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1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280739, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662889

RESUMO

Although research suggests that mental health professionals stigmatize mental illness, studies on this topic are relativity new. Little is known about the state of this research and existing literature reviews exhibit multiple limitations. Accordingly, a scoping review was performed on the endorsed stigmatization of mental illness by mental health professionals, with the aim of exploring how research is conducted and whether there are gaps in the literature. Studies were included from any time period if they supplied findings on the endorsed stigmatization of mental illness by mental health professionals. Research was identified through electronic databases (i.e., PsycINFO, Embase, Medline, Scopus) and other sources (i.e., the Griffith University library, Google Scholar, literature reviews). It was found that the research is characterized by a number of limitations, and little progress has been made in this important domain. Among other limitations, there was a lack of comprehensive studies on the relative stigma of mental illness and how the components of stigmatization relate to each other. A bibliometric analysis also found that a large proportion of the research is not connected by references. Recommendations were made with respect to future research in this area.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estigma Social , Bibliometria
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1991): 20221834, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651042

RESUMO

Stereotypes are generalized beliefs about groups of people, which are used to make decisions and judgements about them. Although such heuristics can be useful when decisions must be made quickly, or when information is lacking, they can also serve as the basis for prejudice and discrimination. In this paper, we study the evolution of stereotypes through group reciprocity. We characterize the warmth of a stereotype as the willingness to cooperate with an individual based solely on the identity of the group they belong to. We show that when stereotype groups are large, such group reciprocity is less likely to evolve, and stereotypes tend to be negative. We also show that, even when stereotypes are broadly positive, individuals are often overly pessimistic about the willingness of those they stereotype to cooperate. We then show that the tendency for stereotyping itself to evolve is driven by the costs of cognition, so that more people are stereotyped with greater coarseness as costs increase. Finally we show that extrinsic 'shocks', in which the benefits of cooperation are suddenly reduced, can cause stereotype warmth and judgement bias to turn sharply negative, consistent with the view that economic and other crises are drivers of out-group animosity.


Assuntos
Preconceito , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Julgamento , Viés , Cognição
3.
Eur. j. psychiatry ; 37(1): 24-35, enero 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213938

RESUMO

Background and objectivesPerceived stigma related to infectious diseases is of public health importance and can adversely impact patients' physical and mental health. This study aims to identify the level of perceived stigma among COVID-19 survivors in Qatar and investigate its predictors.MethodsAn analytical cross-sectional design was employed. Four hundred and four participants who had a positive COVID-19 PCR test were randomly selected from medical records. The selected participants were interviewed to collect sociodemographic and health-related information. Perceived stigma was assessed using the COVID-19 perceived stigma scale-22 (CPSS-22) that was developed by the researchers. A descriptive analysis followed by a bivariate analysis investigated possible associations between the perceived stigma levels and independent variables. A multivariable analysis was performed using logistic regression to identify any significant associations with perceived stigma. The validity and reliability of the developed tool were also tested.ResultsThe prevalence of COVID-19 perceived stigma was twenty-six percent (n = 107, 26.4%) at 95% CI [22.4–30.4]. Factors associated with higher COVID-19 perceived stigma were male gender, being a manual worker, non-Arabic ethnicity, low educational level, living alone, and being isolated outside the home. However, only occupation, ethnicity, and low educational level predicted COVID-19 perceived stigma in multivariable analysis. The CPSS-22 showed excellent reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.92).ConclusionPerceived stigma was relatively common among participants. Designing programs and interventions targeting male manual workers and those of low-educational levels may assist policymakers in mitigating the stigma related to COVID-19. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Vírus da SARS , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Catar
4.
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 9(1): 166-186, ene. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214517

