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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129897, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084469

RESUMO

The co-existence of antibiotics and heavy metals in soil with manure application poses high risk to both environment and human health, and thus effective remediation methods are in urgent need. This study investigated the synergistic effects of electrokinetic remediation (EKR) on antibiotic resistance and arsenic (As) in co-contaminated paddy soils. EKR treatments in soil amended with pig manure (EKR-PD) showed better remediation efficiency compared with that without pig manure. In detail, the content of available As and the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) decreased by 25.2 %-41.4 % and 9.5 %-21.1 % after 7-d remediation, respectively, due to a relatively higher current density for EKR-PD. The role of the electric field contributed to 33.9 % of antibiotic degradation. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) with ribosomal-protection and enzymatic-deactivation types were easier to remove, with the removal ratio of 37.8 %-41.6 % in EKR-PD. Brevundimonas was the most significantly different species during remediation. Bacillus and Clostridium_ sensu_stricto_1 were potential host bacteria of ARGs in the electric field. Membrane transport might be an effective strategy for microorganisms to respond to the stress of both electric field and co-contaminated environments. This study supports the potential role of EKR in the co-contamination of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance under manure application.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Esterco/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Suínos
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 701-711, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375951

RESUMO

Paddy soils are potential hotspots of combined contamination with arsenic (As) and antibiotics, which may induce co-selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and As biotransformation genes (ABGs), resulting in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and modification in As biogeochemical cycling. So far, little information is available for these co-selection processes and specific patterns between ABGs and ARGs in paddy soils. Here, the 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and high-throughput quantitative PCR and network analysis were employed to investigate the dynamic response of ABGs and ARGs to As stress and manure application. The results showed that As stress increased the abundance of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), resulting in dissemination risk of antimicrobial resistance. Manure amendment increased the abundance of ABGs, enhanced As mobilization and methylation in paddy soil, posing risk to food safety. The frequency of the co-occurrence between ABGs and ARGs, the host bacteria carrying both ARGs and ABGs were increased by As or manure treatment, and remarkably boosted in soils amended with both As and manure. Multidrug resistance genes were found to have the preference to be co-selected with ABGs, which was one of the dominant co-occurring ARGs in all treatments, and manure amendment increased the frequency of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B resistance (MLSB) to co-occur with ABGs. Bacillus and Clostridium of Firmicutes are the dominant host bacteria carrying both ABGs and ARGs in paddy soils. This study would extend our understanding on the co-selection between genes for antibiotics and metals, also unveil the hidden environmental effects of combined pollution.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Solo , Esterco/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Microbiologia do Solo , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Biotransformação
3.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136876, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257399

RESUMO

This study aimed to enhance methane production from mixed anaerobic digestion of cow manure and corn straw by adding hydrochar and biogas slurry reflux. The hydrochar characterization revealed that it can provide attachment for microbial growth, and abundant surface functional groups (such as C-O, CO, C-OH, and C-N) for adsorption. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) mediated by surface oxygen-containing functional groups on hydrochar increased the methane yield. The experimental group added with hydrochar and biogas slurry reflux had the highest methane and biogas production (34.40% and 36.98% higher than the control group, respectively). Results demonstrate hydrochar and biogas slurry reflux can improve microorganism species richness in anaerobic digestion systems, in which hydrochar can also improve microorganism species uniformity. Distance-based redundancy analysis showed that the VFAs, and pH had the greatest effects on the composition of the microbial community. The dominant microorganism at the phylum level in AD system were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The addition of hydrochar and biogas slurry reflux can significantly increase the species abundance of Methanobacterium. These results indicate that the addition of hydrochar and biogas slurry reflux can improve the corresponding microbial abundance, in which hydrochar can enhance the redox characteristics and DIET between microorganism, biogas slurry reflux can also increase nutrient content of anaerobic digestion system, and collectively promote the methane yield.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Esterco , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Esterco/microbiologia , Zea mays/química , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159494, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257411

