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1.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e148-e154, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000976

RESUMO

Modern healthcare is delivered by interprofessional teams, and good leadership of these teams is integral to safe patient care. Good leadership in the operating theatre has traditionally been considered as authoritative, confident and directive, and stereotypically associated with men. We argue that this may not be the best model for team-based patient care and promote the concept of inclusive leadership as a valid alternative. Inclusive leadership encourages all team members to contribute to decision-making, thus engendering more team cohesion, information sharing and speaking up, and ultimately enhancing team effectiveness. However, the relational behaviours associated with inclusive leadership are stereotypically associated with women and may not in fact be recognised as leadership. In this article we provide evidence on the advantages of inclusive leadership over authoritative leadership and explore gender stereotypes and obstacles that limit the recognition of inclusive leadership. We propose that operating teams rise above gender stereotypes of leadership. Inclusive leadership can elicit maximum performance of every team member, thus realising the full potential of interprofessional healthcare teams to provide the best care for patients.


Assuntos
Liderança , Salas Cirúrgicas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Incerteza
4.
J Homosex ; 67(1): 58-78, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307840

RESUMO

Masculine overcompensation-a phenomenon where men react to masculinity threats by endorsing hypermasculine ideals-has been demonstrated among straight men but has yet to be examined among gay men. The current study therefore proposed to examine whether gay men overcompensate similarly to their straight counterparts by providing participants with randomized feedback that threatened their masculinity. Overcompensation was measured in 867 online respondents by administering a series of questionnaires regarding views of pornography, rape, sex roles, and political orientation. Although our hypothesis was not confirmed, results revealed the intersectionality of both sexual orientation and self-reported gender expression regarding the formation of different views and beliefs. Specifically, masculinity was differentially related to homophobic attitudes, more callous views toward victims of sexual assault, and various components of attitudes toward pornography in gay and straight men. Masculine gay males held stereotypically masculine views less strongly than their masculine straight counterparts, providing evidence that gay males adopt a different type of masculinity than straight males-something of a "masculinity lite." Such findings point to the converging influence of sexual orientation and gender expression as contributors relevant to the attitudes of gay and straight men. This information adds to a growing body of literature on differences between gay and straight men and can be used to inform theory, education, and clinical practice, particularly in settings where men grapple with the implications of their masculinity.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Masculinidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e82, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839013

RESUMO

AIMS: This review aims to understand the scope of the literature regarding mental health-related microaggressions towards people affected by mental health problems. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to explore this question. Four electronic health-oriented databases were searched alongside Google Scholar. As per scoping review principles, the inclusion criteria were developed iteratively. The results of included studies were synthesised using a basic narrative synthesis approach, utilising principles of thematic analysis and thematic synthesis where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 1196 records were identified, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 were peer-reviewed journal articles, three were research degree theses and two were book chapters. Six included empirical studies were qualitative, four were quantitative and two employed a mixed-methods design. Within these, five qualitative studies aimed to describe the nature of mental health microaggressions experienced by people with mental health problems. Themes identified in a thematic synthesis of these five studies included stereotypes about mental illness, invalidating peoples' experience and blaming people with mental illness for their condition. The included publications informed on the perpetration of mental health microaggressions by family, friends, health professionals and social workers. In addition, two studies created scales, which were then used in cross-sectional surveys of the general public and community members to assess characteristics, such as right-wing political views, associated with endorsement of mental health microaggressions. A consensus definition of microaggressions emerged from the included studies: microaggressions are brief, everyday slights, snubs or insults, that may be subtle or ambiguous, but communicate a negative message to a target person based on their membership of a marginalised group, in this case, people affected by mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: The study of mental health microaggressions is an emerging, heterogeneous field, embedded in the wider stigma and discrimination literature. It has been influenced by earlier work on racial microaggressions. Both can be ambiguous and contradictory, which creates difficulty defining the boundaries of the concept, but also underpins the key theoretical basis for the negative impact of microaggressions. Mental illness is a more concealable potential type of identity, so it follows that the reported perpetrators of microaggressions are largely friends, family and professionals. This has implications for intervening to reduce the impact of microaggressions. There are several challenges facing research in this area, and further work is needed to understand the impact of mental health microaggressions on people affected by mental health problems.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Discriminação Social , Estigma Social , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estereotipagem
9.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 27(Special Issue): 552-558, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747146

