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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(5): 529-536, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071222

RESUMO

Objective: Transgender individuals sometimes report a lack of physical change during hormone treatment, such as alterations in muscle tone or fat distribution. Identifying characteristics of this subgroup could be a step toward individualizing hormone therapy in transgender individuals. Therefore, we study the variation of changes in body composition and characteristics associated with a lack of change. Design and methods: Body composition measures were recorded in 323 transmen and 288 transwomen at every visit from the start of hormone therapy to a maximum of 24 months follow-up. Absence of change was defined as transmen with a decrease in lean body mass or transwomen with a decrease in fat percentage. Results: A lack of change at 24 months was observed in 19 of 94 (20.2%) transmen and in 9 of 96 (9.4%) transwomen. The risk of not achieving change in body composition was related to lower testosterone levels and less suppression of LH in transmen (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.94 per SD increase in testosterone and OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.01-1.83 per SD increase in LH). Conclusions: There is a large variation in body composition changes during hormone therapy, with a substantial proportion of individuals with no measurable effects. In transmen, serum testosterone and LH were associated with a lack of change, but serum hormone levels were not associated with body composition changes in transwomen. The results provide a rationale for individualizing hormone therapy in transmen, by considering individual effects rather than solely relying on a standardized dosage of hormone therapy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Composição Corporal , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Acetato de Ciproterona/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Impedância Elétrica , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão , Procedimentos de Readequação Sexual/métodos , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Testosterona/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881904

RESUMO

The immune responses exhibited by females are distinct from those of males. Females are known to generate, among others, higher levels of antibodies, greater interferon responses, and increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to pathogens. Mounting evidence suggests that gonadal hormones play a key role in these differences. To better understand the effect of cycling hormones on the immune response, we sought to investigate the relationship between gonadal hormone fluctuations during the ovarian cycle and the levels of interleukin 1ß and IL-1RA, both in circulation and in PBMCs in response to TLR4 stimulation, in healthy premenopausal females. To do this we measured the gonadal hormones 17ß-estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone, and the cytokines IL-1ß and IL-1RA in nine cycling females at several time points throughout one complete cycle. We evaluated 35 follicular, 17 ovulatory, and 44 luteal time points in our cohort and found a clear increase in serum levels of anti-inflammatory IL-1RA in the luteal phase, as compared to the follicular phase, and a positive correlation between both 17ß-estradiol and progesterone and IL-RA. There was no difference in the serum levels of IL-1ß and no difference in IL-1 ß or IL-1RA produced in response to LPS by PBMCs isolated from different phases. Division of the cycle into sub-phases revealed an increase in the level of IL-1RA by ovulation that persisted through the luteal phase. These data suggest that significant changes in the immune response occur throughout the ovarian cycle in healthy females.


