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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310094, abr. 2024. tab, fig
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1532934

RESUMO

Introducción. La asociación entre los marcadores lipídicos en la infancia/adolescencia y la incidencia de eventos clínicos cardiovasculares en la adultez está poco explorada en la literatura. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática fue analizar la evidencia disponible sobre este tema. Población y métodos. Esta revisión sistemática se realizó de acuerdo con las guías PRISMA. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica para detectar los estudios que evaluaron la asociación entre los niveles lipídicos en la edad pediátrica y la incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares en la edad adulta. No hubo restricciones idiomáticas ni geográficas en la búsqueda. Resultados. En total, cinco estudios observacionales (todas cohortes prospectivas) que incluyeron 43 540 pacientes fueron identificados y considerados elegibles para este estudio. Cuatro estudios evaluaron el nivel de triglicéridos; todos reportaron una asociación significativa entre este marcador en la edad pediátrica y los eventos cardiovasculares en la adultez. Un estudio reportó la misma asociación con el nivel de colesterol total, mientras que otro evidenció el valor predictivo de la lipoproteína (a) para el mismo desenlace clínico. Un solo estudio evaluó el colesterol asociado a lipoproteínas de alta densidad (C-HDL), sin encontrar una relación con el punto final de interés. El análisis del colesterol asociado a lipoproteínas de baja densidad (C-LDL) arrojó resultados contradictorios, aunque la asociación fue significativa en los estudios con un tamaño muestral más grande y con un mayor número de eventos durante el seguimiento. Conclusión. Los datos de esta revisión sugieren que las alteraciones de los marcadores lipídicos en la infancia y la adolescencia se asocian con un mayor riesgo cardiovascular en la adultez temprana y media.


Introduction. The association between lipid markers in childhood/adolescence and the incidence of clinical cardiovascular events in adulthood has been little explored in the bibliography. The objective of this systematic review was to analyze available evidence on this topic. Population and methods. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. A comprehensive bibliographic search was done to find studies assessing the association between lipid levels in childhood and the incidence of cardiovascular events in adulthood. There were no language or geographic restrictions. Results. A total of 5 observational studies (all prospective cohorts) including 43 540 patients were identified and considered eligible for this study. Four studies assessed triglyceride levels; all reported a significant association between this lipid marker in childhood and cardiovascular events in adulthood. A study reported the same association with total cholesterol level, while another showed the predictive value of lipoprotein (a) for the same clinical outcome. Only one study assessed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), but it did not find an association with the endpoint of interest. The analysis of lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) showed contradictory results, although the association was significant in the studies with a larger sample size and a higher number of events during follow-up. Conclusion. According to this review, alterations in lipid markers in childhood and adolescence are associated with a higher cardiovascular risk in early and middle adulthood.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Colesterol , Triglicerídeos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol
2.
Cir Pediatr ; 37(2): 55-60, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Nuss bar removal procedure may bring about different complications. Some are mild while others can be life-threatening. An adequate surgery setup and the fulfilment of some security steps may reduce their incidence. This study aims to analyze our experience with the complications that occurred during bar removal and our safety protocol for the prevention and management of these complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational cohort study from a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent Nuss bar removal from November 2013 to March 2022 at a University hospital. Variables analyzed include patients' demographics; presence of comorbidities; time elapsed from bar placement to removal, and the occurrence of operative and postoperative complications. Study written under the 'PROCESS Guideline'. RESULTS: Fourty (40) patients were included in the study; 37 were male. One bar was removed in 17 patients and two in 22 patients. Median age at surgery: 17.5 years (Percentile 25-75%: 16.75-19.25). Time elapsed from placement to removal: 26 months (Percentile 25-75%: 23.75-30.25). Complications: 10 in 9 patients (22.5%); 6 Clavien-Dindo class I (67%); 2 class II (22%); 1 class IIIb, 1 class IV. The hemorrhagic complication motivated the development of a safety protocol to reduce incidence of complications. CONCLUSION: Nuss bar removal is a safe procedure with usually scant complications. Nonetheless, these may be serious sometimes. To prevent them, a protocol for a safe procedure is important.


