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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e253009, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339373

RESUMO

Abstract Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Resumo Hoje, o foco global da pesquisa é explorar a solução da crise energética e da poluição ambiental. Como em outros países agrícolas, grandes quantidades de cascas de melancia (WMP) são descartadas como resíduos no meio ambiente no Paquistão, mas a gestão adequada desses resíduos é a mais recente solução para salvar o meio ambiente da poluição. O trabalho enfatiza o papel das leveduras etanologênicas para utilizar açúcares significativos presentes no WMP para fermentação de bioetanol de baixo custo. A hidrólise de ácido clorídrico diluído de WMP foi realizada em condições otimizadas empregando RSM (metodologia de superfície de resposta) e seguindo o projeto de composto central (CCD). Este projeto experimental é baseado na otimização da etanologenesis envolvendo alguns parâmetros independentes importantes, como hidrolisado de WMP e razão de meio sintético (X1), temperatura de incubação (X2) e temperatura de incubação (X3) para rendimento máximo de etanol explorando o padrão (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) também como leveduras experimentais (Metchnikowia cibodasensis Y34). Os resultados revelaram que os rendimentos máximos de etanol obtidos a partir de S. cerevisiae K7 foi de 0,36 ± 0,02 g / g de açúcares redutores, enquanto M. cibodasensis Y34 rendeu 0,40 ± 0,01 g de etanol / g de açúcares redutores. O isolado de levedura M. cibodasensis Y34 apareceu como um etanologeno promissor e incorpora um potencial prospectivo para a valorização fermentativa de WMP em bioetanol.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Etanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Água , Biotransformação , Estudos Prospectivos , Fermentação
2.
Food Chem ; 398: 133899, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964571

RESUMO

Earlier studies revealed that cadmium (Cd) concentrations in cacao nibs can decrease by a factor up to 1.3 during fermentation. Here, fermentation was mimicked by incubating beans at different temperatures, and acetic acid and ethanol concentrations in the incubation media. Nib Cd concentrations decreased during incubation by mobilisation in the nibs and subsequent outward migration to the testa and the incubation solution. This was most pronounced when high concentrations of acetic acid were combined with high temperature, while ethanol had no statistically significant effect. Incubation under typical fermentation conditions (45 °C and 20.0 g acetic acid L-1) reduced the nib Cd concentration by a factor 1.3. This factor increased to 1.6 under more extreme conditions, i.e. 65 °C and 40 g acetic acid L-1. The final nib Cd concentrations correlated well to nib phytate concentrations (R2 = 0.56), suggesting hydrolysis of phytate and mobilisation of the associated Cd2+.


Assuntos
Cacau , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Cacau/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 398: 133864, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969996

RESUMO

The ability of bovine κ-casein-derived caseinomacropeptide (CMP) to exert bioactivity in the human gut depends on its digestive survival. Sampling from the human jejunum after feeding CMP and top-down glycopeptidomics analysis facilitates the determination of CMP survival. To reduce interference from non-target molecules in mass spectrometric analysis, CMP must be isolated from digestive fluid. To identify an optimal extraction method, this study compared the profiles of CMP extracted from feeding material (commercial CMP in water) and digestive fluid by ethanol precipitation, perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation, and ultrafiltration. Ethanol precipitation yielded the highest ion abundances for aglycosylated CMP and glycosylated CMP in both feeding material and jejunal samples. Notably, PCA precipitation yielded the highest abundance of partially digested CMP-derived fragments in jejunal samples. Overall, ethanol precipitation was the most effective among the methods tested for intact CMP extraction from jejunal fluids, whereas PCA precipitation was optimal for extraction of CMP fragments.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Jejuno , Animais , Caseínas/química , Bovinos , Citidina Monofosfato , Etanol , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Percloratos , Ultrafiltração
4.
Food Chem ; 400: 133988, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088888

RESUMO

The present study was designed to study the effect of green solvent processing in two folds, (i) to extract valuable protein from dairy and non-dairy expired milk products and (ii) to compare extraction efficiency and quality of extracted protein using conventional (CS) and green solvents (GS). Ethyl acetate, ethanol, isopropanol, n-heptane and cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) were selected as the GS for the possible substitution of hexane and ethyl ether. For each respective solvent, protein recovery, structural and functional modifications were studied. Protein yield was extracted most effectively by GS n-heptane in dairy milk (5.33 ± 0.01%) with a protein purity of 39.73 ± 0.90%. Non-dairy milk and product had similar protein yield when treated with CS and GS. Total mean of extraction efficiency, structural and functional modifications across all samples showed GS solvents were statistically more effective than CS.


