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1.
J Environ Manage ; 259: 109700, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072947

RESUMO

In the present study, various co-composts of sewage sludge (SS), farm manure (FM) and rock phosphate (RP) were prepared and their influence on phosphorus (P) uptake, soil P restoration and growth of rice crop and residual effect on wheat crop were investigated. The treatments comprised of T1 (control, no amendment), T2 (452 kg Nitrophos ha-1, T3 (724 kg SS50:FM50 ha-1), T4 (594 kg SS100:FM0 ha-1), T5 (728 kg SS25:FM25:RP50 ha-1), T6 (726 kg SS5O:FM25:RP25 ha-1), T7 (508 kg SS75:FM0:RP25 ha-1), and T8 (546 kg SS50:FM0:RP50 ha-1). The post-experimental soil samples were analyzed for pH, EC, OM, Olsen's P. The plant samples (grains and straw of both crops) were analyzed for concentrations of P, and heavy metals. The P adsorption by post-wheat composts-amended soil was tested through Langmuir, and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The investigated parameters (biomass, grain and straw yield, plant height and P concentrations in plant parts) were significantly increased in all composts as compared to the control treatment. The P uptake by the plants was higher in compost treatments as compared to the control and NP that shows long-term residual effect of applied composts. The maximum grain yield (1.63 Mg ha-1) was obtained in T5 followed by T6 (1.52 Mg ha-1). The P concentration in rice grains were recorded in the trend as T8 (2.55%) > T6 (2.24%) > T4 (1.92%) = T3 (1.88%) > T7 (1.62%). It is evident that the combined application of FM (25%) and RP (50%) enhanced the effect of SS (25%) in terms of P bioavailability and yield parameters and can be effectively used as P fertilizer.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oryza , Fazendas , Fertilizantes , Esterco , Fosfatos , Fósforo , Esgotos , Solo , Triticum
2.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109914, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063304

RESUMO

Rapid demographic expansion along with increasing urbanization has aggravated the problem of solid waste management. Therefore, scientists are seeking waste management methods that are eco-friendly, cost effective and produce immediate results. In the developing world, municipal solid waste (MSW) contains mostly organic substances, therefore vermicomposting could be a better and cost-effective option for waste management. In this study, vermicomposting of organic portion of MSW with cow dung (additive) was performed using Eisenia fetida. The results showed significant (p < 0.001) decline in pH (13.17%), TOC (21.70%), C: N (62.53%) and C: P (57.66%) ratios, whilst total N (108.9%), P (84.89%) and K (21.85%) content increased (p < 0.001) in matured vermicompost. Different enzymatic activities declined during termination phase of vermicomposting experiment with maximum decrease of 41.72 (p = 0.002) and 39.56% (p = 0.001) in protease and ß-glucosidase, respectively. FT-IR, TGA, DSC and SEM studies suggested that final vermicompost was more stabilized as compared to initial waste mixture, characterized by reduced levels of aliphatic materials, carbohydrates and increase in aromatic groups possibly due to biosynthesis of humic substances. Both, the conventional (physicochemical and enzyme activity) and advanced techniques depict maturity and stability of the ready vermicompost. However, FT-IR, TGA, DSC and SEM were proved to be more promising, fast and reliable techniques over conventional analyses.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Resíduos Sólidos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Substâncias Húmicas , Esterco , Solo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109858, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063318

RESUMO

Methane and nitrous oxide are the two leading greenhouse gases (GHG) that are released to the atmosphere due to livestock enteric fermentation and manure management. This study examines Turkey's province-based GHG emissions released by its livestock sector due to these processes. Besides, this study focusses on biogas production through anaerobic digestion, which is one of the most effective GHG mitigation options from manure management. This study aims to show the importance of the livestock sector in regards to GHG emissions in Turkey based on estimations made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 Guidelines. As a result of these estimations, for the year 2015, 33.85 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) were produced from enteric fermentation and manure management system. The study also aims to evaluate Turkey's province-based biogas production potential from animal manure through the anaerobic digestion (AD) technology. Two different biogas potential scenarios with varying manure recovery rates were developed. Scenario 1 was developed based on the assumption of that total amount of produced animal manure would be used in AD for biogas production, and scenario 2 was developed based on the realistic manure recovery rates that vary with the type of livestock. Biogas potentials for scenario 1 and scenario 2 were determined as 8.41 billion m3 and 4.18 billion m3 in 2015, respectively. These values can meet Turkey's total electricity demand at a rate of 5.25% for scenario 1, and the rate of 2.3% for scenario 2. In addition, according to Turkey's GHG Inventory, submitted annually to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), GHG emissions from manure management can be reduced by 1.13% through biogas production.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Efeito Estufa , Gado , Esterco , Metano , Óxido Nitroso , Turquia
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122883, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006923

