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1.
Mikrochim Acta ; 191(5): 249, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587558

RESUMO

17ß-Estradiol (E2) is the typical endocrine disruptor of steroidal estrogens and is widely used in animal husbandry and dairy processing. In the environment, even lower concentrations of E2 can cause endocrine dysfunction in organisms. Herein, we have developed a novel molecularly imprinted ratiometric fluorescent sensor based on SiO2-coated CdTe quantum dots (CdTe@SiO2) and 7-hydroxycoumarin with a post-imprint mixing strategy. The sensor selectively detected E2 in aqueous environments due to its two fluorescent signals with a self-correction function. The sensor has been successfully used for spiking a wide range of real water and milk samples. The results showed that the sensor exhibited good linearity over the concentration range 0.011-50 µg/L, obtaining satisfactory recoveries of 92.4-110.6% with precisions (RSD) < 2.5%. Moreover, this sensor obtained an ultra-low detection limit of 3.3 ng/L and a higher imprinting factor of 13.66. By using estriol (E3), as a supporting model, it was confirmed that a simple and economical ratiometric fluorescent construction strategy was provided for other hydrophobic substances.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio , Pontos Quânticos , Animais , Leite , Fluorescência , Dióxido de Silício , Telúrio , Estradiol , Corantes
2.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 205, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy found in developed countries. Because therapy can be curative at first, early detection and diagnosis are crucial for successful treatment. Early diagnosis allows patients to avoid radical therapies and offers conservative management options. There are currently no proven biomarkers that predict the risk of disease occurrence, enable early identification or support prognostic evaluation. Consequently, there is increasing interest in discovering sensitive and specific biomarkers for the detection of endometrial cancer using noninvasive approaches. CONTENT: Hormonal imbalance caused by unopposed estrogen affects the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis, which can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and carcinogenesis. In addition, due to their ability to cause oxidative stress, estradiol metabolites have both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties. Catechol estrogens are converted to reactive quinones, resulting in oxidative DNA damage that can initiate the carcinogenic process. The molecular anticancer mechanisms are still not fully understood, but it has been established that some estradiol metabolites generate reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, resulting in nitro-oxidative stress that causes cancer cell cycle arrest or cell death. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that reflect this hormonal imbalance and the presence of endometrial cancer in minimally invasive or noninvasive samples such as blood or urine could significantly improve early detection and treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Humanos , Feminino , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Carcinogênese
3.
Se Pu ; 42(4): 333-344, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566422