Assuntos
Éteres Metílicos , Leite , 2-Propanol , Animais , Etanol , Etil-Éteres , Heptanos , Hexanos/química , Éteres Metílicos/química , Solventes/química
5.
Food Chem ; 399: 133969, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007443

RESUMO

Bloodroot (Haemodorum spicatum) is an Australian native bulb plant yielding red pigment. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic and carotenoid profiles of the 80% ethanol extract of the H. spicatum bulb by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD. Results revealed the relatively low total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the bulb extract with the maximum absorbance at 477 nm. Only 2 carotenoids (lutein and capsanthin) were detected at relatively low levels in the extract. A total of 40 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, including 5 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids and 22 other phenolic compounds, where 35 were reported for the first time in H. spicatum, together with 3 previously reported phenylphenalenones, haemodorol, haemoxiphidone and 2,5,6-trimethoxy-9-phenyl-1H-phenalen-1-one, and 2 oxabenzochrysenones, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1H-naphtho[2,1,8-mna]xanthen-1-one and 5-hydroxy-1H-naphtho[2,1,8-mna]xanthen-1-one. This study provided the most comprehensive phenolic and carotenoid profiles of H. spicatum up to date.


Assuntos
Etanol , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Austrália , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
7.
Washington, D.C.; Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé; 2022-09-16. (OPS/NMH/MH/22-0017).
em Francês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56421

RESUMO

Les objectifs de développement durable (ODD) sont un ensemble d'aspirations adoptées par tous les membres de l'Organisation des Nations Unies en 2015 et à atteindre d'ici 2030. L'alcool affecte négativement plusieurs ODD, en plus de l'objectif de santé. Cette fiche décrira les liens entre l'alcool et le développement durable. L'objectif est de clarifier et de renforcer la nécessité d'une approche gouvernementale globale de la politique en matière d'alcool, afin de parvenir à un développement sanitaire, social et durable. La production et la consommation d'alcool sont liées à des problèmes de santé, à des inégalités et constituent un frein au développement durable. Il est nécessaire d'élargir la compréhension du public sur ces questions afin qu'il puisse soutenir et défendre des changements de politique en matière d'alcool qui profiteront à sa vie et à un mode de vie sain. Cependant, les partenariats avec l'industrie de l'alcool (producteurs d'alcool et leurs groupes de façade) peuvent menacer l'Agenda 2030, car ils ont un conflit d'intérêts inhérent avec les objectifs de santé publique et ceux de développement durable.


Assuntos
Etanol , Mudança Social , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
8.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-09-16. (OPAS/NMH/MH/22-0017).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56420

RESUMO

Os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS) são um conjunto de aspirações adotadas por todos os membros da Organização das Nações Unidas em 2015 e a serem alcançadas até 2030. O álcool afeta negativamente diversos ODS, além da meta de saúde. Esta ficha informativa descreverá as conexões entre álcool e desenvolvimento sustentável. O objetivo é esclarecer e reforçar a necessidade de uma abordagem de governo integral à política do álcool, a fim de alcançar o desenvolvimento sanitário, social e sustentável. A produção e o consumo de álcool estão ligados a problemas de saúde e desigualdades e são uma barreira ao desenvolvimento sustentável. Há uma necessidade de ampliar a compreensão pública dessas questões para que eles possam apoiar e defender mudanças nas políticas de álcool que beneficiem suas vidas e uma vida saudável. No entanto, parcerias com a indústria do álcool (produtores de álcool e seus grupos de frente) podem ameaçar a Agenda 2030, pois possuem um conflito de interesse inerente com as metas de saúde pública e de desenvolvimento sustentável.


