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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 664, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present age, e-learning has been playing a good role in educational and clinical settings along with face-to-face training. This study aimed to determine the effect of distance class using micro-learning contents on learning outcomes and self-efficacy in the clinical education of nursing students in 2021. METHODS: This research is a quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test study conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The study population consisted of 46 nursing students who were recruited by the full census method. Students were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. Before and after educational interventions in both groups, students' learning and self-efficacy were evaluated using a questionnaire. Data Analysis was done using descriptive and analytical statistical methods and with SPSS software version 23. RESULTS: The results revealed a statistically significant difference in the mean score of clinical learning level of nursing students between the control and experimental groups after the intervention (p = 0.041). Also, the difference between the mean score of self-efficacy in the intervention group before and after the training was statistically significant (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Micro-learning is an effective training method for raising learning outcomes and self-efficacy among nursing students, especially in internship units. This method is recommended since multimedia pays attention to all learning styles of learners and affects the learning outcomes and self-efficacy of learners.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 22(3): 343-350, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072076

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to explore undergraduate nursing students' perception and attitude towards the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between April-May 2020 among undergraduate nursing students at the College of Nursing at Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. Two self-administered questionnaires were utilised to obtain data on students' perception and attitude towards OSCE. Students' feedback on OSCE was collected using open-ended questions about OSCE strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for improvement. Survey responses were based on a five-point ordinal scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Students' feedback on OSCE was analysed as descriptive data by identifying the common themes and categorising them in groups. Results: A total of 160 students completed the study questionnaires. Most did not find the atmosphere of OSCE to be pleasant (66.3%) and preferred more modes of practical examination (40.6%). Moreover, 64.4% believed the time limitation to be inadequate. The data depict that 33.1% of the examinees deemed the OSCE more stressful than the full practical examination. In addition, a few students confirmed that the OSCE improved their communication skills and confidence in nursing skills. Conclusion: The findings of this study appear alarming in regard to students' perception regarding the overall process and validity of OSCE as an assessment method. Nursing educators must consider further evaluation and improvement of the OSCE in order to improve students' acceptance and appreciation of OSCE as an important form of clinical learning and assessment.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Omã , Percepção
3.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 109-114, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064233

RESUMO

AIM: The study was conducted to determine the prejudice and stigmatization levels of nursing students towards obese individuals. DESIGN AND METHODS: This descriptive and correlational study was conducted in Turkey in 2021 with 233 students in the nursing department of a state university. The data were collected using the Information Form, GAMS-27 Obesity Prejudice Scale, and the Stigma Scale. Independent sample t-test, One-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The findings suggest that the students are prone to prejudice and their tendency to stigmatize is high. It was found that the difference between the student's year of study and obesity prejudices, and between family types and stigmatization levels was significant. It was determined that the stigmatization levels of the students were a determining factor on the obesity prejudice levels and there was a weak positive correlation between them. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing students are prone to showing prejudice towards obese individuals and their stigmatization levels are high. In this respect, it is recommended that prejudice and stigmatization issues regarding obesity should be included in the nursing curriculum before students start their professional life.


Assuntos
Estereotipagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Obesidade , Preconceito , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 132-136, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064236

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effect of a program designed to reduce nursing students' social distancing from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHOD: This experimental study was designed using a pretest, a posttest, and a control group. All participants were nursing students, of which 25 were included in the intervention group and 23 were placed in the control group. A 13-week program was offered to the intervention group. The measuring instruments consisted of a personal information form and the Social Distance Scale. Data were analyzed using the two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. FINDINGS: A significant difference was found between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The Education Program on Stigmatization in Schizophrenia is an effective intervention that reduces the social distance of nursing students from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Esquizofrenia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Estereotipagem
5.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 56-59, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064246

RESUMO

It is common knowledge that people with psychiatric illnesses are stigmatized by a broad spectrum of society. The purpose of this study was to assess the beliefs of undergraduate students toward people with mental illnesses, and determine the impact of psychiatric education and clinical practice on their beliefs. A Quasi-Experimental, single-group pre-test post-test design was used. The study was performed at a private school of health sciences in Saudi Arabia. The study sample consisted of 42 students. For data collection, the Beliefs toward Mental Illness Scale was used. Following the psychiatric education and clinical practice, the total BMIS and subscale scores were significantly lower than the scores obtained before the course. There was a statistically significant difference in the BMIS total scores (t = 2.17, p = 0.001) and subscale scores (Poor social and interpersonal skills: t = 0.78, p = 0.001; Dangerousness: t = 1.17, p = 0.001; Incurability: t = 0.42, p = 0.001) between the pre-test and post-test data. This research indicates that psychiatric educational intervention using face-to-face interaction and clinical practice interaction can positively change stigmatizing beliefs of undergraduate students toward people with mental illnesses.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Escolaridade , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Estudantes , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia
6.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 77-83, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064249

