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1.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(2)mayo.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1252327

RESUMO

La gastroenteritis causada por rotavirus constituye un importante problema de salud mundial, por lo que se recomienda incluir la vacunación contra el rotavirus en los programas de inmunización. Para evaluar el impacto de una futura introducción en Cuba de una vacuna contra este patógeno, resulta necesario crear una línea de base pre-vacunación de la carga de la gastroenteritis causada por este virus. Entre noviembre 2017 a abril 2018 se implementó en el Hospital Pediátrico de Centro Habana un sistema de vigilancia para la gastroenteritis causada por rotavirus. Se establecieron las definiciones para las categorías de caso sospechoso, probable y confirmado. Por cada niño captado se recogió una muestra de heces que se analizó con tiras rápidas y se confirmó la presencia de rotavirus por ELISA. Para determinar la severidad de la enfermedad se utilizó la escala de Vesikari. Los resultados fueron expresados en cifras absolutas y relativas, el análisis se realizó a través de la prueba de chi-cuadrado. Del total de ingresos por enfermedad diarreica aguda, el 26 por ciento cumplió los criterios de inclusión y el 46 por ciento resultó confirmado como rotavirus. El hacinamiento en el hogar y asistir al círculo infantil se comportaron como factores de riesgo. El servicio de gastroenterología absorbió la mayor carga de ingresos hospitalarios por esta causa. Los resultados mostrados validan la funcionalidad del sistema de vigilancia implementado y brindan nuevas evidencias sobre la carga de la enfermedad y la utilización de los servicios de un hospital pediátrico cubano, debido a la gastroenteritis provocada por rotavirus, lo que justifica la introducción de la vacuna(AU)


Gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus is a major global health problem, therefore it is recommended that vaccination against rotavirus be included in immunization programs. To evaluate the impact of a future introduction in Cuba of a vaccine against this pathogen, it is necessary to have a pre-vaccination baseline of the burden of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Between November 2017 and April 2018, a surveillance system for gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus was implemented in the Paediatric Hospital of Centro Habana. Definitions were established for the categories of suspected, probable and confirmed cases. For each captured child, stool samples were collected, analyzed with rapid strips and confirmated by ELISA. To determine the severity of the disease, the Vesikari score was used. The results were expressed in absolute and relative figures; the analysis was performed through chi-square. Of the total admissions for acute diarrheal disease, 26 percent met the inclusion criteria and 46 percent were confirmed for rotavirus. Overcrowding at home and attending a day care center were risk factors. The gastroenterology service absorbed the greatest burden of hospital admissions for this cause. The results shown validate the role of the implemented surveillance system and provide new evidence on the burden of disease and use of services for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a cuban pediatric hospital(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Diarreia/etiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Cuba , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
2.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61(1): 45, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238376