Assuntos
Etanol , Mudança Social , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
9.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-09-07. (OPS/NMH/MH/22-0017).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56388

RESUMO

Los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) son un conjunto de aspiraciones adoptadas por todos los miembros de las Naciones Unidas en el 2015 y que deben alcanzarse para el 2030. El alcohol afecta negativamente a varios de ellos: la producción y el consumo de alcohol están vinculados a problemas de salud y desigualdades y son una barrera para el desarrollo sostenible. Esta hoja informativa describe los vínculos entre el alcohol y el desarrollo con el propósito de aclarar y reforzar la necesidad de adoptar un enfoque que abarque todas las entidades gubernamentales para las políticas sobre el alcohol. Además, pretende ampliar la comprensión pública de estos problemas y promover cambios en las políticas que redunden en una vida más saludable. Sin embargo, las asociaciones con la industria del alcohol (productores de alcohol y sus grupos de fachada) pueden poner en jaque la Agenda 2030, ya que tienen un conflicto de intereses inherente con los objetivos de salud pública y los del desarrollo sostenible.


Assuntos
Etanol , Mudança Social , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
10.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-09-02. (OPAS/NMH/MH/22-0020).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56383

RESUMO

A série de folhetos informativos sobre álcool apresenta conceitos básicos sobre álcool e saúde. Esse folheto informativo define e descreve os transtornos do espectro alcoólico fetal, suas consequências ao longo da vida e a importância de reconhecê-los. Também destaca ações de diagnóstico, intervenção e conscientização sobre o tema, além de recomendações importantes para o público-alvo.


Assuntos
Etanol , Alcoolismo , Gravidez , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal
11.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-09-02. (PAHO/NMH/MH/22-0020).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56382

RESUMO

The alcohol fact-sheets series presents basic concepts about alcohol and health. This factsheet defines and describes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, their consequences throughout life and the importance to recognize them. It also highlights actions for diagnosis, interventions and to raise awareness on the topic, as well as key recommendations to the target audience.


Assuntos
Etanol , Alcoolismo , Gravidez , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal
12.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-09-01. (PAHO/NMH/MH/22-0025).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56374

RESUMO

Decreasing alcohol affordability is one of the main public policy measures recommended to reduce alcohol consumption. This fact sheet describes what is alcohol affordability and how it can be decreased, the advantages of alcohol taxes and the most effective tax policy option. It also presents effective non-tax price policy options that can complement tax policies and key policy considerations.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Etanol , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Impostos
13.
Se Pu ; 40(9): 797-809, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156626

RESUMO

Various types of oxidative dyes used in hair dye products possess poor stability and have varying frequency of use. Interference problems also frequently arise in actual sample measurements. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for the determination of common dyes in hair dye products for their effective regulation. In this study, dyes were grouped according to their frequency of use. Using a C18 column that minimizes the silanol effect and influence of metals, the quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for 32 dyes listed in Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 edition) was optimized, and a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) confirmatory method for the dyes was established. The samples were extracted using a mixed solution of ethanol-water (1∶1, v/v) with 10 g/L sodium bisulfite solution as an antioxidant, vortexed and mixed, and then extracted by ultrasonication in an ice bath for 10 min. Methanol, acetonitrile, and phosphate buffer were used as the mobile phases in the HPLC analysis. Additionally, two different elution conditions (chromatographic gradient) were used for the separation of 32 oxidative dyes, which were detected at a wavelength of 280 nm. The HPLC separations were compared using columns of particle sizes 5 µm and 2.7 µm; 5 µm C18 columns with better anti-interference and antiblocking ability were selected. Satisfactory separation was achieved for all three commercial C18 columns with a particle size of 5 µm, and the method had good general usability. In condition 1, 17 commonly used dyes and three less commonly used dyes were assigned to group Ⅰ and separated by HPLC; in condition 2, eight banned dyes and four other less commonly used dyes were assigned to group Ⅱ and separated by HPLC. The HPLC-MS/MS method used 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution-acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L acetic acid aqueous solution-acetonitrile as mobile phases in the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was performed for qualitative and quantitative analyses in the electrospray ionization mode. Under the examined conditions, six pairs of isomers were well resolved. For the HPLC and HPLC-MS/MS methods, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the intra-day precision and 48 h stability tests were less than 10%. The recoveries were between 82.6% and 114.9% (RSD<10%). In the HPLC method, 32 dyes showed good linearity in an approximate range of 10-500 mg/L (r2>0.99), and the limits of detection (LODs) were 9.7-40.1 µg/g. The linear range of hydroquinone in the HPLC-MS/MS method was 2.0-79.7 mg/L, and the LOD was 8.0 µg/g; the linear ranges of the other components were approximately 0.1-4 mg/L, and the LODs were 0.01-0.4 µg/g. The actual samples were simultaneously measured by HPLC, HPLC-MS/MS, and the standard method. Finally, 16 of the 32 dyes were detected, and the detected contents ranged from 58 to 25160 µg/g. The RSDs of the results obtained from the three detection methods were between 1.9% and 10.1%. All detected components were within the limits of group Ⅰ of this method. In comparison with methods reported in the literature and the standard method, this method covers all components for the routine regulatory inspection of oxidative dyes in cosmetics. The method can separate the commonly used dyes under the same HPLC conditions and avoid interference from 15 other commonly used dyes during the analysis of actual samples. A suitable HPLC-MS/MS confirmatory method was also established for the identification of currently unknown substances in the statutory inspection of cosmetics. The method is simple, rapid, accurate, and specific with general usability and good operability.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Tinturas para Cabelo , Acetatos , Acetonitrilas , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cosméticos/análise , Etanol , Tinturas para Cabelo/análise , Hidroquinonas/análise , Gelo/análise , Metanol , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Se Pu ; 40(9): 833-842, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156630

