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1.
S Afr J Commun Disord ; 71(1): e1-e11, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  A few studies have explored the life experiences of people who stutter. Research has shown that stuttering affects a significant number of people in the population. OBJECTIVES:  The study was designed to explore the experiences of people who stutter and the perception of stuttering in South Africa. METHOD:  Four people who identified as South Africans who stutter participated in this study. The primary investigator conducted semi-structured interviews with each of the participants. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to 20 acquaintances of all the participants. Transcriptions of interviews and results of questionnaires were analysed for major and minor themes. RESULTS:  Results of this study suggest different perceptions by those who stutter and those acquainted with them. The findings of the study show that people who stutter experience communication barriers, so they adopt certain strategies to manage and cope with their speech disorder. The findings showed that stuttering has a pervasive impact on the lives of people who stutter and how they view themselves, considering negative societal views. CONCLUSION:  Evaluation of the results from the study reveals that although stuttering is a common speech disorder, many people who are less informed about it harbour various stereotypes and myths that stigmatise stuttering. This study concludes by outlining recommendations for creating awareness of stuttering. It suggests vigorous campaigns aiming at promoting a multilevel approach that extends beyond the mere social and professional understanding of stuttering but addresses the inherent perceptions, myths, and stereotypes around stuttering.Contribution: Experiences of people who stutter and perceptions towards stuttering can help to better understand the speech disorder and overcome myths and stereotyping of stuttering.


Assuntos
Gagueira , Humanos , Gagueira/terapia , África do Sul , Estereotipagem , Comunicação , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296061, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574001

RESUMO

Obesity is found to have a significant impact on body image perception and overall well-being. This study examines the impact of body image and perceived stigmatization on the psychological wellbeing of obese women in Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. A sample of 231 obese women was selected from health shops and some fitness centers using snowballing technique (purposive, snowballing technique and convenience). The study employed the descriptive survey design and made use of both descriptive and inferential data analysis approaches. The body shape questionnaire BSQ-34, the inventory of the Stigmatization Situation (SSI) and finally, the psychological well-being tools were used. Also, frequency distributions mean, and standard deviation, Pearson correlation coefficient and simple linear regression analysis were employed using SPSS version 23. Our findings indicated that obese women in the Kumasi metropolis were significantly satisfied with their body image. This is a true reflection of their higher self-esteem and standard of living. The body image and perceived stigmatization on the psychological wellbeing of the obese do have some counselling implications. Counselors, nutritionists, and clinical psychologists address specific schemes such as binge eating, dieting, and exercising to build the self-esteem of obese women.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Feminino , Gana , Obesidade/psicologia , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMC Neurol ; 24(1): 100, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Internalized stigma can have profound effects on how individuals with migraines and other primary headache disorders see themselves and their quality of life. We aimed to investigate internalized stigma in patients with chronic migraines and medication overuse headaches. METHODS: A total of 57 patients (52 women, 5 men) were included in the study, 26 of these patients were affected by chronic migraine, 31 of them were affected by medication overuse headache and chronic migraine. The Internalized Stigma Scale in Mental Illness (Ristsher's stigmatization scale) and General Health Questionnaire were applied to all patients. RESULTS: In Ristsher's stigmatization scale, which measures internalization of stigma, internalized stigmatization was more significant in patients with medication overuse headache than in patients with chronic migraine compared to groups (p:0.05). The subtitle of alienation was statistically significant when the groups were compared to all subscales in the form of alienation, confirmation of stereotypes, perceived discrimination, social withdrawal and resistance to stigma (p:0.05). DISCUSSION: Although internal stigmatize has been observed in chronic migraine patients, medication overuse headache is also a type of headache with intense stigma. In addition, this internal stigma perhaps plays an active role in the transformation of chronic migraine patients to medication overuse headaches patient.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estereotipagem , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Emoções
4.
Can Med Educ J ; 15(1): 48-55, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528899