RESUMO

Staffing problems (including staff shortage) in nursing reveal the connection with the stereotypical perception of the profession. The study of stereotypes was limited to Moscow healthcare and was based on downloading messages from social media (31,613 posts), the relevance of their study is determined by the growth of social media influence on public opinion. 24% of messages about nurses in the sample contain "large" stereotypical images (excluding spam). It was studied four "large" stereotypical images of a nurse: "guardian angel", "doctor's assistant", "authoritarian nurse" and "sensual nurse", and each one has negative aspects. Authors considered the specific perception of each of the images in social media. The remaining 76% of messages do not offer an alternative image of a nurse. The conclusion offers recommendations aimed at increasing the prestige of the profession: creating a new positive image of the profession, promoting it, encouraging nurses to join public space and increasing their autonomy.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Opinião Pública , Mídias Sociais , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Moscou
10.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020419, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656607

RESUMO

Background: Mental health disorders (MHD) are leading causes of disabilities. Awareness of MHD in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is crucial to both health care professionals and general community if those affected by MHD are to be allowed to live in dignity and be socially included, rather than being treated as outcasts or witches, as is presently the case. Therefore, this review aims to map and summarise the extent to which awareness of MHD and dementia in SSA challenges stigmatisation issues. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO). A content analysis of selected studies was performed. Findings on awareness challenges and stigmatisation were identified and categorised. Results: A total of 230 publications were screened, 25 were selected for this review. The results demonstrate strong supernatural beliefs influencing peoples' perceptions of diseases. These perceptions promote stigmatising attitudes towards people with MHD and dementia. The education level correlated with stigmatising attitudes, whereby higher educated people were less likely to distance themselves socially from people with MHD and from people living with dementia (PwD). Astonishingly, even people educated in health issues (eg, nurses, medical practitioners) tended to have strong beliefs in supernatural causations of diseases, like witchcraft, and hold negative attitudes towards MHD and PwD. Conclusions: This review provides some evidence on the influence of traditional beliefs on MHDs in SSA. Those beliefs are powerful and exist in all segments in SSA-communities, promoting superstitious perceptions on diseases and stigmatisation. Awareness and education campaigns on MHD are absolutely mandatory to reduce stigmatisation.


Assuntos
Demência/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , África ao Sul do Saara , Humanos , Preconceito , Estereotipagem
12.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 40(6): E16-E18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609818

RESUMO

The relationships between social identity, stereotype threat, and academic success were explored among prenursing students. Stereotype threat has been linked to academic success in students from underrepresented populations within the social sciences and educational literature but has not been explored in nursing. A descriptive correlational design was used with Picho and Brown's Social Identities and Attitudes Scale emailed to 159 prenursing students. Stereotype threat was significantly related to race/ethnicity with no significant relationship between stereotype threat and academic success. Further exploration of stereotype threat in nursing is warranted; there may be implications for retention and support of diverse students.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Identificação Social , Estereotipagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Educação em Enfermagem , Humanos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(10): 634-640, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580726

RESUMO

Women in math, science, and engineering (MSE) often face stereotype threat: they fear that their performance in MSE will confirm an existing negative stereotype-that women are bad at math-which in turn may impair their learning and performance in math. This research investigated if sexist nonverbal behavior of a male instructor could activate stereotype threat among women in a virtual classroom. In addition, the research examined if learners' avatar representation in virtual reality altered this nonverbal process. Specifically, a 2 (avatar gender: female vs. male) × 2 (instructor behavior: dominant sexist vs. nondominant or nonsexist) between-subjects experiment was used. Data from 76 female college students demonstrated that participants learned less and performed worse when interacting with a sexist male instructor compared with a nonsexist instructor in a virtual classroom. Participants learned and performed equally well when represented by female and male avatars. Our findings extend previous research in physical learning settings, suggesting that dominant-sexist behaviors may give rise to stereotype threat and undermine women's learning outcomes in virtual classrooms. Implications for gender achievement gaps and stereotype threat are discussed.