RESUMO

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread rapidly, there are still many unresolved questions of how this virus would impact on autoimmune inflammatory joint diseases and autoinflammatory disorders. The main aim of this paper is to describe the main studies focusing their attention on COVID-19 incidence and outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondylarthritis (SpA), and autoinflammatory disease cohorts. We also revised possible pathogenic mechanisms associated with. Available data suggest that, in patients with RA and SpA, the immunosuppressive therapy, older age, male sex, and the presence of comorbidities (hypertension, lung disease, diabetes, CVD, and chronic renal insufficiency/end-stage renal disease) could be associated with an increased risk of infections and high rate of hospitalization. Other studies have shown that lower odds of hospitalization were associated with bDMARD or tsDMARDs monotherapy, driven largely by anti-TNF therapies. For autoinflammatory diseases, considering the possibility that COVID-19 could be associated with a cytokine storm syndrome, the question of the susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients displaying innate immunity disorders has been raised. In this context, data are very scarce and studies available did not clarify if having an autoinflammatory disorder could be or not a risk factor to develop a more severe COVID-19. Taking together these observations, further studies are likely to be needed to fully characterize these specific patient groups and associated SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/complicações , Fatores Etários , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Comorbidade , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Espondilartrite/complicações
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 663, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high mortality rate, especially in patients with severe illness. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the potential predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and three electronic Chinese databases were searched from December 1, 2019 to April 29, 2020. Eligible studies reporting potential predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19 were identified. Unadjusted prognostic effect estimates were pooled using the random-effects model if data from at least two studies were available. Adjusted prognostic effect estimates were presented by qualitative analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-six observational studies were identified, of which 27 were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 106 potential risk factors were tested, and the following important predictors were associated with mortality: advanced age, male sex, current smoking status, preexisting comorbidities (especially chronic kidney, respiratory, and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases), symptoms of dyspnea, complications during hospitalization, corticosteroid therapy and a severe condition. Additionally, a series of abnormal laboratory biomarkers of hematologic parameters, hepatorenal function, inflammation, coagulation, and cardiovascular injury were also associated with fatal outcome. CONCLUSION: We identified predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19. These findings could help healthcare providers take appropriate measures and improve clinical outcomes in such patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Distribuição por Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 268, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of postmenopausal breast cancer (PMBC) survivors do not adhere to lifestyle recommendations and have excess body weight. In this group, this is associated with poorer health-related quality of life and an increased risk of type II diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, second primary cancers, cancer recurrences, and mortality. Gaining and maintaining a healthy lifestyle and body composition is therefore important. It is unknown when and how sustained adherence to these recommendations can be promoted optimally in PMBC survivors. Therefore, the OPTIMUM study aims to identify the optimal timing and method for promoting sustained adherence to lifestyle and body weight recommendations in PMBC survivors. METHODS: The OPTIMUM-study has a mixed-methods design. To assess optimal timing, a longitudinal observational study will be conducted among approximately 1000 PMBC survivors. The primary outcomes are adherence to lifestyle and body weight recommendations, readiness for change, and need for support. Questionnaires will be administered at 4-6 months after cancer diagnosis (wave 1: during treatment and retrospectively before diagnosis), 1 year after diagnosis (wave 2: after completion of initial treatment), and 1.5 years after diagnosis (wave 3: during follow-up). Wave 2 and 3 include blood sampling, and either wearing an accelerometer for 7 days or completing a 3-day online food diary (randomly assigned at hospital level). To assess the optimal method, behavioural determinants of the primary outcomes will be matched with Behavior Change Techniques using the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy. Qualitative research methods will be used to explore perceptions, needs and preferences of PMBC survivors (semi-structured interviews, focus groups) and health care providers (Delphi study). Topics include perceptions on optimal timing to promote adherence; facilitators and motivators of, and barriers towards (sustained) adherence to recommendations; and acceptability of the selected methods. DISCUSSION: The OPTIMUM study aims to gain scientific knowledge on when and how to promote sustained adherence to lifestyle and body weight recommendations among PBMC survivors. This knowledge can be incorporated into guidelines for tailored promotion in clinical practice to improve health outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Peso Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Estilo de Vida , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pós-Menopausa , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobreviventes
5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205679

RESUMO

A protective effect of vegan diets on health outcomes has been observed in previous studies, but its impact on diabetes is still debated. The aim of this review is to assess the relationship between vegan diets and the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) along with its effect on glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. In accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, Pubmed and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched for all relevant studies. Seven observational and eight randomized controlled (RCTs) studies were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for RCTs. We found that a vegan diet is associated with lower T2D prevalence or incidence and in T2D patients decreases high glucose values and improves glucose homeostasis, as reported from the majority of included studies. This approach seems to be comparable to other recommended healthful eating models, but as it may have potential adverse effects associated with the long-term exclusion of some nutrients, appropriate nutritional planning and surveillance are recommended, particularly in specific groups of diabetic patients such as frail elderly, adolescents, and pregnant or breastfeeding women.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta Vegana , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e051706, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 may lead to persistent and potentially incapacitating clinical manifestations (post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC)). Using easy-to-apply questionnaires and scales (often by telephone interviewing), several studies evaluated samples of COVID-19 inpatients from 4 weeks to several months after discharge. However, studies conducting systematic multidisciplinary assessments of PASC manifestations are scarce, with thorough in-person objective evaluations restricted to modestly sized subsamples presenting greatest disease severity. METHODS AND ANALYSES: We will conduct a prospective observational study of surviving individuals (above 18 years of age) from a cohort of over 3000 subjects with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were treated as inpatients at the largest academic health centre in Sao Paulo, Brazil (Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo). All eligible subjects will be consecutively invited to undergo a 1-2-day series of multidisciplinary assessments at 2 time-points, respectively, at 6-9 months and 12-15 months after discharge. Assessment schedules will include detailed multidomain questionnaires applied by medical research staff, self-report scales, objective evaluations of cardiopulmonary functioning, physical functionality and olfactory status, standardised neurological, psychiatric and cognitive examinations, as well as diagnostic laboratory, muscle ultrasound and chest imaging exams. Remaining material from blood tests will be incorporated by a local biobank for use in future investigations on inflammatory markers, genomics, transcriptomics, peptidomics and metabolomics. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All components of this programme have been approved by local research ethics committees. We aim to provide insights into the frequency and severity of chronic/post-COVID multiorgan symptoms, as well as their interrelationships and associations with acute disease features, sociodemographic variables and environmental exposures. Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific meetings. Additionally, we aim to provide a data repository to allow future pathophysiological investigations relating clinical PASC features to biomarker data extracted from blood samples. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: RBR-8z7v5wc; Pre-results.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brasil , COVID-19/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e051278, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215614

