism were boosted in the thermophilic phase. There was a positive correlation between bacterial communities and temperature, humification and phosphorus fractions. The average dry weight, fresh weight and seedling root length in the seedling substrates adding MI compost were 1.13, 1.23 and 1.06 times higher than those of the CK, respectively. This study revealed that biological inoculation could improve the composting quality and efficiency, potentially benefiting the resource utilization of agricultural waste resources.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Compostagem , Animais , Esterco , Galinhas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo , Fósforo
11.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120162, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310794

RESUMO

Herein, the effects of different bulking agents (sawdust and mushroom residue), on compost quality and the environmental benefits of semipermeable film composting with poultry manure were investigated. The results show that composting with sawdust as the bulking agent resulted in greater efficiency and more cost benefits than composting with mushroom residue, and the cost of sawdust for treating an equal volume of manure was only 1/6 of that of mushroom residue. Additionally, lignin degradation and potential carbon emission reduction in the sawdust group were better than those in the mushroom residue group, and the lignin degradation efficiency of the bottom sample in the sawdust group was 48.57 %. Coupling between lignin degradation and potential carbon emission reduction was also closer in sawdust piles than in mushroom residue piles, and sawdust is more environmentally friendly. The abundance of key functional genes was higher at the bottom of each pile relative to the top and middle. Limnochordaceae, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus were the core microorganisms involved in coupling between lignin degradation and potential carbon emission reduction, and the coupled relationship was influenced by electric conductivity, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen in the compost piles. This study provides important data for supporting bulking agent selection in semipermeable film composting and for improving the composting process. The results have high value for compost production and process application.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Compostagem , Animais , Aves Domésticas , Esterco , Lignina , Carbono , Nitrogênio , Solo
12.
Environ Int ; 184: 108469, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324928

RESUMO

Biochar promotes microbial metabolic activities and reduces N2O on aerobic composting. However, the effects of magnetic biochar (MBC) on the microbial succession and N2O emissions during pig manure composting remain unclear. Herein, a 42-day composting experiment was conducted with five treatment regimes: pig manure without biochar (CK), 5 % pig manure-based biochar (5 % PBC), 2 % MBC (2 % MBC), 5 % MBC (5 % MBC) and 7.5 % MBC (7.5 % MBC)), to clarify the variation in functional microorganisms and genes associated with nitrogen and direct interspecies electron transfer via metagenomics. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that MBC possessed more stable aromatic structures than pig manure-based biochar (PBC), indicating its greater potential for nitrous oxide reduction. MBC treatments were more effective in composting organic matter and improving the carbon/nitrogen ratio than PBC. The microbial composition during composting varied significantly, with the dominant phyla shifting from Firmicutes to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidota. Network and hierarchical clustering analyses showed that the MBC treatment enhanced the interactions of dominant microbes (Proteobacteria and Bacteroidota) and accelerated the composting process. The biochar addition accelerated assimilatory nitrate reduction and slowed dissimilatory nitrate reduction and denitrification. The Mantel test demonstrated that magnetic biochar potentially helped regulate composting nutrients and affected functional nitrogen genes. These findings shed light on the role of MBC in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions during aerobic composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Esterco , Animais , Suínos , Esterco/microbiologia , Nitratos , Solo , Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Fenômenos Magnéticos
13.
Environ Int ; 184: 108460, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335625

RESUMO

Although the arsenic contamination and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting have been studied separately, there is limited information on their interactions, particularly, the relationship between arsenic biotransformation genes (ABGs) and ARGs. Therefore, the present study used different forms of arsenic stress (organic and inorganic arsenic at 10 and 50 mg/kg) in pig manure and straw co-composting, to evaluate the effects of arsenic stress on microbial community structures, metabolic function, ABGs, and ARGs. The results showed that arsenic stress had different effects on different parameters and promoted the microbial formation of humic acid and the biodegradation of fulvic acid. Inorganic arsenic showed more rapid effects on microbial community structure, visible within about 20 days, while the effects of organic arsenic were later (about 45 days) due to the necessity of transformation. Moreover, the addition of organic roxarsone and inorganic arsenic resulted in higher expression of ABGs and ARGs, respectively. Arsenic addition also caused increased expression of genes associated with replication and repair. A significant relationship was observed between ABG and ARG expression, for instance, genes involved in arsenic reduction and oxidation were influenced by genes involved in aminoglycoside and chloramphenicol resistance genes (p < 0.05). These complex interactions among microorganisms, functional genes, and external parameters contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying cross-contamination.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Compostagem , Animais , Suínos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Genes Bacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Biotransformação , Esterco
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 272: 116077, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335578