OBJETIVO: La retirada de la barra de Nuss puede provocar diversas complicaciones, algunas leves y otras potencialmente mortales. Su incidencia puede verse reducida con una preparación quirúrgica adecuada y siguiendo ciertos pasos de seguridad. El presente estudio tiene por objeto analizar nuestra experiencia con las complicaciones acontecidas durante la retirada de la barra, así como nuestro protocolo de seguridad para la prevención y el manejo de dichas complicaciones. MATERIAL Y METODOS: Estudio de cohortes observacional llevado a cabo a partir del análisis retrospectivo de todos los pacientes sometidos a cirugía de retirada de barra de Nuss entre noviembre de 2013 y marzo de 2022 en un hospital universitario. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: demografía de los pacientes, presencia de comorbilidades, tiempo desde la colocación de la barra hasta su retirada, y complicaciones operatorias y postoperatorias. El estudio se realizó conforme a las directrices de la PROCESS Guideline. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó a 40 pacientes, 37 de ellos varones. En 17 pacientes se retiró una barra, y en 22, dos. La edad media en el momento de la cirugía fue de 17,5 años (percentil 25-75%: 16,75 - 19,25). El tiempo transcurrido desde la colocación hasta la retirada fue de 26 meses (percentil 25-75%: 23,75 - 30,25). Se registraron 10 complicaciones en 9 pacientes (22,5%), 6 de clase I según la clasificación de Clavien-Dindo (67%), 2 de clase II (22%), 1 de clase IIIb y 1 de clase IV. La complicación hemorrágica motivó la creación de un protocolo de seguridad para disminuir la incidencia de las complicaciones. CONCLUSION: La retirada de la barra de Nuss es un procedimiento seguro, habitualmente con escasas complicaciones, aunque en ocasiones pueden ser graves. Para evitarlas, es importante contar con un protocolo que garantice la seguridad.


Assuntos
Tórax em Funil , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Tórax em Funil/cirurgia , Tórax em Funil/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Incidência , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
3.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1356714, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629069

RESUMO

Introduction: Periodontitis as a comorbidity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is still not well recognized in the dental and rheumatology communities. A meta-analysis and network meta-analysis were thus performed to compare the (i) prevalence of periodontitis in SLE patients compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and (ii) odds of developing periodontitis in controls, RA, and SLE. Methods: Pooled prevalence of and odds ratio (OR) for periodontitis were compared using meta-analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA). Results: Forty-three observational studies involving 7,800 SLE patients, 49,388 RA patients, and 766,323 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of periodontitis in SLE patients (67.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 57.0-77.0%) was comparable to that of RA (65%, 95% CI 55.0-75.0%) (p>0.05). Compared to controls, patients with SLE (OR=2.64, 95% CI 1.24-5.62, p<0.01) and RA (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.25-2.64, p<0.01) were more likely to have periodontitis. Indirect comparisons through the NMA demonstrated that the odds of having periodontitis in SLE was 1.49 times higher compared to RA (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.05, p<0.05). Discussion: Given that RA is the autoimmune disease classically associated with periodontal disease, the higher odds of having periodontitis in SLE are striking. These results highlight the importance of addressing the dental health needs of patients with SLE. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ identifier CRD42021272876.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Periodontite , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297424, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 1.8 million Veterans are estimated to need legal services, such as for housing eviction prevention, discharge upgrades, and state and federal Veterans benefits. While having one's legal needs met is known to improve one's health and its social determinants, many Veterans' legal needs remain unmet. Public Law 116-315 enacted in 2021 authorizes VA to fund legal services for Veterans (LSV) by awarding grants to legal service providers including nonprofit organizations and law schools' legal assistance programs. This congressionally mandated LSV initiative will award grants to about 75 competitively selected entities providing legal services. This paper describes the protocol for evaluating the initiative. The evaluation will fulfill congressional reporting requirements, and inform continued implementation and sustainment of LSV over time. METHODS: Our protocol calls for a prospective, mixed-methods observational study with a repeated measures design, aligning to the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) and Integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) frameworks. In 2023, competitively selected legal services-providing organizations will be awarded grants to implement LSV. The primary outcome will be the number of Veterans served by LSV in the 12 months after the awarding of the grant. The evaluation has three Aims. Aim 1 will focus on measuring primary and secondary LSV implementation outcomes aligned to RE-AIM. Aim 2 will apply the mixed quantitative-qualitative Matrixed Multiple Case Study method to identify patterns in implementation barriers, enablers, and other i-PARIHS-aligned factors that relate to observed outcomes. Aim 3 involves a mixed-methods economic evaluation to understand the costs and benefits of LSV implementation. DISCUSSION: The LSV initiative is a new program that VA is implementing to help Veterans who need legal assistance. To optimize ongoing and future implementation of this program, it is important to rigorously evaluate LSV's outcomes, barriers and enablers, and costs and benefits. We have outlined the protocol for such an evaluation, which will lead to recommending strategies and resource allocation for VA's LSV implementation.


