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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 443, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with mental disorders have an increased risk of developing somatic disorders, just as they have a higher risk of dying from them. These patients often report feeling devaluated and rejected by health professionals in the somatic health care system, and increasing evidence shows that disparities in health care provision contribute to poor health outcomes. The aim of this review was to map and synthesize literature on somatic health professionals' stigmatization toward patients with mental disorders. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review using Arksey and O'Malley's framework and carried out a systematic search in three databases: Cinahl, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO in May-June 2019. Peer-reviewed articles published in English or Scandinavian languages during 2008-2019 were reviewed according to title, abstract and full-text reading. We organized and analyzed data using NVivo. RESULTS: A total of 137 articles meeting the eligibility criteria were reviewed and categorized as observational studies (n = 73) and intervention studies (n = 64). A majority of studies (N = 85) focused on patients with an unspecified number of mental disorders, while 52 studies focused on specific diagnoses, primarily schizophrenia (n = 13), self-harm (n = 13), and eating disorders (n = 9). Half of the studies focused on health students (n = 64), primarily nursing students (n = 26) and medical students (n = 25), while (n = 66) focused on health care professionals, primarily emergency staff (n = 16) and general practitioners (n = 13). Additionally, seven studies focused on both health professionals and students. A detailed characterization of the identified intervention studies was conducted, resulting in eight main types of interventions. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of studies identified in this review suggests that stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors toward patients with mental disorders is a worldwide challenge within a somatic health care setting. For more targeted interventions, there is a need for further research on underexposed mental diagnoses and knowledge on whether specific health professionals have a more stigmatizing attitude or behavior toward specific mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Estudantes de Medicina , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Estereotipagem
3.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 575-581, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410735

RESUMO

In 1992, the United States government expanded a 1978 decision to observe Asian Pacific American Heritage Week to a month-long recognition of the contributions of Asian Americans to the country's history and ongoing cultural milieu. Since 2000, the Asian population in the United States has grown by 72%-the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the country. Today, the Census reports that Asians comprise 22 million United States residents. Despite this unprecedented growth, Asian Americans remain largely invisible in the national dialogue and in scientific research. This special issue features theoretical, empirical, and policy articles that highlight Asian Americans in psychology. Asian Americans remain marginalized and invisible in scientific endeavors for several reasons. For example, consolidating many ethnic groups under an "Asian American" pan-ethnic umbrella masks meaningful cultural, linguistic, ethnic, migration, gender, sexual/gender identity/expression, and socioeconomic differences. These intersectional identities result in experiences that are multiply marginalized, contributing to invisibility. The model minority stereotype highlights high-achieving and successful individuals, rendering the segment of the Asian American population that is struggling irrelevant and unworthy of attention. This special issue directly interrogates sources of invisibility to synthesize theory, research, and policy focused on Asian Americans. The articles in this special issue focus on the intersectional spaces that Asian Americans occupy, unpacking the diversity behind the "Asian American" pan-ethnic label, experiences of identity and discrimination across a range of Asian American groups, and areas of theory/research/policy where Asian American experiences have been overlooked. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Psicologia/tendências , Marginalização Social , Estereotipagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio Social , Estados Unidos
4.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 596-610, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410737

RESUMO

Asian Americans (AAs) are a diverse group who come from many different cultures, backgrounds, immigration histories, geographic regions, and experiences. Unfortunately, AAs are commonly stereotyped as a model minority, used as an intermediary minority, and consequently have been marginalized and left out of dialogues of racism and discrimination. Internalized racism (IR), defined as the internalization of bias and oppression toward one's group, is an especially insidious form of divisive racism that remains largely misunderstood and unaddressed in AAs. In addition to devaluing oneself, IR creates division in communities and reinforces systems of oppression. This paper reviews the extant literature on IR among AAs and discusses the importance of addressing this deleterious issue and its consequences on individual, family, and community mental health. Moreover, I discuss and elucidate how stereotypes about AAs (e.g., model minority, perpetual foreigner, gendered stereotypes, and conceptions of beauty) directly promote and reinforce different types of internalized oppression (e.g., intraracial hierarchies, intraethnic othering, gendered emasculation, and hypersexualization, colorism and Western standards of beauty). Clinical and community recommendations are provided through a multilevel preventive intervention framework. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Beleza , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Estereotipagem
5.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 611-626, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410738