RESUMO

Vermicomposting via housefly larvae can be used to efficiently treat manure and regenerate biofertilizer; however, the uptake of heavy metals could negatively influence the growth and development of larvae. Intestinal bacteria play an important role in the development of houseflies, but their effects on resistance to heavy metal damage in houseflies are still poorly understood. In this study, the life history traits and gut microbiota of housefly larvae were evaluated after exposure to an environment with Cu2+ -Enterobacter hormaechei. The data showed that exposure to 300 µg/mL Cu2+ significantly inhibited larval development and locomotor activity and reduced immune capacity. However, dietary supplementation with a Cu2+ -Enterobacter hormaechei mixture resulted in increased body weight and length, and the immune capacity of the larvae returned to normal levels. The abundances of Providencia and Klebsiella increased when larvae were fed Cu2+ -contaminated diets, while the abundances of Enterobacter and Bacillus increased when larvae were exposed to a Cu2+ -Enterobacter hormaechei mixture-contaminated environment. In vitro scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that Enterobacter hormaechei exhibited obvious adsorption of Cu2+ when cultured in the presence of Cu2+, which reduced the damage caused by Cu2+ to other bacteria in the intestine and protected the larvae from Cu2+ injury. Overall, our results showed that Enterobacter hormaechei can absorb Cu2+ and increase the abundance of beneficial bacteria, thus protecting housefly larvae from damage caused by Cu2+. These results may fill the gaps in our understanding of the interactions between heavy metals and beneficial intestinal bacteria, offering valuable insights into the interplay between housefly larvae and metal contaminants in the environment. This approach could enhance the efficiency of converting manure contaminated with heavy metals to resources using houseflies.


Assuntos
Moscas Domésticas , Metais Pesados , Animais , Moscas Domésticas/microbiologia , Larva , Esterco/microbiologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Enterobacter
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(8): 3883-3894, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347804

RESUMO

Denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) can mitigate methane emissions; however, this process has not been studied in cattle manure, an important source of methane emissions in animal agriculture. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of DAMO microbes in cattle manure and examine the impacts of veterinary antibiotics on the DAMO process in cattle manure. Results show that DAMO archaea and bacteria consistently occur at high concentrations in beef cattle manure. During the long-term operation of a sequencing batch reactor seeded with beef cattle manure, the DAMO activities intensified, and DAMO microbial biomass increased. Exposure to chlortetracycline at initial concentrations up to 5000 µg L-1 did not inhibit DAMO activities or affect the concentrations of the 16S rRNA gene and functional genes of DAMO microbes. In contrast, exposure to tylosin at initial concentrations of 50 and 500 µg L-1 increased the activities of the DAMO microbes. An initial concentration of 5000 µg L-1 TYL almost entirely halted DAMO activities and reduced the concentrations of DAMO microbes. These results show the occurrence of DAMO microbes in cattle manure and reveal that elevated concentrations of dissolved antibiotics could inhibit the DAMO process, potentially affecting net methane emissions from cattle manure.


Assuntos
Esterco , Metano , Bovinos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Anaerobiose , Desnitrificação , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Oxirredução , Nitritos
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 141: 277-286, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408828

RESUMO

The dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil has become a global environmental issue. Vermicomposting is gaining prominence in agricultural practices as a soil amendment to improve soil quality. However, its impact on soil ARGs remains unclear when it occurs in farmland. We comprehensively explored the evolution and fate of ARGs and their hosts in the field soil profiles under vermicompost application for more than 3 years. Vermicompost application increased several ARG loads in soil environment but decreased the high-risk bla-ARGs (blaampC, blaNDM, and blaGES-1) by log(0.04 - 0.43). ARGs in soil amended with vermicompost primarily occurred in topsoil (approximately 1.04-fold of unfertilized soil), but it is worth noting that their levels in the 40-60 cm soil layer were the same or even less than in the unfertilized soil. The microbial community structure changed in soil profiles after vermicompost application. Vermicompost application altered the microbial community structure in soil profiles, showing that the dominant bacteria (i.e., Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota, Firmicutes) were decreased 2.62%-5.48% with the increase of soil depth. A network analysis further revealed that most of ARG dominant host bacteria did not migrate from surface soil to deep soil. In particular, those host bacteria harboring high-risk bla-ARGs were primarily concentrated in the surface soil. This study highlights a lower risk of the propagation of ARGs caused by vermicompost application and provides a novel approach to reduce and relieve the dissemination of ARGs derived from animals in agricultural production.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Solo , Animais , Solo/química , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/genética , Produtos Agrícolas
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 913: 169767, 2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176562

RESUMO

Inadequately managed solid organic waste generation poses a threat to the environment and human health globally. Biotransformation with the black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) is emerging as talent technology for solid waste management. However, there is a lack of understanding of whether BSFL can effectively suppress potential pathogenic microorganisms during management and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the temporal variations of microorganisms in two common types of solid waste, i.e., kitchen waste (KW) and pig manure (PM). Natural composting and composting with BSFL under three different pH levels (pH 5, 7, and 9) were established to explore their impact on microbial communities in compost and the gut of BSFL. The results showed that the compost of kitchen waste and pig manure led to an increase in relative abundance of various potentially pathogenic bacteria. Temporal gradient analyses revealed that the most substantial reduction in the relative abundance and diversity of potentially pathogenic microorganisms occurred when the initial pH of both two wastes were adjusted to 7 upon the introduction of BSFL. Through network and pls-pm analysis, it was discovered that the gut microbiota of BSFL occupied an ecological niche in the compost, inhibiting the proliferation of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. This study has revealed the potential of BSFL in reducing public health risks during the solid waste management process, providing robust support for sustainable waste management.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Dípteros , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Larva/fisiologia , Resíduos Sólidos , Esterco , Dípteros/fisiologia
18.
J Environ Manage ; 351: 120006, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176383

