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1.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 35(1): 14-23, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the criminal, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, paraphilic behaviors, sexual attitudes, gender perceptions, and rape-related beliefs of people assessed for criminal liability for rape against adults and children. METHOD: The study compared 40 people investigated for criminal liability for rape against an adult (RAA) with 40 individuals investigated for criminal liability for crime of rape against a child (RAC), and 43 age, sex and education matched individuals without any sexual crime history using the Structured Clinical Interview form for DSM-5 disorders, Hendrick Brief Sexual Attitude Scale, Gender Perception Scale, Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11. RESULTS: All participants were male. There was no difference between the groups in terms of lifelong or existing psychiatric diseases. All participants had full criminal responsibility during the crime. No participant in any group was diagnosed with a paraphilic disorder. It was determined that people in both RAC and RAA groups tended to use sexuality as a tool, paid less attention to birth control methods, had a far less egalitarian perception of gender, and their myths about rape were significantly higher compared to the control group. The control group was much more impulsive than the sex offenders. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the act of sexual assault should not be explained only by impulsivity or psychiatric disorders, and that gender perception and sexual myths may also be influential. The fact that all individuals had full criminal responsibility emphasizes the need for more research on the social and cultural origins of sexual violence.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Criminosos , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estupro/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Atitude , Comportamento Sexual , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
2.
Violence Vict ; 39(1): 3-20, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453368

RESUMO

Rape-related cognitions (typically defined as encompassing any number of cognitive constructs) are thought to play a role in sexual aggression. However, rape-related cognition scales often assess these cognitive constructs as one. The purpose of this study is to explore the factor structure of these measures using a sample of 191 community men. We found that items from the Rape Myth Acceptance, RAPE, and Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance (IRMA) scales formed one factor, which was significantly related to sexual aggression. We further found that four and six IRMA subscales were significantly related to past and likelihood of sexual aggression, respectively. Additionally, one IRMA subscale was independently related to past and likelihood of sexual aggression. The results are discussed in terms of implications and direction for future research.


Assuntos
Estupro , Masculino , Humanos , Estupro/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Cognição , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
3.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 74(2): 85-93, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To date the relationships between rape myths and other psychological constructs within males who have committed rape have not been explored sufficiently. Considered as a risk factor for the perpetration of rape it seems significant to examine their association to individual behavioral and personality characteristics more in detail. METHODS: Therefore, we analyzed the relations between self-reported rape myth acceptance and the self-evaluation of aggressiveness, assertiveness, hypersexuality, social anxiety, sexual anxiety, SCID personality characteristics and the external assessment of psychopathy within a sample of N=569 males convicted of rape. RESULTS: The results showed significant correlations with all constructs except sexual anxiety, antisocial personality and psychopathy. Furthermore, findings indicated the assignment of the relevant variables to two principal components: rape myths, aggressiveness, hypersexuality, paranoid and narcissistic personality (K1) on the one hand and psychopathy and antisocial personality (K2) on the other hand. DISCUSSION: Following the results, rape myths are contextualized within the investigated psychological constructs and their potential differentiation from psychopathy and antisocial personality is discussed.


Assuntos
Estupro , Masculino , Humanos , Estupro/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores de Risco , 60564 , Personalidade
4.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0278810, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315681

RESUMO

Tonic immobility (TI) is a common uncontrollable autonomic mammalian response to an extremely fearful situation. It is one of the most immediate devastating consequences of rape and remains poorly understood. While controversies over its definition persist among researchers, this also reflects on the care for and support to victims. The study aimed to explore and describe the onset of TI and the meaning attached to the experience among women raped victims in Nigeria. The study design was the qualitative narrative inquiry approach. Criterion and purposive sampling were conducted across four post-rape care facilities in Lagos, Nigeria, to recruit 13 participants. In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide to generate data that were thematically analysed. The findings of the study revealed five themes relating to the onset of TI as follows: the first two focused on the experience of TI: (1) the onset of TI prior to rape due to perceived imminent danger, (2) the onset of TI as a self-protection mechanism from further harm) while the last three relate to the meaning-making of the experience of TI (3) self-loathing as a meaning attached to TI, (4) suicidal ideations as a meaning attached to TI, and (5) divine intervention as a meaning attached to TI. Conclusion: The findings underscore the experiences and meanings that participants attach to TI following rape. There is a strong likelihood that tonic-immobility is not an uncommon experience amongst rape victims, but that in the absence of research, specialized care on the condition, and its associated consequences will haunt many women, affecting their psychological well-being and their entire quality of life. Describing the phenomenon as it is experienced by the participants is critical because understanding the condition is the first step toward effective appropriate management.