RESUMO

Asian Americans are the fastest growing U.S. immigrant group, projected to become the largest immigrant group by 2065, but the quantity of research on Asian Americans' health has not mirrored changing demographics. Asian Americans have been understudied for more than 25 years, with only 0.17% of National Institutes of Health (NIH) expenditures allocated to projects including Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander populations (Ðoàn et al., 2019). This disproportionality may result in part from the model minority stereotype (MMS) being extended to health, perpetuating the ideas that Asian Americans are well-positioned with regard to health status and that associated research is not essential. Accordingly, the aims for this article are threefold: (a) bring attention to the inadequate representation of the Asian American population in health-related science, (b) question the MMS in health, and (c) outline potential pathways through which the MMS limits what is knowable on Asian American health issues and needs. We discuss the limited meaningfulness of nonrepresentative aggregated statistics purporting the model minority image and provide counterexamples. We also present a stereotype-constraints model with the MMS contributing to a bottleneck for Asian American health-related knowledge, accompanied by present-day circumstances (e.g., sparse data, few psychologists/behavioral medicine scientists focused on Asian American health). We conclude with initial recommendations for addressing MMS-associated constraints in psychology and more broadly. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Nível de Saúde , Grupos Minoritários , Estereotipagem , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
6.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 673-688, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410742

RESUMO

Model minority stereotypes of Asian Americans as high educational and occupational achievers are perpetuated by conceptual and methodological issues in career development research that aggregate across Asian ethnicities and oversample high achievers. These issues render those marginalized, such as working-class immigrants with limited English proficiency, as well as their children, as invisible within research, practice, and policy. A new theoretical framework, entitled the Asian American Intergenerational Model of Psychology of Working (AAIM), questions the mainstream career development assumptions of linearity, stability, and upward mobility that reveal inherent classism. Building on the Psychology of Working Theory (Duffy et al., 2016); the AAIM broadens the scope and definition of work beyond career, and acknowledges the significance of structural and cultural forces on people's work and life. An expanded qualitative analysis of interviews with 17 low-income, working-class, Chinese immigrant parents (Tu et al., 2019) provides an empirical illustration of the intergenerational and coethnic dynamics of vocational experiences central to the AAIM. The working-class immigrants relied on coethnic networks to secure employment within a narrow range of options, many straddling helplessly between arduous manual labor and family demands. Though they had immigrated primarily to provide a better future for their children, many parents struggled to participate meaningfully in their children's development. These findings highlight the need to expand Asian American psychology of working to incorporate systems and social justice perspectives. Research, practice, and policy implications of AAIM advocate for maximal inclusivity and offer directions to address invisibility of the most marginalized and disenfranchised Asian American workers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Logro , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Classe Social , Justiça Social , Marginalização Social , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 689-692, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410743

RESUMO

For decades, Asian Americans have had to deal with stereotypes, misunderstandings of their status in society, and prejudice and discrimination. Because of their small population in the U.S. and prevailing model minority stereotypes, they have not received the attention or aid necessary for research and policy advocacy to counter the misunderstandings. It is argued that Asian Americans are diverse group on many dimensions but they share experiences involving stereotypes and racism. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Racismo , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Racismo/psicologia , Marginalização Social
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360266