RESUMO

La formación de grupos en Educación Física parece perpetuarse como un proceso desatendido, reproducido automáticamente e irreflexivo. Así al menos se desprende de la escasísima literatura en español al respecto. Por ello, los objetivos de este artículo pasan por explicitar el estado de la cuestión, problematizando la formación de grupos y aflorando el currículo oculto que este proceder contiene. Para ello, se ha llevado a cabo una revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos Dialnet y Web of Science y completada posteriormente de forma manual. Los términos de búsqueda han sido ‘formación de grupos’ o ‘agrupamientos’ y ‘Educación Física’, y en inglés los vocablos ‘the formation of groups’ o ‘picking teams’ y ‘Physical Education’. Los resultados de la misma son escasos pues arrojan 4 estudios encontrados en las bases de datos, a los que manualmente se les han añadido otros 26, lo que confirma la desatención académica de este proceder. Además, los documentos constatan efectos negativos y recurrentes sobre todo en el alumnado menos hábil y en muchas de las alumnas. Sin embargo, se explicitan algunas propuestas que, entre otras cosas, relativizan la estigmatización y se acercan a los postulados de la justicia social. (AU)


Picking teams in Physical Education seems to perpetuate itself as a neglected, automatically reproduced, and thoughtless process. So at least it is clear from the very scarce literature in Spanish on the matter. Therefore, the aims of this article are to put the state of the art on the table, problematizing picking teams and surfacing the hidden curriculum that this procedure contains. For this, a review of the literature has been carried out in Dialnet and Web of Science databases and completed manually. The search terms have been ‘formación de grupos’ or ‘agrupamientos’ and ‘Educación Física’ in Spanish, and in English the words ‘the formation of groups’ or ‘picking teams’ and ‘Physical Education’. The few results of the search shows only 4 studies, included in the present review, and 26 studies have been manually added, confirm the academic neglect of this procedure. In addition, the documents confirm negative and recurring effects, especially in the less skilled students and in many of the female students. However, some proposals are made explicit that, among other things, relativize stigmatization and come closer to the postulates of social justice. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Justiça Social , Estereotipagem , Destreza Motora
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 68, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long COVID patients have experienced a decline in their quality of life due to, in part but not wholly, its negative emotional impact. Some of the most prevalent mental health symptoms presented by long COVID patients are anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. As such, the need has arisen to analyze the personal experiences of these patients to understand how they are managing their daily lives while dealing with the condition. The objective of this study is to increase understanding about the emotional well-being of people diagnosed with long COVID. METHODS: A qualitative design was created and carried out using 35 patients, with 17 participants being interviewed individually and 18 of them taking part in two focus groups. The participating patients were recruited in November and December 2021 from Primary Health Care (PHC) centers in the city of Zaragoza (Northern Spain) and from the Association of Long COVID Patients in Aragon. The study topics were emotional well-being, social support networks, and experience of discrimination. All an inductive thematic content analyses were performed iteratively using NVivo software. RESULTS: The Long COVID patients identified low levels of self-perceived well-being due to their persistent symptoms, as well as limitations in their daily lives that had been persistent for many months. Suicidal thoughts were also mentioned by several patients. They referred to anguish and anxiety about the future as well as a fear of reinfection or relapse and returning to work. Many of the participants reported that they have sought the help of a mental health professional. Most participants identified discriminatory situations in health care. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to continue researching the impact that Long COVID has had on mental health, as well as to provide Primary Health Care professionals with evidence that can guide the emotional treatment of these patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Apoio Social , Serviços de Saúde
6.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 70(1): 6-8, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647304

