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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 487, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824521

RESUMO

Soil salinity is a significant challenge in agriculture, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions such as Pakistan, leading to soil degradation and reduced crop yields. The present study assessed the impact of different salinity levels (0, 25, and 50 mmol NaCl) and biochar treatments (control, wheat-straw biochar, rice-husk biochar, and sawdust biochar applied @ 1% w/w) on the germination and growth performance of wheat. Two experiments: a germination study and a pot experiment (grown up to maturity), were performed. The results showed that NaCl-stress negatively impacted the germination parameters, grain, and straw yield, and agronomic and soil parameters. Biochar treatments restored these parameters compared to control (no biochar), but the effects were inconsistent across NaCl levels. Among the different biochars, wheat-straw biochar performed better than rice-husk and sawdust-derived biochar regarding germination and agronomic parameters. Biochar application notably increased soil pHs and electrical conductivity (ECe). Imposing NaCl stress reduced K concentrations in the wheat shoot and grains with concomitant higher Na concentrations in both parts. Parameters like foliar chlorophyll content (a, b, and total), stomatal and sub-stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were also positively influenced by biochar addition. The study confirmed that biochar, particularly wheat-straw biochar, effectively mitigated the adverse effects of soil salinity, enhancing both soil quality and wheat growth. The study highlighted that biochar application can minimize the negative effects of salinity stress on wheat. Specifically, the types and dosages of biochar have to be optimized for different salinity levels under field conditions.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Clorofila , Germinação , Potássio , Estresse Salino , Sódio , Triticum , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/fisiologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Solo/química , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Paquistão , Salinidade
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12705, 2024 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831025

RESUMO

Fifty-nine diverse Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) genotypes were used to find an effective screening method to identify salt tolerance at the germination and seedling stages. Salinity stress limits crop productivity and is difficult to simulate on farms, hindering parental selection for hybridization programmes and the development of tolerant cultivars. To estimate an optimum salt concentration for screening, seeds of 15 genotypes were selected randomly and grown in vitro at 0 mM/L, 75 mM/L, 150 mM/L, 225 mM/L, and 300 mM/L concentrations of NaCl in 2 replications in a complete randomized design. Various morphological parameters, viz., length of seedling, root and shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight, were observed to determine a single concentration using the Salt Injury Index. Then, this optimum concentration (225 mM/L) was used to assess the salt tolerance of all the 59 genotypes in 4 replications while observing the same morphological parameters. With the help of Mean Membership Function Value evaluation criteria, the genotypes were categorized into 5 grades: 4 highly salt-tolerant (HST), 6 salt-tolerant (ST), 19 moderately salt-tolerant (MST), 21 salt-sensitive (SS), and 9 highly salt-sensitive (HSS). Seedling fresh weight (SFW) at 225 mM/L was found to be an ideal trait, which demonstrates the extent to which B. juncea genotypes respond to saline conditions. This is the first report that establishes a highly efficient and reliable method for evaluating the salinity tolerance of Indian mustard at the seedling stage and will facilitate breeders in the development of salt-tolerant cultivars.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Mostardeira , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal , Plântula , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mostardeira/efeitos dos fármacos , Mostardeira/fisiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12701, 2024 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831069

RESUMO

The distinctive characteristics of nanoparticles and their potential applications have been given considerable attention by scientists across different fields, particularly agriculture. However, there has been limited effort to assess the impact of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in modulating physiological and biochemical processes in response to salt-induced stress. This study aimed to synthesize CuNPs biologically using Solenostemma argel extract and determine their effects on morphophysiological parameters and antioxidant defense system of barley (Hordeum vulgare) under salt stress. The biosynthesized CuNPs were characterized by (UV-vis spectroscopy with Surface Plasmon Resonance at 320 nm, the crystalline nature of the formed NPs was verified via XRD, the FTIR recorded the presence of the functional groups, while TEM was confirmed the shape (spherical) and the sizes (9 to 18 nm) of biosynthesized CuNPs. Seeds of barley plants were grown in plastic pots and exposed to different levels of salt (0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl). Our findings revealed that the supplementation of CuNPs (0, 25 and 50 mg/L) to salinized barley significantly mitigate the negative impacts of salt stress and enhanced the plant growth-related parameters. High salinity level enhanced the oxidative damage by raising the concentrations of osmolytes (soluble protein, soluble sugar, and proline), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition, increasing the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, total phenol, and flavonoids. Interestingly, exposing CuNPs on salt-stressed plants enhanced the plant-growth characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange parameters. Furthermore, CuNPs counteracted oxidative damage by lowering the accumulation of osmolytes, H2O2, MDA, total phenol, and flavonoids, while simultaneously enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, the application of biosynthesized CuNPs presents a promising approach and sustainable strategy to enhance plant resistance to salinity stress, surpassing conventional methods in terms of environmental balance.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cobre , Hordeum , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Tolerância ao Sal , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/metabolismo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lamiaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Lamiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lamiaceae/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Salino
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12854, 2024 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834735