Assuntos
Estupro , Humanos , Feminino , Estupro/psicologia , Nigéria , Qualidade de Vida , Medo/psicologia , Narração
5.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(3): 1047-1063, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233725

RESUMO

Current research indicates that aggressive sexual fantasies (ASF) are related to sexual aggression, above and beyond other risk factors for this behavior. There have, however, rarely been explicitly considered in multifactor models aiming to explain sexual aggression. One exception is the multifactorial Revised Confluence Model of Sexual Aggression that was replicated in two samples of male individuals who were convicted of sexual offenses and a small sample of men from the general population and evidenced a high relevance of ASF, respectively. There were, however, no further attempts to replicate the model in larger samples from the general population. We, therefore, used a subsample from the Finnish Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project including 3269 men (age: M = 26.17 years, SD = 4.76) to do so. Cross-sectional latent structural equation models corroborated previous research and the assumption that ASF are a central component in multifactor models that aim to explain sexual aggression: ASF and antisocial behavior/aggression were equally important associates of sexual coercion when also considering adverse childhood experiences, hypersexuality, and callous-unemotional traits. Additionally, ASF mediated the links between hypersexuality, callous-unemotional traits, as well as childhood sexual abuse and sexual coercion. These links held stable when entering further risk factors, that is, distorted perceptions, rape-supportive attitudes, and violent pornography consumption into the model. Contrasting assumptions, alcohol consumption and antisocial behavior/aggression did not interact. These results illustrate the potential importance of ASF for sexual aggression. They indicate that ASF require consideration by research on sexual aggression as well as in the treatment and risk assessment of sexual perpetrators.


Assuntos
Agressão , Estupro , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Coerção , Fantasia , Estudos Transversais , Estupro/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
6.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2291932, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166564

RESUMO

Background: Sexual victimization is a serious public health problem, with a range of negative impacts on mental and physical health. Responses that individuals get to disclosure of sexual victimization play an important role in recovery. With the increased use of social media, more survivors are talking about their experiences of sexual victimization online. Research is needed to document the correlates of online disclosure of sexual victimization.Objective: The current study examined the role of demographic characteristics, assault severity, coping strategies, and social isolation as putative correlates of disclosing sexual victimization online via the hashtag #MeToo.Methods: A sample of 637 adults recruited via social media who reported a history of sexual victimization since the age of 14 completed self-report surveys using online survey software to assess disclosure of sexual victimization, assault severity, coping strategies, and social isolation.Results: Multivariate analyses suggest that levels of emotion-focused coping were positively associated with the disclosure of sexual victimization online via #MeToo. Further, individuals who had experienced completed rape by verbal coercion were less likely to disclose via #MeToo, compared to individuals who experienced other forms of assault.Conclusion: Coping strategies and assault severity play an important role in determining whether survivors disclose sexual victimization online via #MeToo. Findings suggest that individuals may disclose via #MeToo to seek support or express their emotions. Further, individuals whose sexual victimization experiences do not conform to 'typical' sexual victimization experiences are less likely to disclose via #MeToo.