RESUMO

The metabolic function and organic degradation behavior of bacterial and fungal communities were detected in 60 days composting of chicken manure and pumice by using Biolog tools, PICRUSt and FUNGuild. Fungal diversity increased from 57 OTUs in fresh chicken manure to 109 OTUs in high temperature stage, while bacterial diversity decreased from 86 OTUs to 44 OTUs after composting treatment. The carbohydrates degradation ability of bacterial community was enhanced in the high temperature stage. Fungal community had relatively higher degradation rates of carboxylic acids and amino acids in the maturation stage. Saprotroph was the main trophic mode of fungal community during the incubation process. The fungal animal pathogen decreased from 12.5% to 1.2% after composting treatment. Bacterial community composition and substrates degradation rate were mainly influenced by redox potential, pH and moisture, while temperature was the main environmental factor influencing on organic degradation of fungal community.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Micobioma , Animais , Bactérias , Galinhas , Esterco , Solo
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122850, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007849

RESUMO

This study analyzed the chemical speciation, leaching ability, and environmental risk of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in cow manure biochar (CMBC) pyrolyzed at various temperatures. The total content, chemical speciation, and leaching ability of the heavy metals were determined through microwave digestion, modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure, and leaching solution systems (TCLP, distilled water, and SPLP). The risk assessment code, Muller geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index, and germination index were used to evaluate the environmental safety and ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Significant differences were observed in the physicochemical properties of CMBCs. The heavy metal contents in CMBCs were higher than those in CM. The bioavailable fraction of heavy metals was transformed into a relatively stable fraction with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, the potential risks and ecotoxicity of biochar were reduced, thus improving environmental safety. The study results provide important data for biochar applications.


Assuntos
Esterco , Metais Pesados , Animais , Bovinos , Carvão Vegetal , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Pirólise , Medição de Risco , Temperatura Ambiente
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 157-164, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957392

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of long-term fertilization on soil organic phosphorus fractions and wheat yield in the Loess Plateau can provide theoretical support for improving phosphorus conversion, utilization, and rational use of fertilizer. We examined the effects of different fertilizer treatments on soil organic phosphorus fractions, wheat yield and soil properties of a farmland in the long-term (1984-2016) positioning test station of Changwu loess soil. There were eight treatments, including no fertilizer (CK), single application of nitrogen fertilizer (N), single application of phosphorus fertilizer (P), application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer (NP), single application of organic fertilizer (M), nitrogen combined with organic fertilizer (MN), phosphorus combined with organic fertilizer (MP), nitrogen and phosphorus combined with organic fertilizer (MNP). The results showed that the range of soil organic phosphorus content was 244.7-429.1 mg·kg-1 after long-term fertilization. Except for the N treatment, organic phosphorus content was significantly increased by 15.4%-47.9% compared to CK. Long-term application of phosphorus fertilizer changed the content of organic phosphorus fractions in the surface soil (0-20 cm). The treatments of MP and MNP significantly increased the contents of labile organic phosphorus and moderately labile organic phosphorus. The treatments of N, P and NP significantly reduced the content of moderately stable organic phosphorus. The treatments of N, P, NP, MN, MP, MNP all significantly increased the highly stable organic phosphorus. The ratio of soil organic phosphorus fractions to total organic phosphorus content was in order of moderately labile organic phosphorus > highly stable organic phosphorus > labile organic phosphorus > moderately stable organic phosphorus. After long-term fertilizer application, the combination of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, especially with organic fertilizers, significantly increased wheat biomass yield and grain yield. Among all the examined soil properties, organic matter, Olsen-P and total inorganic phosphorus were significantly positively correlated with wheat yield. MP and M could significantly increase the content of Olsen-P, total phosphorus, total inorganic phosphorus, labile organic phosphorus and moderately labile organic phosphorus in the loess soil of Loess Plateau. Our results indicated that the organic and phosphorus fertilizers could improve soil phosphorus components that could be more easily absorbed by crops. In summary, the combination of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, especially with organic fertilizers, could increase soil phosphorus supply in the region and promote the wheat yield, which is important for improving soil quality in the Loess Plateau.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Agricultura , Fazendas , Fertilizantes , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Triticum
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122671, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901776

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to prove a process temperature of 45 °C as a practical alternative to commonly applied mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic digestion (AD). Regarding methane production, no differences were found between the three temperature regimes. However, the maximum possible loading rate at 45 °C exceeded that at 37 °C and 55 °C. Pathogen inactivation at 45 °C was higher than at 37 °C and similarly efficient as at 55 °C. At each process temperature, a unique microbial community established. In addition, the archaeome at 55 °C was dominated by hydrogenotrophs, while at 37 °C and 45 °C it was dominated by acetotrophs. For the investigated substrate mixture, liquid cattle manure with wheat straw as co-substrate, 45 °C turned out to be preferable for AD. For other substrates, these findings still need to be confirmed.