RESUMO

Salinity stress significantly impacts crops, disrupting their water balance and nutrient uptake, reducing growth, yield, and overall plant health. High salinity in soil can adversely affect plants by disrupting their water balance. Excessive salt levels can lead to dehydration, hinder nutrient absorption, and damage plant cells, ultimately impairing growth and reducing crop yields. Gallic acid (GA) and zinc ferrite (ZnFNP) can effectively overcome this problem. GA can promote root growth, boost photosynthesis, and help plants absorb nutrients efficiently. However, their combined application as an amendment against drought still needs scientific justification. Zinc ferrite nanoparticles possess many beneficial properties for soil remediation and medical applications. That's why the current study used a combination of GA and ZnFNP as amendments to wheat. There were 4 treatments, i.e., 0, 10 µM GA, 15 µM GA, and 20 µM GA, without and with 5 µM ZnFNP applied in 4 replications following a completely randomized design. Results exhibited that 20 µM GA + 5 µM ZnFNP caused significant improvement in wheat shoot length (28.62%), shoot fresh weight (16.52%), shoot dry weight (11.38%), root length (3.64%), root fresh weight (14.72%), and root dry weight (9.71%) in contrast to the control. Significant enrichment in wheat chlorophyll a (19.76%), chlorophyll b (25.16%), total chlorophyll (21.35%), photosynthetic rate (12.72%), transpiration rate (10.09%), and stomatal conductance (15.25%) over the control validate the potential of 20 µM GA + 5 µM ZnFNP. Furthermore, improvement in N, P, and K concentration in grain and shoot verified the effective functioning of 20 µM GA + 5 µM ZnFNP compared to control. In conclusion, 20 µM GA + 5 µM ZnFNP can potentially improve the growth, chlorophyll contents and gas exchange attributes of wheat cultivated in salinity stress. More investigations are suggested to declare 20 µM GA + 5 µM ZnFNP as the best amendment for alleviating salinity stress in different cereal crops.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos , Ácido Gálico , Estresse Salino , Triticum , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Salinidade , Solo/química
5.
Plant Signal Behav ; 19(1): 2361174, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825852

RESUMO

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. commonly known as fennel, is a globally recognized aromatic medicinal plant and culinary herb with widespread popularity due to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, carminative, and diuretic properties, among others. Although the phenotypic effects of salinity stress have been previously explored in fennel, the molecular mechanisms underlying responses to elevated salinity in this plant remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are tiny, endogenous, and extensively conserved non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) typically ranging from 20 to 24 nucleotides (nt) in length that play a major role in a myriad of biological functions. In fact, a number of miRNAs have been extensively associated with responses to abiotic stress in plants. Consequently, employing computational methodologies and rigorous filtering criteria, 40 putative miRNAs belonging to 25 different families were characterized from fennel in this study. Subsequently, employing the psRNATarget tool, a total of 67 different candidate target transcripts for the characterized fennel miRNAs were predicted. Additionally, the expression patterns of six selected fennel miRNAs (i.e. fvu-miR156a, fvu-miR162a-3p, fvu-miR166a-3p, fvu-miR167a-5p, fvu-miR171a-3p, and fvu-miR408-3p) were analyzed under salinity stress conditions via qPCR. This article holds notable significance as it identifies not only 40 putative miRNAs in fennel, a non-model plant, but also pioneers the analysis of their expression under salinity stress conditions.