RESUMO

Background: Female physicians and patients experience gender bias in healthcare. The purpose of this research is to explore medical students' gender bias toward physicians and patients and whether their bias varies by gender. Methods: We surveyed medical students at Memorial University between November 2020 and April 2021. We recruited participants through Facebook, email, and e-posters. We collected demographic information, including gender and class year. We used the Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale to measure gender sensitivity, gender role ideology toward patients, and gender role ideology toward doctors. We analyzed the data using averages and t-tests. Results: Mean gender sensitivity scores were 4/5 indicating high gender sensitivity. Gender role ideology toward doctors mean scores were 2/5 indicating that students did not hold strong stereotypical views toward doctors. Although male students scored higher than female students (p<.05), mean scores for gender role ideology toward patients were low for both male and female students (x¯ <2), indicating low stereotyping toward patients. Conclusions: We found that students held largely non-biased ideologies surrounding gender in medicine and that female students were even less biased than male students for gender role ideology toward patients.


Contexte: Les femmes médecins ou patientes sont victimes de préjugés sexistes dans les soins de santé. L'objectif de cette recherche est d'explorer les préjugés sexistes des étudiants en médecine à l'égard des médecins et des patients et de déterminer si ces préjugés varient en fonction du sexe. Méthodes: Nous avons procédé à une enquête auprès des étudiants en médecine de l'Université Memorial entre novembre 2020 et avril 2021. Nous avons recruté des participants au moyen de Facebook, du courrier électronique et d'affiches électroniques. Nous avons recueilli des données démographiques, y compris le sexe et l'année dans le programme. Nous avons utilisé l'échelle de sensibilisation au genre en médecine de Nijmegen pour mesurer la sensibilité au genre, l'idéologie du rôle du genre envers les patients et l'idéologie du rôle du genre envers les médecins. Nous avons analysé les données à l'aide de moyennes et de tests t. Résultats: Les scores moyens de sensibilité au genre étaient de 4/5, ce qui indique une grande sensibilité au genre. Les scores moyens de l'idéologie du rôle du genre à l'égard des médecins étaient de 2/5, ce qui indique que les étudiants n'avaient pas d'opinion stéréotypée à l'égard des médecins. Bien que les étudiants aient obtenu des scores plus élevés que les étudiantes (p<0,05), les scores moyens pour l'idéologie du rôle du genre à l'égard des patients étaient faibles tant pour les étudiants que pour les étudiantes (x¯<2), ce qui indique un faible niveau d'opinions stéréotypées à l'égard des patients. Conclusions: Nous avons constaté que les étudiants avaient des idéologies largement non biaisées concernant le genre en médecine et que les étudiantes étaient encore moins biaisées que les étudiants en ce qui concerne l'idéologie du rôle du genre envers les patients.


Assuntos
Médicos , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Terra Nova e Labrador/epidemiologia , Sexismo , Estereotipagem
5.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300879, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547221

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to outgroup descriptions that use person-first, as compared to identity-first, language can attenuate negative stereotypes or prejudice and enhance support for policies that seek to advance outgroup rights. However, those benefits of person-first language may not apply to all social groups equally. The present study examines a boundary condition of the effects of person-first language. Specifically, we postulate that person-first language reduces the stigmatization of outgroups to a lesser degree if individuals hold more important negative attitudes towards the respective communities. We will test this hypothesis in a two-factorial 2 (target group) x 2 (descriptor) online experiment that includes a control group and for which we will recruit a general-population sample (N = 681). Stereotyping, dehumanization, as well as negative affect and behavioral intentions towards two outgroups will be compared: people with a physical disability/the physically disabled (i.e., negative attitudes are expected to be less important) and people who have committed a violent crime/violent criminals (i.e., negative attitudes are expected to be more important). Our findings will bear implications for understanding when language use could influence public opinion of different social groups. Additionally, the research can inform the development of more effective communication policies to promote inclusion and reduce stigma.