HIGHLIGHTSGreater reported use of emotion-focused coping is associated with an increased likelihood of disclosing via #MeToo.Individuals who experienced completed rape by verbal coercion were less likely to disclose via #MeToo, compared to individuals who experienced other forms of assault.Findings highlight the need to further investigate correlates of disclosure via #MeToo.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Adulto , Humanos , Revelação , Estudos Transversais , Estupro/psicologia , Emoções
7.
J Sex Res ; 61(3): 374-388, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36755391

RESUMO

Τhe aim of this study was to provide a detailed understanding of unprompted audience responses to a literary story of female-on-male rape on Goodreads. Thematic analysis of 429 reviews revealed 5 key themes and 16 sub-themes, which evolved around appraising the social function of the book, evaluating its literary features, assessing the depiction of female-on-male rape especially in terms of its perceived realism, as well as around a variety of explicitly emotional and cognitive responses. The esthetic features of the story proved to be of particular importance for shaping reader engagement. Reflective elaborations on the female rapist were found to constitute a marginal response pattern. Findings identified the existence of an overarching cognitive schema that construes sexual victimization as feminized and is linked to a tripartite pattern of comprehending female on- male rape (female-focused, gender-inclusive, gender-neutral). The study highlights the persistence of gendered rape myths structured around an "ideal victim" - "ideal offender" paradigm, which, however, co-exist with alternative responses oriented toward de-gendering sexual victimization. These findings suggest the importance of addressing audience responses in future investigations of female sexual violence (hands-on and hands-off behaviors) and pursuing an interventional agenda of more inclusive conceptualizations of victimization.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 796, 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37974064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One in five women in the UK are survivors of rape and sexual assault, and four in five women will give birth. This implies that a substantial number of women experience rape and sexual assault before pregnancy. We highlight and explore the voices and lived experiences of survivors during pregnancy and birth, to better understand the relationship between sexual violence, biomedicine, and pregnancy and to inform maternity care practice. METHODS: This qualitative research took an intersectional feminist approach. We conducted in-depth individual interviews in England with fourteen women who self-identified as survivors of rape or sexual assault, and who had experienced pregnancy and birth after the assault. We conducted open line-by-line coding of the interview transcripts, and identified key themes and sub-themes inductively. RESULTS: Three themes help summarise the narratives: control, safety and trauma. Maintaining a sense of control was important to survivors but they often reported objectification by healthcare staff and lack of consent or choice about healthcare decisions. Participants' preferences for giving birth were often motivated by their desire to feel in control and avoid triggering traumatic memories of the sexual assault. Survivors felt safer when they trusted staff. Many participants said it was important for staff to know they were survivors but none were asked about this. Pregnancy and birth experiences were triggering when they mirrored the assault, for instance if the woman was prevented from moving. Many of our participants reported having unmet mental health care needs before, during or after pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of sexual violence have specific maternity care needs. For our participants, these needs were often not met, leading to negative or traumatic experiences of pregnancy and birth. Systemic biases and poor birth experience jeopardise both psychological and physical safety. Funding for maternity and mental health services must be improved, so that they meet minimum staffing and care standards. Maternity services should urgently introduce trauma-informed models of care.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sobreviventes/psicologia
9.
Med Confl Surviv ; 39(4): 389-411, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37849278

RESUMO

We conducted a population-based survey in 2013 in Kampala, Uganda, to examine violence and mental health outcomes among self-settled male refugees from the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Male DRC refugees aged 18+ years were sampled through respondent-driven sampling. Key interview domains included demographics, experiences of sexual and nonsexual violence, social support, PTSD, depression and suicide ideation. Data analysis was weighted to generate population-level estimates. We sampled 718 men (mean age: 33 years), most of whom had lived in North or South Kivu. Nonsexual violence, such as beatings (79.4%) and torture (63.8%), was frequent. A quarter (26.2%) had been raped; 49.9% of rape victims had been raped on multiple occasions, and 75.7% of rape victims had been gang raped. We estimated 52.8% had post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 44.4% reported suicidal ideation. Numerous traumas were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with PTSD such as rape (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.82), war-related injuries (aOR = 2.90) or having been exposed to >15 traumas (compared to ≤10; aOR = 6.89). Traumata are frequent experiences in this self-settled male refugee population and are often accompanied by adverse mental health outcomes. Screening for trauma and adverse mental health outcomes and providing targeted services are paramount to improve these refugees' lives.