Assuntos
Foeniculum , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs , Folhas de Planta , Estresse Salino , Foeniculum/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo
6.
PeerJ ; 12: e17465, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854802

RESUMO

Salt stress is one of the significant abiotic stress factors that exert harmful effects on plant growth and yield. In this study, five cultivars of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) were treated with different concentrations of NaCl and also inoculated with a salt-tolerant bacterial strain to assess their growth and yield. The bacterial strain was isolated from the saline soil of Sahiwal District, Punjab, Pakistan and identified as Bacillus pseudomycoides. Plant growth was monitored at 15-days interval and finally harvested after 120 days at seed set. Both sodium and potassium uptake in above and below-ground parts were assessed using a flame photometer. Fresh and dry mass, number of pods, seeds per plant, weight of seeds per plant and weight of 100 seeds reduced significantly as the concentration of NaCl increased from 3 to 15 dSm-1. There was a significant reduction in the growth and yield of plants exposed to NaCl stress without bacterial inoculum compared to the plants with bacterial inoculum. The latter plants showed a significant increase in the studied parameters. It was found that the cultivar Inqelab mung showed the least reduction in growth and yield traits among the studied cultivars, while Ramzan mung showed the maximum reduction. Among all the cultivars, maximum Na+ uptake occurred in roots, while the least uptake was observed in seeds. The study concludes that NaCl stress significantly reduces the growth and yield of mung bean cultivars, but Bacillus pseudomycoides inoculum alleviates salt stress. These findings will be helpful to cultivate the selected cultivars in soils with varying concentrations of NaCl.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Cloreto de Sódio , Vigna , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigna/microbiologia , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Salino , Potássio/metabolismo , Paquistão , Microbiologia do Solo , Sódio/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância ao Sal
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13199, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851793

RESUMO

The increasing global phenomenon of soil salinization has prompted heightened interest in the physiological ecology of plant salt and alkali tolerance. Halostachys caspica belonging to Amaranthaceae, an exceptionally salt-tolerant halophyte, is widely distributed in the arid and saline-alkali regions of Xinjiang, in Northwest China. Soil salinization and alkalinization frequently co-occur in nature, but very few studies focus on the interactive effects of various salt and alkali stress on plants. In this study, the impacts on the H. caspica seed germination, germination recovery and seedling growth were investigated under the salt and alkali stress. The results showed that the seed germination percentage was not significantly reduced at low salinity at pH 5.30-9.60, but decreased with elevated salt concentration and pH. Immediately after, salt was removed, ungerminated seeds under high salt concentration treatment exhibited a higher recovery germination percentage, indicating seed germination of H. caspica was inhibited under the condition of high salt-alkali stress. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that, at the same salt concentrations, alkaline salts exerted a more severe inhibition on seed germination, compared to neutral salts. The detrimental effects of salinity or high pH alone were less serious than their combination. Salt concentration, pH value, and their interactions had inhibitory effects on seed germination, with salinity being the decisive factor, while pH played a secondary role in salt-alkali mixed stress.


Assuntos
Álcalis , Amaranthaceae , Germinação , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Sementes , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amaranthaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Estresse Fisiológico , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12988, 2024 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844823

RESUMO

Salinity stress significantly hinders plant growth by disrupting osmotic balance and inhibiting nutrient uptake, leading to reduced biomass and stunted development. Using saponin (SAP) and boron (B) can effectively overcome this issue. Boron decreases salinity stress by stabilizing cell walls and membranes, regulating ion balance, activating antioxidant enzymes, and enhancing water uptake. SAP are bioactive compounds that have the potential to alleviate salinity stress by improving nutrient uptake, modulating plant hormone levels, promoting root growth, and stimulating antioxidant activity. That's why the current study was planned to use a combination of SAP and boron as amendments to mitigate salinity stress in sweet potatoes. Four levels of SAP (0%, 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.20%) and B (control, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L B) were applied in 4 replications following a completely randomized design. Results illustrated that 0.15% SAP with 20 mg/L B caused significant enhancement in sweet potato vine length (13.12%), vine weight (12.86%), root weight (8.31%), over control under salinity stress. A significant improvement in sweet potato chlorophyll a (9.84%), chlorophyll b (20.20%), total chlorophyll (13.94%), photosynthetic rate (17.69%), transpiration rate (16.03%), and stomatal conductance (17.59%) contrast to control under salinity stress prove the effectiveness of 0.15% SAP + 20 mg/L B treatment. In conclusion, 0.15% SAP + 20 mg/L B is recommended to mitigate salinity stress in sweet potatoes.