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion has been employed as a technology capable of adding value to waste coupled with environmental impact mitigation. However, many issues need to be elucidated to ensure the systems viability based on this technology. In this sense, the present study evaluated technically, environmentally, and economically, four configurations of swine waste treatment systems focused on the promotion of decarbonization and circularity of the swine chain. For this, a reference plant, based on a compact treatment process named SISTRATES® (Portuguese acronym for swine effluent treatment system) was adopted to serve as a model for comparison and validation. The results showed the importance of prioritization of the energy recuperation routes through anaerobic digestion, providing increased economic benefits and minimizing environmental damage. Thus, the SISTRATES® configuration was the one that presented the best designs in a circular context, maximizing the recovery of energy and nutrients, along with the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, ensuring the sustainability of the pig production chain.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Esterco , Suínos , Animais , Esterco/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Tecnologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Anaerobiose
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159009, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162579

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of Fe3+ on the quinone redox cycling driving lignocellulosic degradation in composting systems was investigated. The results showed that the degradation rates of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were higher in the experimental group (CT) with Fe2(SO4)3 addition than in the blank group (CK) (CT, 52.55 %, 45.14 %, 56.98 %; CK, 49.63 %, 37.34 %, 52.3 %). Changes in the abundance of key enzymes for quinone reduction (AA3_1, AA3_2, AA6) and the structural succession of microbial communities were analyzed by metagenomic analysis. Among them, Fe2(SO4)3 had the most significant effect on AA3_2, with an approximately 8-fold increase in abundance compared to the beginning of composting. The dominant phylum in the composting process was Actinobacteria. In conclusion, the addition of Fe2(SO4)3 contributed to the quinone redox cycling and effectively improved the degradation rate of lignocellulose in composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Lignina/metabolismo , Metagenômica , Solo , Quinonas , Oxirredução , Esterco/microbiologia
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159010, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174681

RESUMO

Earthworm conversion is an eco-friendly biological process that converts livestock waste into a benign nutrient-rich organic fertilizer. However, little is known about the impacts of earthworm-converted livestock manure on the antibiotic resistome in the earthworm gut microbiota. Herein, lab-scale vermicomposting was performed to comprehensively evaluate the shift of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the earthworm gut-feeding on cow manure (CM)-by metagenomic analysis. The effects of copper (Cu) as a food addictive were also evaluated. CM substantially enriched the antibiotic resistome in the foregut and midgut, while it decreased in the hindgut. A similar trend was observed for metal resistance genes (MRGs). Notably, Cu in the CM had little effect on composition of ARGs and MRGs in earthworm gut. The earthworm gut microbiome altered by CM was responsible for the shift of ARGs and MRGs. In wormcast, Cu (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly increased the abundance of ARGs and MRGs. Our study provides valuable insight into the response of ARGs and MRGs to CM in earthworm gut, and underscores the need for the judicious use of heavy metals as feed additives in livestock and poultry farming.


Assuntos
Esterco , Oligoquetos , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Genes Bacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Gado , Metais
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159213, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206908

RESUMO

A pot experiment was conducted to assess the Sb phytoavailability and its accumulation in the wheat before and after remediation, using the composted manure of poultry and sheep, and a chemical amendment (limestone). The present study evaluates the effects of amendments on Sb bioavailability in different soils and investigates the relationship between bioaccumulated Sb and its availability in spiked soils using two different single extraction methods. Furthermore, a sequential extraction procedure was used to measure different fractions of Sb in soil, in order to assess the effect of remediation. The results revealed that bioavailability of Sb were highly affected by the three soil amendments on plant height, uptake of Sb by wheat. Poultry compost (Pc) and Sheep compost (Sc) increased the residual fraction of Sb in soils, and decreased the Sb uptake by wheat, enhanced the height, biomass and dry yield of the wheat crop. While the residual fraction of Sb in soils didn't obviously increased by adding Chemical (limestone) in the four soils. It is concluded that uptake of Sb in the soils significantly decreased with the addition of amended materials in the Sb spiked soils, and poultry compost is the most effective. In the lower level of Sb contaminated soils remediated by poultry compost (Pc), the uptake of Sb in wheat decreased 63.1-74.4 %, 68.7-79.0 %, 68.9-76.9 % and 66.3-82.6 % in S1, S2, S3, S4, compared to the contaminated soils without amendments, respectively.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes do Solo , Ovinos , Animais , Esterco , Antimônio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo , Triticum , Carbonato de Cálcio
8.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116426, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240639