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stigmatized attitudes towards people with mental illness from healthcare providers continues to be a problem affecting recovery in people with mental illness. The process of recovery was explored through digital stories created by service users, with support from nursing students. Stigmatized attitudes in nursing students and stigma resistance in service users were also investigated. DESIGN AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental, mixed-methods, pilot study in which service users/nursing student teams created digital stories. Surveys testing stigmatized attitudes and stigma resistance were employed. FINDINGS: Statistical significance was not found, however, qualitative analysis revealed recovery elements and greater appreciation of individuals with mental illness by the nursing students. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Digital story-telling assists service users in doing the internal work of making meaning from experience. Nursing students benefit from involvement in the activity.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Recuperação da Saúde Mental , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Estigma Social , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 937887, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045726

RESUMO

Introduction: Needle-stick injuries (NSI) are a serious threat to the health of healthcare workers, nurses, and nursing students, as they can expose them to infectious diseases. Different prevalence rates have been reported for this type of injury in different studies worldwide. Therefore, this study aimedto estimate the pooled prevalence of NSI among nursing students. Methods: This study was conducted by searching for articles in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar without time limitation using the following keywords: needle-stick, needle stick, sharp injury, and nursing student. The data were analyzed using the meta-analysis method and random-effects model. The quality of the articles was evaluated with Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). The heterogeneity of the studies was examined using the I 2 index, and the collected data were analyzed using the STATA Software Version 16. Results: Initially, 1,134 articles were retrieved, of which 32 qualified articles were included in the analysis. Nursing students reported 35% of NSI (95% CI: 28-43%) and 63% (95% CI: 51-74%) did not report their needle-stick injuries. The highest prevalence was related to studies conducted in Asia (39.7%; 95% CI: 31.7-47.7%). There was no significant correlation among NSI prevalence and age of samples, and article year of publication. Conclusion: A third of nursing students reported experiencing NSI. Consequently, occupational hazard prevention training and student support measures need to be considered.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Ásia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8453697, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046458

RESUMO

Objective: To research the influence of PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) process management on the incidence of needle injury and psychological anxiety of nursing interns. Methods: This study belonged to the experimental study. A total of 180 nursing interns who practiced in the hospital from March 2020 to April 2022 were studied. A total of 135 interns from March 2020 to March 2021 were selected as the control group and 175 interns from April 2021 to April 2022 as the research group. PDCA process management was carried on in the research group. The control group did not make any intervention only following the routine teaching plan. The incidence of needle injury, theoretical knowledge, behavior score, self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), professional self-efficacy questionnaire score, and nursing practice satisfaction score were evaluated before and after 12 months of management. Results: After management, the incidence of needle injury in the research group was lower compared to that in the control group, and there are statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). The scores of theoretical knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the research group were higher compared to those in the control group, and there are statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05) after management. After 12 months of management, the SAS score of the research group was lower compared to that of the control group, and there are statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). The score of occupational self-efficacy questionnaire in the research group was higher compared to that in the control group, and there are statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05) after PDCA process management. After 12 months of management, the satisfaction score of nursing practice in the research group was higher compared to that in the control group, and there are statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Through PDCA process management, we can keep abreast of the situation of needlestick injuries among nursing students in practice and analyze in more detail the root cause of each nursing student's occupational exposure and the outcome of treatment. The nursing students not only learn more practical knowledge in clinical practice but also feel that the hospital values and cares for them, which greatly increases their satisfaction.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Christ Nurs ; 39(4): 244-249, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048597

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess if an evidence-based educational program focused on vocation and calling could improve undergraduate nursing students' sense of meaning in life and sense of calling/vocation. Using a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design, a statistically significant increase occurred in sense of meaning in life and calling/vocation. Qualitative responses revealed growth in self-knowledge, importance of individual pathways, and recognition of nursing as one's calling. Courses on calling may encourage nursing students to commit to nursing as a calling.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Humanos
12.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 9039630, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089967

RESUMO

Under the background of networked education, the subjective behavior in the field of education, the interaction between teachers and students, and the educational environment in which the subject is located have all had a comprehensive impact on the teaching mode of mental health courses in colleges and universities. In recent years, the teaching research and practice related to "action learning" and "thinking visualization" have been deepening, and more papers, monographs, and training activities related to them have been deepened. Thinking is a complex cognitive process, and students' positive and critical thinking attitude plays a crucial role in improving the quality of nursing work in the future. The importance of study, our way of self-cultivation, and the foundation of our destiny is beyond words. This study explores the application and significance of college students' happy learning combined with the visualization of thinking and action learning under the background of "Internet +" from four aspects: curriculum connotation, system construction, effect analysis, and curriculum thinking, so that students can play their subjectivity in education courses and improve. The initiative and interaction of students in the classroom encourages students to not only know, feel, and experience in education courses but also dare to speak, ask, and question and be the leaders of the classroom.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Internet , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Pensamento , Universidades
13.
Metas enferm ; 25(7): 7-12, Septiembre 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-246