RESUMO

While everyday prejudice and stereotypes may seem harmless, they can cause problems for interpersonal interactions and have drastic consequences for professional caregivers. American sociologist Goffman (1963) defined "stigma" as an individual being disqualified from complete social acceptance. Stigmatization and social stigma convey long-discounted stereotypes and social discrimination in specific ways, resulting in an individual being psychologically categorized as unwelcome or an outcast and, in turn, notable differences between their virtual and actual social identity. Link and Phelan (2001) defined stigmatization as the simultaneous occurrence of four processes: (1) distinct labeling; (2) stereotyping labels with unwelcome attributes; (3) separating "us" from "them" by framing labeled individuals as different; and (4) discriminating against labeled individuals. Evidently, stigmatization is a complex and multifaceted social process that comprises labeling, stereotyping, separating, depriving (of status), and discriminating through the exercise of power (Link & Phelan, 2001). Stigmatized individuals often perceive themselves as different from and devalued by others (Jacoby et al., 2005). Stigmatizing others may provide individuals with a higher perceived locus of control, stronger self-esteem, and reduced anxiety (Heatherton et al., 2000). Stigmatization significantly impacts the physical and mental health of victims. For example, it can make patients stressed, prolong the length of their hospitalization, and increase their likelihood of receiving a depression diagnosis (Budhwani & De, 2019). The main causes of social stigmatization are ignorance, lack of understanding, misinformation, and misunderstanding (Kok et al., 2018). The research has demonstrated that healthcare professionals may stigmatize and discriminate against the patients for which they are caring, hurting the dignity of their patients (Alenezi, 2022) and leading to a lack of trust in patient-physician relationships, reducing patients' opportunities to receive adequate care (Tyerman et al., 2021), hindering their treatment and recovery, and resulting in lower-quality healthcare and prognoses (Copeland, 2021). Therefore, reducing stigmatization in healthcare institutions is necessary to improve healthcare services and boost trust between patients and healthcare teams. During the COVID-19 pandemic, frontline healthcare workers stigmatized and discriminated against many patients during their process of care, harming the mental health of these patients (Tsukuda et al., 2022). These pandemic-era experiences highlight the need for healthcare workers to reflect empathetically on their behavior from various perspectives. Given that empathy and attitude are linked to each other, Economou et al. (2020) argued that anti-stigmatization efforts should prioritize and strengthen healthcare workers' perspective-taking abilities. The nursing-development process should focus on reestablishing behavioral and professional norms to eliminate labeling, instill empathy, emphasize relationships, and develop moral maturity to mitigate stigmatization among patients (Copeland, 2021). The Lancet, a prestigious medical journal, created The Lancet Commission to end stigma and discrimination in mental health with the assistance of over 50 renowned healthcare experts. Strategies for countering stigmatization include the incorporation of relevant training programs and educational interventions aimed at improving how students understand disease and reducing discriminatory behavior against patients. The healthcare sector must focus on the impacts of stigmatization on both healthcare providers' behaviors and treatment quality rather than merely assessing the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers (Thornicroft et al., 2022). This approach can help ensure patients receive high-quality healthcare that promotes their recovery, is tailored to their needs, and is free from discrimination and stigmatization.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Atenção à Saúde
7.
Appl Nurs Res ; 69: 151657, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The negative impact of self-stigma among clients with mental illness is well documented. Psychoeducation was found to be an effective measure for managing the treatment gap by reducing the stigma associated with the illness. PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effectiveness of a nurse-led brief psycho-education in reducing self-stigma among clients in the remittent stage of schizophrenia and affective disorders. METHODS: This study used Solomon- four-group design and was carried out at the Institute of mental health, Rohtak, India. A total of 80 participants were consecutively recruited using the block randomization method and as per the sampling criteria. A trained nurse delivered a 30-min individual-based brief psycho-education to the intervention group as per the standard module. The outcome measure was the reduction in the stigma based on a standardized stigma scale during a 1-month follow-up period. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 40.48 years (SD = 3.55). Overall, the study observed a significant reduction of stigma scores in the intervention group in the alienation, stereotype endorsement, social withdrawal domain of ISMI during 1-month follow-up (p < 0.001). No interaction effect was found between intervention and pre-test except the social withdrawal domain (p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: The nurse-led brief psycho-education has the potential to reduce stigma among clients with mental illness. Our findings open an area of discussion for placing greater attention on nurse-led brief psycho-education in this setting. The study provides pioneer research evidence regarding the involvement of nurses as brief psycho-education therapists among clients attending the tertiary mental health care unit of a lower-middle-income country. Considering the short-term effect of this study, more studies should be conducted in similar settings for an evidence base to advocate supportive nursing care practices in the routine mental health setting.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Adulto , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Transtornos do Humor
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(3): e25, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biogenetic causal explanations of mental disorders are commonly used for public education and campaigns. However, the influence of biogenetic explanations on the ideas about and attitudes toward mental illness is unclear. We examined the influence of biogenetic explanations on attitudes toward mental disorders using a meta-analytic method accompanied by subgroup analyses. METHODS: The protocol for this meta-analysis was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020158656) in March 2020. Experimental and correlational studies were analyzed separately. Five outcome measures related to attitudes toward mental disorders were included: 'attitude toward help-seeking,' 'blame,' 'perceived dangerousness,' 'prognostic pessimism,' and 'social distance.' Subgroup analyses were performed for the type of mental disorder, population, and geographic region for which a biogenetic explanation was provided. RESULTS: A total of 44 studies were included, of which 24 were experimental and 20 were correlational. A positive attitude toward help-seeking was associated with having a biogenetic concept (d = 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.67; P < 0.001) in general population and in Eastern countries in particular. Although a biogenetic explanation was associated with a decreased level of blame (d = -0.20; 95% CI, -0.38 to -0.02; P = 0.029) in the general population, it was also associated with significantly higher levels of perceived dangerousness (d = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.23; P = 0.008). A tendency toward a higher level of prognostic pessimism and social distance was associated with a biogenetic concept of mental disorders although there was no statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Having a biogenetic concept of the cause of mental disorders was related with a positive attitude toward help-seeking, particularly in the general population and individuals living in Eastern countries. Providing a biogenetic explanation decreased blame toward individuals with mental illness but was associated with increased perceived dangerousness and prognostic pessimism. Therefore, although a biogenetic explanation promotes public use of mental health services, it should be carefully applied to avoid an increase in negative thoughts, such as that mental illness is biologically irreversible and untreatable.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Estereotipagem , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estigma Social , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia
9.
Washington, D.C.; Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé; 2023-01-11. (OPS/IMS/HSS/mpox/22-0038).
em Francês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56992