Assuntos
Boro , Ipomoea batatas , Estresse Salino , Saponinas , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Boro/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Salinidade
9.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753957

RESUMO

Detrimental effects of salinity could be mitigated by exogenous zinc (Zn) application; however, the mechanisms underlying this amelioration are poorly understood. This study demonstrated the interaction between Zn and salinity by measuring plant biomass, photosynthetic performance, ion concentrations, ROS accumulation, antioxidant activity and electrophysiological parameters in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Salinity stress (200mM NaCl for 3weeks) resulted in a massive reduction in plant biomass; however, both fresh and dry weight of shoots were increased by ~30% with adequate Zn supply. Zinc supplementation also maintained K+ and Na+ homeostasis and prevented H2 O2 toxicity under salinity stress. Furthermore, exposure to 10mM H2 O2 resulted in massive K+ efflux from root epidermal cells in both the elongation and mature root zones, and pre-treating roots with Zn reduced ROS-induced K+ efflux from the roots by 3-4-fold. Similar results were observed for Ca2+ . The observed effects may be causally related to more efficient regulation of cation-permeable non-selective channels involved in the transport and sequestration of Na+ , K+ and Ca2+ in various cellular compartments and tissues. This study provides valuable insights into Zn protective functions in plants and encourages the use of Zn fertilisers in barley crops grown on salt-affected soils.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Hordeum , Raízes de Plantas , Potássio , Salinidade , Zinco , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Zinco/farmacologia , Zinco/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Potássio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10981, 2024 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745099

RESUMO

Melia azedarach demonstrates strong salt tolerance and thrives in harsh saline soil conditions, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed gene expression under low, medium, and high salinity conditions to gain a deeper understanding of adaptation mechanisms of M. azedarach under salt stress. The GO (gene ontology) analysis unveiled a prominent trend: as salt stress intensified, a greater number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) became enriched in categories related to metabolic processes, catalytic activities, and membrane components. Through the analysis of the category GO:0009651 (response to salt stress), we identified four key candidate genes (CBL7, SAPK10, EDL3, and AKT1) that play a pivotal role in salt stress responses. Furthermore, the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway enrichment analysis revealed that DEGs were significantly enriched in the plant hormone signaling pathways and starch and sucrose metabolism under both medium and high salt exposure in comparison to low salt conditions. Notably, genes involved in JAZ and MYC2 in the jasmonic acid (JA) metabolic pathway were markedly upregulated in response to high salt stress. This study offers valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying M. azedarach salt tolerance and identifies potential candidate genes for enhancing salt tolerance in M. azedarach.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Salino/genética , Transcriptoma , Salinidade , Ontologia Genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731994

RESUMO

The mechanism of ethylene (ET)-regulated salinity stress response remains largely unexplained, especially for semi-halophytes and halophytes. Here, we present the results of the multifaceted analysis of the model semi-halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (common ice plant) ET biosynthesis pathway key components' response to prolonged (14 days) salinity stress. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of 3280 ice plant genes was altered during 14-day long salinity (0.4 M NaCl) stress. A thorough analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that the expression of genes involved in ET biosynthesis and perception (ET receptors), the abscisic acid (ABA) catabolic process, and photosynthetic apparatus was significantly modified with prolonged stressor presence. To some point this result was supported with the expression analysis of the transcript amount (qPCR) of key ET biosynthesis pathway genes, namely ACS6 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase) and ACO1 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) orthologs. However, the pronounced circadian rhythm observed in the expression of both genes in unaffected (control) plants was distorted and an evident downregulation of both orthologs' was induced with prolonged salinity stress. The UPLC-MS analysis of the ET biosynthesis pathway rate-limiting semi-product, namely of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, confirmed the results assessed with molecular tools. The circadian rhythm of the ACC production of NaCl-treated semi-halophytes remained largely unaffected by the prolonged salinity stress episode. We speculate that the obtained results represent an image of the steady state established over the past 14 days, while during the first hours of the salinity stress response, the view could be completely different.


