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1.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 104-112, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130571

RESUMO

Some studies have suggested that diabetes may be a risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, whether prediabetes is also associated with osteoarthritis has not been comprehensively examined. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between prediabetes and osteoarthritis. This meta-analysis included relevant observational studies from Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases. A random-effect model after incorporation of the intra-study heterogeneity was selected to pool the results. Ten datasets from six observational studies were included, which involved 41 226 general adults and 10 785 (26.2%) of them were prediabetic. Pooled results showed that prediabetes was not independently associated with osteoarthritis [risk ratio (RR): 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.14, p=0.06, I2=0%]. Sensitivity limited to studies with adjustment of age and body mass index showed consistent result (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.14, p=0.09, I2=0%). Results of subgroup analyses showed that prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in cross-sectional or cohort studies, in studies including Asian or non-Asian population, or in studies with different quality scores (p for subgroup difference>0.10). Besides, prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in men or in women, in studies with prediabetes defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or HbA1c (approximately 39-46 mmol/mol). Moreover, prediabetes was not associated with overall osteoarthritis, and knee or hip osteoarthritis. Current evidence does not support that prediabetes is independently associated with osteoarthritis in adult population.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose , Osteoartrite , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Osteoartrite/complicações , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0271851, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083949

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of complications in patients with COVID-19. Most studies do not differentiate between patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which correspond to two pathophysiological distinct diseases that could represent different degrees of clinical compromise. OBJECTIVE: To identify if there are differences in the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and diabetes (type 1 and type 2) compared to patients with COVID-19 without diabetes. METHODS: Observational studies of patients with COVID-19 and diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) will be included without restriction of geographic region, gender or age, whose outcome is hospitalization, admission to intensive care unit or mortality compared to patients without diabetes. Two authors will independently perform selection, data extraction, and quality assessment, and a third reviewer will resolve discrepancies. The data will be synthesized regarding the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes and without diabetes accompanied by the measure of association for the outcomes. The data will be synthesized regarding the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes and without diabetes accompanied by the measure of association for the outcomes. EXPECTED RESULTS: Update the evidence regarding the risk of complications in diabetic patients with COVID-19 and in turn synthesize the information available regarding type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, to provide keys to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetics. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRY: This study was registered at the International Prospective Registry for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO)-CRD42021231942.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , COVID-19/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(17): 6328-6339, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at reviewing the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for detecting correct nasogastric tube placement compared with X-ray imaging as the reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies published between 1961 and 2022. We included studies that compared the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound detection for nasogastric tube placement with that of X-ray imaging in adult patients who were undergoing nasogastric tube placement for any reason. We searched for published studies in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. The risk of bias was assessed using a standard procedure according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 criteria. The results were analyzed using RevMan or Meta-Disc software to determine the adequacy and conclusiveness of the available evidence. RESULTS: Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Overall, 1,812 patients were included in these studies. The results included a pooled sensitivity of 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94-0.97), specificity of 0.91 (95% CI 0.85-0.96), positive likelihood ratio of 5.08 (95% CI 1.49-17.39), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.08 (95% CI 0.06-0.10). This was confirmed through a summary receiver operating characteristic curve, which showed that the area under the curve was 0.96. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence about validity of ultrasound as an efficient method for verifying nasogastric tube placement, although there is insufficient evidence to suggest that it can be used as a diagnostic tool for incorrect gastric tube placement.


Assuntos
Estômago , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Curva ROC , Ultrassonografia
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273561, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054199