RESUMO

La surveillance est une activité essentielle de santé publique mais se heurte à des défis éthiques. La flambée de la variole simienne touche principalement les hommes gays, les hommes bisexuels et les autres hommes ayant des rapports sexuels avec des hommes. La surveillance de la variole simienne comporte donc des risques de discrimination et de stigmatisation, ainsi que de risques de mesures punitives dans les juridictions où les comportements de certains groupes de la population sont criminalisés. La sensibilisation à ces risques et l'orientation spécifique pour relever d'autres défis éthiques de la surveillance de la variole simienne sont nécessaires afin promouvoir une surveillance éthique. Ce bref document fournit des recommandations visant à garantir que la surveillance de la variole simienne soit menée de manière éthique. Ces recommandations ont été élaborées sur la base des lignes directrices de l'OMS sur les questions éthiques en matière de surveillance de la santé publique.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Estereotipagem , Discriminação Social , Ética , Saúde Pública , Vigilância em Desastres
11.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 49(1): 110-124, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964372

RESUMO

In social movements, activists may belong to either the disadvantaged or the advantaged group (e.g., Black racial justice activists or White racial justice activists). Across three experimental survey studies, we examined the content of these stereotypes by asking participants to freely generate a list of characteristics to describe each target group-a classic paradigm in stereotype research. Specifically, we examined the stereotypes applied to Black and White activists within racial justice movements (Study 1, n = 154), female and male activists within feminist movements (Study 2, n =134), and LBGT and straight activists within Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender movements (Study 3, n =156). We found that the "activist" category was consistently differentiated into subcategories based on group status: Disadvantaged group activists were stereotyped as strong and aggressive, whereas advantaged group activists were stereotyped as altruistic and superficial. These findings underscore the importance of considering status differences to understand the social perception of activists.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Percepção Social , Justiça Social , Populações Vulneráveis
12.
Nature ; 613(7945): 704-711, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36482134