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cough is a common symptom of COVID-19 and other respiratory illnesses. However, objectively measuring its frequency and evolution is hindered by the lack of reliable and scalable monitoring systems. This can be overcome by newly developed artificial intelligence models that exploit the portability of smartphones. In the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, cough detection for respiratory disease syndromic surveillance represents a simple means for early outbreak detection and disease surveillance. In this protocol, we evaluate the ability of population-based digital cough surveillance to predict the incidence of respiratory diseases at population level in Navarra, Spain, while assessing individual determinants of uptake of these platforms. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Participants in the Cendea de Cizur, Zizur Mayor or attending the local University of Navarra (Pamplona) will be invited to monitor their night-time cough using the smartphone app Hyfe Cough Tracker. Detected coughs will be aggregated in time and space. Incidence of COVID-19 and other diagnosed respiratory diseases within the participants cohort, and the study area and population will be collected from local health facilities and used to carry out an autoregressive moving average analysis on those independent time series. In a mixed-methods design, we will explore barriers and facilitators of continuous digital cough monitoring by evaluating participation patterns and sociodemographic characteristics. Participants will fill an acceptability questionnaire and a subgroup will participate in focus group discussions. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Canada and the Medical Research Ethics Committee of Navarre, Spain. Preliminary findings will be shared with civil and health authorities and reported to individual participants. Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed scientific journals and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04762693.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Acústica , Inteligência Artificial , Canadá , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(2): e1049, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280215

RESUMO

Introducción: El cáncer de colon mantiene un importante impacto social y una alta morbilidad a pesar de programas de detección precoz existentes. Ocupa el cuarto lugar entre los tumores malignos y un número importante de pacientes son operados de urgencia por las complicaciones de esta enfermedad, muchas veces desconocida hasta el momento de la cirugía. Objetivo: Caracterizar la cirugía de urgencia realizada a los pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer de colon complicado. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal entre enero de 2014 y diciembre de 2016, en el Servicio de Cirugía General. La muestra fue de 96 pacientes portadores de esta entidad en el Hospital Universitario "General Calixto García". Resultados: Se analizó la incidencia según sexo, relación sexo/localización, relación localización/complicación, estadificación y mortalidad. Prevalecieron los tumores de colon en el sexo femenino y por ende fueron más frecuente las pacientes con complicaciones quirúrgicas por esta entidad en nuestro centro. Predominó la localización derecha globalmente, con predominio femenino. La oclusión intestinal fue la complicación más frecuente. Sobresalió el estadio II según TNM con un 37,5 por ciento y una mortalidad postoperatoria del 31 por ciento. Conclusiones: Nuestros datos coinciden con la tendencia nacional sobre la mayor incidencia del cáncer de colon en pacientes femeninas, son estas las que mayor tasa de morbilidad y mortalidad reportan. Seguir perfeccionando el programa de prevención y detección temprana de la entidad y su tratamiento oportuno causará la reducción de los índices que hoy se exhiben(AU)