RESUMO

17ß-Estradiol (E2), an important endocrine hormone in the mammalian body, participates in the regulation of the physiological functions of the reproductive system, mammary glands, bone, and cardiovascular system, among others. Paradoxically, despite the physiological actions of endogenous E2 (0.2-1.0 nmol/L), numerous clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that high-dose E2 treatment can cause tumor regression and exert pro-apoptotic actions in multiple cell types; however, the underlying mechanism remains undescribed. In particular, little information of the cellular processes responding to the lethality of E2 is available. In the present study, we attempted to characterize the cellular processes responding to high-dose (µmol/L) E2 treatment using quantitative phosphoproteomics to obtain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism of E2-induced cell death. First, the cell phenotype induced by high-dose E2 was determined by performing Cell Counting Kit-8 assay (CCK8), cell cytotoxicity analysis by trypan blue staining, and microscopic imaging on HeLa cells treated with 1-10 µmol/L E2 or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 1-3 d. E2 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Compared with the DMSO-treated HeLa cells, the cells treated with 5 µmol/L E2 for 2 d demonstrated >74% growth inhibition and approximately 50% cell death. Thus, these cells were used for quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis. Next, a solid-phase extraction (SPE)-based immobilized titanium ion affinity chromatography (Ti4+-IMAC) phosphopeptide-enrichment method coupled with data-independent acquisition (DIA)-based quantitative proteomics was employed for the in-depth screening of high-dose E2-regulated phosphorylation sites to investigate the intracellular processes responding to high-dose E2 treatment. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified over 10000 phosphorylation sites regulated by E2 and DMSO in HeLa cells. In comparison with the DMSO-treated cells, the cells treated with 5 µmol/L E2 showed 537 upregulated phosphorylation sites and 387 downregulated phosphorylation sites, with a threshold of p<0.01 and |log2(fold change)|≥1. A total of 924 phosphorylation sites on 599 proteins were significantly regulated by high-dose E2, and these sites were subjected to enrichment analysis. In addition, 453 differently regulated phosphorylation sites on 325 proteins were identified only in the E2- or DMSO-treated cell samples. These phosphorylation sites may be phosphorylated or dephosphorylated in response to high-dose E2 stimulation and were subjected to parallel enrichment analyses. Taken together, 1218 phosphorylation sites on 741 proteins were significantly regulated by high-dose E2 treatment. The functional phosphoproteins in these two groups were then analyzed using Gene Ontology (GO) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) to determine the biological processes in which they participate and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database. Consistent with the cell-phenotype data, cell cycle-related proteins were highly enriched in the two groups of E2-regulated phosphoproteins (p<0.05), indicating that high-dose E2 treatment can regulate cell proliferation. In addition, E2-regulated phosphoproteins were highly enriched in the cellular processes of ribosome biogenesis, nucleocytoplasmic transport, and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) processing/splicing (p<0.05), indicating that the activation of these processes may contribute to high-dose E2-induced cell death. These results further confirm that high-dose E2 treatment inhibits protein translation and induces cell death. Furthermore, the significant upregulation of multiple phosphorylation sites associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) MAPK1, MAPK4, and MAPK14 by high-dose E2 indicates that the EGFR and MAPK signaling pathways are likely involved in the regulation of E2-induced cell death. These phosphorylation sites likely play vital roles in E2-induced cell death in HeLa cells. Overall, our phosphoproteomic data could be a valuable resource for uncovering the regulatory mechanisms of E2 in the micromolar range.


Assuntos
Dimetil Sulfóxido , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Humanos , Cromatografia Líquida , Células HeLa , Estradiol/farmacologia , Fosfoproteínas/química , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Mamíferos/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299580, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sex steroid hormones are important not only for reproduction but also for many aspects of women's health, including the risk of breast cancer. Physical activity has been shown to influence sex hormone levels in women. This study aimed to investigate a relationship between the average daily number of steps and the sex hormone (estradiol and progesterone) levels in premenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from 85 healthy, urban women of reproductive age who performed at least 180 minutes/week of moderate physical activity for two complete menstrual cycles. Physical activity was measured using wrist bands. Estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured in daily-collected saliva samples in the second menstrual cycle. RESULTS: There was a significant negative association between the average number of steps taken daily and salivary progesterone levels after adjusting for potential confounding factors (age, BMI). Women who took more than 10,000 steps a day had significantly lower progesterone levels compared to women who took less than 10,000 steps. The association between physical activity and estradiol levels was statistically insignificant. DISCUSSION: Our results indicate that taking at least 10,000 steps a day reduces progesterone levels, but this intensity of physical activity may not be high enough to affect estradiol levels. Daily step tracking is a valuable element of health promotion, but currently recommended levels of physical activity may not be high enough for healthy premenopausal women to significantly reduce both sex hormone levels and thus their risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Progesterona , Feminino , Humanos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Estradiol , Ciclo Menstrual
5.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 22(1): 38, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575956

RESUMO

The present study aimed to examine the effects of progranulin and omentin on basic ovarian cell functions. For this purpose, we investigated the effects of the addition of progranulin and omentin (0, 0.1, 1, or 10 ng/ml) on the viability, proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenesis of cultured rabbit ovarian granulosa cells. To determine the importance of the interrelationships between granulosa cells and theca cells, we compared the influence of progranulin and omentin on progesterone and estradiol release in cultured granulosa cells and ovarian fragments containing both granulosa cells and theca cells. Cell viability, proliferation, cytoplasmic apoptosis and release of progesterone and estradiol were measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), BrdU incorporation, cell death detection, and ELISA. Both progranulin and omentin increased granulosa cell viability and proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Progranulin increased progesterone release by granulosa cells but reduced progesterone output by ovarian fragments. Progranulin decreased estradiol release by granulosa cells but increased it in ovarian fragments. Omentin reduced progesterone release in both models. Omentin reduced estradiol release by granulosa cells but promoted this release in ovarian fragments. The present observations are the first to demonstrate that progranulin and omentin can be direct regulators of basic ovarian cell functions. Furthermore, the differences in the effects of these adipokines on steroidogenesis via granulosa and ovarian fragments indicate that these peptides could target both granulosa and theca cells.