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, sizeable groups of unvaccinated people persist even in countries with high vaccine access1. As a consequence, vaccination became a controversial subject of debate and even protest2. Here we assess whether people express discriminatory attitudes in the form of negative affectivity, stereotypes and exclusionary attitudes in family and political settings across groups defined by COVID-19 vaccination status. We quantify discriminatory attitudes between vaccinated and unvaccinated citizens in 21 countries, covering a diverse set of cultures across the world. Across three conjoined experimental studies (n = 15,233), we demonstrate that vaccinated people express discriminatory attitudes towards unvaccinated individuals at a level as high as discriminatory attitudes that are commonly aimed at immigrant and minority populations3-5. By contrast, there is an absence of evidence that unvaccinated individuals display discriminatory attitudes towards vaccinated people, except for the presence of negative affectivity in Germany and the USA. We find evidence in support of discriminatory attitudes against unvaccinated individuals in all countries except for Hungary and Romania, and find that discriminatory attitudes are more strongly expressed in cultures with stronger cooperative norms. Previous research on the psychology of cooperation has shown that individuals react negatively against perceived 'free-riders'6,7, including in the domain of vaccinations8,9. Consistent with this, we find that contributors to the public good of epidemic control (that is, vaccinated individuals) react with discriminatory attitudes towards perceived free-riders (that is, unvaccinated individuals). National leaders and vaccinated members of the public appealed to moral obligations to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake10,11, but our findings suggest that discriminatory attitudes-including support for the removal of fundamental rights-simultaneously emerged.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Internacionalidade , Preconceito , Recusa de Vacinação , Vacinação , Humanos , Direitos Civis/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Alemanha , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hungria , Obrigações Morais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Política , Preconceito/psicologia , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Romênia , Estereotipagem , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 61(2): 644-671, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553397

RESUMO

Recent findings highlight two facets of the two fundamental stereotype content dimensions of agency (i.e., 'dominance' and 'competence') and communality (i.e., 'morality' and 'sociability'; e.g., Abele et al., 2016) with implications for understanding gender inequality in the workplace (e.g., Prati et al., 2019). Extending this research and contributing to the facial first impressions literature, we examined how these facets of agency and communality when inferred from White men's and women's faces, along with attractiveness, influence their leadership suitability. In three studies in the United Kingdom (total N = 424), using student and working samples and two managerial descriptions, we found an unexpected pattern of results, supported by an internal meta-analysis: attractiveness and competence were the most important predictors of hirability for all candidates. For women, dominance was the next most important predictor; for men, morality and sociability were more important than dominance. Moreover, morality and sociability were more important in evaluating men than women, while dominance was more important in evaluating women than men. Findings are discussed in terms of a 'deficit bias', whereby the qualities women and men are considered to lack - dominance for women, morality, and sociability for men - may be given more weight when evaluating their leadership suitability.


Assuntos
Liderança , Estereotipagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22479, 2022 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577918

RESUMO

There is growing concern that artificial intelligence conversational agents (e.g., Siri, Alexa) reinforce voice-based social stereotypes. Because little is known about social perceptions of conversational agents' voices, we investigated (1) the dimensions that underpin perceptions of these synthetic voices and (2) the role that acoustic parameters play in these perceptions. Study 1 (N = 504) found that perceptions of synthetic voices are underpinned by Valence and Dominance components similar to those previously reported for natural human stimuli and that the Dominance component was strongly and negatively related to voice pitch. Study 2 (N = 160) found that experimentally manipulating pitch in synthetic voices directly influenced dominance-related, but not valence-related, perceptions. Collectively, these results suggest that greater consideration of the role that voice pitch plays in dominance-related perceptions when designing conversational agents may be an effective method for controlling stereotypic perceptions of their voices and the downstream consequences of those perceptions.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Voz , Humanos , Comunicação , Percepção Social , Estereotipagem
16.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 45(10): 789-798, dic. 2022. mapas, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-211883