Introduction: Colon cancer still has an important social impact and high morbidity despite existing early detection programs. It ranks fourth among malignant tumors, while a significant number of patients undergo emergency surgery for complications of this disease, many times unknown until the time of surgery. Objective: To characterize the emergency surgery performed to patients with a diagnosis of complicated colon cancer. Method: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out, between January 2014 and December 2016, in the general surgery service. The sample consisted of 96 patients with this entity and from General Calixto García University Hospital. Results: The incidence was analyzed according to sex, sex/location relationship, location/complication relationship, staging and mortality. Colon tumors prevailed in the female sex and, therefore, patients with surgical complications from this entity were more frequent in our center. There right location predominated globally, with a predominance in the female sex. Intestinal obstruction was the most frequent complication. Stage two, according to the TNM classification, stood out, accounting for 37.5 percent, together with a postoperative mortality of 31 percent. Conclusions: Our data coincide with the national trend on the highest incidence of colon cancer in female patients, who account for the highest morbidity and mortality rates. Continuing to improve the entity's prevention and early detection program, as well as its timely treatment, will bring about a reduction in the rates nowadays reported(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Emergências , Obstrução Intestinal/complicações , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
11.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 28(4): 405-416, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181203

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The safety of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) among COVID-19 patients has been controversial since the onset of the pandemic. METHODS: Digital databases were queried to study the safety of RAASi in COVID-19. The primary outcome of interest was mortality. The secondary outcome was seropositivity improvement/viral clearance, clinical manifestation progression, and progression to intensive care units. A random-effect model was used to compute an unadjusted odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: A total of 49 observational studies were included in the analysis consisting of 83,269 COVID-19 patients (RAASi n = 34,691; non-RAASi n = 48,578). The mean age of the sample was 64, and 56% were males. We found that RAASi was associated with similar mortality outcomes as compared to non-RAASi groups (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.99-1.15; p > 0.05). RAASi was associated with seropositivity improvement including negative RT-PCR or antibodies, (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.99; p < 0.05). There was no association between RAASi versus control with progression to ICU admission (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.79-1.23; p > 0.05) or higher odds of worsening of clinical manifestations (OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.97-1.11; p > 0.05). Metaregression analysis did not change our outcomes for effect modifiers including age, sex, comorbidities, RAASi type, or study type on outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is not a contraindication to hold or discontinue RAASi as they are not associated with higher mortality or worsening symptoms. Continuation of RAASi might be associated with favorable outcomes in COVID-19, including seropositivity/viral clearance.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Contraindicações de Medicamentos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26329, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190150

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of burnout among medical students in China.A systematic search from the following electronic databases: China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wangfang database, VIP database, Chinese biomedical literature database, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar was independently conducted by 2 reviewers from inception to September 2019. The data were analyzed using stata software Version 11. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 tests, and publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots and Egger's test. The source of heterogeneity among subgroups was determined by subgroup analysis of different parameters.A total of 48 articles with a sample size of 29,020 met the inclusion criteria. The aggregate prevalence of learning burnout was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 38.1%-53.8%). The prevalence rate of high emotional exhaustion was 37.5% (95% CI: 21.4%-53.7%). The percentage was 44.0% (95% CI: 29.2%-58.8%) for low personal accomplishment. The prevalence rate was 36.0% (95% CI: 23.0%-48.9%) in depersonalization dimension. In the subgroup analysis by specialty, the prevalence of burnout was 30.3% (95% CI: 28.6%-32.0%) for clinical medicine and 43.8% (95% CI: 41.8%-45.8%) for other medical specialties. The total prevalence of burnout between men and women was 46.4% (95% CI: 44.8%-47.9%) and 46.6% (95% CI: 45.5%-47.6%), respectively. The prevalence of burnout with Rong Lian's scale was 43.7% (42.1%-45.2%), and that with the other scales was 51.4% (50.4%-52.4%). The prevalence rates were 62.9% (61.3%-64.6%), 58.7% (56.3%-61.1%), 46.5% (42.9%-50.2%), and 56.0% (51.6%-60.4%) from Grades 1 to 4, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference among the different grades (P = .000).Our findings suggest a high prevalence of burnout among medical students. Society, universities, and families should take appropriate measures and allot more care to prevent burnout among medical students.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Despersonalização/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prevalência
13.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068512