Assuntos
Esterco , Metano , Anaerobiose , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Bovinos , Temperatura Ambiente , Triticum
8.
J Environ Manage ; 258: 110014, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929056

RESUMO

The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) is well known for its importance in the composting process, however the fiber degradation and humification associated with enzymatic activity and microbial variation derived from different C/N ratios are poorly studied. Here, we designed two treatments of chicken manure with 15% (initial C/N ratio 9.61) and 50% (initial C/N ratio 17.3) rice husk to adjust the moisture of mixtures for turning feasibly by towable fertilizer turner in industrial level. Compared to the C/N ratio 9.61, the suitable C/N ratio of 17.3 significantly enhanced the composting efficiency and the final germination index (23.7%). Moreover, the suitable C/N ratio increased the relative abundance of Bacilli, which played an important role during the mesophilic and thermophilic phases. Bacilli abundance was related to cellulose and ß-glycosidase activities, thus improved fiber degradation and humification. This study not only seeks a swift method in industrial level to process chicken manure but also provides insight into the enzymatic activity of microbial community related to high-efficient composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Microbiota , Oryza , Animais , Galinhas , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Solo
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122669, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891854

RESUMO

Composting is not completely effective in reducing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manure. This work studied the effects of different treatment conditions on the fate of ARGs in composting swine manure with cauliflower and corn straw as bulking agents. The results showed that the addition of microbial agents or the ratio of corn stalks to cauliflower (1:12) could significantly decrease the absolute abundances of most ARGs (an average of 480 times) compared with the control treatment. Principal component analysis indicated that bacterial communities were significantly correlated with ARG abundance, suggesting that microbial communities have an impact on ARG variation during co-composting. Redundancy and Network analysis confirmed the changing patterns of individual ARGs (qnrS, blaAmpC, blaTEM-1) were influenced by the selectivity of host bacteria (Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Halocella) and environmental variables (TN, NH3-N, TOC, and pH). These findings helped to optimize composting conditions, thereby reducing the risk of ARGs spread.


Assuntos
Brassica , Compostagem , Animais , Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco , Suínos , Zea mays
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122760, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972401

RESUMO

Nitrogen cycling during composting process is not yet fully understood. This study explored the key genes involved in nitrogen cycling during dairy manure composting process using high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR technologies. Results showed that nitrogen fixation occurred mainly during the thermophilic and cooling phases, and significantly enhanced the nitrogen content of compost. Thermoclostridium stercorarium was the main diazotroph. Ammonia oxidation occurred during the maturation phase and Nitrosomonas sp. was the most abundant ammonia oxidizing bacteria. Denitrification contributed to the greatest nitrogen loss during the composting process. The nirK community was dominated by Luteimonas sp. and Achromobacter sp., while the nirS community was dominated by Alcaligenes faecalis and Pseudomonas stutzeri. The nosZ community varied in a succession of Halomonas ilicicola, Pseudomonas flexibili and Labrenzia alba dominated communities according to different composting phases. Based on these results, nitrogen cycling models for different phases of the dairy manure composting process were established.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Nitrosomonas , Solo
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 299: 122552, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923812

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of temperature and volatile solids (VS) ratio of feedstock to inoculum (F/I ratio) on methane (CH4) production and the solubility of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), cooper (Cu), and Zinc (Zn) after anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure. The highest cumulative CH4 yield of 470 L/kgVSfeed was obtained with F/I ratios of 2.0 and 3.0 with mesophilic (37 °C) temperature, and methane production rate decreased with the increase of F/I ratio. As F/I ratio increased from 0.5 to 4.0, the lag phase for methane production increased from 1.02 days to 13.52 days, indicating an initial inhibition at high F/I ratios. AD increased the concentrations of ammonia, Cu and Zn in the AD effluent supernatant, while decreased total and water extractive P concentrations. The changes of ammonia, Cu, Zn, and P concentrations were more significant with the increase of F/I ratio.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Esterco , Anaerobiose , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Nutrientes , Solubilidade , Suínos , Temperatura Ambiente
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122728, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926471