Assuntos
Fase Folicular/imunologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/sangue , Fase Luteal/imunologia , Adulto , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Progesterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22188, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is one of the common gynecological diseases, the incidence of PD is on the rise and young women are more likely to have it, which seriously affects women's physical, mental health and work life. Intradermal acupuncture is effective in treating PD. However, due to the lack of evidence, there is no specific method or suggestion, so it is necessary to carry out systematic evaluation on intradermal acupuncture and provide effective evidence for further research. METHODS: We will search the following electronic databases from their inception to July 2020: Electronic database includes PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database WangFang, VIP medicine information, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure). Primary outcomes: the overall effective rate, VAS score. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: blood serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), prostaglandin F2α (PGF-2α), adverse events Data will be extracted by 2 researchers independently, risk of bias of the meta-analysis will be evaluated based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. All data analysis will be conducted by data statistics software Review Manager V.5.3. and Stata V.12.0. RESULTS: The results of this study will systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of intradermal acupuncture in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. CONCLUSION: The systematic review of this study will summarize the currently published evidence of intradermal acupuncture therapy for primary dysmenorrhea to further guide its promotion and application.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Dismenorreia/terapia , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Dinoprosta/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Progesterona/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most women live to experience menopause and will spend 4-8 years transitioning from fertile age to full menstrual stop. Biologically, reproductive ageing is a continuous process, but by convention, it is defined categorically as pre-, peri- and postmenopause; categories that are sometimes supported by measurements of sex hormones in blood samples. We aimed to develop and validate a new tool, a reproductive ageing score (RAS), that could give a simple and yet precise description of the status of reproductive ageing, without hormone measurements, to be used by health professionals and researchers. METHODS: Questionnaire data on age, menstrual regularity and menstrual frequency was provided by the large multicentre population-based RHINE cohort. A continuous reproductive ageing score was developed from these variables, using techniques of fuzzy mathematics, to generate a decimal number ranging from 0.00 (nonmenopausal) to 1.00 (postmenopausal). The RAS was then validated with sex hormone measurements (follicle stimulating hormone and 17ß-estradiol) and interview-data provided by the large population-based ECRHS cohort, using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC). RESULTS: The RAS, developed from questionnaire data of the RHINE cohort, defined with high precision and accuracy the menopausal status as confirmed by interview and hormone data in the ECRHS cohort. The area under the ROC curve was 0.91 (95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.93) to distinguish nonmenopausal women from peri- and postmenopausal women, and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.83-0.88) to distinguish postmenopausal women from nonmenopausal and perimenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: The RAS provides a useful and valid tool for describing the status of reproductive ageing accurately, on a continuous scale from 0.00 to 1.00, based on simple questions and without requiring blood sampling. The score allows for a more precise differentiation than the conventional categorisation in pre-, peri- and postmenopause. This is useful for epidemiological research and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perimenopausa , Pós-Menopausa , Reprodução/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515480

RESUMO

The knowledge surrounding the bovine vaginal microbiota and its implications on fertility and reproductive traits remains incomplete. The objective of the current study was to characterize the bovine vaginal bacterial community and estradiol concentrations at the time of artificial insemination (AI). Brangus heifers (n = 78) underwent a 7-d Co-Synch + controlled internal drug release estrus synchronization protocol. At AI, a double-guarded uterine culture swab was used to sample the anterior vaginal tract. Immediately after swabbing the vaginal tract, blood samples were collected by coccygeal venipuncture to determine concentrations of estradiol. Heifers were retrospectively classified as pregnant (n = 29) vs. nonpregnant (n = 49) between 41 and 57 d post-AI. Additionally, heifers were classified into low (1.1 to 2.5 pg/mL; n = 21), medium (2.6 to 6.7 pg/mL; n = 30), and high (7.2 to 17.6 pg/mL; n = 27) concentration of estradiol. The vaginal bacterial community composition was determined through sequencing of the V4 region from the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina Miseq platform. Alpha diversity was compared via ANOVA and beta diversity was compared via PERMANOVA. There were no differences in the Shannon diversity index (alpha diversity; P = 0.336) or Bray-Curtis dissimilarity (beta diversity; P = 0.744) of pregnant vs. nonpregnant heifers. Overall, bacterial community composition in heifers with high, medium, or low concentrations of estradiol did not differ (P = 0.512). While no overall compositional differences were observed, species-level differences were present within pregnancy status and estradiol concentration groups. The implications of these species-level differences are unknown, but these differences could alter the vaginal environment thereby influencing fertility and vaginal health. Therefore, species-level changes could provide better insight rather than overall microbial composition in relation to an animal's reproductive health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Estradiol/sangue , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Vagina/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Estrogênios , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Fertilidade , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Reprodução , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Neuroimmunol ; 345: 577290, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563124