RESUMO

Athletes often experience sleep disturbances and poor sleep as a consequence of extended travel, the timing of training and competition (i.e., early morning or evening), and muscle soreness. Nutrition plays a vital role in sports performance and recovery, and a variety of foods, beverages, and supplements purportedly have the capacity to improve sleep quality and quantity. Here, we review and discuss relevant studies regarding nutrition, foods, supplements, and beverages that may improve sleep quality and quantity. Our narrative review was supported by a semi-systematic approach to article searching, and specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, such that articles reviewed were relevant to athletes and sporting environments. Six databases-PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar-were searched for initial studies of interest from inception to November 2020. Given the paucity of sleep nutrition research in the athlete population, we expanded our inclusion criteria to include studies that reported the outcomes of nutritional interventions to improve sleep in otherwise healthy adults. Carbohydrate ingestion to improve sleep parameters is inconclusive, although high glycemic index foods appear to have small benefits. Tart cherry juice can promote sleep quantity, herbal supplements can enhance sleep quality, while kiwifruit and protein interventions have been shown to improve both sleep quality and quantity. Nutritional interventions are an effective way to improve sleep quality and quantity, although further research is needed to determine the appropriate dose, source, and timing in relation to training, travel, and competition requirements.


Assuntos
Atletas , Dieta , Sono , Desempenho Atlético , Bases de Dados Factuais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Mialgia/dietoterapia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Clin Rheumatol ; 40(8): 3185-3193, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study systematically compares the efficacy and adverse events of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclophosphamide (CYC) in patients with systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD). METHODS: The EMBASE and PubMed databases were systematically searched to find all relevant studies. Quality assessment, study selection, and data extraction were independently conducted by two reviewers. The mean changes in forced vital capacity (FVC)% and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco)% of the patients were selected to be primary outcome measures. Stata software was used for the pooled analysis. RESULTS: Among 284 titles screened from multiple databases, six studies met the inclusion criteria (one randomized controlled trial, three prospective observational studies, and two retrospective observational studies). The summary weighted mean difference (WMD) of FVC change in the MMF group compared with the CYC group was - 1.17 (95% CI: - 2.713, 0.373; P = 0.137), and the summary WMD of DLco change in the MMF group compared with the CYC group was 2.245 (95% CI: 0.258, 4.232; P = 0.027). Studies enrolled showed that adverse events were less common in the MMF group. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of MMF with respect to FVC and DLco improvement is comparable to that of CYC, and MMF is preferred on the basis of the occurrence of adverse events. Key Points • A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and adverse events of mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide in patients with systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease. • The efficacy of MMF with respect to FVC and DLco improvement is comparable to that of CYC, and MMF is preferred on the basis of the occurrence of adverse events.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 15(4): 653-681, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a dramatic crisis in health care systems worldwide. These may have significant implications for the management of cardiometabolic diseases. We conducted a systematic review of published evidence to assess the indirect impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospitalisations for cardiovascular diseases and their management. METHODS: Studies that evaluated volume of hospitalisations for cardiometabolic conditions and their management with comparisons between the COVID-19 and pre-COVID periods were identified from MEDLINE, Embase and the reference list of relevant studies from January 2020 to 25 February 2021. RESULTS: We identified 103 observational studies, with most studies assessing hospitalisations for acute cardiovascular conditions such as acute coronary syndrome, ischemic strokes and heart failure. About 89% of studies reported a decline in hospitalisations during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic times, with reductions ranging from 20.2 to 73%. Severe presentation, less utilization of cardiovascular procedures, and longer patient- and healthcare-related delays were common during the pandemic. Most studies reported shorter length of hospital stay during the pandemic than before the pandemic (1-8 vs 2-12 days) or no difference in length of stay. Most studies reported no change in in-hospital mortality among hospitalised patients. CONCLUSION: Clinical care of patients for acute cardiovascular conditions, their management and outcomes have been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients should be educated via population-wide approaches on the need for timely medical contact and health systems should put strategies in place to provide timely care to patients at high risk. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2021: CRD42021236102.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/mortalidade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(7): 750-760, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089064