RESUMO

Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino contains dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins, similar to ginseng, with a host of pharmacological activities. However, its planting resources and chemical composition are quite complex. The chemical constituents of Gynostemma pentaphyllum vary drastically among different origins and varieties. Thus, the corresponding quality control methods also need to be different. Currently, limited information is available about the quality control of Gynostemma pentaphyllum from Fujian. A new method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-charged aerosol detection (UHPLC-CAD) was established for the determination of gypenoside XLVI and LVI in Gynostemma pentaphyllum. The major components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum were characterized using UHPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) combined with UHPLC-CAD. The results revealed gypenoside XLVI, LVI, and their corresponding malonyl-containing acidic saponins as the main components. However, malonylgypenoside XLVI and LVI can easily remove their malonyl group and convert to gypenoside XLVI and LVI during the application of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. In this study, the samples were pretreated using alkali hydrolysis to transform the acid saponins completely, and the final contents of gypenoside XLVI and LVI were determined via UHPLC-CAD. The optimal alkaline hydrolysis, extraction, and liquid chromatography conditions were established. First, the alkaline hydrolysis conditions were optimized. The effects of the volume of ammonia and reaction time on the contents of gypenoside XLVI, LVI, malonylgypenoside XLVI, and LVI were examined. Malonylgypenoside XLVI and LVI could be transformed completely to gypenoside XLVI and LVI by standing for 24 h in an ethanol-water-ammonia (50∶46∶4, v/v/v) mixture. Furthermore, the extraction conditions were optimized. Next, effects of the different solvents, extraction time, and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction rates of gypenoside XLVI and LVI were investigated. The extraction method for Gynostemma pentaphyllum powder using the ethanol-water-ammonia (50∶46∶4, v/v/v) and a solid-liquid ratio of 1∶150 (g∶mL) for 30 min was established. Finally, a prepared test solution was separated on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 chromatographic column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm). Acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution were used as the mobile phases for gradient elution. The flow rate was set to 0.5 mL/min and column temperature was maintained at 40 ℃. The separation was detected using a charged aerosol detector. Results indicated that the logarithm of the mass concentrations of gypenoside XLVI and LVI had a linear relationship with the logarithm of the peak area in the range of 9.94-318.00 µg/mL and 12.78-409.00 µg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficients (r) were 0.9993 and 0.9995, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of gypenoside XLVI were 1.58 µg/mL and 6.36 µg/mL, respectively. The LOD and LOQ of gypenoside LVI were 2.05 µg/mL and 8.18 µg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of precision, repeatability, and 24 h stability were less than 2.0% (n=6). The spiked recoveries of gypenoside XLVI were 100.2%-107.2% and the RSD value was 2.4%. The spiked recoveries of gypenoside LVI were 97.9%-104.2% and the RSD value was 2.6%. The results of 16 batches of Gynostemma pentaphyllum samples indicated that the gypenoside XLVI content was 0.57%-2.57%, and gypenoside LVI content was 0.66%-2.99%. Hence, this method has high sensitivity and good reproducibility. Therefore, it can be used for quality research and quality control of Gynostemma pentaphyllum from Fujian.