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations in the neuroendocrine-immune functions by using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) from three age groups (young, middle-aged, and old) of men and women for the analyses of lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, expression of cell signaling molecules, nitric oxide (NO) production, and expression of p-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Serum was examined for levels of testosterone in men, 17-ß-estradiol in women, and cortisol in both sexes. Lymphoproliferation, expression of p-ERK, p-CREB, p-Akt, and p-TH, and levels of serum sex steroid hormones declined with age in men and women. However, TNF-α production and serum cortisol level increased with age in men and women. mTOR expression was higher in older men while it was lower in older women. IFN-γ and IL-6 production and expression of p-TH and p-mTOR were differentially regulated in men and women. These results suggest that intracellular signaling mediators may be involved in the age-related alterations in the neuroendocrine-immune interactions in men and women.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Líquido Intracelular/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Estradiol/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/imunologia , Líquido Intracelular/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Testosterona/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Life Sci ; 256: 117975, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565251

RESUMO

Our goal is to understand how loss of circulating estrogens and estrogen replacement affect brain physiology and function, particularly in brain regions involved in cognitive processes. We recently conducted a large metabolomics study characterizing the effects of rodent models of menopause and treatment with estrogen receptor (ER) agonists on neurochemical targets in hippocampus, frontal cortex, and striatum. Here we characterize effects on levels of several key enzymes involved in glucose utilization and energy production, specifically phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. We also evaluated effects on levels of ß-actin and α-tubulin, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and levels of ATP citrate lyase. All experiments were conducted in young adult rats. Experiment 1 compared the effects of ovariectomy (OVX), a model of surgical menopause, and 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD)-treatments, a model of transitional menopause, with tissues collected at proestrus and at diestrus. Experiment 2 used a separate cohort of rats to evaluate the same targets in OVX and VCD-treated rats treated with estradiol or with selective ER agonists. Differences in the expression of metabolic enzymes between cycling animals and models of surgical and transitional menopause were detected. These differences were model-, region- and time- dependent, and were modulated by selective ER agonists. Collectively, the findings demonstrate that loss of ovarian function and ER agonist treatments have differing effects in OVX vs. VCD-treated rats. Differences may help to explain differences in the effects of estrogen treatments on brain function and cognition in women who have experienced surgical vs. transitional menopause.


Assuntos
Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Menopausa/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicloexenos/toxicidade , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Compostos de Vinila/toxicidade
10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(3): 343-355, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508310

RESUMO

Objective: Retrospective studies suggest that women have more active brown adipose tissue (BAT) than men, but little is known of the effect of fluctuating sex steroids across the menstrual cycle on thermogenesis in women. Design: To characterise the effects of sex and sex steroids on BAT activity we recruited healthy weight men (n = 14) and women at two stages of the menstrual cycle (luteal, n = 9; follicular, n = 11). Methods: Infrared thermography measured supraclavicular temperature to index BAT thermogenesis in response to both cold (immersion of one hand in water at 15°C) and meal (Ensure, 10 kcal/kg body weight) stimuli. Results: Adaptive BAT temperature responses were greater (P < 0.05) in women than men, irrespective of stage of menstrual cycle. Whereas during cold exposure, the increase in BAT temperature was abrogated (P < 0.05) in women during follicular phase compared to men and women during luteal phase. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, 17ß-estradiol, testosterone and cortisol were measured. Regression analyses demonstrated that baseline BAT temperature was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with progesterone levels, but was inversely associated (P < 0.05) with cortisol concentration. Both cold- and meal-induced changes in BAT temperature mildly correlated (P = 0.07; P < 0.05) with 17ß-estradiol levels, but not with testosterone concentrations. Conclusions: Baseline supraclavicular temperature is elevated in women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which correlated with elevated progesterone concentrations. Women exhibited greater thermogenic responses than men, irrespective of the state of the menstrual cycle, which was associated with plasma levels of 17ß-estradiol. We conclude that sex steroids may regulate BAT thermogenesis in healthy adults.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Termogênese/fisiologia , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Fase Folicular/fisiologia , Humanos , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): 107-117, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422605