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar la percepción que tienen los estudiantes de Enfermería sobre la adquisición de habilidades clínicas durante la pandemia por COVID-19 y analizar si está asociada con el semestre que están cursando y con haber realizado práctica clínica en escenarios reales. Método: se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo transversal con estudiantes de Enfermería de una universidad pública de Zacatecas, México (N= 1.033). Se administró vía electrónica el segundo apartado del cuestionario Clinical Competency Questionnaire traducido al español con un alfa de Cronbach= 0,969. Se analizó la asociación de las habilidades clínicas con el semestre cursado y la experiencia mediante la prueba de Chi cuadrado con una significancia estadística de p≤ 0,05. Resultados: respondieron un total de N= 82 estudiantes. La media de edad fue de 20,7 (DE:1,40), el 87,8% era mujer en su mayoría del séptimo semestre (40,2%). Un 50% se percibió con habilidades clínicas deficientes; un 34,1%, sin habilidades clínicas y un 15,9%, con habilidades clínicas competentes. Los estudiantes de quinto semestre se percibieron con menores habilidades clínicas (p= 0,006), al igual que aquellos que no habían cursado práctica clínica antes de la pandemia (p= 0,005). Conclusiones: a partir de la pandemia, las habilidades en la práctica clínica son percibidas como nulas o deficientes por los estudiantes de Enfermería, por lo que se requiere implementar cambios en la metodología de enseñanza-aprendizaje, transitar a un modelo híbrido e integrador con intervenciones educativas efectivas y que demuestren el desarrollo de los dominios en este tipo de habilidades para cumplir con el perfil de egreso planteado.(AU)


Objective: to understand the perception by Nursing students about the acquisition of clinical skills during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to analyse if this is associated with the semester they are currently taking and with conducting clinical practice in real settings. Method: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with Nursing students from a public university in Zacatecas, Mexico (N= 1,033). The second section of the Clinical Competency Questionnaire in its Spanish translation was administered online, with Cronbach’s alpha= 0.969. The association between the clinical skills and the semester studied and experience was analysed through Chi-squared test withp≤ 0.05 as statistical significance. Results: in total, N= 82 students participated. Their mean age was 20.7 (SD:1.40), 87.8% were female, and the majority were in their seventh semester (40.2%). 50% of them perceived that their clinical skills were poor, 34.1% stated they had no clinical skills, and 15.9% perceived that their clinical skills were proficient. Students in their fifth semester perceived their clinical skills as lower (p= 0.006), as well as those who had not had any clinical practice before the pandemic (p= 0.005). Conclusions: after the pandemic, clinical practice skills are perceived as non-existent or poor by Nursing students; therefore, it is necessary to implement changes in the teaching-learning methodology, to move to a hybrid and inclusive model with effective educational interventions which demonstrate the development of domains in this type of skills, in order to meet the proposed profile of graduation.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus , Vírus da SARS , Competência Clínica , Prática do Docente de Enfermagem , Educação à Distância , Docentes de Enfermagem , Aprendizagem , Estudos Transversais , Epidemiologia Descritiva , México , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30148, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107588

RESUMO

The lack of knowledge on health literacy affects all segments of society, particularly health workers. The objectives were to identify nursing students' means of accessing information during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, their level of health literacy, and the factors that affect it. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey among 398 nursing students of Çukurova University and Van Yüzüncü Yil University between June 1 and June 30, 2020. As a data collection tool, E-Health Literacy Scale was used, with students' characteristics and personal information form related to Internet use. These forms were converted to the online format. The survey link was sent to the students' smartphones and/or e-mails to ask them to participate. Majority of participants were Van Yüzüncü Yil University nursing students (63.8%). E-SYO score average of all students was found to be 29.42 ± 4.39 (min = 14, max = 40); it was is found be at a good level. They used the Internet as the first source of information about coronavirus disease 2019 (65.1%).Among the participants, 65.8% stated that it was important to access the health resource on the Internet and 19.1% of the participants thought that it was very important. It was found that Internet use was being used for >3 times a day (72.9%). The age, class, gender, family type, income level, high school from which they graduated from, and their working status significantly were statistically affecting their health literacy (P < .05). The health literacy scale scores were significant and higher than those who did not know the concept of health literacy, and those who perceived Internet skills well and very well than those who perceived them poorly (P < .05). Nursing students were found to have good average health literacy averages. Improving the health literacy is important for making individuals healthier.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Letramento em Saúde , Estudantes de Enfermagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias
15.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 19(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Relationships between perceived faculty support and prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among undergraduate nursing students were explored. METHODS: A mixed method design was used for this descriptive, cross-sectional pilot study. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), Perceived Faculty Support Scale (PFSS), a demographic questionnaire, and open-ended questions were used to collect data. RESULTS: Nursing students experienced moderate depression and stress, and severe anxiety. Perceived faculty support was moderate. An inverse correlation between select perceived faculty supportive behaviors and depression, anxiety, and stress was evident. Student stressors were related to faculty actions. The theme being attentive to student stress emerged from the qualitative data. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of poor mental health among undergraduate nursing students are prevalent and represent a significant public health concern among nursing students. Nurse educators must develop psychological and functional supportive behaviors to promote mental health during nursing students' transition throughout the nursing program and beyond.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Docentes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Projetos Piloto , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia
16.
Br J Nurs ; 31(16): 854-860, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094038