RESUMO

Introducción: En nuestra opinión existe un desequilibrio entre la relevancia del síndrome del intestino irritable (SII) y los medios que se le proporcionan. Objetivo: Revisar los diferentes factores que determinan (o deberían determinar) el interés de los gastroenterólogos por el SII, comparándolo con la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII). Para ello se han analizado 7 áreas diferentes: 1.Impacto médico; 2.Impacto social; 3.Importancia académica; 4.Relevancia clínica; 5.Relevancia científica; 6.Relevancia pública, y 7.Aspectos personales del médico. Resultados: La prevalencia es 10 veces superior en el SII, suponiendo hasta el 25% de las visitas del gastroenterólogo. Ambas patologías alteran la calidad de vida, en muchos casos de forma semejante. El coste social es muy importante en ambos casos (p.ej., absentismo del 21 y del 18%), así como el económico, aunque muy superior en medicación para la EII. La dedicación académica es más del doble para la EII, tanto en la universidad como en la formación MIR. La relevancia científica es mayor en la EII, con un número de publicaciones cuatro veces superior. La relevancia pública no es muy diferente entre las dos entidades, aunque los pacientes con EII son más asociativos. Los médicos prefieren la EII y tienden a estigmatizar el SII. Conclusión: En nuestra opinión, para disminuir este desequilibrio entre necesidades y recursos, humanos y materiales, en el SII es imprescindible realizar cambios drásticos tanto en los aspectos educativos, de habilidades de comunicación, de priorización de acuerdo con las demandas de los pacientes, y de recompensa (personal y social) de los médicos.(AU)


Introduction: In our opinion there is an imbalance between the relevance of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and the resources that are provided. Objective: To review the different factors that determine (or should determine) the interest of gastroenterologists in IBS, comparing it with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). For this, 7 different areas have been analyzed: (1)Medical impact; (2)Social impact; (3)Academic importance; (4)Clinical relevance; (5)Scientific relevance; (6)Public relevance, and (7)Personal aspects of the doctor. Results: The prevalence is 10 times higher in IBS, which represents up to 25% of gastroenterologist visits. Both pathologies alter the quality of life, in many cases in a similar way. The social cost is very important in both cases (e.g.: absenteeism of 21% and 18%) as well as the economic cost, although much higher in medication for IBD. Academic dedication is more than double for IBD, both in university and in MIR training. Scientific relevance is greater in IBD, with a number of publications four times higher. Public relevance is not very different between the two entities, although IBD patients are more associative. Doctors prefer IBD and tend to stigmatize IBS. Conclusion: In our opinion, to reduce this imbalance between needs and resources, human and material, in IBS it is essential to make drastic changes both in educational aspects, communication skills, prioritization according to the demands of patients, and reward (personal and social) of physicians.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Prevalência , Mudança Social , Doença de Crohn , Estereotipagem , Colite Ulcerativa , Gastroenterologia , Gastroenteropatias , Custos e Análise de Custo
17.
Alzheimers Dement ; 18 Suppl 9: e067593, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36537929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children have grandparents with dementia. These direct confrontations with decline are reinforced by one-sided, negative portrayal in the media making youngsters internalize harmful images about old age and dementia. It is vital for the well-being of future generations that education and research join forces to clearly map and transform these toxic mental representations in children about old age and dementia. METHOD: We developed a novel educational trajectory for children regarding healthy ageing and dementia in Belgium and The Netherlands. Participating youngsters (n = 70) made sketches of the elderly before and after the positive interventions. Our innovative research resulted in materials for artistic expositions of children's drawings (n = 560). The visual representations provide a unique insight into the hidden mental landscape of children and can thus function as a starting point for conversation in educational trajectories about positive aging. These deliverables are a source of inspiration for teachers, journalists, researchers, health professionals and the broader public. RESULT: Children's drawings are one of the most efficient ways to capture young people's mental representations about old age and dementia. Children's drawings are implicit measurements that circumvent social desirability. CONCLUSION: Children's drawings are an underused instrument in Alzheimer's research to gain insight into the content of destructive stereotyping and the possibilities for change of these mental representations.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Países Baixos
18.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 21(4): 345-353, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538543