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Approximately 80% of children, adolescents and young adults (CAYA) cancer patients are expected to fully recover and survive for five years or more. The reproductive health is a particular area of their concern. Evidence demonstrates that previous therapeutic treatments for cancer and comorbidities may have harmful effects on female fertility and delivery outcomes, which will significantly affect patient quality of life. However, these reports are heterogeneous. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide the up-to-date evidence on the risk of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes in female survivors of childhood or adolescent cancer. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This meta-analysis will be carried out and reported with adherence to the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook. We will search online databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase from inception to August, 2022 to identify all relevant cohort studies examining the relationship between cancer and subsequent obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Data extraction from eligible studies will be conducted and crosschecked separately by two investigators using pre-tested standardized data extraction forms. Discrepancies will be resolved via a third investigator. Methodological quality assessment for each study will be conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) tool. We will apply the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model to calculate the pooled estimates. Further sources of heterogeneity will be explored by performing subgroup analysis based on multiple study characteristics. Potential publication bias will be assessed by inspection of a funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's regression tests of funnel plot asymmetry. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be required as all data used for this pooled analysis will be obtained from published cohort studies. The results of this study will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and conference presentation. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/K6QBG.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sobreviventes
5.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(10): 692-704, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abacavir is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor recommended in paediatric HIV care. We assessed the safety and efficacy profile of abacavir used in first, second, or subsequent lines of treatment for infants, children, and adolescents living with HIV to inform 2021 WHO paediatric ART recommendations. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we included observational and experimental studies conducted in infants aged 0-1 year, children aged 1-10 years, and adolescents aged 10-19 years living with HIV; with data on safety or efficacy, or both, of abacavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART); published in English or French between Jan 1, 2009, and Oct 1, 2020, plus an updated search to incorporate studies published between Oct 1, 2020, and May 15, 2022. Studies could be non-randomised or non-comparative and include patients who are treatment-naive or those who previously received abacavir (only if abacavir was combined with other ART). Case studies, studies in adults aged 18 years or older, and those assessing the effect of maternal ART exposure were excluded. We extracted data related to study identifier, study design, study period, setting, population characteristics, ART treatment, and safety (any hypersensitivity reaction, death, grade 3 or 4 adverse events, treatment discontinuation, any other morbidities, and serious adverse events), and efficacy outcomes (HIV viral load and CD4 counts reported at 6 and 12 months after ART initiation). Using random-effect models, we estimated weighted pooled incidence and relative risk (RR) of outcomes. The protocol is published in PROSPERO (CRD42022309230). FINDINGS: Of 1777 records identified, 1475 (83%) were screened after removing duplicates and a further 1421 (96%) were excluded. Of 54 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, 33 (61%) were excluded. Four records were identified from grey literature plus one duplicate from database searching, resulting in 24 studies included (two randomised controlled trials, one single-arm trial, 12 prospective cohorts, seven retrospective cohorts, and two cross-sectional studies). 19 studies described safety data and 15 described efficacy data. 18 (75%) studies were conducted in ART-naive participants. The risk of bias was considered moderate to high for most studies, and all outcomes had significant between-study heterogeneity. Data from 24 265 participants were included, of whom 7236 (30%) received abacavir. Abacavir hypersensitivity reaction was reported in nine (38%) studies, with an incidence ranging from 0·00% to 8·26% (I2=85%; p<0·0001). The incidence of death (reported in seven studies) following abacavir treatment varied from 0·00% to 5·49% (I2=58%; p=0·026). Viral suppression (<400 copies per mL) varied from 50% to 70% at 6 months (I2=92%, p<0·0001) and from 57% to 78% at 12 months (I2=88%, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Toxic effects due to abacavir use remain rare and manageable. Despite scarce data on efficacy, this meta-analysis supports the use of abacavir as a preferred first-line regimen for infants and children living with HIV. FUNDING: WHO.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ciclopropanos , Didesoxiadenosina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Nucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos
6.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273855, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048886