Assuntos
Atitude , Humanos , Estereotipagem , Preconceito , Estigma Social , Idioma
6.
Int Health ; 16(Supplement_1): i60-i67, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hansen's disease is a chronic, infectious and transmissible disease that is considered a public health problem in Brazil. Hansen's disease is marked by stigma and prejudice, because it carries with it a strong negative social image, reinforced by policies of social isolation in the community. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in Ribeirão Preto, an inland city of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven patients under treatment for the disease were interviewed. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed in full, then were analyzed through the stages of transcription, transposition and reconstitution, as informed by concepts proposed by Goffman. RESULTS: The results showed that the marks of stigma are still present in the twenty-first century and were presented in two axes: 'Stigma and work for the person affected by Hansen's disease' and 'The experience of stigma in the family'. The participants refer to fears of losing their jobs and of being ridiculed, which stops them talking about the disease. Regarding their families, the participants reported episodes of discrimination, the creation of family secrets and fear of relatives' reactions. CONCLUSIONS: All these aspects interfere in the follow-up and treatment of patients and need to be considered and welcomed by health professionals. It is recommended that these aspects are addressed in the initial training and continuing education of health professionals. CONTEXTE: La maladie de Hansen est une maladie chronique, infectieuse et transmissible, considérée comme un problème de santé publique au Brésil. La maladie de Hansen est marquée par la stigmatisation et les préjugés, car elle véhicule une image sociale fortement négative, renforcée par des politiques d'isolement social au sein de la communauté. MÉTHODES: Étude qualitative menée à Ribeirão Preto, une ville intérieure de l'État de São Paulo, au Brésil. Onze patients traités pour la maladie ont été interrogés. Les entretiens ont été enregistrés et transcrits intégralement, et ont été analysés en suivant les étapes de transcription, de transposition et de reconstitution, selon les concepts proposés par Goffman. RÉSULTATS: Les résultats montrent que les marques de la stigmatisation sont toujours présentes au 21ème siècle et ont été présentées selon deux axes : 'La stigmatisation et le travail pour la personne affectée par la maladie de Hansen' et 'L'expérience de la stigmatisation dans la famille'. Les participants évoquent la peur de perdre leur emploi, la peur d'être ridiculisés, ce qui les pousse à ne pas parler de la maladie. En ce qui concerne les familles, les participants ont rapporté des épisodes de discrimination, la création de secrets de famille et la peur des réactions des proches. CONCLUSIONS: Tous ces aspects interfèrent dans le suivi et le traitement des patients et doivent être pris en compte et accueillis par les professionnels de la santé. Il est recommandé que ces aspects soient abordés dans la formation initiale et la formation continue des professionnels de la santé. ANTECEDENTES: La enfermedad de Hansen es una enfermedad crónica, infecciosa y transmisible, considerada un problema de salud pública en Brasil. La enfermedad de Hansen está marcada por el estigma y el prejuicio, ya que conlleva una fuerte imagen social negativa, reforzada por políticas de aislamiento social en la comunidad. MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo realizado en Ribeirão Preto, una ciudad del interior del estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Se entrevistaron a once pacientes en tratamiento para la enfermedad. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas en audio, transcritas en su totalidad y analizadas a través de etapas de transcripción, transposición y reconstitución, según los conceptos propuestos por Goffman. RESULTADOS: Los resultados muestran que las marcas del estigma siguen presentes en el siglo XXI y se presentaron en dos ejes: 'Estigma y trabajo para la persona afectada por la enfermedad de Hansen' y 'La experiencia del estigma en la familia'. Los participantes mencionan el miedo a perder sus trabajos, el temor a ser ridiculizados, lo que les impide comentar sobre la enfermedad. En cuanto a las familias, los participantes reportaron episodios de discriminación, la creación de secretos familiares y el miedo a las reacciones de los familiares. CONCLUSIONES: Todos estos aspectos interfieren en el seguimiento y tratamiento de los pacientes y deben ser considerados y acogidos por los profesionales sanitarios. Se recomienda abordar estos aspectos en la formación inicial y la educación continua de los profesionales sanitarios.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Estigma Social , Humanos , Brasil , Preconceito , Estereotipagem
7.
8.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 11(4): 251, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490759
9.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 153, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This research delves into the role of stereotypes and emotional prejudice in behavioral intentions, particularly towards individuals with suicidal tendencies. The study extends the cognitive-affective-behavioral process model, identifying pathways that negative stereotypes use to impact emotional responses and behavioral intentions. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in South Korea, utilizing the largest Korean online panel (1,623,938 users) to recruit 552 eligible participants (49.1% male, 50.9% female) aged 20 and above with online access and no history of suicide attempts. The survey assessed negative stereotypes, prejudices, and behavioral intentions related to suicidal thoughts, employing specific measurements. RESULTS: The findings established the correlation between negative stereotypes and both stigmatized emotional responses and discriminatory intentions. The study uniquely demonstrated that emotional responses act as a bridge between negative stereotypes and behavioral intentions towards suicidal individuals. These findings carry profound implications for health psychology, emphasizing the necessity of modifying attitudes to reduce suicide stigma. It was observed that stereotypical perceptions fuel negative emotions, which in turn provoke various behavioral intentions. CONCLUSIONS: The study enhances our understanding of the influential role emotional reactions can have in shaping attitudes. It points towards the potential that addressing emotions holds in the stigma process, enabling people to shift their attitudes about stigmatized individuals, thus establishing intervention opportunities for stigma reduction in health psychology.