RESUMO

HIV-related stigmatisation is common in many parts of the world and is experienced by all categories of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Although the negative consequences of HIV-related stigmatisation on the resilience of PLWHA is well documented, little is known about the plausible role of certain personal characteristics in moderating the stigma-resilience relationship. In addition to investigating the direct association of HIV-related stigma (personalised stigma, disclosure concern, concern about public attitude and negative self-image) with resilience, the present study examined whether psychological flexibility (PF) moderates the HIV-related stigmaresilience relationship among PLWHA. Participants included 280 PLWHA (M = 39.48; SD = 9.03) selected from Sacred Heart Catholic Hospital (SHCH), Obudu, Cross River State, Nigeria. Participants completed relevant self-report measures. Results showed that patients reported moderately high levels of resilience (M = 59.13; SD = 13.98). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that HIV-related stigma (personalised stigma, disclosure concern and concern about public attitudes) were not significantly associated with resilience (p = 0.230; p = 0.747; p = 0.528). HIV-related negative self-image and PF were independently and significantly associated with resilience (p = 0.024; p = 0.000). Results of moderation hypothesis revealed that PF did not moderate the relationship between HIV-related disclosure concern and resilience (p = 0.903), and between HIV-related concern about public attitudes and resilience (p = 0.905), but PF moderated the relationship of HIV-related personalised stigma and resilience (p = 0.023), and the relationship of HIV-related negative self-image and resilience (p = 0.004). Therefore, interventions to promote resilience abilities in PLWHA should consider facilitating patients' psychological flexibility skills as it is critical in decreasing the hazardous effect of HIV-related stigma on the patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Análise Multivariada
19.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 84(1)2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541795

RESUMO

Objective: Women with schizophrenia encounter specific gender-related stressors that may affect their recovery process. They are more susceptible to victimization and tend to experience more shame and stigma about their illness. Confronting stigma early in the illness could enhance treatment seeking. No studies have examined the efficacy of stigma-reducing interventions focused on public stigma toward women living with schizophrenia or have tested the effect of gender-specific content therein.Methods: We compared the efficacy at post-intervention and 30-day follow-up of 2 brief (~80-second) videos, with and without gender-related content, and a non-intervention control, in 1,181 young adults, between September and November 2021. The videos feature an empowered young woman living with schizophrenia who describes struggling with her psychotic illness to attain recovery and hope.Results: A 3 × 3 group-by-time analysis of variance showed decreased mean stigma scores over time in the two intervention arms relative to controls across all 5 public stigma domains: social distance (F = 17.1, P < .001), stereotyping (F = 25.0, P < .001), separateness (F = 8.3, P < .001), social restriction (F = 16.6, P < .001), and perceived recovery (F = 7.8, P < .001). Linear mixed modeling showed a greater intervention effect for women in the gender-related video group in social distance, stereotyping, and separateness.Conclusions: Greater stigma reduction among women in the gender-related video group underscores the importance of tailoring the narrative to specific experiences related to socio-demographic characteristics, especially among members of marginalized groups. This attenuation may result in greater identification and solidarity with the presenter. Future studies should explore other socially oppressed groups, including Black, Latinx, Asian, and LGBTQ+ communities.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Relações Interpessoais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
20.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279422, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542642

RESUMO

This paper uses extensive database research, film viewing and literature review to show how the field of surgery was staged in the early days of film history. It can be shown that-although surgical medicine was a subject in transition, and many scientific breakthroughs (anesthesia und antisepsis) made surgery less painful and more complication-free-filmmakers still frequently resorted to horror memories of the past and created a questionable, or ambivalent image of the surgeon, sometimes as extreme as the "lunatic with a scalpel" stereotype, blurring the line between genius and madness. But there were also positive staging's: The surgical intervention was often captured on the screen as a last resort for clinically hopeless cases, with the surgeon often presented as a "deus ex machina", the savior out of nowhere. Other specialties, however, such as plastic surgery, were mostly positively dramatized, which reveals a stark contrast to research about the representation of the field in the sound film era. A view at the fields of neurosurgery and (selectively) opthalmo-surgery rounds out the panorama of forty-one surgical films. In summary, it is shown that the early surgical film depicts the specialty and the surgeon in a highly ambivalent way, from savior to monster thereby reflecting one of the most significant transitions in the history of surgery and showing us what image was presented to the public-and thus to potential patients-in the movie theaters.


Assuntos
Medicina , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Som , Estereotipagem
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