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of perceived stigmatization in the relationship between humor styles and coping with stress among young women suffering from stigma due to obesity. In the 21st century, obesity is an increasing global health issue with many physical and mental consequences for obese women. As a chronic stigmatizing disease, it requires that the affected individuals cope with social consequences; women with obesity are more prone to such consequences than men. Humor fosters the breaking of stereotypes and alleviating the consequences of stigmatization. A total of 127 young adult women (age M = 25.74, SD = 2.73) participated in the study (n = 54 with overfat and n = 73 with healthy fat). Participants filled out the Humor Styles Questionnaire, Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire, and the Brief COPE Scale. Anthropometric data were gathered using a body composition analyzer. Results indicate that, when perceiving hostile behaviors toward themselves and using humor as a coping strategy, women with overfat select maladaptive styles of humor (i.e., self-defeating and aggressive styles). Women with overfat were also more likely to use humor as a coping strategy in difficult situations. Furthermore, none of the participants were satisfied with their body mass. At the same time, among women without obesity, a lack of compliments was not treated as a problem, even if they had high body fat.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Estigma Social , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 855, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in global health and economic crisis. We investigated the experiences of frontline health care workers recovering from COVID-19 in Lagos State Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study among frontline health workers recovering from COVID-19 in Lagos State, Nigeria. We interviewed 12 respondents before achieving data saturation. We used a checklist to guide the interview according to the phenomenon under study. Data obtained were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. RESULTS: The study was summarized under five themes: knowledge of COVID-19, exposure, reactions, challenges and recommendations. The respondents were quite knowledgeable on COVID-19, their reactions when informed of their status were denial, anxiety, distress, disorientation, crying for fear of stigmatization, while some were psychologically prepared. Reactions from colleagues, family and friends were encouraging and provided solace for them with a few colleagues and families that had negative reactions. Challenges include anosmia, movement restriction, loneliness, worries about the state of their families, nondisclosure of status to family members, non-conducive isolation centre with limited space, insomnia, stigmatization by health workers at the isolation centre, extended duration of stay, delay in the release of test results and use of ambulance for evacuation to the isolation centres. Coping strategies were watching movies, phone calls, use of social media, listening to music, attending webinars, working on projects and reading spiritual books. Recommendations were early laboratory testing of samples and conveying of results, increase testing capacity, the need of health care workers to be more compassionate, better method of evacuation of people that tested positive to COVID-19, aside the use of ambulance that increases the likelihood of stigmatization and standard guideline for the case management of people recovering from COVID-19 in Lagos state. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents felt stigmatized and psychologically and morally traumatized. Isolation is a difficult experience and some negative emotions as expressed by previous studies were experienced by the respondents. There is need for increased testing capacity, timely results dissemination, early evacuation and creation of more isolation centres in Lagos State due to the rising number of cases and shortage of bed space.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estereotipagem , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 940-950, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424011

RESUMO

Many studies have found that males, on average, perform better than females in mathematics, although the size of this gender gap is small and varies considerably across countries. Stereotype threat has been proposed as a principal cause of this gender gap. From this perspective, females' performance is affected by fear of confirming a negative stereotype about females' mathematical ability and this stereotype can be activated by an experimental manipulation that reminds females of the stereotype. Yet, evidence of a stereotype threat effect on mathematics performance in childhood and adolescence has been mixed. The present study replicated a highly cited study of stereotype threat among Italian adolescents with a much larger sample of Italian ninth grade (89 male, 75 female, mean age = 14.2) and eleventh grade (84 male, 80 female, mean age = 16.2) public high school students. Performance in tests administered both before and after the experimental manipulations were analyzed with a series of logistic mixed-effects models. Model comparisons confirmed that males performed better than females, but the probability of a stereotype threat effect was infinitesimal. We conclude that Italian adolescent gender differences in mathematics may not be explained by stereotype threat effects. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aptidão , Estereotipagem , Adolescente , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Matemática
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444578

RESUMO

Recently, 194 World Health Organization member states called on the international organization to develop a global campaign to combat ageism, citing its alarming ubiquity, insidious threat to health, and prevalence in the media. Existing media studies of age stereotypes have mostly been single-sourced. This study harnesses a 1.1-billion-word media database comprising the British National Corpus and Corpus of Contemporary American English-with genres including spoken/television, fiction, magazines, newspapers-to provide a comprehensive view of ageism in the United Kingdom and United States. The US and UK were chosen as they are home to the largest media conglomerates with tremendous power to shape public opinion. The most commonly used synonym of older adults was identified, and its most frequently used descriptors were analyzed for valence. Such computational linguistics techniques represent a new advance in studying aging narratives. The key finding is consistent, though no less alarming: Negative descriptions of older adults outnumber positive ones by six times. Negative descriptions tend to be physical, while positive ones tend to be behavioral. Magazines contain the highest levels of ageism, followed by the spoken genre, newspapers, and fiction. Findings underscore the need to increase public awareness of ageism and lay the groundwork to design targeted societal campaigns to tackle ageism-one of our generation's most pernicious threats.


Assuntos
Ageismo , Estereotipagem , Opinião Pública , Televisão , Estados Unidos
16.
Psychol Aging ; 36(6): 700-709, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291962