RESUMO

Objective: Non-palpable testes remain a diagnostic challenge, often involving exploratory laparoscopy. We evaluated the diagnostic value of a wide range of reproductive hormones in order to distinguish between bilateral cryptorchidism and bilateral anorchia. Design: In this retrospective study, we identified and included 36 boys with non-palpable testes (20 with cryptorchidism, 3 with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), and 13 with anorchia) at first examination during childhood. Methods: Information on karyotype, phenotype, surgical results from laparoscopy, and biochemistry was retrieved from patient files. We compared serum concentrations of AMH, inhibin B, FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, and hCG stimulation testing in cryptorchid and anorchid boys to serum concentrations in a large, age-matched control group. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to determine the cut-off values of each reproductive hormone as a predictor of the presence of functional testicular tissue. Results: Concentrations of AMH in 0-1 year olds: ≥155 pmol/L and >1-15 year olds: ≥19 pmol/L, inhibin B (≥22 pg/mL and ≥4 pg/mL), FSH (≤28.9 IU/L and ≤20.3 IU/L) and hCG-induced testosterone (>1-15 year olds: ≥2 nmol/L) were significantly sensitive and specific markers in predicting the presence of functional testicular tissue in boys with non-palpable testes. In infancy, anorchid infants had significantly elevated gonadotropin levels, while CHH had low levels. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that laparoscopy may not be necessary in all boys with non-palpable testes if reproductive hormones unequivocally confirm the presence of functional testicular tissue. However, proving the absence may still be a diagnostic challenge.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo/diagnóstico , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XY/diagnóstico , Hormônios Gonadais/sangue , Hipogonadismo/diagnóstico , Testículo/anormalidades , Adolescente , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gonadotropina Coriônica/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Estradiol/sangue , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/congênito , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inibinas/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue
12.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 105, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to analyze the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on E2, P and LH values in females who received intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment on human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) day. METHODS: A total of 2319 cycles of IUI-assisted pregnancy treatment were selected in our hospital. Based on the BMI, female infertility patients are divided into three groups: normal weight group, overweight and obese group. RESULTS: For patients with natural cycles and ≤ 35 years old, there were 440, 178 and 197 cases in the three groups, respectively. For patients with natural cycles and > 35 years old, there were 90, 83 and 81 cycles in the three groups, respectively. For patients with induced ovulation cycle and ≤ 35 years old, there were 425, 203 and 516 cases in the three groups, respectively. For patients with induced ovulation cycle and > 35 years old, there were 26, 26 and 54 cases in the three groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: When a patient is ≤35 years old, the BMI affects the E2, LH and P values on the day of artificial insemination. However, the BMI is negatively correlated with E2, LH and P in IUI on HCG day. After controlling for age and assisted pregnancy, the correlation analysis revealed that the BMI is negatively correlated with hormone E2 and LH. The higher the BMI was, the lower the levels of hormones E2, LH and P became. However, in the present study, the BMI did not significantly improve the clinical pregnancy rate of patients who received IUI.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Gonadotropina Coriônica/sangue , Inseminação Artificial , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Taxa de Gravidez , Adulto , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante , Gravidez
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397137

RESUMO

Background: Mechanisms that influence muscle strength can interfere with neuromotor performance and overall health, thus hormone markers and maturation can interact in this process. Objective: The present study aimed to verify the relationship of hormonal markers and biological maturation on neuromotor abilities in young people. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with 44 female participants (11.5 ± 1.5 years). Hormones were analyzed biochemically. Skeletal and somatic maturation were analyzed using anthropometry. The muscular power of the upper and lower limbs, body speed with change of direction, and speed of the upper limbs were verified. Results: Bone age was correlated with hormonal markers (estradiol: r = 0.58; p = 0.0007), (testosterone: r = 0.51; p = 0.005). Peak growth velocity correlated with estradiol (r = 0.51; p = 0.004). The power of the lower limbs (estradiol: r = 0.52; p = 0.006; testosterone: r = 0.42; p = 0.03) and of the upper limbs (estradiol: r = 0.51; p = 0.007; testosterone: r = 0.42; p = 0.02) had a positive correlation with hormone levels and had similar results with maturation. The analysis by artificial neural networks indicated that the maturation can predict the neuromotor performance between 57.4% and 76%, while the hormonal markers showed a potential of more than 95% for the foreshadowing of the neuromotor performance of the upper limbs. Conclusion: It was possible to conclude that the hormones had a relationship with maturational development and bone age in female subjects.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Estradiol , Destreza Motora , Testosterona , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular , Redes Neurais de Computação , Testosterona/sangue
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365144