RESUMO

Recent studies indicate that the interplay between diet, intestinal microbiota composition, and intestinal permeability can impact mental health. More than 10% of children and adolescents in Iceland suffer from mental disorders, and rates of psychotropics use are very high. The aim of this novel observational longitudinal case-control study, "Meals, Microbiota and Mental Health in Children and Adolescents (MMM-Study)" is to contribute to the promotion of treatment options for children and adolescents diagnosed with mental disorders through identification of patterns that may affect the symptoms. All children and adolescents, 5-15 years referred to the outpatient clinic of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department at The National University Hospital in Reykjavik, Iceland, for one year (n≈150) will be invited to participate. There are two control groups, i.e., sex-matched children from the same postal area (n≈150) and same parent siblings (full siblings) in the same household close in age +/- 3 years (n<150). A three-day food diary, rating scales for mental health, and multiple questionnaires will be completed. Biosamples (fecal-, urine-, saliva-, blood samples, and buccal swab) will be collected and used for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the oral and gut microbiome, measurements of serum factors, quantification of urine metabolites and host genotype, respectively. For longitudinal follow-up, data collection will be repeated after three years in the same groups. Integrative analysis of diet, gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, serum metabolites, and mental health will be conducted applying bioinformatics and systems biology approaches. Extensive population-based data of this quality has not been collected before, with collection repeated in three years' time, contributing to the high scientific value. The MMM-study follows the "Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology" (STROBE) guidelines. Approval has been obtained from the Icelandic National Bioethics Committee, and the study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov. The study will contribute to an improved understanding of the links between diet, gut microbiota and mental health in children through good quality study design by collecting information on multiple components, and a longitudinal approach. Furthermore, the study creates knowledge on possibilities for targeted and more personalized dietary and lifestyle interventions in subgroups. Trial registration numbers: VSN-19-225 & NCT04330703.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Refeições , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 22(3): 385-392, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fatigue sacral fractures (FSFs) are rare and often misdiagnosed. This study presents a series of FSFs and a meticulous literature review. METHODS: The present is an 11-year (2010-2021) retrospective observational study. The characteristics of all adult patients with FSF, including demographics, fracture type, treatment, history of fatigue fracture and imaging were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight cases (6 females; 75%), suffering from 12 fractures (4 bilateral cases) with mean age=33.4 years were studied. Two patients (25%) had suffered another fatigue fracture in the past. Mean symptoms' duration prior diagnosis was 8.5 weeks, while mean symptoms' duration after diagnosis was 10.75. In most cases (7; 87.5%), MRI revealed the fracture. According to the Kaeding-Miller classification; five fractures (42%) were grade III, four (33%) IV and three (25%) II. All patients were treated conservatively, with rest and analgesics, while three received vitamin D and calcium. One patient, due to delayed union, was commenced on teriparatide. CONCLUSIONS: FSFs are often misdiagnosed; therefore, they should be included in the differential diagnosis for chronic low back-or-hip pain in athletes. History of other fatigue injuries seems to be a predisposing factor. It is of paramount importance to obtain advanced imaging for identifying a FSF.


Assuntos
Fraturas de Estresse , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Adulto , Feminino , Fraturas de Estresse/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas de Estresse/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sacro/diagnóstico por imagem , Sacro/lesões , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Teriparatida
8.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(10): 646-654, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation catheter ablation (AFCA) should be considered as a strategy to avoid pacemaker (PM) implantation for patients with bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome (BTS), but lack of evidence is remarkable. METHODS: Our aim was to conduct a random-effects model meta-analysis on safety and efficacy data from controlled trials and observational studies. We compared atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence, AF progression, procedural complication, additional procedure, cardiovascular death, cardiovascular hospitalization, heart failure and stroke in patients undergoing AFCA vs. PM implantation. RESULTS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Database and Google Scholar were screened, and four retrospective studies were selected. A total of 776 patients (371 in the AFCA group, 405 in the PM group) were included. After a median follow-up of 67.5 months, lower AF recurrence [odds ratio (OR) 0.06, confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.18, I2 = 82.42%, P < 0.001], AF progression (OR 0.12, CI 0.06-0.26, I2 = 0%, P < 0.001), heart failure (OR 0.12, CI 0.04-0.34, I2 = 0%, P < 0.001), and stroke (OR 0.30, CI 0.15-0.61, I2 = 0%, P = 0.001) were observed in the AFCA group. No differences were observed in cardiovascular death and hospitalization (OR 0.48, CI 0.10-2.28, I2 = 0%, P = 0.358 and OR 0.43, CI 0.14-1.29, I2 = 87.52%, P = 0.134, respectively). Higher need for additional procedures in the AFCA group was highlighted (OR 3.65, CI 1.51-8.84, I2 = 53.75%, P < 0.001). PM implantation was avoided in 91% of BTS patients undergoing AFCA. CONCLUSIONS: AFCA in BTS patients seems to be more effective than PM implantation in reducing AF recurrence and PM implantation may be waived in most BTS patients treated by AFCA. Need for additional procedures in AFCA patients is balanced by long-term benefit in clinical end points.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Bradicardia/diagnóstico , Bradicardia/terapia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Taquicardia
9.
JBI Evid Synth ; 20(9): 2378-2386, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) in combination with radiotherapy for the treatment of solid organ malignancies. INTRODUCTION: Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a diverse class of drugs that have shown promise as novel anti-cancer therapeutics via epigenetic modification and radiosensitization of neoplastic cells. The aim of HDACi in combination with radiotherapy is to reduce radiation dosage requirements, improve radiotherapy efficacy, and reduce treatment side effects. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider studies utilizing HDACi in conjunction with radiotherapy in adult patients with solid organ malignancy. Sources to be included in this review include experimental and quasi-experimental study designs, analytical studies, and descriptive observational studies. METHODS: A systematic review of effectiveness will be conducted in accordance with JBI methodology. A detailed search will be conducted via MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), and Scopus. A search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov will also be performed for relevant trials. Inclusion and exclusion criteria will be utilized to select studies, and papers selected for retrieval will be assessed for methodological validity using the JBI critical appraisal instruments. Evidence will be extracted from eligible studies and summarized using quantitative methods, where possible, including meta-analysis and assessment of heterogeneity. Where statistical pooling is not possible, the findings will be presented in diagrammatic or tabular form accompanied by a narrative summary. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42021293005.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases , Neoplasias , Adulto , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 17(1): 222, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050776