RESUMO

This study focused on how adding ionic liquids (IL) affects composting humification. During the warming and thermophilic phases, addition of IL increased precursors content, and increased the polymerization of humus (HS) at later stages. Furthermore, the final HS and humic acid (HA) content of experimental groups (T) groups 129.79 mg/g and 79.91 mg/g were higher than in control group (CK) 118.57 mg/g and 74.53 mg/g, respectively (p < 0.05). IL up-regulated the gene abundance of metabolism for carbohydrate and amino acid (AA), and promoted the contributions of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which affected humification. The redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that the citrate-cycle (TCA cycle)(ko0020), pentose phosphate pathway (ko00030), pyruvate metabolism (ko00620), glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism (ko00630), propanoate metabolism (ko00640), butanoate metabolism (ko00650) positively correlated with HA and HI. HA and humification index (HI) positively correlated with AA metabolic pathways, and fulvic acid (FA) was negatively correlated with these pathways. Overall, metabolism for carbohydrate and AA metabolism favored compost humification. ILs improved metabolism for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, thus enhancing humification.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Líquidos Iônicos , Animais , Bovinos , Esterco , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo , Aminoácidos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Carboidratos
9.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116455, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242975

RESUMO

The in-situ resource utilisation (ISRU), in terms of native rocky materials and astronaut wastes, is crucial in contests of soil-based space-farming. Nevertheless, extra-terrestrial soils are very different from Earth soils, lacking any form of organic carbon and associated macro and micronutrients. In this research, we aimed to study and modify two commercially available Lunar and Martian regolith simulants (LHS-1 from Exolith Lab and MMS-1 from Martian Garden) to make them an adequate medium for plant growth. Lettuce was chosen as reference crop to guide the discussion on the results obtained. To reach this main objective, we added to simulants a commercially available monogastric-based organic manure chosen as a substitute of a possible organic amendment produced onboard. The simulant/manure mixture rates were 100:0, 90:10, 70:30, 50:50; w:w. As expected, an approximately linear increase of total and bioavailable contents of macro (N, S, P, Ca, K, Mg) and micro (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) nutrients with increasing manure addition to simulants was observed. On the other hand, the very high pH of manure (pH, 9.02) along with its salinity (EC, 6.7 dS m-1) and sodicity (Na, 5.3 g kg-1), did not correct the already high pH of simulants (very high for LHS-1), but rather raised their soluble salt content and sodium amount on the exchange complex. In addition, an increase of toxic soluble aluminium and heavy elements (Pb, Ni, Cr, V) was observed, mainly in the strongly alkaline lunar simulant/manure mixtures. The addition of an organic source also produced a generalised improvement of water retention and hydraulic conductivity of both regolith simulants, in proportion to the percentage of manure addiction. For both situations, the best mixture ratio was 70:30. In terms of water retained, the LHS-1 mixtures benefited more than the MMS-1 ones by manure addition since water was held more in the "dry" (between -100 and -600 cm of matric potential head) than in the "humid" (between -25 and -100 cm of matric potential head) region of water retention. This would make LHS-1 mixtures more useful for cultivation of lettuce, at least in terms of physico-hydraulic properties. Nevertheless, the overall characterisation of the mixtures unveiled that MMS-1-based substrates can ensure better agronomic performances than LHS-1 ones, mainly due to lower pHs and higher nutrient availability; this divergent fertility was particularly evident at 90:10 simulant/manure rate and tend to be mitigated by increasing the levels of manure.