Assuntos
Adipocinas , Progesterona , Feminino , Animais , Coelhos , Progesterona/metabolismo , Progranulinas/metabolismo , Progranulinas/farmacologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Adipocinas/farmacologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Apoptose , Células Cultivadas , Proliferação de Células
6.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 38(4): e23697, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578078

RESUMO

Genistein, an isoflavone has the potential to mimic, augment, or dysregulate the steroid hormone production pathways. We hypothesized that genistein affects the granulosa cell (GCs) functions through a series of biochemical, molecular, and genomic cascades. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of genistein exposure on GCs viability, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis. The present study involved 3/5 days of exposure to genistein on GCs collected from abattoir-derived ovine ovaries at doses of 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 µM. The harvested GCs were used for growth, cytotoxicity, and gene expression studies related to apoptosis, growth, and steroidogenesis. We observed that genistein had both stimulatory at 10 and 25 µM levels as well as inhibitory effects at 50 and 100 µM levels on the growth and proliferation of GCs. Genistein significantly decreased the levels of 17ß-estradiol at higher exposure (50 and 100 µM), whereas the progesterone level increased significantly as the genistein exposure increased. Additionally, genistein could also alter the mRNA expression of the steroidogenic receptor, enzymes, proteins, and growth-related genes suggesting that genistein could potentially alter the steroidogenic pathways. We conclude that genistein can interfere with cell survival and steroidogenesis by exhibiting a dose-dependent biphasic response on the viability, growth-related parameters, and the synthesis of 17ß-estradiol in the cultured GCs.


Assuntos
Genisteína , Isoflavonas , Feminino , Ovinos , Animais , Genisteína/farmacologia , Progesterona/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas
7.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 77, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ten percent of the female population suffers from congenital abnormalities of the vagina, uterus, or oviducts, with severe consequences for reproductive and psychological health. Yet, the underlying causes of most of these malformations remain largely unknown. ADGRA3 (GPR125) is involved in WNT signaling and planar cell polarity, mechanisms vital to female reproductive tract development. Although ADGRA3 is a well-established spermatogonial stem cell marker, its role within the female urogenital system remains unclear. RESULTS: In this study, we found Adgra3 to be expressed throughout the murine female urogenital system, with higher expression pre-puberty than after sexual maturation. We generated a global Adgra3-/- mouse line and observed imperforate vagina in 44% of Adgra3-/- females, resulting in distension of the reproductive tract and infertility. Ovarian morphology, plasma estradiol, ovarian Cyp19a1, and vaginal estrogen receptor α (Esr1) expression were unaffected. However, compared to controls, a significantly lower bone mineral density was found in Adgra3-/- mice. Whereas vaginal opening in mice is an estrogen-dependent process, 17ß-estradiol treatment failed to induce vaginal canalization in Adgra3-/- mice. Furthermore, a marked reduction in vaginal and ovarian progesterone receptor expression was observed concomitant with an upregulation of apoptotic regulators Bcl2, Bid, and Bmf in adult Adgra3-/- females with a closed vagina. CONCLUSIONS: Our collective results shed new insights into the complex mechanisms by which the adhesion receptor ADGRA3 regulates distal vaginal tissue remodeling during vaginal canalization via altered sex hormone responsiveness and balance in apoptotic regulators. This highlights the potential of ADGRA3 as a target in diagnostic screening and/or therapy for obstructive vaginal malformations in humans.