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute Type A Aortic Dissection (ATAAD) is a cardiothoracic emergency that requires urgent intervention. Elderly status, particularly age over 80, is an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity. The mid-term outcomes of this age group are also unknown. This systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was therefore performed to analyse short- and mid-term mortality and morbidity in octogenarians following surgery for ATAAD. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted for studies published since January 2000. The primary endpoint was short-term mortality, either reported as 30-day mortality or in-hospital mortality and medium-term (five year) survival. Secondary endpoints were rates of postoperative complications, namely stroke, acute renal failure (ARF), re-exploration and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: A total of 16 retrospective studies, with a total of 16, 641 patients were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Pooled analysis demonstrated that octogenarian cohorts are at significantly higher risk of short-term mortality than non-octogenarians (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.33-2.81; P < 0.001). Actuarial survival was significantly lower in the octogenarian cohort, with a five-year survival in the octogenarian cohort of 54% compared to 76% in the non-octogenarian cohort (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the cohorts in terms of secondary outcomes: stroke, ARF, re-exploration or ICU LOS. CONCLUSION: Octogenarians are twice as likely to die in the short-term following surgery for ATAAD and demonstrate a significantly lower five-year actuarial survival. Patients and family members should be well informed of the risks of surgery and suitable octogenarians selected for surgery.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 923485, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052001

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes life-threatening with the high-fatality rates and spreads with high-infectious disease worldwide. We aimed to systematically review the comorbidities and complications of COVID-19 that are associated with various disease severity, progression, and mortality in China, to provide contemporary and reliable estimates in settings with centralized isolation and hospitalization. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched four main English language databases, and four main Chinese language databases for observational studies published from inception to January 2022, to identify all the related comorbidities and complications of COVID-19, in the China region with centralized isolation and hospitalization, with disease severity, progression, and mortality. Literature search, data extraction, and quality assessment were independently conducted by two reviewers. We used the generalized linear mixed model to estimate pooled effect sizes for any comorbidities and complications, and subgroup in gender ratio was done to further address the potential heterogeneity. Results: Overall, 187 studies describing 77,013 patients, namely, 54 different comorbidities and 46 various complications of COVID-19, were identified who met our inclusion criteria. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension [20.37% 95% CI (15.28-26.63), 19.29% (16.17-22.85), 34.72% (31.48-38.10), and 43.94% (38.94-49.06)] and diabetes [7.84% (5.78-10.54), 8.59% (7.25-10.16), 17.99% (16.29-19.84), and 22.68% (19.93-25.69)] in mild, moderate, severe, and critical cases. The most prevalent complications were liver injury [10.00% (1.39-46.72), 23.04% (14.20-35.13), and 43.48% (39.88-47.15)] in mild, moderate, and severe cases, and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS; 94.17% (20.78-99.90)] and respiratory failure [90.69% (28.08-99.59)] in critical cases. Renal insufficiency [odds ratio (OR) 17.43 (6.69-45.43)] in comorbidities and respiratory failure [OR 105.12 (49.48-223.33)] in complications were strongly associated in severe/critical than in mild/moderate cases. The highest estimated risk in intensive care unit (ICU) admission, progression, and mortality was an autoimmune disease, nervous system disease, and stroke in comorbidities, shock, and ARDS in complications. Conclusion: Comorbidities and complications in inpatients with COVID-19 were positively associated with increased risk in severe and critical cases, ICU admission, exacerbation, and death during centralized isolation and hospitalization. Prompt identification of comorbidities and complications in inpatients with COVID-19 can enhance the prevention of disease progression and death and improve the precision of risk predictions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Insuficiência Respiratória , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e067219, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113946