Assuntos
Intenção , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Estereotipagem , Emoções
10.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 98: e202403018, Mar. 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231921

RESUMO

Fundamentos: diferentes estudios identifican la alfabetización en salud y/o salud mental (asm) como factores protectores contra el desarrollo de un problema de salud mental. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el grado de alfabetización en salud mental de la población adolescente de barcelona, así como su relación con variables sociodemográficas y educativas.métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal en barcelona durante el curso 2017-2018. Participaron 1.032 jóvenes entre trece y diecisiete años. Se recogieron las siguientes variables: sexo; edad; nacionalidad; nivel socioeconómico (rdhpc); y nota media escolar. La asm se midió mediante los test de conocimientos emhl (reconocimiento de problemas mentales y conocimientos en salud mental; rango 0-10 cada parte), estigma (cami: rango 10-50, y ribs: rango 4-20) y búsqueda de ayuda (ghsq: rango de 1 a 7). Se realizó análisis de regresión lineal múltiple ajustando el efecto de variables sociodemográficas sobre la puntuación de cada escala.resultados: la puntuación media (desviación típica) del emhl test fue de 7,28 (1,27) y 4,24 (1,14), respectivamente, obteniendo mayor pun-tuación las chicas, rdhpc altas, nota excelente y con nacionalidad española. La mayor diferencia de puntuación en emhl, ajustando por el resto de variables, correspondió a los adolescentes con nota media excelente y con índice rdhpc elevado (respecto a la categoría basal, beta=0,72 y 0,52, respectivamente). La puntuación media del estigma fue 27,6 (4,47) para cami y 8,83 (3,36) para ribs. Las variables relacionadas con una mayor diferencia de puntuación respecto a la categoría basal y ajustado por el resto de variables fueron: sexo (chico=1,54) y nota académica (excelente=-2,38) para cami, y nacionalidad (extranjera=0,82) y nota académica (excelente=-1,30) para ribs. La puntuación media de ribs fue 8,83 (3,36), siendo la mayor diferencia de puntuación respecto a la categoría basal la nacionalidad extranjera (beta=0,82) y tener una nota de excelente (1,30). La búsqueda de ayuda fue mayor en padres/madres y amigos, con diferencias según sexo y nacionalidad.conclusiones: el nivel de alfabetización de salud mental es medio-bajo. Mientras que género, nacionalidad y resultados académicos son los factores que se relacionan con conocimientos y estigma, el nivel socioeconómico se relaciona únicamente con conocimientos en salud mental.(AU)