Assuntos
Estrogênios , Vagina , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Feminino , Incidência , Vagina/anormalidades , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacologia
8.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2337717, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) use is on the rise among athletes and bodybuilders worldwide. In addition to the well-documented adverse effects on hepatic, renal, and reproductive functions, there is an increasing recognition of psychiatric complications associated with AAS use. This study aimed to investigate psychiatric morbidity among male bodybuilders who are AAS users. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 25 male bodybuilders using AAS (mean age 31.2 ± 8.9 years) were compared with a control group of 25 healthy male bodybuilders matched in age (31.3 ± 5.5 years). The demographic, hormonal, and biochemical parameters of the participants were recorded. The impact of AAS use on psychiatric morbidity was assessed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in both groups. RESULTS: The BDI and BAI scores were significantly higher in male bodybuilders using anabolic-androgenic steroids (p < 0.0001). While the control group showed no instances of anxiety, seven individuals in the AAS user group reported mild anxiety. No participants in the control group exhibited depression, whereas seven AAS users displayed depressive symptoms (4 mild, 3 moderate). Correlations were observed between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and BAI scores, creatinine levels and both BAI and BDI scores, as well as between estradiol levels and BDI. CONCLUSION: The study concluded that AAS use among male bodybuilders is associated with elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Our findings suggest a potential correlation between anxiety and depression levels and the levels of creatinine, LDH, and estradiol in AAS users.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes , Esteróides Androgênicos Anabolizantes , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Creatinina , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Depressão/epidemiologia , Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Congêneres da Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Estradiol
9.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 75(1)2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583439

RESUMO

Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a trap receptor for the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). We aimed to determine the OPG and free soluble RANKL (sRANKL) concentrations in girls during puberty and their relationships with pubertal stage, growth rate and serum concentrations of estradiol, as well as classical bone formation (N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC)) and bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX)) markers. The semi-longitudinal study involved 88 healthy girls, aged 11.8-13.2 years. Their weight and height were measured twice at one-year intervals. Pubertal stages were assessed using the Tanner (T) scale. Blood samples were taken at the first examination. Serum concentrations of OPG, sRANKL, CTX and BALP were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, estradiol and PINP by radioimmunoassay and osteocalcin by immunoradiometric assay. The one-year increase in height and weight of girls in the T2 and T3 pubertal stages was greater than that of girls in the T4 stage (p=0.000, p<0.03). OPG concentrations (T2: 4.04±0.62; T3: 4.31±0.79; T4: 4.46±0.84 pmol/L) sRANKL concentrations (T2: 0.22 (IQR 0.09-0.54); T3: 0.42 (IQR 0.22-0.79); T4: 0.35 (IQR 0.16-1.04) pmol/L) and sRANKL/OPG ratios (T2: 0.05 (IQR 0.03-0.13); T3: 0.11 (IQR 0.05-0.19); T4: 0.09 (IQR 0.05-0.19) did not differ significantly between pubertal stages. Concentrations of PINP, CTX, BALP and OC were higher in girls at T3 stage than at the T4 stage (p=0.000, p=0.001, p=0.046, p=0.038; respectively). Concentrations of sRANKL and OPG did not correlate with body weight, height, growth rate, or concentrations of estradiol, PINP, CTX, BALP and OC. There were correlations between the increase in height over one year and the concentrations of PINP (r=0.499, p=0.000), CTX (r=0.311, p=0.003) and BALP (r=0.224, p=0.036), as well as of estradiol (r=-0.473, p=0.000). Unlike PINP, OC, BALP, CTX or estradiol concentrations, sRANKL and OPG concentrations do not change in girls during puberty. Neither OPG nor sRANKL concentrations correlate with somatic characteristics and classical bone turnover markers concentrations.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Osteoprotegerina , Feminino , Humanos , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteocalcina , Estudos Longitudinais , Ligantes , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Remodelação Óssea , Estradiol , Biomarcadores
10.
J Neurosci Res ; 102(3): e25306, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468573