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our previous pilot work suggests relational harm reduction strengthens relationships between people with HIV (PWH) who use drugs and their healthcare providers and improves HIV health outcomes. However, there is limited research examining ways that structural (eg, strategies like syringe service programmes) and/or relational (patient-provider relationship) harm reduction approaches in HIV clinical settings can mitigate experiences of stigma, affect patient-provider relationships and improve outcomes for PWH who use drugs. Our mixed methods, multisite, observational study aims to fill this knowledge gap and develop an intervention to operationalise harm reduction care for PWH who use drugs in HIV clinical settings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Aim 1 will explore the relationship between healthcare providers' stigmatising attitudes towards working with PWH who use drugs and providers' acceptance and practice of structural and relational harm reduction through surveys (n=125) and interviews (n=20) with providers. Aim 2 will explore the interplay between patient-perceived harm reduction, intersectional stigma and clinical outcomes related to HIV, hepatitis C (if applicable) and substance use-related outcomes through surveys (n=500) and focus groups (k=6, total n=36) with PWH who use drugs. We will also psychometrically evaluate a 25-item scale we previously developed to assess relational harm reduction, the Patient Assessment of Provider Harm Reduction Scale. Aim 3 will use human-centred design approaches to develop and pretest an intervention to operationalise harm reduction care for PWH who use drugs in HIV clinical settings. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved via expedited review by the University of Pittsburgh Institutional Review Board (STUDY21090002). Study findings will be presented in peer-reviewed journals and public health conferences as well as shared with patient participants, community advisory boards and harm reduction organisations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05404750.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estigma Social
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e066382, 2022 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115679

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Maternal sepsis remains a leading cause of death in pregnancy. Physiological adaptations to pregnancy obscure early signs of sepsis and can result in delays in recognition and treatment. Identifying biomarkers that can reliably diagnose sepsis will reduce morbidity and mortality and antibiotic overuse. We have previously identified an immune-metabolic biomarker network comprising three pathways with a >99% accuracy for detecting bacterial neonatal sepsis. In this prospective study, we will describe physiological parameters and novel biomarkers in two cohorts-healthy pregnant women and pregnant women with suspected sepsis-with the aim of mapping pathophysiological drivers and evaluating predictive biomarkers for diagnosing maternal sepsis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Women aged over 18 with an ultrasound-confirmed pregnancy will be recruited to a pilot and two main study cohorts. The pilot will involve blood sample collection from 30 pregnant women undergoing an elective caesarean section. Cohort A will follow 100 healthy pregnant women throughout their pregnancy journey, with collection of blood samples from participants at routine time points in their pregnancy: week 12 'booking', week 28 and during labour. Cohort B will follow 100 pregnant women who present with suspected sepsis in pregnancy or labour and will have at least two blood samples taken during their care pathway. Study blood samples will be collected during routine clinical blood sampling. Detailed medical history and physiological parameters at the time of blood sampling will be recorded, along with the results of routine biochemical tests, including C reactive protein, lactate and white blood cell count. In addition, study blood samples will be processed and analysed for transcriptomic, lipidomic and metabolomic analyses and both qualitative and functional immunophenotyping. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the Wales Research Ethics Committee 2 (SPON1752-19, 30 October 2019). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05023954.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Sepse , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Cesárea , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactatos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Gestantes , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0272743, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121802