Background: different studies identify mental health literacy as a protective factor for developing a mental health problem. The aim of this paper was to determine the degree of mental health literacy of the adolescent population of barcelona, and its relationship with socio-de-mographic and educational variables.methods: a cross-sectional study was carried out in barcelona during the 2017-2018 academic year. A total of 1,032 young people between thirteen and seventeen years of age participated. The following variables were collected: sex, age, nationality, socioeconomic status (rdhpc) and average school grade. The aim was to determine the degree of mental health literacy (knowledge, stigma and help-seeking) of the adolescent population of barcelona, and its relationship with socio-demographic and educational variables. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed adjusting for the effect of sociodemographic variables on the score of each scale.results: the mean score (standard deviation) of the emhl test was 7.28 (1.27) and 4.24 (1.14) respectively, with higher scores obtained by girls, high rdhpc, excellent score and spanish nationality. The greatest difference in emhl scores, adjusting for the rest of the variables, corresponded to adolescents with an excellent mean score and a high rdhpc index (with respect to the baseline category, beta=0.72 and 0.52 respectively). The mean stigma score was 27.6 (4.47) for cami and 8.83 (3.36) for ribs. The variables related to a greater difference in score with respect to the baseline category and adjusted for the rest of the variables were: gender (boy=1.54) and academic grade (excellent=-2.38) for cami, and nationality (foreign=0.82) and academic grade (excellent=-1.30) for ribs. The mean ribs score was 8.83 (3.36) with the largest difference in score from baseline being foreign nationality (beta=0.82) and having a grade of excellent (1.30). Help-seeking was higher in parents and friends, with differences according to gender and nationality.conclusions: the level of mental health literacy is medium-low. While gender, nationality and educational attainment are the factors that are related to knowledge and stigma, socio-economic status is only related to mental health literacy.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Estereotipagem , Educação , Saúde Mental , Saúde do Estudante , Saúde Pública , Espanha , Estudos Transversais
11.
Clín. salud ; 35(1): 27-33, Mar. 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231080

RESUMO

Background: Stigma toward child and adolescent mental health problems among parents has been understudied, despite its importance. Method: Sociodemographic variables, stigma associated with mental health problems in childhood and adolescence, myths about suicide, familiarity with mental health, and seeking professional help were assessed in a cross-sectional study in a Spanish sample (N = 268). Descriptive analyses, mean difference and regression models were carried out. Results: The results reveal medium levels of stigma, the presence of myths about suicide and average familiarity with mental health. Mothers and a higher level of education, showed lower levels of stigma and fewer myths about suicide. A regression model explains the 44% of the variance with myths about suicide, stigma and familiarity with mental health as predictors of seeking professional help attitudes. Conclusions: Stigma, myths surrounding suicide, and parental unfamiliarity with mental health may act as barriers to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Practical implications and recommendations are discussed.(AU)


Antecedentes: La estigmatización de los problemas de salud mental en niños y adolescentes en los padres y madres no se ha estudiado lo suficiente a pesar de su importancia. Método: Se evaluaron variables sociodemográficas, el estigma asociado con los problemas de salud mental en la infancia y la adolescencia, mitos sobre el suicidio, conocimiento de la salud mental y la búsqueda de ayuda profesional en un estudio exploratorio transversal en una muestra española de padres y madres (N = 268). Se realizaron análisis descriptivos, de diferencia de medias y modelos de regresión. Resultados: Los resultados revelan un nivel medio de estigma, la presencia de mitos sobre el suicidio y un conocimiento medio con la salud mental. Las madres y un mayor nivel educativo mostraron menores niveles de estigma y menos mitos sobre el suicidio. El 44% de la varianza de la búsqueda de ayuda profesional se explica a través de los mitos sobre el suicidio, el estigma y el conocimiento de la salud mental como predictores de las actitudes de búsqueda de ayuda profesional. Conclusiones: Se establecen recomendaciones prácticas, subrayando cómo el estigma, los mitos sobre el suicidio y la falta de conocimiento de los progenitores de la salud mental pueden actuar como barreras para un diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuados. Se discuten las implicaciones prácticas y las recomendaciones.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Saúde Mental , Saúde da Criança , Saúde do Adolescente , Estereotipagem , Comportamento do Adolescente , Suicídio , Estudos Transversais , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia da Criança , Psicologia do Adolescente
12.
Nutrients ; 16(4)2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38398834