RESUMO

Finasteride is used in female-pattern hair loss, hirsutism, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. It inhibits 5α-reductase, which is an important enzyme in the biosynthesis of neurosteroids. The effects of finasteride treatment on mental health in female patients as well as the effects of repeated/chronic finasteride administration in female rodents are still unknown. Accordingly, in our study, we administered finasteride (10, 30, or 100 mg/Kg, s.c.) for 6 days in female rats and evaluated behavior, plasma steroid levels, and synaptic plasticity. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using forced swim test (FST) and splash test. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated using novelty-suppressed feeding task (NSFT), elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), and light-dark test (LDT). Plasma steroid levels were assessed using ELISA and synaptic plasticity by field potential recordings. We observed that finasteride decreased total immobility duration in FST, indicating antidepressant-like effect and decreased the latency to first bite in NSFT, showing anxiolytic-like effect. We also found a significant increase in plasma estradiol and a significant decrease in plasma corticosterone level. Furthermore, field potential recordings showed that finasteride increased hippocampal long-term potentiation. These results indicate that repeated finasteride administration in female rats may have antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effect, which might be mediated by enhanced estradiol levels or decreased corticosterone levels. Further studies are required to validate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of finasteride in female rats. Understanding the mechanisms will help us in developing novel neurosteroid-based therapeutics in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in women.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Finasterida , Humanos , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Finasterida/efeitos adversos , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Corticosterona , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides , Estradiol , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Plasticidade Neuronal
11.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2320993, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38445477

RESUMO

Background: Women have twice the lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relative to men, and PTSD is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Two sex hormones - estradiol and progesterone - have been found to impact both PTSD and CVD symptomatology, but the way in which sex hormones influence cardiovascular physiology among individuals with PTSD is not well understood.Objective: This study sought to clarify the association between sex hormones, PTSD, and CVD among trauma-exposed women.Method: Sixty-six trauma-exposed women (M age = 31.45, SD = 8.92) completed a clinical interview for PTSD and self-reported CVD symptoms; estradiol and progesterone were assayed from blood samples. The association between each sex hormone and CVD symptoms was analyzed, controlling for age, systolic blood pressure (BP), and diastolic BP.Results: Neither estradiol nor the PTSD-by-estradiol interaction was significantly associated with CVD symptoms. Higher progesterone and, relatedly, progesterone-to-estradiol ratio (PE ratio) were each significantly associated with greater CVD symptom severity, but only for individuals with lower relative PTSD severity.Conclusions: The findings indicate that PTSD moderates the relationship between progesterone and CVD symptoms, and further research is warranted to reconcile findings in existing literature regarding the direction of and mechanisms behind this relationship.


Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and sex hormones have been implicated in their link.The current study examined associations between sex hormones, PTSD, and CVD symptoms among 66 trauma-exposed women.Estradiol was not significantly associated with CVD symptoms, but higher progesterone was significantly associated with greater CVD symptom severity, but only for individuals with lower relative PTSD severity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Progesterona , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Estradiol
12.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 19(1): 119, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to detect the relationship between the levels of sex hormones in females with solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) and their potential malignancies. METHODS: A total of 187 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed SPNs by chest CT were enrolled in our study. They were divided into two groups based on the pathologic findings of SPNs after surgery: benign and malignant SPNs. Progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T) levels in the two groups were measured. Meanwhile, we used binary logistic regression analysis to analyze the risk factors for SPNs. RESULTS: Of these 187 patients, 73 had benign SPNs, while 114 had malignant SPNs. We found that the levels of progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T) were decreased significantly in patients with malignant SPNs compared to patients with benign SPNs (all P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that second-hand smoke, burr sign, lobulation sign, pleural traction sign, vascular convergence sign, vacuole sign, and ≥ 1 cm nodules were independent risk factors for malignant pulmonary nodules in females. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased levels of sex hormones in females were associated with malignant pulmonary nodules, suggesting that they can contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário , Humanos , Feminino , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/patologia , Progesterona , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Fatores de Risco , Testosterona , Estradiol
13.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300139, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470896

