Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.156
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822366

RESUMO

Rape is the most demoralizing type of crime violating human rights worldwide. Research has primarily focused on children and women's experiences of rape, even though victims include men and little documentation available concerning their experiences of reporting these incidents. The study aimed to investigate men's experiences when reporting rape to the police. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to collect and analyze qualitative data from a purposive sample of eleven men who were rape victims. The findings of the study revealed three superordinate and twenty-two subordinate themes. First, motivation for reporting rape to the police included self-protection from re-victimization, being killed, and prevalent prison cultural practice, seeking justice and answers for rape, moral duty, family support, and encouraging reports of the crime. Second, perceived barriers for reporting rape included fear of stigmatization and ridicule, unknown perpetrators, internalized homophobia, men's preconceived prejudices, perceived justice system delays, fear of being killed, and protecting their reputation. Third, negative experiences when reporting rape included a long waiting period at the reception before opening a case file and the delayed responses of police investigating the rape scene. Also, there was discouragement from the police, disparaging behavior of police, victim-blaming, lack of communication with the victim about case progress and experiences of police homosexual intolerance. The findings show that most men were motivated to report rape to the police despite the perceived barriers and negative experiences they had with the police. Thus, this provides baseline evidence for strategies to be developed to encourage the reporting of rape. Each police station must provide dedicated personnel for professional and sensitive handling of all rape victims, including men. Furthermore, future studies should be conducted to evaluate rape victims' satisfaction with the services provided by the police.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Riso , Polícia/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Medo , Humanos , Masculino , Prisões , Justiça Social , Apoio Social , África do Sul , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD009829, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 1 in 1000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old display problematic or harmful sexual behaviour (HSB). Examples include behaviours occurring more frequently than would be considered developmentally appropriate; accompanied by coercion; involving children of different ages or stages of development; or associated with emotional distress. Some, but not all, young people engaging in HSB come to the attention of authorities for investigation, prosecution or treatment. Depending on policy context, young people with HSB are those whose behaviour has resulted in a formal reprimand or warning, conviction for a sexual offence, or civil measures. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions are based on the idea that by changing the way a person thinks, and helping them to develop new coping skills, it is possible to change behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of CBT for young people aged 10 to 18 years who have exhibited HSB. SEARCH METHODS: In June 2019, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 12 other databases and three trials registers. We also examined relevant websites, checked reference lists and contacted authors of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using parallel groups. We evaluated CBT treatments compared with no treatment, waiting list or standard care, irrespective of mode of delivery or setting, given to young people aged 10 to 18 years, who had been convicted of a sexual offence or who exhibited HSB. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We found four eligible RCTs (115 participants). Participants in two studies were adolescent males aged 12 to 18 years old. In two studies participants were males simply described as "adolescents." Three studies took place in the USA and one in South Africa. The four studies were of short duration: one lasted two months; two lasted three months; and one lasted six months. No information was available on funding sources. Two studies compared group-based CBT respectively to no treatment (18 participants) or treatment as usual (21 participants). The third compared CBT with sexual education (16 participants). The fourth compared CBT (19 participants) with mode-deactivation therapy (21 participants) and social skills training (20 participants). Three interventions delivered treatment in a residential setting by someone working there, and one in a community setting by licensed therapist undertaking a PhD. CBT compared with no treatment or treatment as usual Primary outcomes No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of primary outcomes (recidivism, and adverse events such as self-harm or suicidal behaviour). Secondary outcomes There was little to no difference between CBT and treatment as usual on cognitive distortions in general (mean difference (MD) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) -11.54 to 14.66, 1 study, 18 participants; very low-certainty evidence), assessed with Abel and Becker Cognition Scale (higher scores indicate more problematic distortions); and specific cognitive distortions about rape (MD 8.75, 95% CI 2.83 to 14.67, 1 study, 21 participants; very low-certainty evidence), measured with the Bumby Cardsort Rape Scale (higher scores indicate more justifications, minimisations, rationalisations and excuses for HSB). One study (18 participants) reported very low-certainty evidence that CBT may result in greater improvements in victim empathy (MD 5.56, 95% CI 0.94 to 10.18), measured with the Attitudes Towards Women Scale, compared with no treatment. One additional study also measured this, but provided no usable data. CBT compared with alternative interventions Primary outcomes One study (59 participants) found little to no difference between CBT and alternative treatments on post-treatment