RESUMO

This article presents a holistic view of re-designing learner-centred nursing curricula in a post-coronavirus pandemic digital educational system while maintaining authentic service user and carer involvement. Higher education is facing turbulent times through ever-increasing recruitment targets and financial demands. This is coupled with increased requirements from health professional bodies to involve students and service users and carers in co-creating curricula. Reflecting on the authors' collective experiences pre-COVID-19, during COVID-19 and looking to the future, they present a service user-and-student-led proposal for the future of digitally enabled nursing education that involves people with lived experience in an authentic way.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Cuidadores , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(3): 7247, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals in rural areas live with healthcare disadvantages relating to, for example, access to health institutions, necessary treatments, and healthcare professionals during medical emergencies. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences, beliefs and attitudes of nursing students to identify advantages and disadvantages of health screening in several rural areas in rural Turkey. METHODS: Health screening practices with senior nursing students were conducted in six rural areas. A qualitative descriptive study was performed using thematic analysis of open-ended responses to a web-based survey of 34 students aged 18 years and over. This study was conducted in March and April 2020. RESULTS: The practices of nursing students in rural areas included measuring vital signs, body mass index calculation, blood glucose and cholesterol measurement, depression screening, cancer screening and health education. Students undertook various health screening practices in rural health care including colorectal cancer screening, evaluation of scales used in diabetes and depression risk. Characteristics referred to by student nurses as part of public health nursing roles were protector, advocate, supporter, caregiver, coordinator, collaborator, educator, counsellor, researcher, therapist, case manager, leader and care provider. The main themes generated related to student emotions, feedback of screening participants to nursing students, positive nursing characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of doing health screening in rural areas, benefits of working with health professionals to nursing student education, and feedback for nursing educators and researchers. CONCLUSION: Participants recognised their emotions, and the benefits and advantages of health screening practices, and disadvantages were determined across the themes. Health services should be planned by taking these experiences into account in health screenings to be carried out in rural areas.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia , Colesterol , Humanos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Turquia
18.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 19(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Preceptors support nursing students when transitioning to the professional nursing role. This study explored student perceptions of preceptor characteristics that promoted or hindered learning. METHODS: A Likert-scale survey including two open-ended questions was sent to 571 nursing students completing a preceptorship experience. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses to the Likert-scale items. Qualitative analysis was completed on the two exploratory questions to extract themes. RESULTS: Students rated the preceptor between 4=Very Good and 5=Outstanding for all items. No significant differences in scores were found when comparing results between programs. Themes assisting in learning included: increasing independence gradually and pushing out of comfort zone. Themes identified that hindered learning included: doubting self and being pushed aside. CONCLUSIONS: Future implications include communicating preceptorship objectives and providing ways to apply research to practice. These findings can guide collaboration between academic and practice partners to assist with transition to practice.


Assuntos
Preceptoria , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Preceptoria/métodos
19.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 19(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117260

RESUMO

Student academic satisfaction is one of the most important factors affecting the success and quality of a higher education institute and is an indicator about teaching and learning. This study aims to summarize and critically evaluate the instruments assessing academic satisfaction in nursing education. A systematic review was undertaken, PRISMA were used for the screening of studies. MEDLINE, Cochrane, Scopus and CINAHL were searched using MeSH terms; seven eligible articles were identified referring to five assessment tools. COSMIN was used for evaluation of the methodological of the instruments. The systematic review identified five satisfaction measurement tools used in nursing education. The analysis of the instruments rarely considered a confirmative validity structure, measurement error or criterion validity. The best available instrument was the Nursing Students Satisfaction Scale (NSSS) for validation methodology; however, it needs further validation studies that consider CFA, reliability, criteria validity, hypothesis testing and measurement error.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Satisfação Pessoal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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