Assuntos
Estupro , Refugiados , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Uganda/epidemiologia , Violência , Estupro/psicologia
10.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 302, 2023 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37784148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rape is one of the principal forms of sexual violence leading to numerous psychological consequences for women. Providing effective psychological services to women survivors of rape requires identifying and considering their real needs. This study aimed to explore the psychological needs of women survivors of rape. METHODS: In this exploratory-descriptive qualitative study, the participants consisted of 19 women survivors of rape and 20 people with experience in providing services to survivors of rape, selected via purposive sampling method in Isfahan, Iran. In-depth individual semi-structured interviews and field notes were used to collect data, which were then analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. RESULTS: Based on the analysis of the interviews, the psychological needs of women survivors of rape were classified into three main categories: facing psychological problems, attention to emotional reactions, and the need to accept and adapt to reality. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that women survivors of rape have different psychological needs. Thus, to meet these needs, supportive and psychological interventions can be considered at both individual and environmental levels. Also, eliminating gender stereotypes affecting the occurrence of rape in the dimensions of Iranian culture can lead to the liberation of the society from the culture of rape.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Feminino , Estupro/psicologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sobreviventes/psicologia
11.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 49(3): 82-90, Julio - Septiembre 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-226253

RESUMO

Introducción: el objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar las características de las víctimas y circunstancias de la violencia sexual asociadas con un mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones físicas, así como determinar la frecuencia y severidad de las mismas. Material y Métodos estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de 702 casos de violencia sexual atendidos en el Instituto de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses de Alicante entre 2016 y 2020. Se ha realizado un estudio comparativo entre las víctimas de violencia sexual con lesiones físicas y sin lesiones, para analizar las variables asociadas que pueden influir en su presentación. Resultados del total de 702 víctimas de violencia sexual, 314 casos (44,8%) presentaban lesiones físicas. Las víctimas con lesiones físicas la mayoría eran mujeres (95,5%), entre 18 y 27 años (31,3%), que referían un consumo voluntario previo de sustancias, fundamentalmente de alcohol (50%). Las lesiones físicas más frecuentes fueron a nivel extragenital (38,6%), seguidas de lesiones a nivel anogenital (15%), de carácter leve en la mayoría de los casos (97,5%). Los días totales de curación fueron menores o iguales a una semana (83,4%). La mayoría se curó sin secuelas (97,1%). Las víctimas que presentaron secuelas (9 casos), las más frecuentes fueron de carácter psíquico (1,6%). Conclusiones la violencia sexual en el grupo de víctimas con lesiones físicas se asocia a factores de vulnerabilidad para la víctima: sexo femenino, edad entre 18 y 27 años y consumo previo de alcohol. Nuestro estudio confirma que las lesiones anogenitales son poco frecuentes en la mayoría de las víctimas de violencia sexual, por lo que su ausencia no puede descartar el haber sufrido violencia sexual. Las lesiones físicas encontradas fueron de carácter leve en la mayoría de los casos. La ausencia de secuelas psíquicas en muchas de las víctimas puede estar condicionado por el escaso seguimiento de las mismas. (AU)


Introduction: The aim of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of the victims and the circumstances of sexual violence related with the risk of physical lesions, as well as to determine the frequency and severity of the injuries. Material and methods Descriptive study of 702 cases of sexual assault attended at the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Alicante between the years 2016–2020. A comparative study was carried out between victims with and without injuries, to identify the variables associated to their presentation. Results 314 victims attended showed physical injuries (44,8%). Profile of the victims with injuries were women (95.5%), aged 18 to 27 years (31.3%), and previous alcohol consumption (50%). Injuries physical were mainly extragenital (38.6%), anogenital (15%), or both, and most cases were mild in severity (97.5%). Recovery was less to one week (83.4%) and without aftermath (97.1%). When the victim showed aftermath (9 cases), the most frequent were psychological type (1.6%). Conclusions Physical injuries in sexual violence is related with circumstances of victim vulnerability: women, age between 18 to 27 years, and previous alcohol consumption. Our study shows that anogenital lesions are absent in a significative number of victims of sexual assault, so this absence cannot exclude sexual violence. The lesions found are mild in severity, and the absence of physical aftermath in most of the victims may be conditioned by the scarce follow-up of them. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estupro/diagnóstico , Estupro/psicologia , Estupro/reabilitação , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/reabilitação , Delitos Sexuais , Medicina Legal , Estatísticas de Sequelas e Incapacidade
12.
Violence Against Women ; 29(14): 2941-2963, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37603583