Assuntos
Etilenos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Salino , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Etilenos/biossíntese , Etilenos/metabolismo , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Mesembryanthemum/metabolismo , Mesembryanthemum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Salinidade , Transcriptoma
12.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14328, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695265

RESUMO

While endophytic fungi offer promising avenues for bolstering plant resilience against abiotic stressors, the molecular mechanisms behind this biofortification remain largely unknown. This study employed a multifaceted approach, combining plant physiology, proteomic, metabolomic, and targeted hormonal analyses to illuminate the early response of Brassica napus to Acremonium alternatum during the nascent stages of their interaction. Notably, under optimal growth conditions, the initial reaction to fungus was relatively subtle, with no visible alterations in plant phenotype and only minor impacts on the proteome and metabolome. Interestingly, the identified proteins associated with the Acremonium response included TUDOR 1, Annexin D4, and a plastidic K+ efflux antiporter, hinting at potential processes that could counter abiotic stressors, particularly salt stress. Subsequent experiments validated this hypothesis, showcasing significantly enhanced growth in Acremonium-inoculated plants under salt stress. Molecular analyses revealed a profound impact on the plant's proteome, with over 50% of salt stress response proteins remaining unaffected in inoculated plants. Acremonium modulated ribosomal proteins, increased abundance of photosynthetic proteins, enhanced ROS metabolism, accumulation of V-ATPase, altered abundances of various metabolic enzymes, and possibly promoted abscisic acid signaling. Subsequent analyses validated the accumulation of this hormone and its enhanced signaling. Collectively, these findings indicate that Acremonium promotes salt tolerance by orchestrating abscisic acid signaling, priming the plant's antioxidant system, as evidenced by the accumulation of ROS-scavenging metabolites and alterations in ROS metabolism, leading to lowered ROS levels and enhanced photosynthesis. Additionally, it modulates ion sequestration through V-ATPase accumulation, potentially contributing to the observed decrease in chloride content.


Assuntos
Acremonium , Homeostase , Oxirredução , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Tolerância ao Sal , Transdução de Sinais , Acremonium/metabolismo , Acremonium/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Brassica napus/microbiologia , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Fotossíntese
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 363, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724910

RESUMO

Salinity stress is a significant challenge in agricultural production. When soil contains high salts, it can adversely affect plant growth and productivity due to the high concentration of soluble salts in the soil water. To overcome this issue, foliar applications of methyl jasmonate (MJ) and gibberellic acid (GA3) can be productive amendments. Both can potentially improve the plant's growth attributes and flowering, which are imperative in improving growth and yield. However, limited literature is available on their combined use in canola to mitigate salinity stress. That's why the current study investigates the impact of different levels of MJ (at concentrations of 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 mM MJ) and GA3 (0GA3 and 5 mg/L GA3) on canola cultivated in salt-affected soils. Applying all the treatments in four replicates. Results indicate that the application of 0.8 mM MJ with 5 mg/L GA3 significantly enhances shoot length (23.29%), shoot dry weight (24.77%), number of leaves per plant (24.93%), number of flowering branches (26.11%), chlorophyll a (31.44%), chlorophyll b (20.28%) and total chlorophyll (27.66%) and shoot total soluble carbohydrates (22.53%) over control. Treatment with 0.8 mM MJ and 5 mg/L GA3 resulted in a decrease in shoot proline (48.17%), MDA (81.41%), SOD (50.59%), POD (14.81%) while increase in N (10.38%), P (15.22%), and K (8.05%) compared to control in canola under salinity stress. In conclusion, 0.8 mM MJ + 5 mg/L GA3 can improve canola growth under salinity stress. More investigations are recommended at the field level to declare 0.8 mM MJ + 5 mg/L GA3 as the best amendment for alleviating salinity stress in different crops.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Antioxidantes , Brassica napus , Ciclopentanos , Giberelinas , Oxilipinas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Solo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Solo/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo
14.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(6): 146, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764051