RESUMO

Adolescence is a sensitive developmental period for neural sex/gender differentiation. The present study used multiparametric mapping to better characterize adolescent white matter (WM) microstructure. WM microstructure was investigated using diffusion tensor indices (fractional anisotropy; mean, radial, and axial diffusivity [AD]) and quantitative T1 relaxometry (T1) in hormone therapy naïve adolescent cisgender girls, cisgender boys, and transgender boys (i.e., assigned female at birth and diagnosed with gender dysphoria). Diffusion indices were first analyzed for group differences using tract-based spatial statistics, which revealed a group difference in AD. Thus, two multiparametric and multivariate analyses assessed AD in conjunction with T1 relaxation time, and with respect to developmental proxy variables (i.e., age, serum estradiol, pubertal development, sexual attraction) thought to be relevant to adolescent brain development. The multivariate analyses showed a shared pattern between AD and T1 such that higher AD was associated with longer T1, and AD and T1 strongly related to all five developmental variables in cisgender boys (10 significant correlations, r range: 0.21-0.73). There were fewer significant correlations between the brain and developmental variables in cisgender girls (three correlations, r range: -0.54-0.54) and transgender boys (two correlations, r range: -0.59-0.77). Specifically, AD related to direction of sexual attraction (i.e., gynephilia, androphilia) in all groups, and T1 related to estradiol inversely in cisgender boys compared with transgender boys. These brain patterns may be indicative of less myelination and tissue density in cisgender boys, which corroborates other reports of protracted WM development in cisgender boys. Further, these findings highlight the importance of considering developmental trajectory when assessing the subtleties of neural structure associated with variations in sex, gender, and sexual attraction.


Assuntos
Substância Branca , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Encéfalo , Identidade de Gênero , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Estradiol
14.
Environ Int ; 185: 108576, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490070

RESUMO

Global-scale crop contamination with environmental estrogens has posed a huge risk to agri-food safety and human health. Laccase is regarded as an unexceptionable biocatalyst for regulating pollution and expediting humification, but the knowledge of estrogen bioremediation and C storage strengthened by laccase-driven rhizosphere humification (LDRH) remains largely unknown. Herein, a greenhouse microcosm was performed to explore the migration and fate of 17ß-estradiol (E2) in water-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) matrices by LDRH. Compared to the non-added laccase, the pseudo-first-order decay rate constants of E2 in the rhizosphere solution after 10 and 50 µM exposures by LDRH increased from 0.03 and 0.02 h-1 to 0.36 and 0.09 h-1, respectively. Furthermore, LDRH conferred higher yield, polymerizability, O-containing groups, and functional-C signals in the humified precipitates, because it accelerated the formation of highly complex precipitates by radical-controlled continuous polymerization. In particular, not only did LDRH mitigate the phytotoxicity of E2, but it also diminished the metabolic load of E2 in wheat tissues. This was attributed to the rapid attenuation of E2 in the rhizosphere solution during LDRH, which limited E2 uptake and accumulation in each subcellular fraction of the wheat roots and shoots. Although several typical intermediate products such as estrone, estriol, and E2 oligomers were detected in roots, only small-molecule species were found in shoots, evidencing that the polymeric products of E2 were unable to be translocated acropetally due to the vast hydrophobicity and biounavailability. For the first time, our study highlights a novel, eco-friendly, and sustainable candidate for increasing the low-C treatment of organics in rhizosphere microenvironments and alleviating the potential risks of estrogenic contaminants in agroenvironments.


Assuntos
Lacase , Triticum , Humanos , Triticum/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Estrona , Biodegradação Ambiental
15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1340664, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38524635