RESUMO

Literature on sexual violence survivors' service utilization is limited due to examination of singular therapies or narrow timeframes. Using surveys (n = 303) and interviews (n = 20), this study increases understanding of survivors' healing. Results show varied therapy use including psychotherapy (76.9%), yoga (50.2%), and massage (32.1%), among others. Mean number of therapies used was over three. Service utilization was delayed over a decade on average. Latent class analysis divided respondents into classes: psychotherapy and bodywork use (42.66%), high therapy use (9.14%), and minimal therapy use (48.20%). Interviews provide additional insight and describe barriers. Recommendations for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Psicoterapia , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Estupro/psicologia , Estupro/reabilitação , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia
13.
Child Abuse Negl ; 144: 106355, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37541094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited research in South Africa that has analysed the experiences of child and youth victims of crime and sexual victimisation who accessed formal response services through the victim empowerment programme. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this article is to explore children and youth's experiences of accessing the Victim Empowerment Programmatic services, through the criminal justice system in South Africa. The focus of the article is on childrens' disclosure, reporting and social support. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The participants in the study are male and female victim/survivor of crime between the ages of 12-17 years who has been through a Victim Empowerment Programme (VEP) for at least 12 months. The Victim Empowerment Programme is a governmental programme located within the National Department of Social Development in South Africa. METHOD: The full study is a mixed method study but the children's(youth) participation in the study is limited to qualitative methods. The data analysis utilised a thematic approach and ATLAS.ti software. RESULTS: The findings revealed four themes, namely, (1) children's (as youth) perceptions of the presence and frequency of rape in communities, (2) disclosure and reporting rape; (3) interlinkage of disclosure and reporting of child rape and child sexual victimisation; and (4) seeking social and professional support to deal with the trauma of child (youth) rape and child sexual victimisation. The findings showed that children (youth) perceive their community environments as unsafe spaces where they are exposed to crimes such as rape and burglary; that there are delays in disclosure of sexual victimisation and victims/survivors are still dealing with the trauma of rape as they report the crime and navigate the pathways of the criminal justice system. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study confirms the delay in disclosure of childhood (youth) sexual victimisation and identifies the complex tension for children (youth) who disclose, that they are often pressured to report the crime, and journey through an adversarial criminal justice system, and so 'breaking the silence' is often unpredictable and emotionally and psychologically costly for children and youth.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Lactente , Estupro/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Emoções , Revelação , Apoio Social
14.
Violence Against Women ; 29(12-13): 2348-2371, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37501575

RESUMO

The current study explores the relationship between psychopathy, cognitive distortions that could promote sexual coercion, i.e., rape myth acceptance (RMA) and misperception of sexual intent (MPSI), and one's level of sexual arousal on the intentions to use sexual coercion. Using a sample of 218 college men (aged 18-69) and a hypothetical vignette design, we examine potential direct and indirect effects of psychopathy on coercion intentions. Psychopathy directly related to coercion intentions and also operated indirectly through RMA. Furthermore, RMA was related to coercion intentions through MPSI. Implications for understanding sexual coercion pathways and prevention efforts are discussed.


Assuntos
Estupro , Masculino , Humanos , Estupro/psicologia , Coerção , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Intenção , Nível de Alerta
15.
PLoS One ; 18(7): e0289106, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37506073

RESUMO

Research conducted in the last four decades on rape and other forms of sexual violence shows that they are not only the result of transgression behaviors of some people but have been used as strategic, systemic, and calculated tools of war, ethnic cleansing, and genocide. Examining the nature and effect of wartime rape and sexual violence based on their distinctive features, context, and historical background is essential for research and service providers. This paper explores the lived experiences of sexual violence and gang rape victims during the North Ethiopian war in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Data were collected from three girls and women survivors using a trauma and socio-culturally informed phenomenological approach. The finding shows that participants experienced a broad and complex range of psychological, physiological, emotional, and relational suffering after the rape. The result also shed light on some risk factors such as lack of awareness of the effect of traumatic events, stigma related to rape, and lacks victim protective legislation risk their journey to healing. The paper further discussed individual and community mental health responses for victims of war rape in culturally responsive and resource-poor settings.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Feminino , Estupro/psicologia , Etiópia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Ansiedade , Estigma Social
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 372, 2023 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37443028