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Compared with NaCl, NaHCO3 caused more serious oxidative damage and photosynthesis inhibition in safflower by down-regulating the expression of related genes. Salt-alkali stress is one of the important factors that limit plant growth. NaCl and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) are neutral and alkaline salts, respectively. This study investigated the physiological characteristics and molecular responses of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) leaves treated with 200 mmol L-1 of NaCl or NaHCO3. The plants treated with NaCl treatment were less effective at inhibiting the growth of safflower, but increased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in leaves. Meanwhile, safflower alleviated stress damage by increasing proline (Pro), soluble protein (SP), and soluble sugar (SS). Both fresh weight and dry weight of safflower was severely decreased when it was subjected to NaHCO3 stress, and there was a significant increase in the permeability of cell membranes and the contents of osmotic regulatory substances. An enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes identified significant enrichment of photosynthesis and pathways related to oxidative stress. Furthermore, a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) showed that the darkgreen module had the highest correlation with photosynthesis and oxidative stress traits. Large numbers of transcription factors, primarily from the MYB, GRAS, WRKY, and C2H2 families, were predicted from the genes within the darkgreen module. An analysis of physiological indicators and DEGs, it was found that under saline-alkali stress, genes related to chlorophyll synthesis enzymes were downregulated, while those related to degradation were upregulated, resulting in inhibited chlorophyll biosynthesis and decreased chlorophyll content. Additionally, NaCl and NaHCO3 stress downregulated the expression of genes related to the Calvin cycle, photosynthetic antenna proteins, and the activity of photosynthetic reaction centers to varying degrees, hindering the photosynthetic electron transfer process, suppressing photosynthesis, with NaHCO3 stress causing more pronounced adverse effects. In terms of oxidative stress, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) did not change significantly under the NaCl treatment, but the contents of hydrogen peroxide and the rate of production of superoxide anions increased significantly under NaHCO3 stress. In addition, treatment with NaCl upregulated the levels of expression of the key genes for superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and the thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin pathway, and increased the activity of these enzymes, thus, reducing oxidative damage. Similarly, NaHCO3 stress increased the activities of SOD, CAT, and POD and the content of ascorbic acid and initiated the glutathione-S-transferase pathway to remove excess ROS but suppressed the regeneration of glutathione and the activity of peroxiredoxin. Overall, both neutral and alkaline salts inhibited the photosynthetic process of safflower, although alkaline salt caused a higher level of stress than neutral salt. Safflower alleviated the oxidative damage induced by stress by regulating its antioxidant system.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Carthamus tinctorius , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Bicarbonato de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carthamus tinctorius/efeitos dos fármacos , Carthamus tinctorius/genética , Carthamus tinctorius/metabolismo , Carthamus tinctorius/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10870, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740776

RESUMO

Pea, member of the plant family Leguminosae, play a pivotal role in global food security as essential legumes. However, their production faces challenges stemming from the detrimental impacts of abiotic stressors, leading to a concerning decline in output. Salinity stress is one of the major factors that limiting the growth and productivity of pea. However, biochar amendment in soil has a potential role in alleviating the oxidative damage caused by salinity stress. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the potential role of biochar amendment in soil that may mitigate the adverse effect of salinity stress on pea. The treatments of this study were, (a) Pea varieties; (i) V1 = Meteor and V2 = Green Grass, Salinity Stress, (b) Control (0 mM) and (ii) Salinity (80 mM) (c) Biochar applications; (i) Control, (ii) 8 g/kg soil (56 g) and (iii) 16 g/kg soil (112 g). Salinity stress demonstrated a considerable reduction in morphological parameters as Shoot and root length decreased by (29% and 47%), fresh weight and dry weight of shoot and root by (85, 63%) and (49, 68%), as well as area of leaf reduced by (71%) among both varieties. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoid contents decreased under 80 mM salinity up to (41, 63, 55 and 76%) in both varieties as compared to control. Exposure of pea plants to salinity stress increased the oxidative damage by enhancing hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde content by (79 and 89%), while amendment of biochar reduced their activities as, (56% and 59%) in both varieties. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) were increased by biochar applications under salinity stress as, (49, 59, and 86%) as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants as, anthocyanin and flavonoids improved by (112 and 67%). Organic osmolytes such as total soluble proteins, sugars, and glycine betaine were increased up to (57, 83, and 140%) by biochar amendment. Among uptake of mineral ions, shoot and root Na+ uptake was greater (144 and 73%) in saline-stressed plants as compared to control, while shoot and root Ca2+ and K+ were greater up to (175, 119%) and (77, 146%) in biochar-treated plants. Overall findings revealed that 16 g/kg soil (112 g) biochar was found to be effective in reducing salinity toxicity by causing reduction in reactive oxygen species and root and shoot Na+ ions uptake and improving growth, physiological and anti-oxidative activities in pea plants (Fig. 1). Figure 1 A schematic diagram represents two different mechanisms of pea under salinity stress (control and 80 mM NaCl) with Biochar (8 and 16 g/kg soil).