RESUMO

Adverse drug events are significant causes of emergency department visits. Systematic evaluation of adverse drug events leading to emergency department visits by age is lacking. This multicenter retrospective observational study evaluated the prevalence and features of adverse drug event-related emergency department visits across ages. We reviewed emergency department medical records obtained from three university hospitals between July 2014 and December 2014. The proportion of adverse drug events among total emergency department visits was calculated. The cause, severity, preventability, and causative drug(s) of each adverse drug event were analyzed and compared between age groups (children/adolescents [<18 years], adults [18-64 years], and the elderly [≥65 years]). Of 59,428 emergency department visits, 2,104 (3.5%) were adverse drug event-related. Adverse drug event-related emergency department visits were more likely to be female and older. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to non- adverse drug event-related cases, adverse drug event-related emergency department visitors were more likely to be female (60.6% vs. 53.6%, p<0.001, OR 1.285, 95% CI 1.025-1.603) and older (50.8 ± 24.6 years vs. 37.7 ± 24.4 years, p<0.001, OR 1.892, 95% CI: 1.397-2.297). Comorbidities such as diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, and malignancies were also significantly associated with adverse drug event-related emergency department visits. Side effects were the most common type of adverse drug events across age groups, although main types differed substantially depending on age. Serious adverse drug events, hospitalizations, and adverse drug event-related deaths occurred more frequently in the elderly than in adults or children/adolescents. The proportion of adverse drug event-related emergency department visits that were preventable was 15.3%. Causative drugs of adverse drug events varied considerably depending on age group. Adverse drug event features differ substantially according to age group. The findings suggest that an age-specific approach should be adopted in the preventive strategies to reduce adverse drug events.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Biomedica ; 42(3): 479-491, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122288

RESUMO

Introduction: Paraquat is an agrochemical that constitutes the first cause of death by poisoning in different countries. Objective: To relate sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with the final condition of patients intoxicated by paraquat in a hospital in southwestern Colombia. Materials and methods: This was an observational, descriptive, analytical, crosssectional, and retrospective study. We reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with paraquat poisoning at a level III hospital in Pasto, Colombia, from 2013 to 2018. We collected the data regarding their final condition (alive or deceased) and their sociodemographic, clinical, and paraclinical information. We established group comparisons and designed a binary logistic regression model. Results: We reviewed 299 records and, after the exclusion, we analyzed 160 cases. The characteristics related to the final condition of the patients were length of stay (OR = 0.124; 95% CI: 0.03-0.6; p = 0.009), heart rate (OR = 35.65; 95% CI: 1.44-884.78; p = 0.029), and initial creatinine (OR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.23-2.44; p = 0.002). Conclusion: The proportion of case fatality was higher in patients with short hospital stay times and elevated heart rates and admission creatinine levels. This report may be useful as a rationale for the creation of a severity scale for the early detection of patients with adverse outcomes and their timely treatment.


Introducción. El herbicida paraquat constituye la primera causa de decesos por intoxicaciones en distintos países. Objetivo. Relacionar las características sociodemográficas y clínicas con la condición final de pacientes intoxicados por paraquat atendidos en un hospital del suroccidente de Colombia. Materiales y métodos. En este estudio observacional, descriptivo, analítico, transversal y retrospectivo, se revisaron las historias clínicas de pacientes atendidos por intoxicación con paraquat en una institución de tercer nivel de complejidad en Pasto (Colombia) entre el 2013 y el 2018. Se recolectó la información sobre la condición final (vivo o fallecido) de cada paciente, así como los datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y de los exámenes paraclínicos. Se establecieron comparaciones por grupos y se diseñó un modelo de regresión logística binaria. Resultados. Se filtró la información de 299 registros y se analizaron finalmente 160 casos. Las características relacionadas con la condición final de los pacientes fueron el tiempo de estancia (OR=0,124; IC95% 0,03-0,6; p=0,009), la frecuencia cardiaca (OR=35,65; IC95% 1,44-884,78; p=0,029) y la creatinina inicial (OR=1,73; IC95% 1,23-2,44; p=0,002). Conclusiones. La proporción de la letalidad fue mayor entre los pacientes con estancia hospitalaria corta, taquicardia y elevación de la concentración sérica de creatinina al ingreso. Este reporte puede ser útil como fundamento de una escala de gravedad para detectar a los pacientes con resultados adversos en la fase temprana para que puedan recibir una intervención oportuna.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Paraquat , Agroquímicos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Creatinina , Hospitais , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e061334, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127090