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery candidates (BSC) are a highly vulnerable group for mental health impairments. According to the theoretical model of weight stigma, weight-related experienced stigmatization (ES) negatively influences mental health through weight bias internalization (WBI). This study tested this model among BSC and investigated whether this association depends on a negative body image in terms of weight and shape concern as a potential moderator. As part of a German multicenter study, ES, WBI, weight and shape concern, and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report questionnaires among n = 854 BSC. Simple and moderated mediation analyses were applied to analyze whether WBI influences the relationship between ES and depressive symptoms, and whether this influence depends on weight and shape concern. WBI significantly mediated the relationship between ES and depressive symptoms by partially reducing the association of ES with depressive symptoms. Weight and shape concern emerged as significant moderators in the overall model and specifically for associations between WBI and depressive symptoms. The results suggest that the association between ES and depressive symptoms among BSC is stronger in those with high WBI. This association is strengthened by weight and shape concern, especially at low and mean levels. Studies evaluating longitudinal associations between weight-related stigmatization and mental health are indicated, as well as intervention studies targeting WBI in order to reduce adverse effects of ES on mental health in BSC.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/cirurgia , Obesidade/psicologia , Peso Corporal , Estereotipagem , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Bariátrica/psicologia
13.
Science ; 383(6685): 822-825, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386730

RESUMO

Several widely used high school biology texts depart from established science.


Assuntos
Biologia , Sexo , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Biologia/educação , Estados Unidos , Sexismo
14.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 241: 105879, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364340