RESUMO

Background: Obesity and metabolic syndrome pose significant health challenges in the United States (US), with connections to disruptions in sex hormone regulation. The increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome might be associated with exposure to phthalates (PAEs). Further exploration of the impact of PAEs on obesity is crucial, particularly from a sex hormone perspective. Methods: A total of 7780 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2013 to 2016 were included in the study. Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with multinomial logistic regression was employed to elucidate the association between urinary PAEs metabolite concentrations and the likelihood of obesity. Weighted quartiles sum (WQS) regression was utilized to consolidate the impact of mixed PAEs exposure on sex hormone levels (total testosterone (TT), estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)). We also delved into machine learning models to accurately discern obesity status and identify the key variables contributing most to these models. Results: Principal Component 1 (PC1), characterized by mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) as major contributors, exhibited a negative association with obesity. Conversely, PC2, with monocarboxyononyl phthalate (MCNP), monocarboxyoctyl phthalate (MCOP), and mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) as major contributors, showed a positive association with obesity. Mixed exposure to PAEs was associated with decreased TT levels and increased estradiol and SHBG. During the exploration of the interrelations among obesity, sex hormones, and PAEs, models based on Random Forest (RF) and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) algorithms demonstrated the best classification efficacy. In both models, sex hormones exhibited the highest variable importance, and certain phthalate metabolites made significant contributions to the model's performance. Conclusions: Individuals with obesity exhibit lower levels of TT and SHBG, accompanied by elevated estradiol levels. Exposure to PAEs disrupts sex hormone levels, contributing to an increased risk of obesity in US adults. In the exploration of the interrelationships among these three factors, the RF and XGBoost algorithm models demonstrated superior performance, with sex hormones displaying higher variable importance.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Testosterona , Estradiol
16.
Int Breastfeed J ; 19(1): 18, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We present a case of non-puerperal induced lactation in transgender woman. Medical literature on lactation induction for transgender women is scarce, and the majority of literature and protocols on lactation induction is based on research in cisgender women. Healthcare professionals may lack the precise knowledge about lactation induction and may therefore feel insecure when advice is requested. Subsequently, there is a rising demand for guidelines and support. METHODS: Patient medical record was consulted and a semi-structured interview was conducted to explore the motive for lactation induction, the experience of lactation induction, and to gather additional information about the timeline and course of events. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case a 37-year-old transgender woman, who was under the care of the centre of expertise on gender dysphoria in Amsterdam, and in 2020 started lactation induction because she had the wish to breastfeed her future infant. She was in a relationship with a cisgender woman and had been using gender affirming hormone therapy for 13 years. Prior to initiating gender affirming hormone therapy she had cryopreserved her semen. Her partner conceived through Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection, using our patient's cryopreserved sperm. To induce lactation, we implemented a hormone-regimen to mimic pregnancy, using estradiol and progesterone, and a galactogogue; domperidone. Our patient started pumping during treatment. Dosage of progesterone and estradiol were significantly decreased approximately one month before childbirth to mimic delivery and pumping was increased. Our patient started lactating and although the production of milk was low, it was sufficient for supplementary feeding and a positive experience for our patient. Two weeks after birth, lactation induction was discontinued due to suckling problems of the infant and low milk production. CONCLUSIONS: This case report underlined that lactation induction protocols commonly used for cisgender women are also effective in transgender women. However, the amount of milk produced may not be sufficient for exclusive nursing. Nevertheless, success of induced lactation may be attributed to its importance for parent-infant bonding, rather than the possibility of exclusive chestfeeding.


Assuntos
Lactação , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aleitamento Materno , Estradiol , Progesterona , Sêmen
17.
Protein Sci ; 33(4): e4940, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511482

RESUMO

Estrogen receptor α is commonly used in synthetic biology to control the activity of genome editing tools. The activating ligands, estrogens, however, interfere with various cellular processes, thereby limiting the applicability of this receptor. Altering its ligand preference to chemicals of choice solves this hurdle but requires adaptation of unspecified ligand-interacting residues. Here, we provide a solution by combining rational protein design with multi-site-directed mutagenesis and directed evolution of stably integrated variants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This method yielded an estrogen receptor variant, named TERRA, that lost its estrogen responsiveness and became activated by tamoxifen, an anti-estrogenic drug used for breast cancer treatment. This tamoxifen preference of TERRA was maintained in mammalian cells and mice, even when fused to Cre recombinase, expanding the mammalian synthetic biology toolbox. Not only is our platform transferable to engineer ligand preference of any steroid receptor, it can also profile drug-resistance landscapes for steroid receptor-targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Estradiol , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio , Animais , Camundongos , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/química , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estradiol/química , Estradiol/metabolismo , Ligantes , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Tamoxifeno/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/química , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Mamíferos
18.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 22(1): 122, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504208