sexual aggression scores (MD 0.09, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.37, very low-certainty evidence), assessed using Daily Behaviour Reports and Behaviour Incidence Report Forms. No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of our remaining primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes One study (16 participants) provided very low-certainty evidence that, compared to sexual education, mean cognitive distortions pertaining to justification or taking responsibility for actions (MD 3.27, 95% CI -4.77 to -1.77) and apprehension confidence (MD 2.47 95% CI -3.85 to -1.09) may be lower in the CBT group. The same study indicated that mean cognitive distortions pertaining to social-sexual desirability may be lower in the CBT group, and there may be little to no difference between the groups for cognitive distortions pertaining to inappropriate sexual fantasies measured with the Multiphasic Sex Inventory. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is uncertain whether CBT reduces HSB in male adolescents compared to other treatments. All studies had insufficient detail in what they reported to allow for full assessment of risk of bias. 'Risk of bias' judgements were predominantly rated as unclear or high. Sample sizes were very small, and the imprecision of results was significant. There is very low-certainty evidence that group-based CBT may improve victim empathy when compared to no treatment, and may improve cognitive distortions when compared to sexual education, but not treatment as usual. Further research is likely to change the estimate. More robust evaluations of both individual and group-based CBT are required, particularly outside North America, and which look at the effects of CBT on diverse participants.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Atitude , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Dessensibilização Psicológica , Fantasia , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estupro/psicologia , Reincidência , Autoimagem , Educação Sexual , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais
4.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 79-94, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common consequences of sexual assault, but it is not invariable. AIM: Our aim was to investigate pre-, peri- and post-traumatic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among adult women who had been sexually assaulted. METHODS: All women attending a specialist university clinic for victims of sexual assault referred by the courts for a mental health assessment were invited to participate. At the time, the Turkish penal code required such referral (the year up to September 2015). Consenting women completed a sociodemographic information form, the Traumatic Stress Symptom Checklist, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Short Form-36 reflecting perceived quality of life, the Beck Depression Scale and the Beck Anxiety Scale. RESULTS: Sixty women were eligible and agreed to participate. Two-thirds of them (41, 68%) reported features of PTSD. In bivariate analyses, the women with PTSD also rated themselves as having a wide range of health and social disadvantages. Self-perceived poverty of social support and having suicidal thoughts were independently associated with PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Although the rate of mental health and social problems among the women with PTSD were high, less than a third had actually sought help for their difficulties. While a requirement in the penal code that such women should have a psychiatric assessment seems over-intrusive and has since been dropped, our findings suggest that more efforts should be made to ensure that such women have help available if they want it.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estupro/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gender-based violence is a global public health crisis, which has health, social, and economic impacts on survivors. In Ghana, responding to and preventing sexual violence on university campuses, has become a priority area. However, data are lacking on the healthcare provider response to students who have experienced sexual violence. The purpose of this study was to conduct a situational analysis to better understand the healthcare provider response to sexual violence in Cape Coast, Ghana. METHODS: First, an observational facility assessment about healthcare services for survivors of sexual violence was conducted at two hospitals serving university students in Cape Coast, Ghana. Next, healthcare providers at the two hospitals completed: 1) a 113-item questionnaire about healthcare services, knowledge, and attitudes related to sexual violence and 2) in-depth semi-structured interviews describing their experiences providing healthcare to survivors of sexual violence. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were computed, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. RESULTS: Both sites lacked supplies, including pre-packed rape kits, post-exposure HIV prophylaxis, and informational handouts on medications and support services for survivors. Further, healthcare providers lacked training on gender-based violence, including best practices for caring for survivors and evidence collection procedures. Providers described the clinical management for survivors of sexual violence, including providers' role in reporting sexual violence to authorities, medical forensic exams, reproductive and sexual health services, and referral for mental healthcare. Finally, providers described a number of barriers to survivors accessing post-assault healthcare, including stigma and structural barriers, such as cost of medical supplies and lack of privacy within the healthcare facilities. CONCLUSIONS: The current healthcare response to sexual violence in Ghana is limited by lack of supplies, knowledge, and training for healthcare providers. Personal and structural barriers may prevent survivors from accessing needed healthcare following sexual violence.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/psicologia
6.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(1): 1700770, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934824