Assuntos
Esterco , Marte , Solo/química , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Alface , Água
10.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116332, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242977

RESUMO

In recent decades animal agriculture in the U.S. has moved from small, distributed operations to larger, concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). CAFOs are defined by federal regulations based on animal numbers and confinement criteria. Because of the size of these operations, the excessive amount of manure generated is typically stored in lagoons, pits, or barns prior to field application or transport to other farms. Water and air quality near CAFOs can be impaired through the overflow of lagoons, stormwater runoff, lagoon seepage or emissions, motivating the following research question: what manure lagoon parameters impact pollutant fate and transport across multiple mechanisms? To address this question, a CAFO lagoon module was developed to assess lagoon overflow risk, groundwater quality, and ammonia emissions of a dairy lagoon. The results from 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations indicated that lagoon overflow is a rare occurrence for simulated environmental conditions in Washington (3.17%). Second, we developed a groundwater module to complete a groundwater quality assessment of a Dairy Lagoon in Washington using analytical and semi-analytical solutions for groundwater solute transport. The long-term effects of this lagoon on water quality were explored as well as the effectiveness of improving the lagoon lining to reduce seepage. Doubling the lagoon liner thickness attenuated peak groundwater ammonia-N concentrations by 2.8. Lastly, we constructed an air quality module and found that ammonia emissions were not sensitive to changes in lagoon liner construction, but small reductions in lagoon pH significantly reduced yearly average ammonia emissions. The combined model can be used to improve understanding of the impacts of CAFO lagoon overflow and seepage and develop sustainable management practices at the field scale for these key components of the agricultural landscape.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Água Subterrânea , Animais , Esterco , Amônia/análise , Agricultura/métodos
11.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116419, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257226

RESUMO

Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) is a mature and consolidated waste management technology that can transform agro-industrial by-products into biogas and digestate. This study conducted a techno-economic assessment of bioenergy and agricultural fertilizer production from AcoD of sewage sludge, wine vinasse, and poultry manure. In this case study, three configurations were investigated: i) Scenario 1, AcoD in thermophilic temperature; ii) Scenario 2, AcoD in mesophilic temperature; and iii) Scenario 3, AcoD in a temperature phase (TPAD) system, where the digestate produced in the first reactor (thermophilic) feeds the second reactor (mesophilic). The process was designed to manage 24,022 m³ wine vinasse y-1, 24,022 m³ sewage sludge y-1, and 480 m³ poultry manure y-1. The major cost was the fixed capital investment for the single-stage (320,981 USD) and TPAD processes (379,698 USD). The TPAD process produced the highest electricity (1058.99 MWh y-1) and heat (4765.47 GJ y-1) with the lowest cost of manufacturing for electricity (84.99 USD MWh-1), heat (0.019 USD MJ-1), and fertilizer (30.91 USD t-1). Regarding the profitability indicators, the highest net present value (509,011 USD) and the lowest payback time (4.24 y) were achieved for Scenario 3. In conclusion, TPAD is a profitable and sustainable waste-to-energy management technology that can be applied in a circular economy framework to recover bioenergy and fertilizer, contributing to decreasing the carbon footprint of the agri-food sector.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Vinho , Animais , Esterco , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Aves Domésticas , Temperatura , Fertilizantes , Biocombustíveis , Digestão , Metano
12.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116254, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265233