RESUMO

In many cognitive developmental studies, young children ( < 6 years) fail to understand that changing the appearance of a person, object, or animal does not change its underlying reality. They appear to believe that a cat wearing a dog mask is genuinely a dog (appearance/reality distinction) and that a boy wearing a dress is genuinely a girl (sex/gender constancy). These skills may be affected by various influences: testing methods, training on the constancy of biological traits, child's or sibling's diagnosis of gender dysphoria, and child's diagnosis of autism. This study aimed to partially replicate the study of Arthur et al. (Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2009, Vol. 104, pp. 427-446) showing that experimental lessons emphasizing the constancy or otherwise of biological traits affected appearance/reality and sex/gender constancy performance. The study examined the influence of school lessons with content on sex/gender stereotyping and pro/anti constancy on the performance of young English children (mean age = 5;6 [years;months]; N = 58) on appearance/reality and sex/gender constancy tasks. Children performed above chance on sex/gender stability (change over time) but performed below chance on sex/gender constancy and appearance/reality tasks (change due to superficial alterations). These scores are comparable to those in nearly all previous studies. Children's scores were not influenced by school lesson content, although not all schools provided content. Conclusions are drawn about the effect of lesson content, which may be too diffuse and long term to affect performance. The level of children's performance and what this means in absolute terms about children's understanding of sex/gender stereotypes and the possibility of a child changing sex/gender is also discussed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Pré-Escolar , Estereotipagem , Cognição , Psicologia da Criança
15.
Patient Educ Couns ; 123: 108198, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a scoping review of stigma in medical encounters for persistent physical symptoms and functional disorders (PPS/FD). Stigma is a social attribute that links a person to an undesirable characteristic. It has been extensively studied in relation to mental illness but less so in relation to PPS/FD. METHODS: We followed PRISMA-ScR reporting guidelines for scoping reviews. Searches for were designed using the SPIDER tool. We used descriptive and thematic analysis. RESULTS: The searches identified 68 articles, of which 32 were eligible for inclusion. 31 out of the 32 studies used a qualitative methodology. 8 studies used an explicit definition of stigma, of which 6 used the Goffman (1963) definition. Only 2 studies directly examined clinical consultations, the remainder relied on recalled accounts by patients or professionals. Descriptive analysis identified the focus of the studies included: patient-physician interaction (n = 13); health care professionals' perceptions (n = 7); experiences of illness/stigma (n = 6); broader meaning of illness (n = 3); and patients' experiences of stigma in health care consultations (n = 3). CONCLUSION: Patients experience stigmatisation in consultations for a wide range of PPS/FD. This suggests the presence of structural stigmatisation. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: There is a need for effective stigma reduction strategies in consultations about persistent physical symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Estigma Social , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 85, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaginal fistula (VF) affects 2-3 million women globally, with the majority in Africa. In Uganda, it's 2%, with western Uganda having the highest prevalence. Major predisposing factors for refugee women include health system breakdowns and sexual violence during conflict. VF has severe consequences for women, relatives, and communities. There's limited information on lived experiences among refugee women with VF, and there's a need for quality prevention, treatment, and social reintegration strategies. This study aimed to understand the physical, psychosocial, and economic impacts of VF on refugee women in Nakivale and Oruchinga settlements and their coping mechanisms. METHODS: Ten refugee women with VF were interviewed using qualitative study design, utilizing Social-Ecological and Transactional Models for data collection, analysis, and discussion. RESULTS: Ten refugee women aged 24-50 years with or who had experienced VF participated in the study. They lived with VF for at least 2-15 years and had multiple stillbirths. Obstetric Fistula (OF) was the leading cause, followed by rape and cancer. Post-fistula, they faced social discrimination, emotional disturbances, survival difficulties, poverty, and lack of support. They struggled with stigma, social isolation, and marital sexual challenges. CONCLUSION: Refugee women experience physical, emotional, financial, social, and sexual trauma due to VF. Discrimination and stigmatization from loved ones and society lead to isolation, depression, and suicidal thoughts. Despite successful repair, their social and emotional healing remains a burden for their lives. There is a need to provide a supportive environment for VF survivors.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Fístula Vaginal , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Uganda , Refugiados/psicologia , Fístula Vaginal/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem
19.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 73, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are accountable for 16% of global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Therefore, accessible, cost-effective interventions are needed to help provide preventive and therapeutic options. As directors and screenwriters can reach a great audience, they can use their platform to either promote stigma or educate the public with the correct definition and conception of mental disorders. Therefore, we aimed to measure the stigmatizing attitude of contemporary Iranian directors and screenwriters toward patients with mental disorders in comparison with a general population group. METHODS: In this comparative study, we included 72 directors and screenwriters between 18 and 65 years of age with a minimum involvement in at least one movie/television show, and 72 age and educationmatched controls. We collected the demographic data of the participants, and used the Persian version of the Level of Contact Report (LCR) to measure their familiarity with mental disorders, and used the Persian version of Social Distance Scale (SDS) and Dangerousness Scale (DS) to measure their attitude toward them. RESULTS: Compared to the general population group, directors and screenwriters had significantly lower SDS (12.51 ± 3.8 vs. 13.65 ± 3.73) and DS (12.51 ± 3.8 vs. 13.65 ± 3.73) scores (P < 0.001), indicating a more positive attitude toward patients with mental disorders. Familiarity with mental disorders was not significantly different between the groups. Female sex was associated with a more negative attitude among the directors and screenwriters group. Additionally, among the SDS items, 'How would you feel about someone with severe mental disorder marrying your children?' and 'How would you feel about someone with severe mental disorder taking care of your children for a couple of hours?' received the most negative feedback in both groups. And among the DS items, 'there should be a law forbidding a former mental patient the right to obtain a hunting license' received the most negative feedback in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Iranian contemporary directors and screenwriters had a more positive attitude toward patients with mental disorders, compared to general population. Due to this relatively positive attitude, this group of artists can potentially contribute to anti-stigma initiatives by offering educational materials and resources, promoting mental health care, and improving access to mental health care.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estereotipagem , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Grupos Populacionais , Atitude , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estigma Social
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