RESUMO

What are the consequences for older adults who confront ageism and the perpetrators who engage in ageist behaviors? We compared young (n = 265), middle-aged (n = 338), and older adults' (n = 235) impressions of an older target and the perpetrator of an ageist action. Participants read a vignette about a pedestrian offering unwanted help to an older woman crossing the street. We manipulated the type of ageism (benevolent or hostile), the reaction of the older target (acceptance, moderate confrontation, or strong confrontation) and assessed perceptions of perpetrator appropriateness and how evaluations of warmth, competence, and overall impression of the target changed over time. The perpetrator's act of benevolent ageism was perceived to be more appropriate than hostile ageism, and middle-aged and older adult participants reported the benevolent act to be more acceptable than young participants. This finding supports an age stereotype assimilation account. For target perceptions, accepting a hostile ageist behavior led to lower warmth and competence ratings but accepting benevolent ageism reduced warmth but not competence evaluations. Age differences in target perceptions were predicted by social identity theory, in that older adults rated the older target more positively overall. Perceptions of targets who confronted varied by type of ageism and the intensity of the confrontation. When participants perceived the target's reaction to be disproportionate to the ageist act, the target was viewed more negatively overall. The findings suggest that ageism directed toward older adults is perceived to be normative by adults of all ages and that confrontations of ageist behavior result in negative perceptions of the older target. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ageismo/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Atitude , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ageismo/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Identificação Social , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 27(4): 579-592, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examines stressors (i.e., discrimination and stereotypes) and buffers (i.e., exercise) relevant to Asian-identified student-athletes' mental health. The study tests a set of counter-stereotype paradox hypotheses positing that conforming to idealized stereotypes of Asians exacerbates discrimination-mental health links. METHOD: Data were drawn from the 2015-2019 cohorts of the Healthy Minds Study. Regression-based moderations were used to test counter-stereotype paradox hypotheses and a buffering model of exercise. RESULTS: A-student status was a moderator of the discrimination and lower positive mental health link, and gender and body mass index (BMI) were moderators of the discrimination and anxiety and lower positive mental health links. Consistent with counter-stereotype paradoxes, discrimination and these mental health indicators were significantly correlated for Asian-identified student-athletes who reported being A-students or being underweight/normal-weight women. Results contradicted the counter-stereotype paradox for the discrimination-suicidality relation, which was significant for student-athletes reporting B-grades or lower and not significant for A-students. Exercise appeared to buffer discrimination-mental health associations for depression, anxiety, positive mental health, and disordered eating concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Results challenge the oft-celebrated Asian American model minority image and signify how both conforming and failing to conform to stereotypes can have benefits and liabilities for Asian-identified student-athletes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Estudantes , Americanos Asiáticos , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Estereotipagem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201024

RESUMO

Stigmatization from work-related COVID-19 exposure has not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, we systematically searched three databases: Medline, Embase, and PsychInfo (until October 2020), and performed a grey literature search (until February 2021). We identified 46 suitable articles from 24 quantitative and 11 qualitative studies, 6 systematic reviews, 3 study protocols and 1 intervention. The assessment of stigmatization varied widely, ranging from a single-item question to a 22-item questionnaire. Studies mostly considered perceived self-stigma (27 of 35 original studies) in healthcare workers (HCWs) or hospital-related jobs (29 of 35). All articles reported on stigmatization as a result of work-related COVID-19 exposure. However, most quantitative studies were characterized by convenience sampling (17 of 24), and all studies-also those with an adequate sampling design-were considered of low methodological quality. Therefore, it is not possible to determine prevalence of stigmatization in defined occupational groups. Nevertheless, the work-related stigmatization of occupational groups with or without suspected contact to COVID-19 is a relevant problem and increases the risk for depression (odds ratio (OR) = 1.74; 95% confidence interval CI 1.29-2.36) and anxiety (OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.29-2.37). For promoting workers' health, anti-stigma strategies and support should be implemented in the workplace.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estereotipagem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1296, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak and global spread of COVID-19 was accompanied by an increase in reports of stigmatization of Chinese and Asian-looking people. The behavioral immune system provides a framework for stigmatization in response to infectious disease threats. Specifically, stigmatization might increase with rising levels of infectious disease threat. The present study aimed to examine this hypothesis during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: As part of the "EUCLID" project ( https://euclid.dbvis.de ), a total of 5011 persons from Germany were surveyed via an online-questionnaire between February 2nd and April 3rd, 2020, covering the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic over three time periods which were defined by critical events. RESULTS: There was no evidence for an increase in the stigmatization of Chinese and Asian-looking people across three topics, that is personal proximity, air travel, and medical measures upon arrival from China. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings provide good news in that participants showed an adaptive response to the infectious disease threat rather than displaying increased stigmatization. Further research is necessary to specify the conditions that increase the risk of stigmatization in response to infectious disease threats.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , China/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estereotipagem
20.
JAMA ; 326(2): 133-134, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255004
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