Assuntos
Veteranos , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Serviços Jurídicos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Estudos Prospectivos , Impulso (Psicologia) , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD009535, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home haemodialysis (HHD) may be associated with important clinical, social or economic benefits. However, few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated HHD versus in-centre HD (ICHD). The relative benefits and harms of these two HD modalities are uncertain. This is an update of a review first published in 2014. This update includes non-randomised studies of interventions (NRSIs). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of HHD versus ICHD in adults with kidney failure. SEARCH METHODS: We contacted the Information Specialist and searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 9 October 2022 using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We searched MEDLINE (OVID) and EMBASE (OVID) for NRSIs. SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs and NRSIs evaluating HHD (including community houses and self-care) compared to ICHD in adults with kidney failure were eligible. The outcomes of interest were cardiovascular death, all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, all-cause hospitalisation, vascular access interventions, central venous catheter insertion/exchange, vascular access infection, parathyroidectomy, wait-listing for a kidney transplant, receipt of a kidney transplant, quality of life (QoL), symptoms related to dialysis therapy, fatigue, recovery time, cost-effectiveness, blood pressure, and left ventricular mass. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed if the studies were eligible and then extracted data. The risk of bias was assessed, and relevant outcomes were extracted. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI for continuous outcomes. Confidence in the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Meta-analysis was performed on outcomes where there was sufficient data. MAIN RESULTS: From the 1305 records identified, a single cross-over RCT and 39 NRSIs proved eligible for inclusion. These studies were of varying design (prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, cross-sectional) and involved a widely variable number of participants (small single-centre studies to international registry analyses). Studies also varied in the treatment prescription and delivery (e.g. treatment duration, frequency, dialysis machine parameters) and participant characteristics (e.g. time on dialysis). Studies often did not describe these parameters in detail. Although the risk of bias, as assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, was generally low for most studies, within the constraints of observational study design, studies were at risk of selection bias and residual confounding. Many study outcomes were reported in ways that did not allow direct comparison or meta-analysis. It is uncertain whether HHD, compared to ICHD, may be associated with a decrease in cardiovascular death (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.07; 2 NRSIs, 30,900 participants; very low certainty evidence) or all-cause death (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.95; 9 NRSIs, 58,984 patients; very low certainty evidence). It is also uncertain whether HHD may be associated with a decrease in hospitalisation rate (MD -0.50 admissions per patient-year, 95% CI -0.98 to -0.02; 2 NRSIs, 834 participants; very low certainty evidence), compared with ICHD. Compared with ICHD, it is uncertain whether HHD may be associated with receipt of kidney transplantation (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.63; 6 NRSIs, 10,910 participants; very low certainty evidence) and a shorter recovery time post-dialysis (MD -2.0 hours, 95% CI -2.73 to -1.28; 2 NRSIs, 348 participants; very low certainty evidence). It remains uncertain if HHD may be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) (MD -11.71 mm Hg, 95% CI -21.11 to -2.46; 4 NRSIs, 491 participants; very low certainty evidence) and decreased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (MD -17.74 g/m2, 95% CI -29.60 to -5.89; 2 NRSIs, 130 participants; low certainty evidence). There was insufficient data to evaluate the relative association of HHD and ICHD with fatigue or vascular access outcomes. Patient-reported outcome measures were reported using 18 different measures across 11 studies (QoL: 6 measures; mental health: 3 measures; symptoms: 1 measure; impact and view of health: 6 measures; functional ability: 2 measures). Few studies reported the same measures, which limited the ability to perform meta-analysis or compare outcomes. It is uncertain whether HHD is more cost-effective than ICHD, both in the first (SMD -1.25, 95% CI -2.13 to -0.37; 4 NRSIs, 13,809 participants; very low certainty evidence) and second year of dialysis (SMD -1.47, 95% CI -2.72 to -0.21; 4 NRSIs, 13,809 participants; very low certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on low to very low certainty evidence, HHD, compared with ICHD, has uncertain associations or may be associated with decreased cardiovascular and all-cause death, hospitalisation rate, slower post-dialysis recovery time, and decreased SBP and LVMI. HHD has uncertain cost-effectiveness compared with ICHD in the first and second years of treatment. The majority of studies included in this review were observational and subject to potential selection bias and confounding, especially as patients treated with HHD tended to be younger with fewer comorbidities. Variation from study to study in the choice of outcomes and the way in which they were reported limited the ability to perform meta-analyses. Future research should align outcome measures and metrics with other research in the field in order to allow comparison between studies, establish outcome effects with greater certainty, and avoid research waste.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Insuficiência Renal , Adulto , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0294830, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557647