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Due to the increasing demand for intensive care unit (ICU) treatment, and to improve quality and efficiency of care, there is a need for adequate and efficient clinical decision-making. The advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies has resulted in the development of prediction models, which might aid clinical decision-making. This systematic review seeks to give a contemporary overview of the current maturity of AI in the ICU, the research methods behind these studies, and the risk of bias in these studies. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in Embase, Medline, Web of Science Core Collection and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify eligible studies. Studies using AI to analyze ICU data were considered eligible. Specifically, the study design, study aim, dataset size, level of validation, level of readiness, and the outcomes of clinical trials were extracted. Risk of bias in individual studies was evaluated by the Prediction model Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool (PROBAST). RESULTS: Out of 6455 studies identified through literature search, 494 were included. The most common study design was retrospective [476 studies (96.4% of all studies)] followed by prospective observational [8 (1.6%)] and clinical [10 (2%)] trials. 378 (80.9%) retrospective studies were classified as high risk of bias. No studies were identified that reported on the outcome evaluation of an AI model integrated in routine clinical practice. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of developed ICU-AI models remain within the testing and prototyping environment; only a handful were actually evaluated in clinical practice. A uniform and structured approach can support the development, safe delivery, and implementation of AI to determine clinical benefit in the ICU.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e049165, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The involvement of the vestibular system in the motor and higher (cognitive) performances of typically developing or vestibular-impaired children is currently unknown or has only scarcely been explored. Interestingly, arguments for an interaction between vestibular, motor and cognitive functions in children can also be supported by research on children known for their difficulties in motor and/or cognitive processing (eg, children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD)), as they often present with vestibular-like characteristics. Therefore, in order to elucidate this interaction, and to increase the understanding of the pathophysiology and symptomatology of vestibular disorders and NDD in children, the Balanced Growth project was developed. It includes the following objectives: (1) to understand the association between motor skills, cognitive performances and the vestibular function in typically developing school-aged children, with special focus on the added value of the vestibular system in higher cognitive skills and motor competence; (2) to investigate whether a vestibular dysfunction (with/without an additional auditory disease) has an impact on motor skills, cognitive performances and motor-cognitive interactions in children and (3) to assess if an underlying vestibular dysfunction can be identified in school-aged children with NDD, with documentation of the occurrence and characteristics of vestibular dysfunctions in this group of children using an extensive vestibular test battery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In order to achieve the objectives of the observational cross-sectional Balanced Growth study, a single-task and dual-task test protocol was created, which will be performed in three groups of school-aged children (6-12 years old): (1) a typically developing group (n=140), (2) (audio) vestibular-impaired children (n=30) and (3) children with an NDD diagnosis (n=55) (ie, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or developmental coordination disorder). The test protocol consists of several custom-made tests and already existing validated test batteries and includes a vestibular assessment, an extensive motor assessment, eight neurocognitive tests, a cognitive-motor interaction assessment and includes also additional screenings to control for potential confounding factors (eg, hearing status, intelligence, physical activity, etc). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The current study was approved by the ethics committee of Ghent University Hospital on 4 June 2019 with registration number B670201940165 and is registered at Clinical Trials (clinicaltrials.gov) with identifier NCT04685746. All research findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at vestibular as well as multidisciplinary international conferences and meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04685746.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Doenças Vestibulares , Criança , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26432, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) owes an ominous prognosis: its mean overall survival is 14 months. The extent of surgical resection (ESR) highlights among factors in which an association has been found to a somewhat better prognosis. However, the association between greater ESR and prolonged overall (OS) survival is not a constant finding nor a proven cause-and-effect phenomenon. To our objective is to establish the strength of association between ESR and OS in patients with GBM through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: In accordance with PRISMA-P recommendations, we conducted a systematic literature search; we included studies with adult patients who had undergone craniotomy for GBM. Our primary outcome is overall postoperative survival at 12 and 24 months. We reviewed 180 studies, excluded 158, and eliminated 8; 14 studies that suited our requirements were analyzed. RESULTS: The initial