RESUMO

Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in Uganda are at risk of early sexual debut, unwanted pregnancy, violence, and disproportionally high HIV infection rates, driven in part by transactional sex. This paper examines the extent to which AGYW's participation in transactional sex is perceived to be coerced. We conducted 19 focus group discussions and 44 in-depth interviews using semi-structured tools. Interviews were audio recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis. While AGYW did not necessarily use the language of coercion, their narratives describe a number of coercive aspects in their relationships. First, coercion by force as a result of "de-toothing" a man (whereby they received money or resources but did not wish to provide sex as "obligated" under the implicit "terms" of the relationships). Second, they described the coercive role that receiving resources played in their decision to have sex in the face of men's verbal insistence. Finally, they discussed having sex as a result of coercive economic circumstances including poverty, and because of peer pressure to uphold modern lifestyles. Support for income-generation activities, microfinance and social protection programmes may help reduce AGYW's vulnerability to sexual coercion in transactional sex relationships. Targeting gender norms that contribute to unequal power dynamics and social expectations that obligate AGYW to provide sex in return for resources, critically assessing the meaning of consensual sex, and normative interventions building on parents' efforts to ascertain the source of their daughters' resources may also reduce AGYW's vulnerability to coercion.


Assuntos
Coerção , Coito , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Saúde Sexual , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Poder Psicológico , Trabalho Sexual , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda , Sexo sem Proteção , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 31(3): 161-181, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805838

RESUMO

Objective: Sexual assault peaks in adolescence, yet sequelae at this age are not well understood. This systematic review aimed to describe mental health outcomes following sexual assault in young people. Method: Two reviewers independently searched databases, screening publications from 1990 to 2018. Inclusion criteria included: longitudinal studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with ≥50% participants aged ten to 24 years; baseline mental health assessment prior to/or <8 weeks post-assault with follow-up ≥ 3 months after the initial assessment.Results: 5 124 titles and abstracts were screened, with 583 papers examined in full. Ten studies met inclusion criteria (sample size 31 to 191). Five studies examined rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reporting rates of up to 95% within one month and up to 60% at 12 months post-assault. Studies evaluating post-traumatic (n = 5) and anxiety (n = 3) symptom scores showed symptoms were highest in the immediate aftermath of the trauma, generally reducing over four to 12 months post-assault. Depressive symptomology appeared to vary between studies (n = 5). However, the majority showed symptoms decreasing over the same time period.Conclusions: Psychopathology is common following sexual assault in young people. Most studies observed reduced rates over time, but there is a paucity of longitudinal research. Psychopathology during the first year after sexual assault is an important treatment target to consider.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/etiologia , Criança , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(2): 157-167, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885445

RESUMO

Rape of girls under the age of 14 is common in Latin America, and forced pregnancy and motherhood among these girls is a major public health and human rights problem. Even though abortion in the case of rape is legal in a handful of the countries in the region, and is legal in most countries when the life or health of the pregnant woman is in danger, many girls under 14 are forced to continue pregnancies conceived due to rape and to become mothers long before they have the capacity to do so.1 The paper demonstrates how forced pregnancy and motherhood among girls aged 9-14 in the Latin America region who have been the victims of rape adversely affects all aspects of their health and lives, exacerbated by discrimination and the absence of legal abortion services. It then describes a multidimensional strategy, which includes legal, communications, and advocacy work developed by Planned Parenthood Global and partners in response to these realities. This unique strategy seeks to ensure that access to legal abortion is universally available and accessible to girls aged 9-14 on the grounds that continuing pregnancy poses a serious risk to their health and lives.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(4): 440-447, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined testimonies of women who were sexually assaulted multiple times by multiple unknown offenders. In these testimonial narratives, it is possible to detect specific modalities of traumatic event expression. This expression lacks any spatial, temporal, auditory or emotional determinants of the event. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: These fourteen women (out of 17) were imprisoned and forcefully isolated in detention camps or private houses in the occupied territories of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the war. At the same time, some of these women were raped by the offenders that were previously known to them. The average length of detention was 141 days among the seventeen victims (range of 7 to 395 days), while the average time from the first day of imprisonment to the first day of testimony was 311 days (range of 30 to 889 days). RESULTS: Based on the narrative descriptions of the events acquired from these testimonies, our analysis showed that these expressions differed when the offender was known to the victim, contrasted to the situation when the offender was completely unknown. This finding has a significant implication in victim's testimony at judicial hearings. Specifically, women that were raped by unknown perpetrator(s) were often unable to provide persuasive testimony and their recollection of the events was deemed insufficient for the further prosecution. Testimonies in these cases substantially lacked in vividness and were devoid of visuospatial determinants of the rape event. Consequently, this often resulted in the case's dismissal. CONCLUSION: The unusual and problematic expression of these traumatic memories might indicate that these events were not properly stored in the conceptual form of memory. Ultimately, victims could not make any coherent recollection or reconstruct the cascade of events by using perceptual information. We argue that this could be due to an aberrant mechanism of memory storage and difficulties that emerge on the level of sensory input. This problem needs to be further examined and correspondingly accounted for since it can exert significant influence on judicial outcomes in the domain of sexual assault cases worldwide.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Estupro/psicologia , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Crimes de Guerra/psicologia , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Croácia , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Episódica
11.
Med Hist ; 63(4): 411-434, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571694