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this umbrella review was to establish which biopsychosocial factors are associated with development of chronic musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: Ovid Medline, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, PsycINFO, CINAHL, PEDro, PROSPERO, Google Scholar and grey literature were searched from database inception to 4th April 2023. Systematic reviews of observational prospective longitudinal studies, including populations with <3 months (not chronic) musculoskeletal pain, investigating biopsychosocial factors that contribute to development of chronic (>3 months) musculoskeletal pain. Two reviewers searched the literature, assessed risk of bias (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews-2), and evaluated quality (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) to provide an overall statement on the certainty of evidence for each biopsychosocial factor. Data analysis was performed through random effects meta-analysis (including meta-analysis of meta-analyses where possible) and descriptive synthesis. RESULTS: 13 systematic reviews were included comprising 185 original research studies (n = 489,644 participants). Thirty-four biopsychosocial factors are associated with development of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Meta-analyses of odds and/or likelihood ratios were possible for 25 biopsychosocial factors. There is moderate certainty evidence that smoking (OR 1.24 [95%CI, 1.14-1.34), fear avoidance (LR+ 2.11 [95%CI, 1.59-2.8]; LR- 0.5 [95%CI, 0.35-0.71]) poorer support networks (OR 1.21 [95%CI, 1.14-1.29]), lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.0 [95%CI, 1.64-2.42]), and high levels of pain (OR 5.61 [95%CI, 3.74-8.43]) are associated with development of chronic musculoskeletal pain (all P<0.001). Remaining factors are of low or very low certainty evidence. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: There is moderate certainty evidence that smoking, fear avoidance, poorer support networks, lower socioeconomic status, and high levels of pain are associated with development of chronic musculoskeletal pain. High risk of bias was evident in most included reviews; this highlights the need for higher quality systematic reviews.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Dor Musculoesquelética , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
7.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e078622, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569695

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mild traumatic brain injury is common in children and it can be challenging to accurately identify those in need of urgent medical intervention. The Scandinavian guidelines for management of minor and moderate head trauma in children, the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee guideline 2016 (SNC16), were developed to aid in risk stratification and decision-making in Scandinavian emergency departments (EDs). This guideline has been validated externally with encouraging results, but internal validation in the intended healthcare system is warranted prior to broad clinical implementation. OBJECTIVE: We aim to validate the diagnostic accuracy of the SNC16 to predict clinically important intracranial injuries (CIII) in paediatric patients suffering from blunt head trauma, assessed in EDs in Sweden and Norway. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective, pragmatic, observational cohort study. Children (aged 0-17 years) with blunt head trauma, presenting with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 9-15 within 24 hours postinjury at an ED in 1 of the 16 participating hospitals, are eligible for inclusion. Included patients are assessed and managed according to the clinical management routines of each hospital. Data elements for risk stratification are collected in an electronic case report form by the examining doctor. The primary outcome is defined as CIII within 1 week of injury. Secondary outcomes of importance include traumatic CT findings, neurosurgery and 3-month outcome. Diagnostic accuracy of the SNC16 to predict endpoints will be assessed by point estimate and 95% CIs for sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, negative predictive value and positive predictive value. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is approved by the ethical board in both Sweden and Norway. Results from this validation will be published in scientific journals, and a tailored development and implementation process will follow if the SNC16 is found safe and effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05964764.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Criança , Humanos , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Estudos de Validação como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(9): 1213-1223, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects over half the global population, causing gastrointestinal diseases like dyspepsia, gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulcers, G-MALT lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Eradicating H. pylori is crucial for treating and preventing these conditions. While conventional proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy is effective, there's growing interest in longer acid suppression therapies. Potassium competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) triple and dual therapy are new regimens for H. pylori eradication. Initially used in Asian populations, vonoprazan (VPZ) has been recently Food and Drug Administration-approved for H. pylori eradication. AIM: To assess the efficacy of regimens containing P-CABs in eradicating H. pylori infection. METHODS: This study, following PRISMA 2020 guidelines, conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching MEDLINE and Scopus libraries for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) or observational studies with the following command: [("Helicobacter pylori" OR "H pylori") AND ("Treatment" OR "Therapy" OR "Eradication") AND ("Vonaprazan" OR "Potassium-Competitive Acid Blocker" OR "P-CAB" OR "PCAB" OR "Revaprazan" OR "Linaprazan" OR "Soraprazan" OR "Tegoprazan")]. Studies comparing the efficacy of P-CABs-based treatment to classical PPIs in eradicating H. pylori were included. Exclusion criteria included case reports, case series, unpublished trials, or conference abstracts. Data variables encompassed age, diagnosis method, sample sizes, study duration, intervention and control, and H. pylori eradication method were gathered by two independent reviewers. Meta-analysis was performed in R software, and forest plots were generated. RESULTS: A total of 256 