RESUMO

This study investigated methane production and ARGs reduction during thermophilic AD of swine manure with the addition of different Cu salts (cupric sulfate, cupric glycinate, and the 1:1 mixture of these two salts). Results showed methane production was increased by 28.78% through adding mixed Cu salts. The mixed Cu group effectively reduced total ARGs abundance by 26.94%, suggesting mixed Cu salts did not promote the potential ARGs risk. The positive effects of mixed Cu salts on AD performance and ARGs removal might be ascribed to the low bioavailability. Microbial community analysis indicated the highest abundances of Clostridia_MBA03 and Methanobacterium in the mixed Cu group might cause the increased methane production. Spearman's rank correlation analysis elucidated the succession in microbial community induced by environmental factors was the main driver for shaping ARGs profiles. Thus, mixed Cu salts could be an alternative to replace the inorganic Cu salt in animal feed additives.


Assuntos
Esterco , Microbiota , Anaerobiose , Animais , Antibacterianos , Cobre , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Suínos
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122729, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931335

RESUMO

The effect of ceftiofur (CEF), a commonly used antibiotics on dairy farms, on the performance and stability of mesophilic batch anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy manure was evaluated in terms of methane production, organic matter removal (COD, dCOD, TS, and VS), and synthesis of end-products (VFAs, CO2, and H2). The results indicated that only CEF concentrations of 10 mg/L or higher significantly affected the performance of the AD process, although the overall stability was not compromised. Biochemical analyses suggested that hydrolytic microorganisms were the most affected by the presence of CEF leading to lower COD removal, whereas acetogens were only temporarily slowed down. Methanogens, on the other hand, were not directly affected by any of the CEF concentrations tested (0.2-250 mg/L). Additionally, the presence of CEF was shown to alter the incidence of the cephalosporin-resistance marker, cmy-2, although an overall reduction was achieved in 15-day batch anaerobic digestion trials.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Esterco , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Cefalosporinas , Metano
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122730, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954966

RESUMO

The effects of inoculating with microorganisms on chicken manure compost with maize straw were investigated in a self-built aerated static box (0.6 m3) by assessing the influences of temperature, moisture, pH, C/N ratio, transformation of nitrogen, humification levels and composting maturity. Results showed that inoculation with microorganisms prolonged the thermophilic stage in composting compared to control groups, increasing the temperature, pH and germination index as the composting period progressed. This suggests that inoculation with microorganisms were helpful in facilitating the process of composting, as it significantly reduced NH4+ content during the cooling stage. Additionally, NO3- increased after the first pile turning on day 10, continuing until the end of thermophilic stage. Improvements across transformation of nitrogen, humification levels and composting maturity were also seen in inoculation piles. Conclusively, we suggested inoculating using cocktails of microorganisms to increase efficiency and promote maturity in chicken manure composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Galinhas , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Solo , Temperatura Ambiente , Zea mays
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122723, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962245

RESUMO

During the municipal solid waste (MSW) composting, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) could be one of the concerns to hinder the application of MSW composting. However, the understanding of enrichment and dissemination of ARGs during the industrial-scale composting is still not clear. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the ARG distributions at different stages in an industrial-scale MSW composting plant. Seven target ARGs and four target mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and bacterial communities were investigated. The abundances of ARGs and MGEs increased during two aerobic thermophilic stages, but they decreased in most ARGs and MGEs after composting. Network analysis showed that potential host bacteria of ARGs were mainly Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The reduction of potential host bacteria was important to remove ARGs. MGEs were an important factor hindering ARG removal. Water-extractable S and pH were two main physicochemical factors in the changes of microbial community and the abundance of ARGs.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Esterco , Resíduos Sólidos
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122753, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982852

RESUMO

Phosphorus content of the digestate is crucial for evaluating its fertilizer utilization in anaerobic digestion system. The vermiculite containing rich-phosphorus is firstly used as an accelerant in anaerobic batch co-digestion system of aloe peel waste and dairy manure. After introducing vermiculite, the cumulative biogas production (295.14-353.96 mL/g VS), chemical oxygen demand removal rate (45.53%-71.03%), and volatile solid removal rate (50.70%-52.76%) are remarkably higher than those of reference reactor (234.08 mL/g VS, 39.38%, 45.10%). The thermal and fertility analyses manifest the digestates with vermiculite possess superior stability, admirable fertilizer values (5.97%-6.81%), and excellent total phosphorus content (11.44-13.29 g/kg). The improved co-digestion performance can be attributed to the addition of vermiculite. This work introduces a novel approach for improving the performance of anaerobic co-digestion and the fertilizer utilization of digestate in the co-digestion systems.