RESUMO

The performance of anaerobic digestion (AD) is susceptible to disturbances in feedstock degradation, intermediates accumulation, and methanogenic archaea activity. To improve the methanogenesis performance of the AD system, Fe-N co-modified biochar was prepared under different pyrolysis temperatures (300,500, and 700 °C). Meanwhile, pristine and Fe-modified biochar were also derived from alternanthera philoxeroides (AP). The aim was to compare the effects of Fe-N co-modification, Fe modification, and pristine biochar on the methanogenic performance and explicit the responding mechanism of the microbial community in anaerobic co-digestion (coAD) of AP and cow manure (CM). The highest cumulative methane production was obtained with the addition of Fe-N-BC500 (260.38 mL/gVS), which was 42.37 % higher than the control, while the acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid concentration of Fe-N-BC were increased by 147.58 %, 44.25 %, and 194.06 % compared with the control, respectively. The co-modified biochar enhanced the abundance of Chloroflexi and Methanosarcina in the AD system. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed that the increased methane production was related to the formation and metabolism of volatile fatty acids and that Fe-N-BC500 enhanced the biosynthesis of coenzyme A and the cell activity of microorganisms, accelerating the degradation of propionic acid and enhancing the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis pathway. Overall, Fe-N co-modified biochar was proved to be an effective promoter for accelerated methane production during AD.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Microbiota , Propionatos , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Anaerobiose , Esterco , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Digestão , Metano , Reatores Biológicos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 915: 170001, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218494

RESUMO

Livestock farming is an essential agricultural practice. However, the improper management of livestock wastes and discharge of untreated or partially treated livestock manure slurry poses significant environmental problems. In this study, we aimed to compare the cytogenotoxic potential of untreated and treated dairy manure slurry treated with a two-stage chemical and electrocoagulation (EC) using the Allium cepa bioassay. The A. cepa bioassay is a well-established standard tool for assessing the cytogenotoxic effects of environmental contaminants, especially those that are occurred as complex contaminant mixtures. The dairy manure slurry was subjected to chemical treatment utilizing polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) at optimized conditions, followed by EC utilizing either aluminum (Al) or steel anodes. The treated and untreated samples were then evaluated for their potential cytogenotoxicty using the A. cepa bioassay, by measuring the nuclear abnormalities (NAs) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs), along with the mitotic indices (MIs). Our findings revealed a significant reduction in cytogenotoxic indicators in the treated liquid fraction compared to the untreated dairy manure slurry. Specifically, the frequency of total NAs showed a significant reduction from 154 ‰ to 37 ‰ when the dairy manure slurry was treated with chemical coagulation followed by EC utilizing an Al anode. Moreover, the MI exhibited a significant improvement from 7 ‰ to 123 ‰, suggesting the mitigation of toxic effects. These results collectively demonstrate the effectiveness of the two-stage chemical and EC treatment under optimal conditions in treating diary manure slurry while reducing its cytogenotoxicity for living systems. The A. cepa bioassay proved to be a sensitive and reliable method for assessing the toxicity of the treated samples. The efficient solid-liquid separation and the reduction of toxicity in the liquid fraction for biological systems achieved through this treatment process highlight its potential for sustainable management of livestock waste and the preservation of water quality. Nevertheless, further studies are required to assess the toxicity of solid fraction.


Assuntos
Esterco , Cebolas , Agricultura , Fazendas
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 915: 170116, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232831

RESUMO

Pyrolysis is an effective method for treating of livestock and poultry manure developed in recent years. It can completely decompose pathogens and antibiotics, stabilize heavy metals, and enrich phosphorus (P) in biochar. To elucidate the P migration mechanism under different pig manure pyrolysis temperatures, sequential fractionation, solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure techniques were used to analyze the P species in pig manure biochar (PMB). The results indicated that most of the organic P in the pig manure was converted to inorganic P during pyrolysis. Moreover, the transformation to different P groups pathways was clarified. The phase transition from amorphous to crystalline calcium phosphate was promoted when the temperature was above 600 °C. The content of P extracted by hydrochloric acid, which was the long-term available P for plant uptake, increased significantly. PMB pyrolyzed at 600 °C can be used as a highly effective substitute for P source. It provides the necessary P species (e.g. water-soluble P.) and metal elements for the growth of water spinach plants, and which are slow-release comparing with the Hogland nutrient solution.


Assuntos
Esterco , Pirólise , Animais , Suínos , Hidroponia , Fósforo/química , Carvão Vegetal/química
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