references were initially retrieved through the search command. Ultimately, fifteen studies (7 RCTs, 7 retrospective observational studies, and 1 comparative unique study) were included, comparing P-CAB triple therapy to PPI triple therapy. The intention-to-treat analysis involved 8049 patients, with 4471 in the P-CAB intervention group and 3578 in the PPI control group across these studies. The analysis revealed a significant difference in H. pylori eradication between VPZ triple therapy and PPI triple therapy in both RCTs and observational studies [risk ratio (RR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.22, P < 0.0001] and (RR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.09-1.17, P < 0.0001], respectively. However, no significant difference was found between tegoprazan (TPZ) triple therapy and PPI triple therapy in both RCTs and observational studies (RR = 1.04, 95%CI: 0.93-1.16, P = 0.5) and (RR = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.97-1.10, P = 0.3), respectively. CONCLUSION: VPZ-based triple therapy outperformed conventional PPI-based triple therapy in eradicating H. pylori, positioning it as a highly effective first-line regimen. Additionally, TPZ-based triple therapy was non-inferior to classical PPI triple therapy.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Imidazóis , Sulfonamidas , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/etiologia , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
9.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between soy product consumption and cancer risk varies among studies. Therefore, this comprehensive meta-analysis of observational studies examines the association between soy product consumption and total cancer risk. METHODS: This study was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Up to October 2023, all eligible published studies were searched through PubMed and Web of Science databases. RESULTS: A total of 52 studies on soy product consumption were included in this meta-analysis (17 cohort studies and 35 case-control studies). High consumption of total soy products (RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.80), tofu (RR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.86), and soymilk (RR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.93) were associated with reduced total cancer risk. No association was found between high consumption of fermented soy products (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47), non-fermented soy products (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.18), soy paste (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.14), miso soup (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.12), or natto (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.11) and cancer risk. A 54 g per day increment of total soy products reduced cancer risk by 11%, a 61 g per day increment of tofu reduced cancer risk by 12%, and a 23 g per day increment of soymilk reduced cancer risk by 28%, while none of the other soy products were associated with cancer risk. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that high total soy product consumption, especially soymilk and tofu, is associated with lower cancer risk. More prospective cohort studies are still needed to confirm the causal relationship between soy product consumption and cancer risk.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Neoplasias , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
10.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 54, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autonomic nervous system (ANS) testing has aided in our ability to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in migraine patients. We reviewed the literature in multiple databases which investigate ANS function in migraine patients and healthy subjects. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the respective deep breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre, orthostatic and isometric challenge results, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statements. RESULTS: Seven articles met all inclusion criteria. Fixed-effects meta-analysis showed migraine patients (n = 424), collectively, had lower interictal autonomic test results compared with healthy controls (n = 268). In detail, this was true for the standardized mean difference (g) of deep breathing (g= -0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.48, -0.16), orthostatic challenge (g= -0.28; 95% CI -0.44, -0.13) and isometric challenge (g= -0.55; 95% CI -0.71, -0.39) and for the difference of means (MD) of the Valsalva ratio (MD = -0.17; 95% CI -0.23, -0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Interictal ANS dysfunction can be identified in migraine patients when compared to healthy controls. These findings indicate the importance to evaluate ANS function in migraine patients - especially, as migraine-specific prophylactic therapies (such as anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antibodies) may affect the function of the ANS.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
11.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e083135, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580358

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trauma contributes to the greatest loss of disability-adjusted life-years for adolescents and young adults worldwide. In the context of global abdominal trauma, the trauma laparotomy is the most commonly performed operation. Variation likely exists in how these patients are managed and their subsequent outcomes, yet very little global data on the topic currently exists. The objective of the GOAL-Trauma study is to evaluate both patient and injury factors for those undergoing trauma laparotomy, their clinical management and postoperative outcomes. METHODS: We describe a planned prospective multicentre observational cohort study of patients undergoing trauma laparotomy. We will include patients of all ages who present to hospital with a blunt or penetrating injury and undergo a trauma laparotomy within 5 days of presentation to the treating centre. The study will collect system, patient, process and outcome data, following patients up until 30 days postoperatively (or until discharge or death, whichever is first). Our sample size calculation suggests we will need to recruit 552 patients from approximately 150 recruiting centres. DISCUSSION: The GOAL-Trauma study will provide a global snapshot of the current management and outcomes for patients undergoing a trauma laparotomy. It will also provide insight into the variation seen in the time delays for receiving care, the disease and patient factors present, and patient outcomes. For current standards of trauma care to be improved worldwide, a greater understanding of the current state of trauma laparotomy care is paramount if appropriate interventions and targets are to be identified and implemented.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Laparotomia/métodos , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto
12.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0290908, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric-onset inflammatory brain diseases are a group of potentially life-threatening central nervous system disorders. Overall, pediatric-onset inflammatory brain diseases are rare and therefore difficult to study. Patient registries are well suited to study the natural history of (rare) diseases and have markedly advanced the knowledge on pediatric-onset inflammatory brain diseases in other countries. Following their example, we established a national pediatric-onset inflammatory brain disease registry in Switzerland (Swiss-Ped-IBrainD). AIMS: The Registry aims to describe epidemiology, demographics, diagnostics, management, and treatment, since these areas remain understudied in Switzerland. Additionally, we want to promote research by fostering the knowledge exchange between study centers and setting up studies such as national quality of life surveys. We further aim to facilitate the access to national and international studies for patients with a pediatric-onset inflammatory brain disease living and/or treated in Switzerland. METHODS: The Swiss-Ped-IBrainD is a multicentric, population-based, observational cohort study (IRB number: 2019-00377) collaborating with 11 neuropediatric centers in Switzerland. Patient screening, information and recruitment is mainly conducted by the local principal investigators. The data collection is organized centrally by the Executive Office of the registry. The collected data is purely observational. Medical records are the primary data source. All patients who have been diagnosed with a pediatric-onset inflammatory brain disease since 2005 are eligible. We aim to include all pediatric-onset inflammatory brain disease patients living and/or treated in Switzerland who meet the inclusion criteria. Considering existing literature and our single-center experience we anticipate 300-400 eligible patients. STATUS: Currently, all 11 neuropediatric centers have been initiated and are recruiting. As of the first of May 2023, we have identified 275 eligible participants and obtained informed consent from 101 patients and/or families. None of the informed patients and/or families have refused participation.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Criança , Suíça/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Coleta de Dados , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
13.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301993, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Road traffic crashes cause 1.19 million deaths and millions more injuries annually. The persistently high burden has drawn attention from national and international stakeholders worldwide. Unsafe road infrastructure is one of the major risk factors for traffic safety, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Aiming to eliminate high-risk roads in all countries, the International Road Assessment Programme (iRAP) developed a robust and evidence-based approach to support country transportation agencies. RESULTS: Thus far, the iRAP protocols have been used to collect 1.8 million kilometers of Crash Risk Mapping and 1.5 million kilometers of Star Rating and FSI estimations in 128 countries. Deploying an observational before-and-after (or pre-post) study design, this report estimated the fatal and series injuries (FSI) saved through use of the iRAP protocols. The study is based on 441,753 kilometers of assessed roads from 1,039 projects in 74 countries. Our results show that the implementation of iRAP's proposed countermeasures saves about 159,936 FSI annually. Throughout the lifetime of the implemented countermeasures, a total of 3.2 million FSI could be saved. CONCLUSION: While quantifying the success of the iRAP protocols, our results suggest an opportunity to save many millions more lives on the roads through expanding iRAP implementation to more regions and countries.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Meios de Transporte , Fatores de Risco , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1 , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
14.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 47(1)2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, there are no tools for the nursing staff to gain systematic insight on the experience lived by patients with chronic heart failure. The objective of this study was to develop a scale for this purpose. METHODS: The study was conducted between January 2018 and December 2020 in three Spanish hospitals. The process described by DeVellis was used for the development of the scale. The items were built based on a phenomenological study and a systematic review of the literature. Next, feedback from a panel of experts was obtained, the scale was administered to a sample of patients with chronic heart failure, and a cognitive interview and an observational study were conducted to create the final version of the scale. RESULTS: The first version of the scale had in seven domains and 76 items. After its evaluation by a panel of experts, it was reduced to a second version with six domains and 55 items. Following the administration of Version 2 to 17 patients (58.8% male, mean age 59.53, 70.6% classified as NYHA functional class II), five items were modified and two eliminated. Thus, the third version of the UNAV-CHF Experience Scale was composed of six domains and 53 items. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the development of the UNAV-experience of living with chronic heart failure scale. It is an original and novel instrument that allows systematically explore this experience. A larger-scale study is necessary to confirm the validity of our scale.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Doença Crônica , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
15.