RESUMO

Mechanical solid-liquid separation is an emerging closed-loop technology to recover and recycle carbon, nutrients and water from dilute livestock manure. This closed-loop concept is tested using a modular separation technology (Z-Filter) applied at full-scale for the first time to treat effluent from a pasture-based dairy. Effluent flow rates were 200-400 L min-1 at a total solids (TS) content of 0.52% (pH 7.2). Separation efficiency and composition of the separated solid fraction were determined, and chemically-assisted separation with cationic polymer flocculant with/without hydrated lime was also tested. Without flocculant and lime, 25.9% of TS and 33.4% of volatile solids (VS) ended up in the solid fraction, but total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), phosphorus (P) and potassium recovery was not significant, likely being in poorly separable fine particle or soluble fractions. With a 5% flow-based dosage of flocculant, most of the TS (69%) and VS (85%), and notable amounts of TKN (52-56%) and P (40%) ended up in the solid fraction. Phosphorus recovery was further increased to 91% when both flocculant and hydrated lime was added up to pH 9.2. The solid fraction was stackable with 16-20% TS, making transport more economical to enable further processing and beneficial reuse of nutrients and organic matter. Removal of VS also reduces fugitive methane emissions from uncovered anaerobic effluent ponds. Overall, the results indicated that solid-liquid separation could provide improved environmental management options for dairy farmers with dilute manure effluent to beneficially utilise organic matter and nutrients.


Assuntos
Gado , Esterco , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fósforo , Nitrogênio , Anaerobiose
13.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116456, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270124

RESUMO

Current agricultural practices in regards to storage of manure come with a significant GHG contribution, due, to a big extent, to CH4 emissions. For example, in Denmark, the agricultural sector is responsible for about 11.1 metric tons of CO2 equivalents; only about 0.2 metric tons come directly from CO2, while 6.0 tons come from CH4. The present study aims at evaluating and comparing two methods based on their effect on suppressing CH4 emissions during storage as well as on preserving and enhancing CH4 yield in a subsequent anaerobic digestion step: the commonly applied acidification with H2SO4 as acidifying agent and thermal treatment at the mild temperatures of 70 and 90 °C (pasteurization). Although both treatments effectively suppressed CH4 emissions during storage, they exhibited a significant difference in preserving and/or enhancing the CH4 potential of manure. Specifically, thermal treatment resulted in 16-35% enhancement of CH4 potential, while acidification resulted in decreasing the CH4 yield by 6-23% compared to non-treated manure. Further investigation showed that storage itself positively affected the CH4 potential of treated manure in a subsequent anaerobic digestion step; this was attributed to microbial activity other than biomethanation during storage. In overall and based on the results obtained regarding suppression of CH4 emissions during storage as well as CH4 potential enhancement, pasteurization at the temperatures tested is a promising alternative to the broadly applied acidification of manure.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Esterco , Esterco/análise , Metano/análise , Anaerobiose , Dióxido de Carbono
14.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116432, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274337

RESUMO

Maintaining humidification and inhibiting nitrogen losses during vermicomposting process have emerged to be key factors for high-quality productions. Previous data have showed outstanding functions of biochar addition in improving vermicomposting quality. In this study, the influence of bamboo biochar (BB) and rice husk biochar (RHB) addition on compost maturity, humification and nitrogen loss was evaluated in the vermicomposting of cattle manure and maize straw. Results revealed that BB or RHB amendment improved organic matter decomposition, enhanced humification and maturity of compost, particularly in the 10% BB treatment, which exerted the highest humic acids content and GI value. Furthermore, BB or RHB addition significantly reduced nitrogen losses, in which the volatilization of NH3 and N2O were reduced by 24.93%-66.23% and 14.91%-55.12%. The fewest nitrogen loss was detected in the treatment of 10% BB. Biochar inhibited nirK, nirS but promoted AOB-amoA, nosZ expression; fewer N2O producing bacteria (Pseudomonas, Devosia, Luteimonas genus) were observed in the biochar treatment, and thereby decreased the N2O emission. Therefore, 10% BB addition for co-vermicomposting cattle manure and maize straw is an efficient way to increase humification, maturity, and reduce nitrogen loss, and future applications following this strategy is believed to generate better productions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oryza , Sasa , Bovinos , Animais , Esterco , Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Solo , Oryza/metabolismo
15.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116551, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283198