RESUMO

A tropology of moral injury and corruption long framed the plight of the sex crime victim. Nineteenth-century psychiatric acknowledgment of adverse sexual experience reflected general trends in etiological thought, especially on 'epileptic' and hysteric seizures, but on the whole remained descriptive, guarded and limited. Various experiential threats to the modern sexual self beyond assault and rape were granted etiological significance, however: illegitimate motherhood, masturbatory guilt, sexual enlightenment, 'homosexual seduction' and chance encounters leading to fetishistic fixation. These minor early appeals to medical psychology help us appreciate the multiple nuances of 'sexual trauma' advanced in Breuer and Freud's Studies on Hysteria (1895) and Freud's subsequent work.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/história , Psiquiatria/história , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/história , Adulto , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Parafílicos/história , Transtornos Parafílicos/psicologia , Psicanálise/história , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
13.
Infant Ment Health J ; 40(6): 763-767, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415108

RESUMO

The World Association for Infant Mental Health (WAIMH) decided to compose a position paper on infants' rights in wartime, as there is still a general lack of attention paid to the impact of war-related traumas on infants' development and psychological health. Though there are numerous areas of violent conflicts around the globe, there have been few published studies that relate specifically to infants. Consequently, humanitarian aid programs tend to overlook infants' psychological needs and to pay more attention to those of older children. This position paper first reviews the studies identified through a literature search, about the impact of war-related traumas during pregnancy and postnatal periods, then describes the existing recommendations that have been added to the Children Rights Convention and their implications for infant mental health clinicians.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Direitos Humanos , Bem-Estar do Lactente , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Papel do Médico , Gravidez , Estupro/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Exposição à Guerra
14.
Aggress Behav ; 45(6): 622-634, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448435

RESUMO

Attitudes about violence and sex in dating relationships were related to psychological, physical, and sexual teen dating abuse perpetration and victimization. Data from Wave 4 of the national, randomly selected, Growing up with Media cohort (n = 876 adolescents aged 14-19 years), collected in 2011, were analyzed. Dating youth perceived more peer pressure to have sex and were more accepting of sex in brief or nonmarital relationships than pre-dating youth. Boys had higher levels of rape-supportive attitudes than girls. Among dating youth, the relative odds of involvement in teen dating abuse as a perpetrator or a victim were generally associated with greater acceptance of relationship violence, perceived peer pressure to have sex, and acceptance of sex in brief and/or nonmarital relationships. Rape-supportive attitudes were not significantly associated with any type of teen dating abuse involvement. Programs aimed at preventing dating abuse might benefit from targeting attitudes associated with sexual activity as well as relationship violence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Violência/psicologia
17.
Psychol Bull ; 145(10): 953-979, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282696