Assuntos
Aloe , Esterco , Silicatos de Alumínio , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Fósforo
17.
J Environ Manage ; 256: 109981, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989989

RESUMO

Bauxite residue is a highly alkaline solid waste with poor physical structure which ultimately limits plant growth. Ecological reconstruction is an effective strategy to improve its environmental management, although soil formation process still requires further investigation. Here, an incubation experiment was used to investigate the effects of phosphogypsum and poultry manure, on aggregate size distribution and aggregate-associated exchangeable bases of bauxite residue. Phosphogypsum and poultry manure additions significantly increased the proportion of 2-1 mm residue aggregates and enhanced mean weight diameter (MWD) of residues in the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers, although little effect was evident in the 40-60 cm layer. Phosphogypsum addition reduced pH and EC values to approximately 8.5 and 200 mS/cm in different size aggregates at 0-20 cm. Exchangeable Ca2+ concentration was improved, especially in 0.25-0.05 mm and <0.05 mm aggregates, following amendment additions. The relative contents of katoite and cancrinite in >0.25 mm aggregate fractions were relatively higher, which was consistent with changes in pH. Phosphogypsum and poultry manure changed the microstructure and surrounding pores of residue aggregates, whilst the concentration of Ca on microaggregate surfaces was higher than that on macroaggregates. These findings reveal that application of phosphogypsum and poultry manure directly alter the distribution of exchangeable bases and alkaline indicators within residue aggregates, resulting in aggregate size distribution and microstructure variations.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio , Esterco , Animais , Sulfato de Cálcio , Fósforo , Aves Domésticas , Solo
18.
Waste Manag ; 104: 262-269, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991267

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion (AD) reduces GHG emission and facilitates renewable energy generation. The slow rate of adoption of this technology is often attributed to economic and technical considerations. Collaboration of two or more dairy farms into a centralized AD system can improve the process economics through economies of scale. However, uncertainties related to the process parameters and the scope/scale of the collaborative implementation impede its adoption. This study presents techno-economic optimization model as a design aid to determine ideal location, capacity, and participation level (cluster size) that maximize economic return on a cooperative digester. This study employs a probabilistic approach to overcome uncertainty regarding project parameters such as manure biomethane potential (BMP), project capital, and electricity sale price. Two case studies based on dairy production regions in Wisconsin were developed to test the model and demonstrate its capabilities. Herd sizes and spatial distribution in a given region were found to be critical factors in determining the viability of digestion projects in general, and collaborative digestion systems in particular. The number of simulation runs needed to capture the probability of profitable AD facility establishment was less than 1000 for both case studies assessed. Electricity sale price and biomethane potential of feedstock utilized were found to be the most restrictive to the feasibility of AD adoption. Changing the optimization objective function, to adopting maximization, favored the formation of collaborative AD facilities for both case studies evaluated.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Esterco , Anaerobiose , Animais , Metano , Técnicas de Planejamento , Incerteza , Wisconsin
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122757, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978700

RESUMO

Various spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques combined was used to investigate the compositional changes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the difference in humification degree during full-scale cow dung vermicomposting. This study also investigated that whether the two techniques could be used as humification indices. The physicochemical characteristics of vermicompost were superior to those of the control, indicating that vermicomposting significantly accelerated the humification process, which was confirmed by spectroscopic and electrochemical analyses. Meanwhile, the changes of three components identified and electron transfer capacities in vermicomposting further revealed that vermicomposting resulted in significant compositional changes of DOM and higher humification degree. Partial least squares path modeling and redundancy analysis revealed that the two techniques could be used as humification indices for vermicomposting. These results of this study demonstrated that the combination of spectroscopy and electrochemistry was applicable to characterize the compositional changes of DOM and the humification degree of vermicomposting.


Assuntos
Esterco , Solo , Animais , Bovinos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Fezes , Feminino , Substâncias Húmicas , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122823, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987489

RESUMO

Rapid development of livestock industry produces large amount of livestock manure rich in nutrients, organic matters, antibiotics, and heavy metals, thus imposes great harms to human and environment, if the manure is not suitably treated. Biological removal and recovery of nutrients from manure as agriculture fertilizer is attractive due to low cost and simple operation. This review offers an overview of recent development in biological nutrient removal and recovery from livestock manure. Livestock manure is divided into solid manure and liquid manure. Composting and anaerobic digestion of solid manure are fully discussed and important parameters are investigated. Then various processes of nutrient removal and recovery from liquid manure are summarized. Brief economic sustainability and eco-environmental effects are carried out. Finally, current challenges and future prospects in this field are analyzed.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Esterco , Animais , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Gado , Nutrientes
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