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer has important prognostic implications. Dynamic prediction of tumour regression by NAC may allow for adaption of the treatment plan before completion, or even before the start of treatment. Such predictions may help prevent overtreatment and related toxicity and correct for undertreatment with ineffective regimens. Current imaging methods are not able to fully predict the efficacy of NAC. To successfully improve response prediction, tumour biology and heterogeneity as well as treatment-induced changes have to be considered. In the LIMA study, multiparametric MRI will be combined with liquid biopsies. In addition to conventional clinical and pathological information, these methods may give complementary information at multiple time points during treatment. AIM: To combine multiparametric MRI and liquid biopsies in patients with breast cancer to predict residual cancer burden (RCB) after NAC, in adjunct to standard clinico-pathological information. Predictions will be made before the start of NAC, approximately halfway during treatment and after completion of NAC. METHODS: In this multicentre prospective observational study we aim to enrol 100 patients. Multiparametric MRI will be performed prior to NAC, approximately halfway and after completion of NAC. Liquid biopsies will be obtained immediately prior to every cycle of chemotherapy and after completion of NAC. The primary endpoint is RCB in the surgical resection specimen following NAC. Collected data will primarily be analysed using multivariable techniques such as penalised regression techniques. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Medical Research Ethics Committee Utrecht has approved this study (NL67308.041.19). Informed consent will be obtained from each participant. All data are anonymised before publication. The findings of this study will be submitted to international peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04223492.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e062088, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123092

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common complications after abdominal surgery and develop in approximately 20% of patients. These patients suffer a 12% increase in mortality, underlying the need for strategies reducing SSI. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis is paramount for SSI prevention in major abdominal surgery. Yet, intraoperative redosing criteria are subjective and whether patients benefit from it remains unclear. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The REpeat versus SIngle ShoT Antibiotic prophylaxis in major Abdominal Surgery (RESISTAAS I) study is a single-centre, prospective, observational study investigating redosing of antibiotic prophylaxis in 300 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Adult patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery will be included. Current practice of redosing regarding number and time period will be recorded. Postoperative SSIs, nosocomial infections, clinically relevant infection-associated bacteria, postoperative antibiotic treatment, in addition to other clinical, pharmacological and economical outcomes will be evaluated. Differences between groups will be analysed with analysis of covariance. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: RESISTAAS I will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and internal, national and international standards of GCP. The Medical Ethics Review Board of Heidelberg University has approved the study prior to initiation (S-404/2021). The study has been registered on 7 February 2022 at German Clinical Trials Register, with identifier DRKS00027892. We plan to disseminate the results of the study in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS): DRKS00027892.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 296: 9-16, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073483

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Verbal probabilities such as "likely" or "probable" are commonly used to describe situations of uncertainty or risk and are easy and natural to most people. Numerous studies are devoted to the translation of verbal probability expressions to numerical probabilities. METHODS: The present work aims to summarize existing research on the numerical interpretation of verbal probabilities. This was accomplished by means of a systematic literature review and meta-analysis conducted alongside the MOOSE-guidelines for meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology. Studies were included, if they provided empirical assignments of verbal probabilities to numerical values. RESULTS: The literature search identified 181 publications and finally led to 21 included articles and the procession of 35 verbal probability expressions. Sample size of the studies ranged from 11 to 683 participants and covered a period of half a century from 1967 to 2018. In half of the studies, verbal probabilities were delivered in a neutral context followed by a medical context. Mean values of the verbal probabilities range from 7.24% for the term "impossible" up to 94.79% for the term "definite". DISCUSSION: According to the results, there is a common 'across-study' consensus of 35 probability expressions for describing different degrees of probability, whose numerical interpretation follows a linear course. However, heterogeneity of studies was considerably high and should be considered as a limiting factor.