Assuntos
Saponinas , Triterpenos , Acetonitrilas , Aerossóis , Álcalis , Amônia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Etanol , Gynostemma/química , Pós , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saponinas/química , Solventes , Água
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077337

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major global mental health challenge. Knowledge concerning mechanisms underlying AUD and predictive biomarkers of AUD progression and relapse are insufficient. Recently, addiction research is focusing attention on the oxytocin system. However, to our knowledge, blood concentrations of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) have not yet been studied in AUD. Here, in sex-separated analyses, OXTR serum concentrations were compared between early-abstinent in-patients with AUD (113 men, 87 women) and age-matched healthy controls (133 men, 107 women). The OXTR concentrations were correlated with sex hormone and oxytocin concentrations and alcohol-related hospital readmissions during a 24-month follow-up. In male patients with AUD, higher OXTR concentrations were found in those with an alcohol-related readmission than in those without (143%; p = 0.004), and they correlated with more prospective readmissions (ρ = 0.249; p = 0.008) and fewer days to the first readmission (ρ = -0.268; p = 0.004). In men and women, OXTR concentrations did not significantly differ between patients with AUD and controls. We found lower OXTR concentrations in smokers versus non-smokers in female patients (61%; p = 0.001) and controls (51%; p = 0.003). In controls, OXTR concentrations correlated with dihydrotestosterone (men, ρ = 0.189; p = 0.030) and testosterone concentrations (women, ρ = 0.281; p = 0.003). This clinical study provides novel insight into the role of serum OXTR levels in AUD. Future studies are encouraged to add to the available knowledge and investigate clinical implications of OXTR blood concentrations.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Receptores de Ocitocina , Etanol , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Ocitocina , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 3): e20191339, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074423

RESUMO

The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of crude ethanolic extract of Celtis iguanaea leaves and their active fractions are reported. The oral treatment with crude ethanolic extract (CEE; 100, 300 or 1000 mg/Kg) inhibited the number of writhings in a dose-dependent manner. The intermediate dose also inhibited formalin-induced nociception in both phases. The oral treatment with dichloromethane fraction (DF; 9 mg/Kg) produced antinociceptive effect in both phases of formalin test; however, the treatment with ethyl acetate fraction (EAF; 16 mg/Kg) reduced pain only in the second phase of this test. The oral treatments with CEE (300 mg/Kg) or DF (9 mg/Kg) reduced the nociception induced by capsaicin and pre-treatment with naloxone did not change these effects. The oral administration of CEE (300 mg/Kg), DF (9 mg/Kg) or ethyl EAF (16 mg/Kg) reduced ear edema, leukocytes migration and myeloperoxidase activity. Furthermore, the oral treatment with CEE (300 mg/Kg) or EAF (16 mg/Kg) reduced the level of Tumor Necrosis Factor - Alpha (TNF-α) in the pleurisy test. In conclusion, the DF showed antinociceptive activity that involves the vanilloid system as well as anti-inflammatory effect and the EAF showed anti-inflammatory activity involving the reduction of TNF-α cytokine.


Assuntos
Analgésicos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Etanol , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta , Ulmaceae
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113402, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076527

RESUMO

This study was aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan on iron overload and ferroptosis-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms in rats exposed to alcohol. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish alcoholic liver injury model by intragastric administration with alcohol for 16 weeks. The results showed that fucoidan treatment reversed alcohol-induced increases in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels, and increased glutathione peroxidase and glutathione levels, thus protecting against liver damage. Long-term alcohol feeding resulted in abnormal increase of serum ferritin, liver total iron and the "free" iron levels. Fucoidan treatment reduced serum ferritin level and alleviated liver iron deposition. Fucoidan reversed the reduction of hepcidin induced by alcohol exposure and decreased divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin1 (FPN1) expressions in the duodenum. Electron microscope observation of liver tissues showed that alcohol exposure induced ferroptosis changes in the liver. However, fucoidan treatment could alleviate alcohol-induced ferroptosis via upregulating the expressions of p62, Nrf2, SLC7A11 and GPX4. The liver endogenous metabolites analysis by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that after fucoidan intervention, mineral absorption, biosynthesis of amino acids pathways and lipid metabolism were changed. Fucoidan intervention reduced the levels of oxidized glutathione and regulated the levels of phosphatidylethanolamines in liver tissues. Our data showed that fucoidan supplementation could inhibit iron load via regulating hepcidin-intestinal DMT1/FPN1 axis, alleviate the liver oxidative damage and protect hepatocytes from ferroptosis induced by long-term alcohol exposure through upregulating p62/Nrf2/SLC7A11 pathway in rats.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Ferroptose , Sobrecarga de Ferro , Animais , Etanol , Ferritinas , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Sobrecarga de Ferro/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7787958, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060132