RESUMO

Endocrine therapy is standard for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer treatment. However, current strategies targeting estrogen signaling pay little attention to estradiol metabolism in the liver and is usually challenged by treatment failure. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the natural compound naringenin (NAR) inhibited HR+ breast cancer growth by activating estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) expression in the liver. Nevertheless, the poor water solubility, low bio-barrier permeability, and non-specific distribution limited its clinical application, particularly for oral administration. Here, a novel nano endocrine drug NAR-cell penetrating peptide-galactose nanoparticles (NCG) is reported. We demonstrated that NCG presented specific liver targeting and increased intestinal barrier permeability in both cell and zebrafish xenotransplantation models. Furthermore, NCG showed liver targeting and enterohepatic circulation in mouse breast cancer xenografts following oral administration. Notably, the cancer inhibition efficacy of NCG was superior to that of both NAR and the positive control tamoxifen, and was accompanied by increased hepatic EST expression and reduced estradiol levels in the liver, blood, and tumor tissue. Moreover, few side effects were observed after NCG treatment. Our findings reveal NCG as a promising candidate for endocrine therapy and highlight hepatic EST targeting as a novel therapeutic strategy for HR+ breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Flavanonas , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo
19.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(7): e18181, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506077

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyse the association between sex hormones and bone age (BA) in boys aged 9-18 years, both individually and interactively, and further to explore whether nutritional status may influence this association. A retrospective analysis was performed among 1382 Chinese boys with physical measurements, sexual characteristics, BA radiographs and sex hormone indicators from February 2015 to February 2022. A total of 470 (34.0%) boys had advanced BA. BA was positively associated with estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone in both advanced and normal BA groups after adjusting for age, genetic height and body mass index. Multiple logistic regression showed that after adjusting for covariates, estradiol (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.12), LH (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.04-1.96), and testosterone (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.17-2.13) were significantly associated with the increased risk of advanced BA in boys, and the association was reinforced when these hormones were interactively explored. Stratified by nutritional status, the interaction between estradiol, LH, and testosterone showed a strong association with advanced BA in boys with normal weight.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Hormônio Luteinizante , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona , Estradiol
20.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0295764, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational data suggest lower HIV risk with norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) than with depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscular (DMPA-IM) injectable contraceptives. If confirmed, a switch between these similar injectable methods would be programmatically feasible and could impact the trajectory of the HIV epidemic. We aimed in this paper to investigate the effects of DMPA-IM and NET-EN on estradiol levels, measures of depression and sexual activity and menstrual effects, relevant to HIV risk; and to ascertain whether these measures are associated with estradiol levels. METHODS: This open-label trial conducted at two sites in South Africa from 5 November 2018 to 30 November 2019, randomized HIV-negative women aged 18-40 to DMPA-IM 150 mg intramuscular 12-weekly (n = 262) or NET-EN 200 mg intramuscular 8-weekly (n = 259). Data were collected on hormonal, behavioral and menstrual effects at baseline and at 25 weeks (25W). RESULTS: At 25W, median 17ß estradiol levels were substantially lower than at baseline (p<0.001) for both methods: 76.5 pmol/L (interquartile range (IQR) 54.1 to 104.2) in the DMPA-IM group (n = 222), and 69.8 pmol/L (IQR: 55.1 to 89.3) in the NET-EN group (n = 225), with no statistical difference between the two methods (p = 0.450). Compared with DMPA-IM, NET-EN users reported significantly less amenorrhoea, fewer sexual acts, fewer users reporting at least one act of unprotected sex, more condom use with steady partner, more days with urge for sexual intercourse, more days feeling partner does not love her, and more days feeling sad for no reason. We did not find a clear association between estradiol levels and sexual behavior, depression and menstrual effects. Behavioral outcomes suggest less sexual exposure with NET-EN than DMPA-IM. The strength of this evidence is high due to the randomized study design and the consistency of results across the outcomes measured. CONCLUSIONS: Estradiol levels were reduced to postmenopausal levels by both methods. Secondary outcomes suggesting less sexual exposure with NET-EN are consistent with reported observational evidence of less HIV risk with NET-EN. A randomized trial powered for HIV acquisition is feasible and needed to answer this important question. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PACTR 202009758229976.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Infecções por HIV , Noretindrona/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Feminino , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona , Anticoncepção , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Estradiol
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