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2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 1032-1043, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016479

RESUMO

Synthetic fertilizers make up a significant fraction of the energy required to grow switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for ethanol production. A field study compared biosolids and synthetic fertilizers on biomass yield, ethanol production, and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions of switchgrass to determine if using an alternative source of nutrient would lower the energy density of the fuel. Minimal N2 O emissions were observed the first year of the study (0.99 ± 1.5 g N2 O ha-1 d-1 for biosolids), with no difference between treatments. Biosolids were added in excess of agronomic rates, and gas samples were collected immediately after irrigation for the subsequent years to examine maximum N2 O emissions. Mean Year 2 emissions increased for fertilizers to 1.8 ± 8 g N2 O ha-1 d-1 (n = 131) and to 3.73 ± 10.2 g N2 O ha-1 d-1 (n = 130) for biosolids-amended soils. Emissions in Year 3 were similar to Year 2. Yield was similar and ranged from 3.7 ± 5 to 11 ± 1.1 and from 5.0 ± 0.2 to 13.4 ± 1.7 Mg ha-1 for biosolids and fertilizer, respectively. The potential ethanol yield was 365 ± 28 L Mg-1 and 374 ± 34 L Mg-1 for the biosolids- and fertilizer-grown grass, respectively. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with fertilizer production were considered for N, P, and K and totaled 1,653 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 e) ha-1 . The equivalent credits for substitution of biosolids (18 Mg ha-1 ) were -2,492 kg CO2 e ha-1 . Nitrous oxide emissions were calculated based on 1% of total N applied for agronomic applications and were 8,600 and 3,500 g N2 O ha-1 for the biosolids and fertilizer treatments, respectively. Total carbon costs associated with fertilization were 2,700 kg CO2 e ha-1 for fertilizer and 60 kg CO2 e ha-1 for biosolids. Using measured N2 O data would have resulted in lower emissions for both treatments.


Assuntos
Panicum , Biossólidos , Etanol , Fertilizantes , Óxido Nitroso/análise
3.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(8): 909-915, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of different preservation methods on biomacromolecules and microbial flora at different time points, and to understand the relationship between different cryopreservation methods, storage time and sample stability. METHODS: Tissue samples were taken from patients who underwent radical gastrectomy in the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University. Stool samples were obtained from volunteers. The tissue samples were stored in a refrigerator at -80 ℃ (-80 ℃ refrigerator group) and a liquid nitrogen tank (liquid nitrogen tank group), respectively. According to the preservation method, the stool samples were divided into a -80 ℃ refrigerator group, a liquid nitrogen tank group, a -80 ℃ refrigerator+ethanol absolute group, a liquid nitrogen tank+ethanol absolute group, and a room temperature+ethanol absolute group. Relevant indexes were examined and analyzed at the 0 month (fresh sample), 3th month, 6th month, 9th month and 12th month respectively to evaluate the sample stability with different preservation methods. RESULTS: Compared with the fresh sample, there was no significant changes in the protein concentration and the absorbance value of RNA in the samples in the liquid nitrogen tank group after 12 months of storage (both P>0.05); but the protein concentration of the tissue samples was decreased in the samples of the -80 ℃ refrigerator group after 12 months of storage (P<0.05), while the absorbance value of RNA was increased in the 9th and 12th months (both P>0.05). For the microbial flora of feces samples, at the phylum level, the flora changed significantly with time in the room temperature+ethanol absolute group, and the abundance of bacteroidetes, clostridium and proteobacteria was decreased significantly, while the abundance of firmicutes was increased significantly. At the family level, the abundance of bacteroidaceae, trichospirillaceae and veroniaceae was lower than that in the fresh sample, and the abundance of rumenbacteriaceae was higher than that in the fresh sample. In the 4 cryopreserved groups (-80 ℃ refrigerator group, liquid nitrogen tank group, -80 ℃ refrigerator+ethanol absolute group, liquid nitrogen tank+ethanol absolute group), the abundance of enterobacteriaceae was higher than that in the fresh sample. The analysis of Alpha and Beta diversity indicated that the species diversity, richness and flora structure of samples in the room temperature group were different from those in the fresh sample and other experimental groups. CONCLUSIONS: The protein concentration and RNA purity in the tissue samples preserved by liquid nitrogen tank are relatively stable; the protein concentration and RNA purity of the tissue samples which preserved in the -80 ℃ refrigerator are also relatively stable within half a year; the -80 ℃ refrigerator and liquid nitrogen tank cryopreservation can both maintain the microbial flora stability of the fecal specimen; the room temperature+ethanol absolute is not suitable for long-term preservation of stool samples.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Nitrogênio , Etanol , Fezes , Humanos
4.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 286, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063151

RESUMO

The CoViD-19 pandemic has caused a sudden spike in demand and production of hand sanitisers. Concerns are rising regarding the quality of such products, as the safeguard of consumers is a priority worldwide. We analyse here the ethanolic content of seven off-the-shelf hand sanitiser gels (two biocides and five cosmetics) from the Italian market, using gas chromatography. The WHO recommends that products containing ethanol should have 60-95% (v/v) alcohol. Four of the tested hand gels have ethanolic contents within the recommended range, while three products (all cosmetics) contain < 60% (v/v), i.e. 52.1% (w/w), ethanol. The product with the lowest alcoholic content has 37.1% w/w ethanol. Toxic methanol is not found in any of the hand sanitisers. We show, in addition, that products with the highest ethanolic content have generally greater antibacterial activity. In conclusion, all tested products are complying with the EU regulations, as the three "substandard" products are classified as cosmetics, whose purpose is cleaning and not disinfecting. Nevertheless, if such hand cleaners were inappropriately used as hand disinfectants, they might be ineffective. Thus, consumer safety relays on awareness and ability to distinguish between biocidal and cosmetics hand gels. The obtained results might sensitise the scientific community, health agencies and ultimately consumers towards the risks of using hand sanitisers of substandard alcoholic concentration. If the wrong product is chosen by consumers, public health can be compromised by the inappropriate use of "low-dosed" cosmetic gels as disinfectants, particularly during the period of the CoViD-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Higienizadores de Mão/análise , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cosméticos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/análise , Europa (Continente) , Géis , Desinfecção das Mãos , Higienizadores de Mão/farmacologia , Higienizadores de Mão/normas , Metanol/análise , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916739

RESUMO

Surgical treatment of patients with alcohol use disorder can lead to disturbances (withdrawal syndrome, delirium) which require intensive care treatment. In a surgical ward, the diagnosis of an alcohol related disorder is not always simple. Oftentimes patients conceal or trivialize the issue and as a result are admitted to the hospital in a non-abstinent or unstable state. It is risky to assume that patients with alcohol use disorder will successfully be supplied with alcohol in general hospitals. The risk can be reduced through presurgical identification and alcohol withdrawal of such patients. A literature review concludes that there is no secured evidence for the application of alcohol as prophylaxis or therapy of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in a surgical intensive care unit. The use of intravenous and oral alcohol in intensive care is an unnecessary risk to patients. There are more secure alternatives.


Assuntos
Delirium por Abstinência Alcoólica , Alcoolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Cuidados Críticos , Etanol , Humanos
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3819-3825, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893576

RESUMO

In this study, citrate synthase gene(CIT2), and malate synthase gene(MLS1) were successfully knocked out in ß-amyrin-producing yeast cells by using CRISPR/CAS9. The promoter of phosphoglucose isomerase gene(PGI1) was replaced by that of cytochrome c oxidase subunit Ⅶa(Cox9)to weaken its expression, aiming to channel more carbon flux into the NADPH-producing pathway. The fermentation results showed that CIT2 deletion had no effect on the ß-amyrin production. Compared with the control strain, the production of ß-amyrin was increased by 1.85 times after deleting MLS1, reaching into 3.3 mg·L~(-1). By replacing the promoter of PGI1, the ß-amyrin yield was 3.75 times higher than that of the control strain, reaching up to 6.7 mg·L~(-1). This study successfully knocked out the CITT2 and MLS1 genes and weakened the PGI1 gene by using CRISPR/CAS9, which directly influenced the production of ß-amyrin and provided some reference for the the metabolic engineering of triterpernoid producing strain.


Assuntos
Engenharia Metabólica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Etanol , Fermentação
8.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(3): 166-167, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921490

RESUMO

Urial K. Mayo (1816-1900) was a successful Boston dentist who was plagued by personal scandal. In 1883 he patented extending the duration of nitrous-oxide anesthesia with an alcoholic tincture of hops and poppies.


Assuntos
Anestesia Dentária/história , Anestésicos Inalatórios/história , Óxido Nitroso/história , Ópio/história , Anestésicos Inalatórios/química , Etanol/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Humulus , Papaver , Solventes/história , Estados Unidos
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3803, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732991