RESUMO

Rape cases have a disproportionately high attrition rate and low conviction rate compared with other criminal offenses. Evaluations of a rape complainant's credibility often determine whether a case progresses through the criminal justice system. Even though emotional demeanor is not related to witness honesty or accuracy, distressed rape complainants are perceived to be more credible than complainants who present with controlled affect. To understand the extent and robustness of the influence of emotional demeanor on credibility judgments of female adult rape complainants, we conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis, and p-curve analysis of the experimental simulated decision-making literature on the influence of complainant emotional demeanor on complainant credibility. The meta-analysis included 20 studies with participants who were criminal justice professionals (e.g., police officers and judges), community members, and mock jurors (N = 3128). Results suggest that distressed demeanor significantly increased perceptions of complainant credibility, with a small to moderate effect size estimate. Importantly, the results of p-curve analysis suggest that reporting bias is not a likely explanation for the effect of emotional demeanor on rape complainant credibility. Sample type (whether perceivers were criminal justice professionals or prospective jurors) and stimulus modality (whether perceivers read about or watched the complainant recount the alleged rape) were not found to moderate the effect size estimate. These results suggest that effective methods of reducing reliance on emotional demeanor to make credibility judgments about rape complainants should be investigated to make credibility assessments fairer and more accurate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Direito Penal/normas , Emoções , Julgamento , Angústia Psicológica , Estupro , Percepção Social , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estupro/legislação & jurisprudência , Estupro/psicologia
18.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 19(1): 21, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a global health problem. After ratifying the Convention of Istanbul in 2016, this Belgian study was set up to map the perspective of victims of rape on the current sexual violence care provision in Belgium and to inquire on their need for more specialised and holistic care in future Sexual Assault Care Centres. METHODS: Sixteen rape victims participated in this sub-study. A mixed-method design (questionnaire, in-depth interview or small focus group) was applied depending on the time elapsed between rape and participation. Descriptive Thematic Framework Analysis was performed in duo. RESULTS: The participants thought it of utmost importance that every victim should receive all medical, psychological and forensic care without necessarily having to involve the police first. They stated that the current Belgian sexual violence care provision could be much more patient-centred, specifically the forensic examination and psychological care. Alongside medical and psychological consequences, victims emphasised the high personal financial and relational burden of sexual violence. The holistic care offered in Sexual Assault Care Centres was perceived to enhance the recovery process of victims of sexual violence. Their doors should be open to all victims and their relatives. They should not only provide acute care for the victim, but also improve victims' reintegration into society while reducing their personal costs significantly. CONCLUSION: All care for victims of sexual violence, especially forensic and psychological care, needs drastic improvement in Belgium. All participants agreed that having specialised, multidisciplinary and longitudinal care in a Sexual Assault Care Centre that would be open 24/7 for everyone, victims and their significant others, would be an improvement to the currently available care all over Belgium. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This research was registered on April 1st 2016. Registration number B670201628242.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/reabilitação , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bélgica , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Polícia , Estupro/psicologia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Addict ; 28(5): 376-381, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prescription opioid (PO) misuse is increasing and is associated with overdose. Individuals who experienced a recent sexual assault are at risk for increased substance use, yet limited interventions target PO misuse after sexual assault. The current study examined the efficacy of video interventions on PO misuse after sexual assault. METHODS: Adolescent girls and women (n = 154) were recruited in the context of a sexual assault medical forensic exam in the emergency department. Effects of a prevention of post-rape stress (PPRS) video and a pleasant imagery and relaxation instruction (PIRI) video were compared with treatment as usual (TAU) during a sexual assault medical forensic exam on PO misuse. Participants reported if they had used POs for non-medical purposes since the sexual assault at 1.5 month follow-up. RESULTS: Results from a logistic regression analysis indicated that participants with a prior sexual assault were less likely to misuse prescription opioids 1.5 months after the assault in the PIRI condition compared with TAU. There were no main effects for video condition and no interactions for the PPRS condition on PO misuse. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Providing the PIRI video, or teaching other types of mindfulness or relaxation exercises, may be warranted as a secondary prevention for individuals during the sexual assault medical forensic exam for those with a prior sexual assault history. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This research provides an initial examination of the impact of mindfulness skills recently after traumatic event exposure on PO misuse. (Am J Addict 2019;28:376-381).


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático , Gravação em Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/reabilitação , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Atenção Plena/métodos , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/prevenção & controle , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia , Estupro/reabilitação , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 76, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rape, unintended pregnancy, and abortion are among the most controversial and stigmatized topics facing sexual and reproductive health researchers, advocates, and the public today. Over the past three decades, public health practicioners and human rights advocates have made great strides to advance our understanding of sexual and reproductive rights and how they should be protected. The overall aim of the study was to understand young women's personal experiences of unintended pregnancy in the context of Nicaragua's repressive legal and sociocultural landscape. Ten in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with women ages 16-23 in a city in North Central Nicaragua, from June to July 2014. CASE PRESENTATION: This case study focuses on the story of a 19-year-old Nicaraguan woman who was raped, became pregnant, and almost died from complications resulting from an unsafe abortion. Her case, detailed under the pseudonym Ana Maria, presents unique challenges related to the fulfillment of sexual and reproductive rights due to the restrictive social norms related to sexual health, ubiquitous violence against women (VAW) and the total ban on abortion in Nicaragua. The case also provides a useful lens through which to examine individual sexual and reproductive health (SRH) experiences, particularly those of rape, unintended pregnancy, and unsafe abortion; this in-depth analysis identifies the contextual risk factors that contributed to Ana Maria's experience. CONCLUSIONS: Far too many women experience their sexuality in the context of individual and structural violence. Ana Maria's case provides several important lessons for the realization of sexual and reproductive health and rights in countries with restrictive legal policies and conservative cultural norms around sexuality. Ana Maria's experience demonstrates that an individual's health decisions are not made in isolation, free from the influence of social norms and national laws. We present an overview of the key risk and contextual factors that contributed to Ana Maria's experience of violence, unintended pregnancy, and unsafe abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/psicologia , Direitos da Mulher , Feminino , Humanos , Nicarágua , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Saúde Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Sexual , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA