Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 96.573
Filtrar
1.
J Vis Exp ; (204)2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407232

RESUMO

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe all alcohol-induced birth defects. Birth defects such as growth deficiencies, craniofacial, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities are associated with FASD. Social difficulties are common behavioral abnormalities associated with FASD and often result in serious health issues. Animal models are critical to understanding the mechanisms responsible for ethanol-induced social defects. Zebrafish are social vertebrates that produce externally fertilized transparent eggs; these characteristics provide researchers with a precise yet simple procedure for creating the FASD phenotype and an innate behavior that can be leveraged to model the social deficits associated with FASD. Thus, zebrafish are ideal for characterizing the social deficits of FASD. The goal of the current protocol is to provide the user with a simple behavioral assay that can be used to characterize the consequences of a negative environment early during development and the effects it can have on social behavior in adulthood. The protocol can be used to characterize the effect mutations or teratogens have on adult social behavior. The protocol outlined here demonstrates how to characterize the social behavior of individual fish during a 20-min social assay. Furthermore, the data obtained using the current protocol provides evidence that the protocol can be used to characterize the effects of embryonic ethanol-induced social defects in adult zebrafish.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etiologia , Peixe-Zebra , Comportamento Social , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Bioensaio
2.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 103: 106789, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solanum pseudocapsicum (PC) and Capsicum annum (CA) belongs to the family of Solanaceae. CA have been reported a rich source of phenolics whereas, the phenolics content of GA (gallic acid), SC (scopoletin), RA (rosmarinic acid), and RV (resveratrol) are yet to be reported for the PC-fruit. This study comparatively evaluates the phenolics profile for different parts (seeds and skin) and colors (green and red) of the PC- and CA-fruits using the green solvents of ethanol (ET), acetone (AC), water (H2O), and different combinations of these solvents. METHODOLOGY: Ultrasonics extraction (US) and UHPLC analysis were employed for phenolics evaluation. RESULTS: The USMD (method development) revealed the highest extract yield of 62 mg/100 mg for the PC-skin in ET:AC (70:30) solvent whereas, more phenolics (ppm) were observed for PC-seeds in ET:AC (50:50) solvent, particularly the SC (29.46) and GA (16.92). The UHPLCMDMV exhibited significant accuracies (100.70-114.14 %) with r2-values (0.9993-0.9997) in the linearity range of 1-200 ppm. The USMV (method validation) in PC- and CA-fruit parts and colors revealed more extract yields for the red skin part of the PC- (180.5 mg) and CA-fruit (126.2 mg). The phenolics were seen more in the green seeds of the PC-fruit (ppm); SC (276), GA (147.36), RV (28.54), and RA (23.87) followed by the green PC-skin, and red/green CA-seeds. The statistical models of mean differences, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation showed significant differences for the PC-fruit parts (seeds and skin) and colors (red and green) vs extract yield and phenolics content (P = 0.05). CONCLUSION: PC-and CA-fruits were successfully evaluated where the seeds for the green fruits exhibited more phenolics amount.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Solanum , Ultrassom , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais , Fenóis/análise , Solventes , Frutas/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Etanol , Cânfora/análise , Mentol/análise , Acetona
3.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 158: 105567, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309498

RESUMO

Prenatal alcohol exposure is the leading nongenetic cause of human intellectual impairment. The long-term impacts of prenatal alcohol exposure on health and well-being are diverse, including neuropathology leading to behavioral, cognitive, and emotional impairments. Additionally negative effects also occur on the physiological level, such as the endocrine, cardiovascular, and immune systems. Among these diverse impacts is sleep disruption. In this review, we describe how prenatal alcohol exposure affects sleep, and potential mechanisms of those effects. Furthermore, we outline the evidence that sleep disruption across the lifespan may be a mediator of some cognitive and behavioral impacts of developmental alcohol exposure, and thus may represent a promising target for treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Sono
4.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 79(1): 242-249, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329612

RESUMO

This work employed supramolecular solvents (SUPRAS) made up of octanoic acid, ethanol, and acidified water (pH ~ 3) to extract and concentrate bioactive compounds from Eugenia pyriformis Cambess (uvaia) pulp. At first, the SUPRAS phase characterization demonstrated the spherical aggregates' formation with an internal hydrophobic structure and an external hydrophilic media. Subsequently, the simultaneous production and extraction (SUPRAS-SPE) method was employed in the solid-liquid extraction (SLE) of uvaia pulp. The extracts were evaluated through Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, antioxidant activity (DPPH assay), total carotenoid content (TCC), and total flavonoid content (TFC). The results showed that reducing the ethanol concentration in the SUPRAS composition boosted the TCC extraction while increasing the ethanol presence, promoting a high TFC yield. Moreover, the SUPRAS-SPE method was compared with the ex situ method (SUPRAS-ES), where the solvent was previously produced and then applied to the SLE. Both methods were evaluated concerning their EE% and thermal degradation. The SUPRAS-SPE method increased the EE% of uvaia pulp bioactive compounds compared to the SUPRAS-SE method, providing a suitable microenvironment to extract, concentrate, and stabilize carotenoids from uvaia pulp, offering a sustainable alternative to obtain valuable compounds.


Assuntos
Eugenia , Solventes/química , Eugenia/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides , Etanol
5.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 175: 110406, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330706

RESUMO

The chiral amine (R)-2-(1-aminoethyl)-4-fluorophenol has attracted increasing attentions in recent years in the field of pharmaceuticals because of its important use as a building block in the synthesis of novel anti-tumor drugs targeting tropomyosin receptor kinases. In the present study, a ω-transaminase (ωTA) library consisting of 21 (R)-enantioselective enzymes was constructed and screened for the asymmetric biosynthesis of (R)-2-(1-aminoethyl)-4-fluorophenol from its prochiral ketone. Using (R)-α-methylbenzylamine, D-alanine, or isopropylamine as amino donor, 18 ωTAs were identified with target activity and the enzyme AbTA, which was originally identified from Arthrobacter sp. KNK168, was found to be a potent candidate. The E. coli whole cells expressing AbTA could be used as catalysts. The optimal temperature and pH for the activity were 35-40 °C and pH8.0, respectively. Simple alcohols (such as ethanol, isopropanol, and methanol) and dimethyl sulfoxide were shown to be good cosolvents. High activities were detected when using ethanol and dimethyl sulfoxide at the concentrations of 5-20%. In the scaled-up reaction of 1-liter containing 13 mM ketone substrate, about 50% conversion was achieved in 24 h. 6.4 mM (R)-2-(1-aminoethyl)-4-fluorophenol was generated. After a simple and efficient process of product isolation and purification (with 98.8% recovery), 0.986 g yellowish powder of the product (R)-2-(1-aminoethyl)-4-fluorophenol with high (R)-enantiopurity (up to 100% enantiomeric excess) was obtained. This study established an overall process for the biosynthesis of the high value pharmaceutical chiral amine (R)-2-(1-aminoethyl)-4-fluorophenol by ωTA. Its applicable potential was exemplified by gram-scale production.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Fenóis , Transaminases , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Escherichia coli , Cetonas , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Catálise , Etanol
6.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 175: 110409, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335559

RESUMO

The solvent-free esterification of the free fatty acids (FFAs) obtained by the hydrolysis of castor oil (a non-edible vegetable oil) with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (a branched fatty alcohol) was catalyzed by different free lipases. Eversa Transform 2.0 (ETL) features surpassed most commercial lipases. Some process parameters were optimized by the Taguchi method (L16'). As a result, a conversion over 95% of the FFAs of castor oil into esters with lubricants properties was achieved under optimized reaction conditions (15 wt% of biocatalyst content, 1:4 molar ratio (FFAs/alcohol), 30 °C, 180 rpm, 96 h). The substrates molar ratio had the highest influence on the dependent variable (conversion at 24 h). FFAs/2-ethyl-1-hexanol esters were characterized regarding the physicochemical and tribological properties. Interestingly, the modification of the FFAs with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol by ETL increased the oxidative stability of the FFAs feedstock from 0.18 h to 16.83 h. The biolubricants presented a lower friction coefficient than the reference commercial mineral lubricant (0.052 ± 0.07 against 0.078 ± 0.04). Under these conditions, ETL catalyzed the oligomerization of ricinoleic acid (a hydroxyl fatty acid) into estolides, reaching a conversion of 25.15% of the initial FFAs (for the first time).


Assuntos
Óleo de Rícino , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Hexanóis , Esterificação , Ésteres/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Lipase/metabolismo , Etanol , Catálise , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química
7.
Cells ; 13(4)2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391934

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) requires new neurobiological targets. Problematic drinking involves underactive indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (iMSNs) that subserve adaptive behavioral selection vs. overactive direct pathway MSNs (dMSNs) that promote drinking, with a shift from ventromedial to dorsolateral striatal (VMS, DLS) control of EtOH-related behavior. We hypothesized that inhibiting phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), enriched in striatal MSNs, would reduce EtOH self-administration in rats with a history of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure. To test this, Wistar rats (n = 10/sex) with a history of chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure received MR1916 (i.p., 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 µmol/kg), a PDE10A inhibitor, before operant EtOH self-administration sessions. We determined whether MR1916 altered the expression of MSN markers (Pde10a, Drd1, Drd2, Penk, and Tac1) and immediate-early genes (IEG) (Fos, Fosb, ΔFosb, and Egr1) in EtOH-naïve (n = 5-6/grp) and post-CIE (n = 6-8/grp) rats. MR1916 reduced the EtOH self-administration of high-drinking, post-CIE males, but increased it at a low, but not higher, doses, in females and low-drinking males. MR1916 increased Egr1, Fos, and FosB in the DLS, modulated by sex and alcohol history. MR1916 elicited dMSN vs. iMSN markers differently in ethanol-naïve vs. post-CIE rats. High-drinking, post-CIE males showed higher DLS Drd1 and VMS IEG expression. Our results implicate a role and potential striatal bases of PDE10A inhibitors to influence post-dependent drinking.


Assuntos
Etanol , Compostos Orgânicos , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase , Masculino , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Etanol/farmacologia , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica
8.
Cells ; 13(4)2024 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391942

RESUMO

The oral consumption of alcohol (ethanol) has a long tradition in humans and is an integral part of many cultures. The causal relationship between ethanol consumption and numerous diseases is well known. In addition to the well-described harmful effects on the liver and pancreas, there is also evidence that ethanol abuse triggers pathological skin conditions, including acne. In the present study, we addressed this issue by investigating the effect of ethanol on the energy metabolism in human SZ95 sebocytes, with particular focus on qualitative and quantitative lipogenesis. It was found that ethanol is a strong trigger for lipogenesis, with moderate effects on cell proliferation and toxicity. We identified the non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol, which produced fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), as relevant for the lipogenic effect-the oxidative metabolism of ethanol does not contribute to lipogenesis. Correspondingly, using the Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer, we found an inhibition of the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate as a measure of mitochondrial ATP production by ethanol. The ATP production rate from glycolysis was not affected. These data corroborate that ethanol-induced lipogenesis is independent from oxygen. In sum, our results give a causal explanation for the prevalence of acne in heavy drinkers, confirming that alcoholism should be considered as a systemic disease. Moreover, the identification of key factors driving ethanol-dependent lipogenesis may also be relevant in the treatment of acne vulgaris.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar , Lipogênese , Humanos , Glândulas Sebáceas/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(7): e37209, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363938

RESUMO

The recurrence of Meniere disease (MD) strongly affects patient quality of life. Identifying the risk factors for MD is highly important for its prevention and treatment. Previous studies have suggested that alcohol intake may play a role in the development of MD. However, recent studies have shown that the causal relationship between alcohol consumption and MD remains controversial. In this paper, the Mendelian randomization (MR) method was used to determine the causal relationship between alcohol consumption usually consumed with meals and MD, with the aim of providing suggestions for alcohol intake management in individuals with MD and helping in the prevention and treatment of MD. Two-sample MR was used to investigate the causal relationship between alcohol usually taken with meals and MD. We used a dataset from a publicly available large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS). Inverse variance weighting (IVW), MR-Egger, simple weighting, weighted weighting and the weighted median method were used for analysis. The final results showed that IVW (OR = 0.991, 95% CI: 0.983-0.998, P = .016) results suggested that there was statistical significance, but MR-Egger (OR = 0.978, 95% CI: 0.886-1.080, P = .679), weighted median methods (OR = 0.994, 95% CI: 0.985-1.004, P = .307) and Simple mode (OR = 0.995, 95% CI: 0.980-1.010, P = .566), Weighted mode (OR = 0.995, 95% CI: 0.981-1.010, P = .557) found no significant causal relationship. The results suggest that alcohol usually taken with meals may be negatively correlated with MD.


Assuntos
Doença de Meniere , Humanos , Doença de Meniere/epidemiologia , Doença de Meniere/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Qualidade de Vida , Etanol , Refeições
10.
BJS Open ; 8(1)2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of antiseptic skin agents prior to incision minimizes the rate of surgical site infection. Despite their ubiquity, the optimal skin preparation agent remains uncertain. A retrospective economic analysis was conducted to complement the results from the NEWSkin Prep trial which prospectively compared three preparation agents. METHODS: A cost and cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a healthcare service perspective to compare chlorhexidine with 70% ethanol, and aqueous povidone-iodine, against povidone-iodine with 70% ethanol. Resource use estimates accounted for hospital admissions, readmissions associated with surgical site infection, outpatient and general practitioner attendances, visits from community nurses and therapeutic consumables. The measure of effectiveness comprised the net difference in number of patients with surgical site infections per 1000 patients. Costs were compared using a two-sample Welch's t-test. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. RESULTS: The null hypothesis that the mean costs for the trial arms were significantly different was not rejected (Welch's t-test P value: 0.771 for chlorhexidine with 70% ethanol against povidone-iodine with 70% ethanol; and 0.955 for aqueous povidone-iodine against povidone-iodine with 70% ethanol). Based on bootstrap averages, the chlorhexidine with 70% ethanol intervention generated 8.0 fewer surgical site infections per 1000 patients and net cost savings of €151,698 (Euros) per 1000 patients compared with povidone-iodine with 70% ethanol, and aqueous povidone-iodine produced a net cost saving of €37,494 per 1000 patients but generated an additional 11.6 surgical site infections per 1000 patients compared with povidone-iodine with 70% ethanol. The comparison of chlorhexidine with 70% ethanol to povidone-iodine with 70% ethanol was sensitive to the inclusion of cost outliers, while the comparison of aqueous povidone-iodine to povidone-iodine with 70% ethanol was sensitive to the estimated cost per surgical site infection. CONCLUSION: Based on the outcomes from the NEWSkin Prep study, this economic analysis found no definitive evidence in favour of any one of the study comparators. Future model-based economic analyses of alternative skin preparations should critically address the quality of evidence and integrate the results from the NEWSkin Prep study.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Povidona-Iodo , Humanos , Povidona-Iodo/uso terapêutico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Análise de Custo-Efetividade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Etanol , 2-Propanol/uso terapêutico
11.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(2)2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364318

RESUMO

AIMS: This study examined how adolescent social isolation affects adult binge-like alcohol drinking and stress-axis function, via basal levels of circulating corticosterone (CORT), in male and female mice with a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol preference (HAP). METHODS: Male and female HAP2 mice were randomly assigned to a group-housed or social isolation (ISO) group. Social isolation began at postnatal Days 40-42 and lasted for 21 days prior to assessment of binge-like alcohol drinking using a 4-day drinking-in-the-dark (DID) procedure. Blood samples to assess basal CORT were taken 6 days after social isolation ended and 24 h before DID started, and again 60 h after DID ended, during the light portion of the light cycle. RESULTS: Adolescent social isolation increased adult binge-like alcohol drinking in male but not female mice. All groups showed significantly lower CORT after DID compared to before DID. Pearson bivariate correlation coefficients between the first 2 h of grams-per-kilogram alcohol intake on Day 4 and CORT levels indicated a significant positive correlation in ISO males only after DID and negative correlations in ISO females before and after DID. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that adolescent social isolation increased binge-like alcohol drinking in male but not female adult HAP2 mice. Stress-axis adaptations in male HAP2 mice may be associated with the social-isolation-induced increase in binge-like alcohol drinking.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Etanol/farmacologia , Isolamento Social , Corticosterona , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/complicações , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3551, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347076