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Pisum sativum , Solo , Pisum sativum/efeitos dos fármacos , Pisum sativum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pisum sativum/metabolismo , Solo/química , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Clorofila/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
16.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(6): 160, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695903

RESUMO

Salt stress can adversely affect plant seed germination, growth and development, and eventually lead to slow growth and even death of plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 stress on the physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, rhizosphere microbial community and seven active components (L-phenylalanine, Protocatechuic acid, Eleutheroside B, Chlorogenic acid, Caffeic acid, Eleutheroside E, Isofraxidin) of Acanthopanax senticosus rhizosphere soil. Statistical analysis was used to explore the correlation between the rhizosphere ecological factors of Acanthopanax senticosus and its active components. Compared with Acanthopanax senticosus under NaCl stress, Na2SO4 generally had a greater effect on Acanthopanax senticosus, which reduced the richness of fungi in rhizosphere soil and adversely affected the content of multiple active components. Pearson analysis showed that pH, organic matter, ammonium nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, catalase and urease were significantly correlated with active components such as Caffeic acid and Isofraxidin. There were 11 known bacterial genera, 12 unknown bacterial genera, 9 known fungal genera and 1 unknown fungal genus significantly associated with the active ingredient. Salt stress had great changes in the physicochemical properties, enzyme activities and microorganisms of the rhizosphere soil of Acanthopanax senticosus. In conclusion, different types and concentrations of salts had different effects on Acanthopanax senticosus, and the active components of Acanthopanax senticosus were regulated by rhizosphere soil ecological factors.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Eleutherococcus , Fungos , Rizosfera , Estresse Salino , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Eleutherococcus/metabolismo , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 10781-10793, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709780

RESUMO

In this study, 20-day-old soybean plants were watered with 100 mL of 100 mM NaCl solution and sprayed with silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) or potassium silicate every 3 days over 15 days, with a final dosage of 12 mg of SiO2 per plant. We assessed the alterations in the plant's growth and physiological traits, and the responses of bacterial microbiome within the leaf endosphere, rhizosphere, and root endosphere. The result showed that the type of silicon did not significantly impact most of the plant parameters. However, the bacterial communities within the leaf and root endospheres had a stronger response to SiO2 NPs treatment, showing enrichment of 24 and 13 microbial taxa, respectively, compared with the silicate treatment, which led to the enrichment of 9 and 8 taxonomic taxa, respectively. The rhizosphere bacterial communities were less sensitive to SiO2 NPs, enriching only 2 microbial clades, compared to the 8 clades enriched by silicate treatment. Furthermore, SiO2 NPs treatment enriched beneficial genera, such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Variovorax in the leaf and root endosphere, likely enhancing plant growth and salinity stress resistance. These findings highlight the potential of SiO2 NPs for foliar application in sustainable farming by enhancing plant-microbe interactions to improve salinity tolerance.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Glycine max , Nanopartículas , Rizosfera , Silício , Glycine max/microbiologia , Glycine max/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycine max/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycine max/química , Nanopartículas/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silício/farmacologia , Silício/química , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/fisiologia , Endófitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Estresse Salino
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 392, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase (LACS) is a type of acylating enzyme with AMP-binding, playing an important role in the growth, development, and stress response processes of plants. RESULTS: The research team identified different numbers of LACS in four cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium raimondii, and Gossypium arboreum). By analyzing the structure and evolutionary characteristics of the LACS, the GhLACS were divided into six subgroups, and a chromosome distribution map of the family members was drawn, providing a basis for further research classification and positioning. Promoter cis-acting element analysis showed that most GhLACS contain plant hormones (GA, MeJA) or non-biological stress-related cis-elements. The expression patterns of GhLACS under salt stress treatment were analyzed, and the results showed that GhLACS may significantly participate in salt stress response through different mechanisms. The research team selected 12 GhLACSs responsive to salt stress for tissue expression analysis and found that these genes are expressed in different tissues. CONCLUSIONS: There is a certain diversity of LACS among different cotton species. Analysis of promoter cis-acting elements suggests that GhLACS may be involved in regulating plant growth, development and stress response processes. GhLACS25 was selected for in-depth study, which confirmed its significant role in salt stress response through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and induced expression in yeast cells.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Proteínas de Plantas , Estresse Salino , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/fisiologia , Estresse Salino/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Genes de Plantas
19.
PeerJ ; 12: e17311, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766484