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As consequences of war, women and girls are the most likely segment of society to be impacted by violence. War also affects the critical facilities and makes the situation worse as victims cannot get the vital basic services. According to media and unpublished reports, Tigrayan women have been victimized by gang rape and sexual violence. Furthermore, there is substantive evidence of intentional destruction and vandalization of health facilities due to the one-year-old-armed conflict. This study aimed to explore experiences of rape survivors in areas hit by armed conflict in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. METHODS: In this qualitative study, a phenomenological study design was employed among Tigrayan sexual assault survivors in a war-ravaged of Tigray. Survivors were selected purposively and included in the study for an in-depth interview. An interview guide was used to collect the data. Audio records from the in-depth interviews in Tigrigna were transcribed verbatim and then translated into English for analysis. Atlas-ti 7 software was used to code the interview transcripts of the qualitative data, and categorizations and thematizing of the codes were done. Direct quotes were used to describe categories or themes. RESULTS: Ten women who were survivors of sexual violence and rape related to the war in Tigray participated in the interview. The age of the women ranged between 16 and 30 years with a mean age of 21.7. Among the participants, five were teenagers, six were single and/or economically dependent on their family or husband, and two did not attend any school and were not able to read and write. This study has generated five major thematic areas: (1) infliction of long-lasting trauma on children (2) effects of the rape (3) means of escaping from rape and killings (4) home remedies as means of life saving in war affected areas, and (5) beyond rape. CONCLUSIONS: Rape in war-stricken Tigray has been widespread which includes teenagers and it caused immense psychological and physical damage to the survivors and their families. Damage of critical facilities such as the absence of safe houses for survivors and health services was an added complexity to the victims of rape. Hence, a coordinated effort by the government of Tigray and international partners is required to heal, support and rehabilitate the victims and rebuild the damaged health institutions and reequip the health facilities.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Lactente , Estupro/psicologia , Violência , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sobreviventes/psicologia
17.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(19-20): 10947-10971, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37386850

RESUMO

In the United States, sexual assault (SA) is a significant problem that has adverse psychological impacts on women. Scholarship has shown that when survivors choose to disclose their experiences, the way their networks react has a powerful impact on their well-being, but literature on response to SA disclosure has not extensively explored variation among women, who are likely recipients of these disclosures. This study explored variation among perceptions of and blame attribution for SA within a geographically and politically diverse but primarily White sample of women. Participants were assigned one of four vignettes, each of which described a non-stereotypical SA. The vignettes differed in two ways: (1) the social status of the perpetrator of the assault and (2) the length of time the victim waited to report. Results showed that being older and more politically conservative was associated with assigning less blame to the perpetrator and more blame to the victim, but neither education level nor where the participant lived were linked with blame attribution. While women's own experiences of SA were unrelated to their responses, having a loved one who had experienced SA was associated with less victim blaming. With respect to attitudes, women endorsing higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO) and sexism also reported higher levels of victim blame and lower levels of perpetrator blame. Further research should explore the role of specific personal experiences and knowledge of others' SA in assignment of blame, investigate the predictors and moderators of SDO, and should extend these findings to more racially/ethnically diverse samples of women.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Feminino , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Percepção Social , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Revelação , Atitude , Estupro/psicologia
18.
J Trauma Stress ; 36(4): 691-699, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37246151