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have grown due to their crucial role in transitioning from invasive to noninvasive cancer diagnostic methods. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of the metal oxide biosensor platform using urine VOCs for detecting genitourinary cancers. Five different commercially available semiconductor sensors were chosen to detect specific VOCs (methane, iso-butane, hydrogen, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, toluene, butane, propane, trimethylamine, and methyl-mercaptan). Changes in electrical resistance due to temperature variations from the voltage heater were examined to characterize VOC metabolism. Logistic regression and ROC analysis were employed to evaluate potential urine VOCs for genitourinary cancer determination. This study involved 64 participants which were categorized into a cancer and a non-cancer group. The genitourinary cancer (confirmed by tissue pathology) comprised 32 patients, including renal cell carcinoma (3.1%), transitional cell carcinoma (46.9%), and prostate cancer (50%). The non-cancer comprised 32 patients, with 9 healthy subjects and 23 individuals with other genitourinary diseases. Results indicated that VOC sensors for methane, iso-butane, hydrogen, and ethanol, at a voltage heater of 2000 mV, demonstrated a significant predictive capability for genitourinary cancer with P = 0.013. The ROC of these biomarkers also indicated statistical significance in predicting the occurrence of the disease (P < 0.05). This report suggested that methane, iso-butane, hydrogen, and ethanol VOCs exhibited potential for diagnosing genitourinary cancer. Developing gas metal oxide sensors tailored to these compounds, and monitoring changes in electrical resistance, could serve as an innovative tool for identifying this specific type of cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Masculino , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Butanos , Etanol , Hidrogênio , Metano , Óxidos
13.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0287878, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354165

RESUMO

E-cigarette use among adolescents is a national health epidemic spreading faster than researchers can amass evidence for risk and protective factors and long-term consequences associated with use. New technologies, such as machine learning, may assist prevention programs in identifying at risk youth and potential targets for intervention before adolescents enter developmental periods where e-cigarette use escalates. The present study utilized machine learning algorithms to explore a wide array of individual and socioecological variables in relation to patterns of lifetime e-cigarette use during early adolescence (i.e., exclusive, or with tobacco cigarettes). Extant data was used from 14,346 middle school students (Mage = 12.5, SD = 1.1; 6th and 8th grades) who participated in the Utah Prevention Needs Assessment. Students self-reported their substance use behaviors and related risk and protective factors. Machine learning algorithms examined 112 individual and socioecological factors as potential classifiers of lifetime e-cigarette use outcomes. The elastic net algorithm achieved outstanding classification for lifetime exclusive (AUC = .926) and dual use (AUC = .944) on a validation test set. Six high value classifiers were identified that varied in importance by outcome: Lifetime alcohol or marijuana use, perception of e-cigarette availability and risk, school suspension(s), and perceived risk of smoking marijuana regularly. Specific classifiers were important for lifetime exclusive (parent's attitudes regarding student vaping, best friend[s] tried alcohol or marijuana) and dual use (best friend[s] smoked cigarettes, lifetime inhalant use). Our findings provide specific targets for the adaptation of existing substance use prevention programs to address early adolescent e-cigarette use.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fumar Maconha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Vaping , Humanos , Adolescente , Vaping/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Etanol
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3623, 2024 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351262

RESUMO

The copromicroscopic identification of gastrointestinal parasites is a common, cost-effective method vital to understanding host-parasite interactions. However, its efficacy depends on effective preservation of the samples. In this study, we compare the preservation of ethanol and formalin preserved gastrointestinal parasites collected from a wild population of Costa Rican capuchin monkeys (Cebus imitator). Fecal samples were collected, halved, and stored in either 10% formalin or 96% ethanol at ambient temperature, then microscopically screened for the presence of parasites. Parasites were morphologically identified and rated based on their preservation using a newly developed rubric. We identified more parasitic morphotypes in formalin-preserved samples but found no difference in the number of parasites per fecal gram (PFG) between mediums. There was no difference in the PFG of two most prevalent parasite morphotypes, Filariopsis barretoi larvae and Strongyle-type eggs, and while Filariopsis larvae were better preserved in formalin, strongyle eggs showed no preservation difference between mediums. Our results support the suitability of both ethanol and formalin for morphological parasite identification in samples stored over 1 year, describe the morphological changes and challenges associated with parasite degradation, and highlight the potential for future studies to use both morphological and molecular methods in non-invasively collected samples.


Assuntos
Cebus capucinus , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Cebus , Formaldeído , Etanol , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia
15.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113976, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309882

RESUMO

This study focused on isolating and characterising autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spontaneously fermented Chinese bayberry (CB) and their potential application in CB wine fermentation in co-inoculation with yeast starter cultures. Numerous LAB, including Lactiplantibacillus (Lp.) plantarum (9), Limosilactobacillus (Lb.) fermentum (6), Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis (3), Enterococcus (Ec.) hirae (1), Leuconostoc (Le.) mesenteroides (1), and Weissella (Ws.) cibaria (1), were isolated and identified. The isolated strains Lp. plantarum ZFM710 and ZFM715, together with Lb. fermentum ZFM720 and ZFM722, adapted well to unfavourable fermentation environment, including ethanol, osmolality, and acidity stresses, were selected for producing CB wine by co-inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During fermentation, the presence of LAB promoted the development of S. cerevisiae, while the population dynamics of LAB in different groups at different stages showed strain-specific differences. Fermentation trials involving LAB yielded a lower ethanol concentration except for Lp. plantarum ZFM715. Compared to the pure S. cerevisiae fermented sample, the addition of LAB led to a clear modulation in organic acid composition. Lb. fermentum strains in co-fermentation led to significant decreases in each classified group of aroma compounds, while Lp. plantarum ZFM715 significantly increased the complexity and intensity of aroma compounds, as well as the intensities of fruity and floral notes. The study selects interesting strains for the design of starter cultures for use in CB wine production, underlining the interest in the selection of autochthonous LAB in fruit wines, with the aim of improving the adaptation of bacteria to specific environmental conditions and shaping the unique traits of the finished products.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Myrica , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Etanol/análise , China
16.
Food Res Int ; 178: 114002, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309888

RESUMO

ß-carotene, a natural dye renowned for its antioxidant and provitamin A activities, is hindered from direct use in food and drug products due to its susceptibility to oxidation, easy isomerization under light, heat, or acidic conditions, as well as its low water solubility and oral bioavailability. In this study, we addressed these challenges by loading ß-carotene into corn starch aerogels via supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) and assessed its loading contributions through adsorption during contact time and precipitation during depressurization. The loading process was studied under two cycles at pressure of 30 MPa, temperature of 40 °C, depressurization rate of 0.4 MPa/min, and co-solvent (ethanol) mass percentage of 1.2 %. Experiments found adsorption minimally contributed to impregnation, while precipitation became the primary loading mechanism. The subsequent work focused on a mathematical model describing ß-carotene loading into corn starch aerogels via precipitation, using the law of conservation of mass and classical nucleation theory. The model shows that using pure CO2 results in a loading efficiency of 0.10 mg ß-carotene/g aerogel, while with CO2 and 1.2 % ethanol as the co-solvent, the loading efficiency increases threefold to 0.30 mg ß-carotene/g aerogel.


Assuntos
Amido , beta Caroteno , Dióxido de Carbono , Zea mays , Solventes , Etanol , Modelos Teóricos
17.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113861, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309892

RESUMO

A growing number of studies over the years has successfully employed computer simulation tools to understand, optimize and design spirit distillations. Amongst distilled spirits, cognac is a reputed wine spirit resulting from a double batch distillation process known as Charentaise distillation. This complex operation comprises the wine distillation (WD) and the brouillis distillation (BD), which are carried out in copper alembics. The distillate produced in each batch is fractionated and some of those fractions are recycled in subsequent batches. To improve the current understanding of the behavior of aroma compounds during the process, computer simulation modules were built in this work for a WD and a BD and the results were compared with experimental data. Of the 62 aroma compounds detected in the samples over time, 52 could be represented in the simulations, including 37 using the NRTL thermodynamic model to calculate vapor-liquid equilibria and another 15 with the UNIFAC model. Half of those had their concentration profiles and their partitioning accurately described by the simulation, most of which were modeled with NRTL. This highlights the need for reliable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for aroma compounds that were poorly represented or absent from the simulation as well as kinetic data for chemical reactions occurring during distillation. Furthermore, the impact of the recycling operation on the composition in aroma compounds of freshly distilled cognac was investigated. To represent a steady state, a mathematical model was employed to implement the recycling of distillate fractions during 8 successive Charentaise distillation cycles. The operation was shown to improve the extraction of ethanol and of all volatile compounds in the heart, reaching a pseudo steady state after 3 to 5 cycles. The recycling of the second fraction had a higher influence on the extraction of alcohols and terpenes, while for most esters and norisoprenoids the recycled head fractions played a bigger role.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Vinho , Odorantes/análise , Simulação por Computador , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Vinho/análise , Etanol/análise
18.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113977, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309919