RESUMO

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play an important role in gametogenesis, fertility and embryonic development. The current study investigated the effect of different doses of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin/human chorionic gonadotrophin (PMSG/hCG) and repeated ovarian stimulation (OS) on the expression of the Mili, Miwi, Mael, Tdrd1, Tdrd9, qnd Mitopld genes, which have crucial roles in the biogenesis and function of piRNAs. Here, we found that after treatment with 7.5 I.U. PMSG/hCG and two repeated rounds of OS, both the mRNA and protein levels of Tdrd9, Tdrd1 and Mael showed the greatest decrease in the ovarian tissue, but the plasma E2 levels showed the strongest increases (p<0.05). However, we found that the Mitopld, Miwi and Mili gene levels were decreased significantly after treatment with 12.5 I.U. PMSG/hCG. Our results suggested that exogenous gonadotropin administration leads to a significant decrease in the expression of the Mili, Miwi, Mael, Tdrd1, Tdrd9 and Mitopld genes, which are critically important in the piRNA pathway, and the changes in the expression levels of Tdrd9, Tdrd1 and Mael may be associated with plasma E2 levels. New comprehensive studies are needed to reduce the potential effects of OS on the piRNA pathway, which silences transposable elements and maintains genome integrity, and to contribute to the safety of OS.


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Estradiol/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gonadotropinas/farmacologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Cavalos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Indução da Ovulação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
15.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(7): 2031-2042, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388622

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which plays a critical role in the human stress response. Men and women with CUD differ in reactivity to social stressors. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin is involved in anxiolytic and natural reward processes, and has shown therapeutic potential for addictive disorders and stress reduction. OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of oxytocin (oxytocin (OXY) vs. placebo (PBO)) and gender (female (F) vs. male (M)) on response to a social stress task in individuals with CUD. To explore whether ovarian hormones moderate this stress response. METHODS: One hundred twelve adults with CUD were randomized to receive 40 IU intranasal oxytocin (n = 56) or matching placebo (n = 56). Forty minutes after drug administration, participants were exposed to a social stressor. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine neuroendocrine (cortisol) and subjective (craving, stress) response at pre-stressor, stressor + 0, + 10, + 30, + 60 min. RESULTS: Gender moderated the effect of oxytocin on neuroendocrine response (p = 0.048); women receiving oxytocin (F + OXY) showed blunted cortisol response compared to the other three groups (F + PBO; M + OXY; M + PBO). There was a main effect of gender on subjective stress response; women reported greater stress following the stressor compared to men (p = 0.016). Oxytocin had no significant effect on craving or stress, and gender did not moderate the effect of oxytocin on either measure. Higher endogenous progesterone was associated with lower craving response in women (p = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Oxytocin may have differential effects in men and women with CUD. Women may be at greater risk for relapse in response to social stressors, but ovarian hormones may attenuate this effect.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Ovário/metabolismo , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Caracteres Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Progesterona/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 217: 55-67, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate an association between sex hormones and inflammatory cytokines, and to determine whether baseline 17-ß-estradiol (E2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are associated with visual field (VF) progression in postmenopausal women with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional and cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The cross-sectional study enrolled 200 postmenopausal women with PACG and 151 healthy postmenopausal women as normal control subjects. A total of 105 postmenopausal women with PACG were included and followed up for ≥2 years in the cohort study. METHODS: All participants were evaluated for levels of baseline sex hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, progesterone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and E2) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and C-reactive protein) and underwent VF examinations. The cross-sectional study was conducted to establish risk factors for postmenopausal women with PACG using logistic regression analysis. The cohort study was designed to identify factors that could be used to predict VF progression in postmenopausal women with PACG using multivariate Cox regression analyses. The main outcome measures included factors associated with VF progression over time. RESULTS: Decreased E2 (odds ratio 0.88 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.78-0.99], P = .007) and increased IL-8 (odds ratio 1.12 [95% CI 1.01-1.23], P < .001) levels were risk factors in postmenopausal women with PACG. A significant negative correlation was observed between IL-8 levels and E2 (r = -0.21, P = .02). Multivariable regression analyses revealed a significant correlation between E2 levels and visual field mean deviation (MD) (B = -0.16, P = .04 [95% CI -.09 to -.003) and between IL-8 levels and MD (B = 0.36, P < .001 [95% CI 0.01-0.02]). During follow-up, 48 (45.71%) patients showed VF progression. Lower baseline E2 (hazard ratio 0.85 [95% CI 0.82-0.88], P = .04) and higher baseline IL-8 levels (hazard ratio 1.01 [95% CI 1.00-1.02], P = .004) were associated with progression of glaucoma. Patients with lower E2 levels had a significantly higher rate of PACG progression (log-rank test P < .001), similar to those with higher IL-8 levels (log-rank test P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased E2 and increased IL-8 levels at baseline are significant predictors of VF progression in postmenopausal women with PACG.


Assuntos
Estradiol/sangue , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/sangue , Interleucina-8/sangue , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Escotoma/etiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/complicações , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Escotoma/sangue , Escotoma/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462805

RESUMO

To understand the ovarian basis for prolificacy of Bonga sheep, a total of 31 ewes were selected based on litter size (LS) records and divided into two groups: High Prolificacy (HP) (n = 20) with LS ≥ 2 and Low Prolificacy (LP) (n = 11) with LS = 1. At a synchronized estrus, follicular dynamics were determined using transrectal ultrasonography. Plasma estradiol concentrations were also monitored. In total 27 ewes were observed in estrus being 9/11 LP (82%) and 18/20 HP (90%). On the day of estrus (day 0), the mean number of large follicles was higher (p < .05) in HP (1.78 ± 0.19) than in LP (1.0 ± 0.28) ewes. Prior to estrus, more (p < .05) medium follicles were visible for HP compared to LP ewes. Plasma estradiol concentrations were higher in HP compared to LP ewes (18.91 ± 0.41 vs. 14.51 ± 0.65 pg/ml; p < .05) and similarly was ovulation number (2.3 ± 0.15 vs. 1.28 ± 0. 14; p < .05). Higher ovulation rates and litter size in Bonga sheep are evidenced by the previous presence of more large follicles and the existence of co-dominance effects as most likely medium follicles are selected to ovulate.


Assuntos
Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Estradiol/sangue , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino
18.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menopause induces oral bone loss, leading to various oral diseases. Mastication importantly affects bone metabolism in the jawbone. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of enhanced masticatory force on osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), and mechano-growth factor (MGF) in alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats and to study the mechanics mechanism of the alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats response to enhanced masticatory force. METHODOLOGY: Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation group (fat around the removed ovary + normal hard diet), model group (ovariectomy + normal hard diet), and experimental group (ovariectomy + high hard diet). It was a 2-month experiment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected serum estradiol (E2), osteocalcin (BGP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in rats. Bone histomorphometric indices in the third molar region of maxilla were detected by micro-CT; protein expressions of OPG, RANKL, and MGF in the third molar region of maxilla was detected by Western blot; and gene expression of OPG, RANKL, and MGF in the third molar region of maxilla was detected by Quantitative Real-Time PCR. RESULTS: Comparing with model group, serum E2 in experimental group increased but not significantly, serum BGP and serum ALP in experimental group decreased but not significantly, OPG in experimental group in alveolar bone increased significantly, RANKL in experimental group in alveolar bone decreased significantly, RANKL/OPG ratio in experimental group decreased significantly, MGF in experimental group in alveolar bone increased significantly, bone volume to total volume fraction increased significantly in experimental group, trabecular thickness increased significantly in experimental group, and trabecular separation decreased significantly in experimental group. CONCLUSION: Enhanced masticatory force affected the expression of OPG, RANKL, and MGF in alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats, improved the quality of jaw bone of ovariectomized rats, and delayed oral bone loss by ovariectomy.


Assuntos
Processo Alveolar/fisiopatologia , Força de Mordida , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Osteoprotegerina/análise , Ovariectomia , Ligante RANK/análise , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Western Blotting , ELISPOT , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Osteocalcina/sangue , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Microtomografia por Raio-X
19.
Maturitas ; 135: 68-73, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252967

RESUMO

AIM: Sex hormones have been suggested to have neuroprotective effects in the natural history of multiple sclerosis (MS), particularly in animal studies. The aim of the present review was to retrieve and systematically synthesize the evidence on the effect of menopause and hormonal replacement treatment (HRT) on the course of MS. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the databases MEDLINE (accessed through PubMed), Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov and Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL). Eligible studies were all those that included women with MS and reported on at least one of the following: a) disability and MS relapse rate before and after menopause, b) serum sex hormone concentrations, c) sexual function, d) age at menopause onset. Effects of HRT on MS clinical outcomes were also assessed. RESULTS: Of the 4,102 retrieved studies, 28 were included in the systematic review. Of these, one reported the age at menopause for both controls and women with MS and found no difference between the two groups. There was no difference in the rates of relapse before and after menopause (risk ratio 1.21, 95 % confidence interval 0.91-1.61, p = 0.218). Two intervention studies reported beneficial effects of estrogen therapy on women with MS; however, the majority of women were premenopausal. Three studies addressed the issue of sexual dysfunction in women with MS, but information on hormonal parameters was limited. CONCLUSIONS: The age at menopause is not associated with the presence of MS. The evidence on a potential causal effect of estrogen depletion on disability is inconclusive; still, relapse rate seems not be associated with menopause. The effect of HRT on the natural course of the disease remains to be defined.


Assuntos
Menopausa , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
20.
Clin J Sport Med ; 30(3): 245-250, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether secondary amenorrhea during teenage years influences bone mineral density (BMD) in female athletes in their 20s. DESIGN: Original research. SETTING: Japan Institute of Sports Sciences. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred ten elite female athletes older than 20 years were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Information on the participants' past (ie, during their teenage years) and current menstrual cycle, training time, history of stress fractures, and blood tests for hormones received was obtained. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine was evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; low BMD was defined as a Z-score ≤-1. We investigated the correlation factors for low BMD in athletes in their 20s by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 39 (18.6%) female athletes had low BMD. Secondary amenorrhea in their teens [odds ratio (OR), 7.11, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.38-21.24; P < 0.001] and present body mass index (BMI) (OR, 0.56, 95% CI, 0.42-0.73; P < 0.001) were independent correlation factors for low BMD in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. The average Z-score for those with secondary amenorrhea in their teens and 20s, secondary amenorrhea in their 20s only, and regular menstruation was -1.56 ± 1.00, -0.45 ± 1.21, and 0.82 ± 1.11 g/cm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary amenorrhea for at least 1 year during teenage years in female athletes and BMI at present was strongly associated with low BMD in their 20s.


Assuntos
Amenorreia/fisiopatologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Amenorreia/prevenção & controle , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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