RESUMO

The unique forms of trauma experienced by survivors of genocidal rape are not well understood. Hence, we conducted a systematic scoping review regarding the consequences for survivors of rape during genocide. Searches conducted in PubMed, Global Health, Scopus, PyscInfo, and Embase produced a total of 783 articles. After completing the screening process, 34 articles were eligible for inclusion in the review. The included articles focus on survivors from six different genocides, with most focusing on either the genocide of the Tutsis in Rwanda or the Yazidis in Iraq. The study findings consistently show that survivors deal with stigmatization as well as a lack of both financial and psychological social support. This lack of support is partly due to social ostracization and shame but is also attributed to the fact that many survivors' families and other providers of social support were murdered during the violence. Many survivors, particularly young girls, reported dealing with intense forms of trauma both as a direct result of sexual violence and due to witnessing the death of their community members during the period of genocide. A notable proportion of survivors became pregnant from genocidal rape and contracted HIV. Group therapy was shown to improve mental health outcomes across numerous studies. These findings have important implications and can inform recovery process efforts. Psychosocial supports, stigma reduction campaigns, community reestablishment, and financial assistance are integral in facilitating recovery. These findings can also play an important role in shaping refugee support programs.


Assuntos
Genocídio , Estupro , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Estupro/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Violência , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Genocídio/psicologia
19.
Arch Sex Behav ; 52(7): 2899-2935, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37226034

RESUMO

Sexual and dating violence (SDV) by male youth (≤ 25 years)-including sexual harassment, emotional partner violence, and rape-is a worldwide problem. The goal of this preregistered (PROSPERO, ID: CRD42022281220) systematic review was to map existing SDV prevention programs aimed at male youth, including their characteristics (e.g., content, intensity), intended psychosexual outcomes, and empirically demonstrated effectiveness, guided by the principles of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We conducted searches in six online databases for published, peer-reviewed quantitative effectiveness studies on multi-session, group focused, and interaction based SDV prevention programs for male youth ending March 2022. After screening of 21,156 hits using PRISMA guidelines, 15 studies on 13 different programs, from four continents were included. Narrative analysis showed, first, broad ranges in program intensity (2-48 h total), and few program curricula included explicit discussion of relevant aspects of the TPB. Second, programs' main intended psychosexual outcomes were to change SDV experiences, or related attitudes, or norms. Third, significant effects were found mostly on longer term behaviors and short-term attitudes. Other theoretical proxies of SDV experiences, such as social norms and perceived behavioral control, were sparsely investigated; thus, program effectiveness on these outcomes remains largely unknown. Assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool, moderate to serious risk of bias arose in all studies. We present concrete suggestions for program content, such as explicit attention to victimization and masculinity and discuss best practices for evaluation research, including assessments of program integrity, and examining relevant theoretical proxies of SDV.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Assédio Sexual , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Violência/prevenção & controle , Violência/psicologia
20.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(15-16): 8898-8920, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36915229

RESUMO

After the popularization of #MeToo in 2017, the conversation around sexual violence was brought to global attention. The collapse of compassion theory is proposed to occur in situations where individuals no longer feel increased levels of empathy due to an increase in the number of victims. This theory was employed to attempt to understand negative responses to #MeToo. The current study used a mixed methods exploratory approach to understand how exposure to multiple versus single victim(s) (image(s) and vignette) of sexual violence may affect participants' perception of survivors of sexual violence. We hypothesized that individuals who were exposed to multiple victims would demonstrate less compassion, higher levels of distance, more diffusion of responsibility, lower perceived efficacy, and less belief of the victim's story compared to individuals who were exposed to a single victim. We hypothesized that individuals with higher levels of rape myth acceptance (RMA) would endorse greater rates of distance and diffusion, and lower rates of compassion, efficacy, and belief. Participants, recruited via MTurk, were randomized into a single-image group or an eight-image group accompanied by a vignette explaining that the woma(e)n were victim(s) of sexual violence and naming the #MeToo movement. Participants in the single-image group expressed more belief in the victim's story and endorsed higher levels of psychological distance than the eight-image group. Higher rates of RMA related to less belief and compassion for victims and increased distance. In the qualitative analysis, three content areas were identified: (a) comments on woman(en), (b) comments on #MeToo, and (c) comments on sexual violence. The majority of responses expressed support for the #MeToo movement, with a smaller percentage expressing highly critical views including questions on the inclusivity of #MeToo and sexualization of the woman(en) in the vignettes. Implications and integration of results are discussed.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Feminino , Humanos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Empatia , Percepção Social , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
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