RESUMO

The Charentaise distillation plays an essential role in designing cognac aroma by extracting and selectively concentrating aroma compounds from the wine along with ethanol, in addition to promoting compound formation or degradation through different chemical reactions. This traditional mode of distillation still relies heavily on empirical knowledge and the impact of its different parameters on the composition of cognac is not fully elucidated. In this context, this study aimed to broaden the current knowledge on the behavior of aroma compounds throughout the two steps of the Charentaise distillation and to investigate the formation of aroma compounds during the operation, an aspect which is seldom considered. The concentration profiles of 62 aroma compounds were represented over time for a wine and a brouillis distillation in usual scale (25 hL) with recycling. A classification system was then proposed to group compounds based on their volatilities at different ethanol concentrations in the boiling liquid, their concentration profiles and their chemical properties. This could help identify how chemical characteristics of aroma compounds affect their volatilities in hydroalcoholic media during distillation. In addition, several compounds appear to be formed during distillation, most of which are terpenes, norisoprenoids and aldehydes. Finally, to highlight the importance of different compounds to the aroma of freshly distilled cognac, their odor activity values (OAV) in the heart fraction were estimated, revealing isobutanol and (E)-ß-damascenone to be the most odorant compounds. These results provided additional elements of understanding for different aspects of the Charentaise distillation for the production of cognac, several of which can be transposed, at least in part, to different modes of distillation pertaining to other distilled beverages.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Vinho , Odorantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Vinho/análise , Etanol
19.
Food Res Int ; 178: 114007, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309928

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate, during the drying of spent coffee grounds, the application of pretreatments with ethanol and the application of ultrasound assisting the refractive window (RW) drying, and to compare with convective drying by hot air (AC). The effect on the kinetics parameters of the Fick and Page models were evaluated, as well as on the content of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity. For AC drying, samples of spent ground coffee were prepared in the form of fixed rectangular beds 0.7 cm high, which were placed on polyester sheets and pretreated up to 10 times sprayed with ethanol, then dried by AC at 80 °C and 0.8 m/s. For RW drying, the samples prepared in the same way as for AC were used. For this case, the application of ethanol as pretreatment and the use of ultrasound during process were tested. As results, regardless of the conditions applied, drying by RW was up to 50 % faster, evidenced in the highest values of effective diffusivity (from the Fick model) and the kinetic parameter (from the Page model). Regarding the treatments applied and their effect on the drying kinetics, any treatment had a significant effect on AC drying. On the contrary, the strategies applied in RW drying had significant effects, both the application of pretreatment with ethanol as well as the application of ultrasound assisting the process accelerated the drying kinetics. However, the treatment with ethanol and RW drying was the one that best preserved the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity in the samples. Therefore, these strategies could be a good option to improve RW drying by accelerating the process and preserving the bioactive compounds in the spent coffee grounds for subsequent utilization.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Café , Dessecação/métodos , Fenóis , Etanol
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3021, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321123

RESUMO

The initiation of alcohol use early in life is one of the strongest predictors of developing a future alcohol use disorder. Clinical studies have identified specific behaviors during early childhood that predict an increased risk for excess alcohol consumption later in life. These behaviors, including increased hyperactivity, anxiety, novelty-seeking, exploratory behavior, impulsivity, and alcohol-seeking, are similarly stimulated in children and adolescent offspring of mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy. Here we tested larval zebrafish in addition to young pre-weanling rats and found this repertoire of early behaviors along with the overconsumption of alcohol during adolescence to be increased by embryonic ethanol exposure. With hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons known to be stimulated by ethanol and involved in mediating these alcohol-related behaviors, we tested their function in larval zebrafish and found optogenetic activation of Hcrt neurons to stimulate these same early alcohol-related behaviors and later alcohol intake, suggesting that these neurons have an important role in producing these behaviors. Together, these results show zebrafish to be an especially useful animal model for investigating the diverse neuronal systems mediating behavioral changes at young ages that are produced by embryonic ethanol exposure and predict an increased risk for developing alcohol use disorder.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Etanol , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Criança , Animais , Ratos , Adolescente , Orexinas/genética , Peixe-Zebra , Optogenética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Neurônios
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...