Assuntos
Matemática , Sexismo/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Realidade Virtual , Mulheres , Gráficos por Computador , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Mulheres/educação , Mulheres/psicologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581632

RESUMO

Digital technology holds a promise to improve older adults' well-being and promote ageing in place. However, there seems to be a discrepancy between digital technologies that are developed and what older adults actually want and need. Ageing is stereotypically framed as a problem needed to be fixed, and older adults are considered to be frail and incompetent. Not surprisingly, many of the technologies developed for the use of older adults focus on care. The exclusion of older adults from the research and design of digital technology is often based on such negative stereotypes. In this opinion article, we argue that the inclusion rather than exclusion of older adults in the design process and research of digital technology is essential if technology is to fulfill the promise of improving well-being. We emphasize why this is important while also providing guidelines, evidence from the literature, and examples on how to do so. We unequivocally state that designers and researchers should make every effort to ensure the involvement of older adults in the design process and research of digital technology. Based on this paper, we suggest that ageism in the design process of digital technology might play a role as a possible barrier of adopting technology.


Assuntos
Ageismo/psicologia , Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Invenções/estatística & dados numéricos , Estereotipagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 18(3): 224-233, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575342

RESUMO

Gender inequalities drive the HIV risk within marriages in Kenya, yet strategies to combat the spread of HIV are limited by their emphasis on the individual or dyadic relationship rather than the wider social-cultural relations that shape gender relations within marriage. This study explores how couples' social networks and spaces of interactions are implicated in the (re)production of gender and gender relations and how this, consequently, shapes HIV risks within marriage. It draws on qualitative data from 14 relatively poor couples from rural eastern Kenya and 13 middle-class couples from the capital city of Nairobi. The data describe couples' networks and address three broad themes: kin relations and gender (re)production; informal financial networks and gender hierarchies; and gender segregation of networks and spaces of interaction. Overall, findings show that much social interaction serves to reinforce gender identities, ideologies and realities that already exist though gender relations might differ among poor rural and middle-class city couples. Therefore, for public health, incorporating couples' wider social and gender relations in HIV interventions in marriage is imperative. Moreover, an intersectional perspective that considers how gender mutually interacts with class, space/geography, religion, age, and other axes of difference to produce particular forms of gender and gender relations in networks is crucial in informing HIV interventions in addressing gender power relationships that shape HIV risk in marriages.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , HIV , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Rede Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(10): 3701-3708, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576999

RESUMO

We acknowledge that people with rare conditions constitute a group with a specific social identity and seek to understand what the implications of this acknowledgement are either in the stigmatization or emancipation of these individuals. We base ourselves on the observation that many people who are said to have rare conditions are told that their symptoms constitute a "rare disease," without specifying which illness it might be. And, in this respect, many people with rare conditions are considered "handicapped," people with "learning difficulties," or are given many other labels that are not always socially well accepted. This article is structured around three analytical standpoints, basing ourselves on Stuart Hall, Axel Honneth and Annemarie Jutel. Initially, we discuss the construction of the social identity of people with rare conditions based on Hall's definition of the "identity crisis." We then examine the identity of people with rare conditions from the perspective of the theory of justice as recognition, especially in relation to what Honneth refers to as "reciprocal recognition." Lastly, we highlight some of the specificities of the demands for recognition of people with rare conditions - albeit without a diagnosis - basing our study on the sociology of diagnosis from the standpoint of Annemarie Jutel.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras/psicologia , Identificação Social , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico
20.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(668): 1951, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643158
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