RESUMO

The rapid increase in urbanization and intensive coal mining activities have accelerated the deterioration of surface water quality. Environmental problems caused by the accumulation of nitrate and sulfate from natural, urban, and agricultural sources have attracted extensive attention. Information on nitrate and sulfate sources and their transformations is crucial for understanding the nitrogen and sulfur cycles in surface water. In this study, we monitored nitrate and sulfate in three representative rivers in mining cities in northern China. The main pollution sources and biogeochemical processes were identified by using stable isotopes (δD, δ18OH2O, δ15N, δ18ONO3, δ34S and δ18OSO4) and hydrochemistry. The contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources was quantitatively estimated based on a Bayesian mixed model. The results indicated a large variation in sulfate and nitrate sources between the different rivers. Nitrate in the Tuohe River mainly derived from manure/sewage (57.9%) and soil N (26.9%), while sulfate mainly derived from manure/sewage (41.7%) and evaporite dissolution (26.8%). For the Suihe River, nitrate was primarily sourced from chemical fertilizer (37.9%) and soil nitrogen (34.8%), while sulfate was mainly sourced from manure/sewage (33.1%) and chemical fertilizer (21.4%). For the Huihe River, nitrate mainly derived from mine drainage (56.6%) and manure/sewage (30.6%), while sulfate predominantly originated from mine drainage (58.3%) and evaporite dissolution (12.9%). Microbial nitrification was the major pathway for the migration and transformation of nitrate in the surface water. However, denitrification and bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) did not play a significant role as aerobic conditions prevailed. In this study, we elucidated the sources and transformation mechanisms of nitrate and sulfate. Additionally, we provided a reference for formulating a comprehensive strategy for effective management and remediation of surface water contaminated with nitrate and sulfate in mining cities.


Assuntos
Nitratos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Nitratos/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Sulfatos , Esgotos , Esterco/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Rios , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , China
16.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116553, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283197

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of different carbon-based additives including biochar, woody peat, and glucose on humic acid, fulvic acid, and phosphorus fractions in chicken manure composting and its potential for phosphorus mobilization in soil. The results showed that the addition of glucose effectively increased the total humic substance content (90.2 mg/g) of composts, and the fulvic acid content was significantly higher than other groups (P < 0.05). The addition of biochar could effectively improve the content of available phosphorus by 59.9% in composting. The addition of carbon-based materials to the composting was beneficial for the production of more stable inorganic phosphorus in the phosphorus fraction. The highest proportion of soluble inorganic phosphorus components of sodium hydroxide was found in group with woody peat addition (8.7%) and the highest proportion of soluble inorganic phosphorus components of hydrochloric acid was found in group with glucose addition (35.2%). The compost products with the addition of biochar (humic acid decreased by 17.9%) and woody peat (fulvic acid decreased by 72.6%) significantly increased soil humic acid mineralization. The compost products with the addition of biochar was suitable as active phosphate fertilizer, while the compost products with the addition of glucose was suitable as slow-release phosphate fertilizer.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo , Carbono/metabolismo , Fósforo , Fertilizantes , Esterco , Fosfatos , Glucose
17.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116531, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308788

RESUMO

The influences of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) at the ratios of 0% (CK), 0.5% (F1), 1.0% (F2), 1.5% (F3), 2.0% (F4) and 2.5% (F5) on nitrogen transformation and bacterial community composition were investigated in the composting of food waste digestate (FWD) and corn straw (CS). PAAS addition increased the thermophilic temperature but had no significant effect on pH values. PAAS exerted significantly effects on the concentration of total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2--N) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N). The compost product in 1.0% PAAS treatment was more active in absorbing nutrients. Firmicutes (9.40-83.54%), Actinobacteriota (9.98-51.50%), Proteobacteria (0.20-27.87%) and Bacteroidota (0.11-34.69%) were the dominant phyla in FWD composting. Moreover, relative to CK, PAAS promoted the propagation of dominant bacterial phyla Firmicutes with increment of 30.05-102.06% in the thermophilic phase. Kroppenstedtia, Thermobifida and Saccharomonospora were observed to be dominant at the maturing phase and correlated with NH4+-N, NO2--N, TN and NO3--N. Therefore, they might be regarded as probable biomarkers symbolic for the maturing phase during FWD composting. The compost product had the highest maturity degree in 1.0% PAAS treatment. These results indicated that PAAS addition improved the maturity and nutrient contents of the compost product as well as altered compost bacterial community dynamics.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Nitrogênio/análise , Esterco/microbiologia , Alimentos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Solo , Bactérias , Firmicutes
18.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116421, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308953