RESUMO

Background: Genetic variation for salt tolerance remains elusive in jamun (Syzygium cumini). Methods: Effects of gradually increased salinity (2.0-12.0 dS/m) were examined in 20 monoembryonic and 28 polyembryonic genotypes of jamun. Six genotypes were additionally assessed for understanding salt-induced changes in gas exchange attributes and antioxidant enzymes. Results: Salt-induced reductions in leaf, stem, root and plant dry mass (PDM) were relatively greater in mono- than in poly-embryonic types. Reductions in PDM relative to control implied more adverse impacts of salinity on genotypes CSJ-28, CSJ-31, CSJ-43 and CSJ-47 (mono) and CSJ-1, CSJ-24, CSJ-26 and CSJ-27 (poly). Comparably, some mono- (CSJ-5, CSJ-18) and poly-embryonic (CSJ-7, CSJ-8, CSJ-14, CSJ-19) genotypes exhibited least reductions in PDM following salt treatment. Most polyembryonic genotypes showed lower reductions in root than in shoot mass, indicating that they may be more adept at absorbing water and nutrients when exposed to salt. The majority of genotypes did not exhibit leaf tip burn and marginal scorch despite significant increases in Na+ and Cl-, suggesting that tissue tolerance existed for storing excess Na+ and Cl- in vacuoles. Jamun genotypes were likely more efficient in Cl- exclusion because leaf, stem and root Cl- levels were consistently lower than those of Na+ under salt treatment. Leaf K+ was particularly little affected in genotypes with high leaf Na+. Lack of discernible differences in leaf, stem and root Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents between control and salt treatments was likely due to their preferential uptake. Correlation analysis suggested that Na+ probably had a greater inhibitory effect on biomass in both mono- and poly-embryonic types. Discriminant analysis revealed that while stem and root Cl- probably accounted for shared responses, root Na+, leaf K+ and leaf Cl- explained divergent responses to salt stress of mono- and poly-embryonic types. Genotypes CSJ-18 and CSJ-19 seemed efficient in fending off oxidative damage caused by salt because of their stronger antioxidant defences. Conclusions: Polyembryonic genotypes CSJ-7, CSJ-8, CSJ-14 and CSJ-19, which showed least reductions in biomass even after prolonged exposure to salinity stress, may be used as salt-tolerant rootstocks. The biochemical and molecular underpinnings of tissue tolerance to excess Na+ and Cl- as well as preferential uptake of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ need to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Syzygium , Estresse Salino/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
20.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769679

RESUMO

The two stresses of weed competition and salt salinity lead to crop yield losses and decline in the productivity of agricultural land. These constraints threaten the future of food production because weeds are more salt stress tolerant than most crops. Climate change will lead to an increase of soil salinity worldwide, and possibly exacerbate the competition between weeds and crops. This aspect has been scarcely investigated in the context of weed-crop competition. Therefore, we conducted a field experiment on green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris ) to investigate the combined impact of weed competition and salt stress on key morpho-physiological traits, and crop yield. We demonstrated that soil salinity shifted weed composition toward salt tolerant weed species (Portulaca oleracea and Cynodon dactylon ), while it reduced the presence of lower tolerance species. Weed competition activated adaptation responses in green bean such as reduced leaf mass per area and biomass allocation to the stem, unchanged stomatal density and instantaneous water use efficiency, which diverge from those that are typically observed as a consequence of salt stress. The morpho-physiological modifications caused by weeds is attributed to the alterations of light intensity and/or quality, further confirming the pivotal role of the light in crop response to weeds. We concluded that higher yield loss caused by combined salt stress and weed competition is due to impaired morpho-physiological responses, which highlights the negative interaction between salt stress and weed competition. This phenomenon will likely be more frequent in the future, and potentially reduce the efficacy of current weed control methods.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Phaseolus , Plantas Daninhas , Estresse Salino , Phaseolus/fisiologia , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Daninhas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salinidade , Solo/química , Biomassa
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