Assuntos
Probabilidade , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Incerteza
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e059644, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129681

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies on transoesophageal echocardiography in coronary artery bypass grafting mainly focused on whether to change the surgical plan rather than improve the clinical prognosis. Currently, there are sparse studies on the relationship between transoesophageal echocardiography indicators and the prognosis of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The primary aim of this study is to explore the association between transoesophageal echocardiography monitoring indicators the respiratory variability of inferior vena cava diameter, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and the incidence of acute kidney injury in coronary artery bypass grafting patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We designed this prospective multicenter cohort study, which included approximately 150 adult patients (≥18 years) undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Different hospitals will be assessed to obtain information on the prevalence, risk factors, management strategies and outcomes in coronary artery bypass surgery. The cohort will be followed after the coronary artery bypass surgery period, up to 30 days after enrolment. The incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury and baseline data will be presented by descriptive statistics. We will use Freidman inspection and multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between transoesophageal echocardiography monitoring indicators and the incidence of acute kidney injury in coronary artery bypass grafting patients. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the ethics committee of Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, China (approval number: YXLL-KY-2021(067)). This is an observational study that poses no risk to the patients. All participants will obtain informed consent according to the ethics committee before patient enrolment. Funding sources will have no influence on data handling, analyses or writing of the manuscript. The article is planned for submission in an international peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05139108.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/efeitos adversos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273818, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a global threat affecting 210 countries, with 2,177,469 confirmed cases and 6.67% case fatality rate as of April 16, 2020. In Africa, 17,243 cases have been confirmed, but many remain undiagnosed due to limited laboratory-capacity, suboptimal performance of used molecular-assays (~30% false negative, Yu et al. and Zhao et al., 2020) and limited WHO-recommended rapid-tests. OBJECTIVES: We aim to implement measures to minimize risks for COVID-19 in Cameroon, putting together multidisciplinary highly-experienced virologists, immunologists, bioinformaticians and clinicians, to achieve the following objectives: (a) to integrate/improve available-infrastructure, methodologies, and expertise on COVID-19. For this purpose, we will create a platform enabling researchers/clinicians to better integrate and translate evidence into the COVID-19 clinical-practice; (b) to enhance capacities in Cameroon for screening/detecting individuals with high-risks of COVID-19, by setting-up effective core-facilities on-site; (c) to validate point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 molecular assays allowing same-day result delivery, thus permitting timely diagnosis, treatment, and retention in care of COVID-19 patients; (d) to implement SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis with innovative/highly sensitive ddPCR-based assays and viral genetic characterization; (e) to validate serological assays to identify COVID-19-exposed persons and follow-up of convalescents. METHODS: This is a prospective, observational study conducted among COVID-19 suspects/contacts during 24 months in Cameroon. Following consecutive sampling of 1,536 individuals, oro/nasopharyngeal swabs and sera will be collected. Well characterised biorepositories will be established locally; molecular testing will be performed on conventional real-time qPCR, point-of-care GeneXpert, antigen-tests and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR); SARS-CoV2 amplicons will be sequenced; serological testing will be performed using ELISA, and antibody-based kits. Sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values will be evaluated. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: These efforts will contribute in creating the technical and clinical environment to facilitate earlier detection of Sars-CoV-2 in Africa in general and in Cameroon in particular. Specifically, the goals will be: (a) to implement technology transfer for capacity-building on conventional and point-of-care molecular assays, achieving a desirable performance for clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV2; (b) to integrate/improve the available infrastructure, methodologies, and expertise on Sars-CoV2 detection; (c) to improve the turn-around-time for diagnosing COVID-19 infection with obvious advantage for patients/clinical management thanks to low-cost assays, thus permitting timely treatment and retention in care; (d) to assess the epidemiology of COVID-19 and circulating-variants in Cameroon as compared to strains found in other countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Camarões/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , RNA Viral , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/métodos
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