RESUMO

Inoculation with microorganisms is an effective strategy for improving traditional composting processes. This study explored the effects of inoculation with lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms (LDM) on the degradation of organic matter (OM), methane (CH4) emissions, and the microbial community (bacteria and methanogens) during composting. The results showed that LDM accelerated the degradation of OM (including the lignocellulose fraction) and increased the CH4 releases in the later thermophilic and cooling stages during composting. At the ending of composting, LDM increased the CH4 emissions by 38.6% compared with the control. Moreover, LDM significantly increased the abundances of members of the bacterial and methanogenic community during the later thermophilic period (P < 0.05). In addition, LDM promoted the growth and activity of major bacterial genera (e.g., Ureibacillus) with the ability to degrade macromolecular OM, as well as affecting key methanogens (e.g., Methanocorpusculum) in the composting system. Network analysis and variance partitioning analysis indicated that OM and temperature were the main factors that affected the bacterial and methanogen community structures. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the higher CH4 emissions under LDM were related to the growth of methanogens, which was facilitated by the anaerobic environment produced by large amounts of CO2. Thus, aerobic conditions should be improved during the end of the thermophilic and cooling composting period when inoculating with lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms in order to reduce CH4 emissions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Euryarchaeota , Metano , Solo , Lignina/metabolismo , Euryarchaeota/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Esterco/microbiologia
19.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116573, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323114

RESUMO

Livestock manure is one of the main sources of heavy metals (HMs) in agricultural soil. So, it is necessary to reduce its bioavailability before used as organic fertilizer. In this study, the passivation effect of HMs and the evolution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during four composting processes were explored. Results showed that different composting methods had a great effect on HMs passivation rate and humification degree. HMs were released during the thermophilic phase, and were bound by resynthesized humus during the cooling period. The best passivation effect of HMs was found in FV + T treatment, the passivation rate of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb reached 63.80%, 34.07%, 86.54% and 45.14%, respectively, then followed by the treatment of NV + T and SC. UV-Vis spectra and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra indicated that humus precursors were produced during thermophilic phase and the accumulation of humus mainly occurred in cooling period. This study can be used as a theoretical support for the safe utilization livestock manure.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Animais , Esterco , Galinhas , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Gado
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 367: 128229, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332864

RESUMO

A novel two-stage process comprising pre-denitrification and single-stage partial nitritation/anammox was developed to treat swine manure digestate with a constant nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 gN/L/d. As the influent NH4+-N concentration increased from 500 to 1500 mg/L, a nitrogen removal efficiency of 88 %-96 % and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 93 %-97 % were achieved. Owing to the high influent chemical oxygen demand (COD)/nitrates and nitrites (NOX) ratio of 8.2-9.2 and high COD utilization of denitrifying bacteria (DB), the NO2--N and NO3--N removal efficiencies in the denitrification reactor reached 96 %-99 % and 97 %-99 %, respectively. The contribution of anammox bacteria to nitrogen removal was 70.9 %-84.3 %, whereas that of DB was 11.7 %-18.3 %. The contributions of DB and ordinary heterotrophic organisms to COD removal were 19.5 %-49.3 % and 17.9 %-39 %, respectively. This study will help guide the anammox process in swine wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Suínos , Animais , Esterco , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Oxidação Anaeróbia da Amônia , Oxirredução , Bactérias , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Esgotos
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