level of evidence of all studies is low, and it may be degraded to very low according to GRADE criteria because of design issues. The definition of different levels of the extent of resection is heterogeneous and poorly defined. We found a great amount of variation in the methodology of the operation and the adjuvant treatment protocol. The combined result for relative risk (RR) for OS for 12 months analysis is 1.25 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.14-1.36, P < .01], absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 15.7% (95% CI 11.9-19.4), relative risk reduction (RRR) of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18-0.31), number needed to treat (NNT) 6; for 24-month analysis RR is 1.59 (95% CI 1.11-2.26, P < .01) ARR of 11.5% (95% CI 7.7-15.1), relative risk reduction (RRR) of 0.53 (95% CI 0.33-0.76), (NNT) 9. In each term analysis, the proportion of alive patients who underwent more extensive resection is significantly higher than those who underwent subtotal resection. CONCLUSION: Our results sustain a weak but statistically significant association between the ESR and OS in patients with GBM obtained from observational studies with a very low level of evidence according to GRADE criteria. As a consequence, any estimate of effect is very uncertain. Current information cannot sustain a cause-and-effect relationship between these variables.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26473, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment strategy for patent foramen ovale (PFO) patients with cryptic stroke remains controversial. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of PFO closure versus different types of medical therapy. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The primary efficacy endpoints were the composite outcome of recurrent stroke and/or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Secondary efficacy endpoints included separate stroke and TIA. Safety endpoints included new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF)/atrial flutter and bleeding. RESULTS: Compared with antiplatelet therapy, PFO closure significantly reduced the risk of composite outcome (odds ratio [OR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-0.51), stroke (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.13-0.36], and TIA (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.98); Compared with the mixed medical therapy group (consist of antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulant therapy, or both), PFO closure still showed some benefits, but the effect was not as significant as that of antiplatelet therapy (composite outcome: OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41-0.69; stroke: OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.34-0.68; TIA: OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.96); Compared with anticoagulant therapy, PFO closure showed no benefit (composite outcome: OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.46-1.28; stroke: OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.28-1.25; TIA: OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.50-2.04). In terms of safe endpoints, compared with antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulant therapy, PFO closure increased the risk of AF/atrial flutter (OR 9.56, 95% CI 2.85-32.06; OR 18.96, 95% CI 1.11-323.8, respectively) and reduced the risk of bleeding (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.24-1.05; OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.46, respectively); compared with mixed medical therapy, PFO closure increased the risk of AF/atrial flutter (OR 4.40,95% CI 2.24-8.67), but there was no difference in bleeding (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.56-1.68). CONCLUSIONS: With the addition of anticoagulants, the benefit of PFO closure decreased gradually. Patient groups that adopt individualized medical therapy strategies may benefit more.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Forame Oval Patente/cirurgia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Flutter Atrial/epidemiologia , Flutter Atrial/etiologia , Flutter Atrial/prevenção & controle , Seguimentos , Forame Oval Patente/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , AVC Isquêmico/prevenção & controle , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044457, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135034

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In conjunction with a beta-lactam, aminoglycosides are the first-choice antibiotic for empirical treatment of sepsis in the neonatal period. The m.1555A>G variant predisposes to ototoxicity after aminoglycoside administration and has a prevalence of 1 in 500. Current genetic testing can take over 24 hours, an unacceptable delay in the acute setting. This prospective-observational trial will implement a rapid point of care test (POCT), facilitating tailored antibiotic prescribing to avoid hearing loss. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The genedrive POCT can detect the m.1555A>G variant in 26 min from buccal swab. This system will be integrated into the clinical pathways at two large UK neonatal centres over a minimum 6-month period. The primary outcome is the number of neonates successfully tested for the variant out of all babies prescribed antibiotics. As a secondary outcome, clinical timings will be compared with data collected prior to implementation, measuring the impact on routine practice. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval for the trial was granted by the Research Ethics Committee (REC) and Human Research Authority in August 2019. Results will be published in full on completion of the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13704894. PROTOCOL VERSION: V 1.3.


Assuntos
Surdez , Farmacogenética , Audição , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Prospectivos
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