Open Heart ; 11(1)2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569669

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The primary concern for women who have experienced peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is the safety of a subsequent pregnancy (SSP). To maximie decision-making, facilitate effective patient counselling, and ultimately improve maternal and fetal outcomes as a whole, it is critical to comprehend the outcomes of SSP in women who have previously experienced PPCM. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of SSP in women with PPCM. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect) were used to identify relevant studies prior to 17 October 2023. A total of 662 studies were reviewed. Following the abstract and full-text screenings, 18 observational studies were included, out of which 2 were deemed suitable for inclusion in this meta-analysis. The quality assessment was conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: This study has a total of 487 SSPs. Although recovered left ventricular (LV) function before entering SSP has the potential to be a beneficial prognostic factor, recovered LV function still has a substantial risk of relapse. The mortality rate of PPCM in an SSP ranged from 0% to 55.5%. Persistent LV dysfunction was significantly associated with an increased mortality rate (OR 13.17; 95% CI 1.54 to 112.28; p=0.02) and lower LV ejection fraction (MD -12.88; 95% CI -21.67 to -4.09; p=0.004). Diastolic and right ventricular functions remained unchanged before SSP and at follow-up. The majority of the SSP was observed alongside hypertension, while pre-eclampsia emerged as the predominant hypertensive complication in most studies. CONCLUSION: SSP increases the risk of relapse and mortality in women with a previous history of PPCM. Persistent LV dysfunction prior to the SSP has a higher mortality risk compared with recovered LV function. SSP was also associated with the worsening of LV echocardiography parameters.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Período Periparto , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
16.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e080702, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery (BS) is the treatment of choice for refractory obesity. Although weight loss (WL) reduces the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities, not all patients maintain it. It has been suggested that central mechanisms involving dopamine receptors may play a role in successful WL. This protocol describes an observational cross-sectional study to test if the binding of central dopamine receptors is similar in individuals who responded successfully to BS and age- and gender-matched normal-weight healthy individuals (controls). As secondary goals, the protocol will investigate if this binding correlates with key parameters such as age, hormonal status, anthropometric metrics and neurobehavioural scores. Finally, as exploratory goals, we will include a cohort of individuals with obesity before and after BS to explore whether obesity and type of BS (sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) yield distinct binding values and track central dopaminergic changes resulting from BS. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To address the major research question of this observational study, positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]raclopride will be used to map brain dopamine type 2 and 3 receptors (D2/3R) non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) of individuals who have successfully responded to BS. Mean regional D2/3R BPND values will be compared with control individuals by two one-sided test approaches. The sample size (23 per group) was estimated to demonstrate the equivalence between two independent group means. In addition, these binding values will be correlated with key parameters to address secondary goals. Finally, for exploratory analysis, these values will be compared within the same individuals (before and after BS) and between individuals with obesity and controls and types of BS. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project and informed consent received ethical approval from the Faculty of Medicine and the Coimbra University Hospital ethics committees. Results will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and conferences.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Portugal , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Obesidade/cirurgia , Obesidade/complicações , Redução de Peso , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Receptores Dopaminérgicos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
17.
BMC Neurol ; 24(1): 110, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is common. However, the underlying pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Understanding the role of microvascular changes and finding markers that can predict PSCI, could be a first step towards better screening and management of PSCI. Capillary dysfunction is a pathological feature of cerebral small vessel disease and may play a role in the mechanisms underlying PSCI. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted from cells and may act as disease biomarkers. We aim to investigate the role of capillary dysfunction in PSCI and the associations between EV characteristics and cognitive function one year after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: The ENIGMA study is a single-centre prospective clinical observational study conducted at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Consecutive patients with AIS and TIA are included and followed for one year with follow-up visits at three and 12 months. An MRI is performed at 24 h and 12 months follow-up. EV characteristics will be characterised from blood samples drawn at 24 h and three months follow-up. Cognitive function is assessed three and 12 months after AIS and TIA using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. DISCUSSION: Using novel imaging and molecular biological techniques the ENIGMA study will provide new knowledge about the vascular contributions to cognitive decline and dementia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is retrospectively registered as an ongoing observational study at ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier NCT06257823.