RESUMO

Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive compounds from black plum peels was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Temperature (35-55°C), time (15-45 min), and ethanol concentration (50-90%) were selected as independent extraction parameters, whereas total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition were kept as response variables. The optimized extraction conditions were determined by RSM as extraction at 49°C for 37 min with 68% ethanol, which corresponded to TAC, TPC, and DPPH inhibition values of 5.42 ± 0.61 mg/g, 6.217 ± 0.76 mg GAE/g, and 89 ± 2.13%, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS) were used for chemical characterization of optimized plum peel extract (PPE). Optimized PPE was further evaluated for antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, and food preservation potential. PPE showed 92.31% DPPH inhibition with IC50 value of 360.6 µg/ml. Optimized PPE extract was effective in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and migration, and IC50 values were in the range 1.85-3.96 mg/ml for different human cancer cell lines. Major phenolics identified in PPE were ferulic acid (47.87 mg/kg), sinapic acid (9.15 mg/kg), quercetin (7.44 mg/kg), gallic acid (3.24 mg/kg), m-coumaric acid (2.59 mg/kg), and vanillic acid (1.12 mg/kg). PPE extract inhibited the growth of various foodborne bacterial pathogens and increased the shelf life of PPE coated fresh grapes. PPE due to antibacterial, anticancer, antioxidant, and food preservation potential can be used in developing functional food and pharmaceutical products.


Assuntos
Prunus domestica , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etanol/química , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 381: 109891, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063681

RESUMO

Pálinka is Hungarian traditional alcoholic drink, and its quality is strongly depending on applied yeast strain. Unfortunately, all commercial yeast strains used the production of pálinka are selected for oenological purpose, and thus the efficacy and aroma releasing capacity are vary depending on the type and quality of fruit used. In this study, the fermentation efficacy of nine commercial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was focused. All strains were able to do alcoholic fermentation of apple juice quite efficiently, and the simple sugars (fructose, glucose and sucrose) were almost exhausted at the end of fermentation. Meanwhile, the alcohol production capacity and yield were no significant differences (around 9.17 v/v %-9.43 v/v %), whereas the ability of sugar consumption of strains Uvaferm Danstil A and Fermicru AR2 was stronger than others. The differences in the concentration and composition of volatile compounds were recorded. The highest levels of total volatile compounds were observed in samples fermented with Uvaferm Danstil A, Fermiblanc Arom, Vin-O-Ferm Roses, and Fermicru AR2. Meanwhile total volatile compounds, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, total higher alcohols, ethyl acetate, and total esters were considered as key parameters for describing the profile of fermented apple juices, whereas total fusel alcohols, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and total volatile compounds were characteristic indicators of samples fermented with Uvaferm Danstil A. This work provides very good information of commercial yeast strains for industrial pálinka production.


Assuntos
Malus , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vinho , 1-Butanol , Butanóis , Açúcares da Dieta , Etanol/análise , Fermentação , Frutose , Glucose , Malus/química , Monossacarídeos , Pentanóis , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Sacarose , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise
20.
Nat Metab ; 4(9): 1138-1149, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109623

RESUMO

Combined use of cannabis and alcohol results in greater psychoactive toxicity than either substance alone, but the underlying central mechanisms behind this worsened outcome remain unclear. Here we show that the synergistic effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and ethanol on motor incoordination in mice is achieved by activating presynaptic type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) and potentiating extrasynaptic glycine receptors (GlyR) within cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). The combination of ethanol and THC significantly reduces miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency in a CB1R-dependent manner, while increasing the extrasynaptic GlyR-mediated chronic chloride current, both leading to decreased PC activity. Ethanol enhances THC actions by boosting the blood-brain-barrier permeability of THC and enriching THC in the cell membrane. Di-desoxy-THC, a designed compound that specifically disrupts THC-GlyR interaction without affecting the basic functions of CB1R and GlyR, is able to restore PC function and motor coordination in mice. Our findings provide potential therapeutic strategies for overcoming the synergistic toxicity caused by combining cannabis and alcohol use.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Animais , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Cloretos , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Etanol/toxicidade , Camundongos , Células de Purkinje , Receptores de Canabinoides , Receptores de Glicina , Receptores Pré-Sinápticos
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