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 285, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the outcomes of polymicrobial bloodstream infections in patients with sepsis. We aimed to investigate outcomes of polymicrobial bloodstream infections compared to monomicrobial bloodstream infections. METHODS: This study used data from the Korean Sepsis Alliance Registry, a nationwide database of prospective observational sepsis cohort. Adult sepsis patients with bloodstream infections from September 2019 to December 2021 at 20 tertiary or university-affiliated hospitals in South Korea were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 3,823 patients with bloodstream infections, 429 of them (11.2%) had polymicrobial bloodstream infections. The crude hospital mortality of patients with sepsis with polymicrobial bloodstream infection and monomicrobial bloodstream infection was 35.7% and 30.1%, respectively (p = 0.021). However, polymicrobial bloodstream infections were not associated with hospital mortality in the proportional hazard analysis (HR 1.15 [0.97-1.36], p = 0.11). The inappropriate use of antibiotics was associated with increased mortality (HR 1.37 [1.19-1.57], p < 0.001), and source control was associated with decreased mortality (HR 0.51 [0.42-0.62], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Polymicrobial bloodstream infections per se were not associated with hospital mortality in patients with sepsis as compared to monomicrobial bloodstream infections. The appropriate use of antibiotics and source control were associated with decreased mortality in bloodstream infections regardless of the number of microbial pathogens.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Sepse , Adulto , Humanos , Antibacterianos , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
19.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0295500, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To Frailty is associated with postoperative delirium (POD) but is rarely assessed in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. In this study, the correlation between preoperative frailty and POD, one-year mortality will be investigated in noncardiac Chinese geriatric surgery patients. METHODS: This study is a prospective, observational, cohort study conducted at a single center with Chinese geriatric patients. Patients who undergo noncardiac surgery and are older than 70 years will be included. A total of 536 noncardiac surgery patients will be recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University for this study. The Barthel Index (BI) rating will be used to assess the patient's ability to carry out everyday activities on the 1st preoperative day. The modified frailty index (mFI) will be used to assess frailty. Patients in the nonfrailty group will have an mFI < 0.21, and patients in the frailty group will have an mFI ≥ 0.21. The primary outcome is the incidence of POD. Three-Minute Diagnostic Interview for CAM-defined Delirium (3D-CAM) will be conducted twice daily during the 1st-7th postoperative days, or just before discharge. The secondary outcomes will include one-year mortality, in-hospital cardiopulmonary events, infections, acute renal injury, and cerebrovascular events. DISCUSSION: This study will clarify the correlation of preoperative frailty with POD and one-year all-cause mortality in Chinese geriatric patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Can preoperative frailty predict POD or one-year mortality? In the face of China's serious aging social problems, this result may have important clinical value for the surgical treatment of geriatric patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This protocol has been registered with ClinicalTrials. Gov on 12 January 2022 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05189678).


Assuntos
Delírio do Despertar , Fragilidade , Idoso , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fragilidade/complicações , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 81(1): 10-15, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (BF) has the greatest potential impact on child mortality of any preventive intervention. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) during the first hour of life is beneficial for initiating BF; however, routine separation of mother and infant is still common. This work aimed to demonstrate that SSC during the first hour of life is associated with a greater frequency and duration of exclusive BF. METHODS: This is an observational case-control study. We reviewed the medical records of patients born between 2016 and 2022 classified as cases or controls based on the history of SSC in the first hour of life. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 28. RESULTS: We included 362 medical records, of which 200 (55.2%) had SSC and were considered cases; the 162 (44.8%) who did not have SSC were considered controls. Those who received SSC were more likely to receive exclusive BF at 3 (163 [81.5%] vs. 94 [58%], p < 0.001) and 6 months of age (147 [73.5%] vs. 83 [51.2%], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who received SSC in the first hour of life were more likely to receive exclusive BF at 3 and 6 months of age. Promoting and respecting this practice is essential to increase the possibility of a newborn to be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) es la intervención preventiva con mayor impacto en mortalidad infantil. El contacto piel con piel (CPP) durante la primera hora de vida es un periodo crítico para establecer la lactancia; sin embargo, la separación rutinaria del recién nacido de su madre es frecuente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue demostrar que el CPP durante la primera hora se asocia con mayor frecuencia y duración de LME. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional de casos y controles. Se revisaron expedientes de pacientes de nuestra consulta pediátrica que nacieron entre 2016 y 2022. Se clasificaron como casos y controles de acuerdo con el antecedente de haber recibido CPP durante la primera hora de vida. Se realizó el análisis estadístico en SPSS version 28. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 362 expedientes, de los cuales 200 (55.2%) recibieron CPP en la primera hora de vida y fueron considerados casos; los 162 (44.8%) que no lo hicieron fueron considerados controles. Aquellos que recibieron CPP tuvieron con mayor frecuencia LME a los 3 (163 [81.5%] vs. 94 [58%], p < 0.001) y 6 meses de edad (147 [73.5%] vs. 83 [51.2%], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONES: La frecuencia con la cual los pacientes lograron tener lactancia materna exclusiva a los 3 y 6 meses es mayor en aquellos en los que se respeta el CPP en la primera hora de vida. Promover y respetar esta práctica es fundamental para incrementar las probabilidades de que los lactantes reciban LME durante sus primeros 6 meses de vida.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Mães , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
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