RESUMO

Microbial communities comprised of phototrophs and heterotrophs hold great promise for sustainable biotechnology. Successful application of these communities relies on the selection of appropriate partners. Here we construct four community metabolic models to guide strain selection, pairing phototrophic, sucrose-secreting Synechococcus elongatus with heterotrophic Escherichia coli K-12, Escherichia coli W, Yarrowia lipolytica, or Bacillus subtilis. Model simulations reveae metabolic exchanges that sustain the heterotrophs in minimal media devoid of any organic carbon source, pointing to S. elongatus-E. coli K-12 as the most active community. Experimental validation of flux predictions for this pair confirms metabolic interactions and potential production capabilities. Synthetic communities bypass member-specific metabolic bottlenecks (e.g. histidine- and transport-related reactions) and compensate for lethal genetic traits, achieving up to 27% recovery from lethal knockouts. The study provides a robust modelling framework for the rational design of synthetic communities with optimized growth sustainability using phototrophic partners.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Processos Heterotróficos/fisiologia , Processos Fototróficos/fisiologia , Synechococcus/metabolismo , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Etanol/metabolismo , Formaldeído/metabolismo , Metanol/metabolismo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Synechococcus/genética , Yarrowia/genética
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(4): e20190810, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844991

RESUMO

This study was designed to investigate the effects of emulsion formulations of oleuropein isolated from ethanol extract of olive leaf in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The rats were treated with the administration of the emulsion containing oleuropein at a low (150 mg/kg b.wt.) and high (225 mg/kg b.wt.) dose for 30 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn from the heart of the rats to determine blood glucose, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase levels. In addition, their liver tissues were dissected to determine the levels of glutathione and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and superoxide dismutase activity. According to the results for both dose treatments, a statistically significant increase in superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione levels of the treated diabetic rats was observed when compared with those of the diabetic control rats. On the other hand, a statistically significant decrease in the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase of the treated diabetic rats was determined. It should be highlighted that the administrations at the high dose were more effective compared to that of the low dose. Furthermore, a substantial decrease in the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats exposed to the high dose was observed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Iridoides , Olea , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antioxidantes , Glicemia , Catalase , Etanol , Iridoides/farmacologia , Fígado , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5671-5685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821096

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of the current work was to develop vardenafil hydrochloride (VRD)-loaded ethosome-derived invasomes as a possible transdermal system which could be used for patients suffering from pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods: VRD-loaded ethosomes were developed at three concentrations of phosphatidylcholine (5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) and three percentages of ethanol (20%, 30% and 40%, v/v). The best achieved VRD-loaded ethosomes (ETH9) were optimized to invasomes via incorporation of terpenes (limonene, cineole and a 1:1 mixture) at three concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 2%, v/v). All systems were evaluated for vesicle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency (EE%), cumulative drug permeated percentages after 0.5hrs (Q0.5h) and 12hrs (Q12h) and steady-state flux (Jss). The optimized system (ETH9-INV8) was further characterized for morphology, histopathology and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was employed to estimate VRD pharmacokinetic parameters from the optimized transdermal system and an oral aqueous drug dispersion, in adults and geriatrics. Results: The optimized invasomal system (ETH9-INV8) was characterized with spherical vesicles (159.9 nm) possessing negative zeta potential (-20.3 mV), promising EE% (81.3%), low Q0.5h (25.4%), high Q12h (85.3%) and the largest steady-state flux (6.4 µg.cm-2h-1). Following a leave-on period of 12hrs in rats, it showed minor histopathologic changes. CLSM studies proved its ability to deeply permeate rat skin. Lower Cmax values, delayed Tmax estimates and greater AUC0-24h folds in adults and geriatrics (≈ 2.18 and 1.69, respectively) were estimated following the transdermal application of ETH9-INV8 system. Conclusion: ETH9-INV8 is a promising transdermal system for VRD.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Geriatria , Modelos Biológicos , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila/administração & dosagem , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila/farmacocinética , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Lipossomos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Tamanho da Partícula , Permeabilidade , Ratos Wistar , Absorção Cutânea , Eletricidade Estática
12.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 129, 2020 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hand sanitisers are urgently needed in the time of COVID-19, and as a result of shortages, some people have resorted to making their own formulations, including the repurposing of distilleries. We wish to highlight the importance of those producing hand sanitisers to avoid methylated spirits containing methanol and to follow WHO recommended formulations. METHODS: We explore and discuss reports of methanol toxicity through ingestion and transdermal absorption. We discuss the WHO formulations and explain the rationale behind the chosen ingredients. SHORT CONCLUSION: We advise those producing hand sanitisers to follow WHO recommended formulations, and advise those producing hand sanitisers using methylated spirits, to avoid formulations which contain methanol.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Metanol/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Composição de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Desinfecção das Mãos/instrumentação , Humanos , Metanol/química , Metanol/toxicidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
13.
Waste Manag ; 116: 40-48, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784120

RESUMO

Municipal solid waste is an environmental threat worldwide; however, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OF-MSW) has a great potential for the generation of fuels and high-value products. In the current study, OF-MSW was utilized for the production of ethanol, hydrogen, as well as 2,3-butanediol, an octane booster, by using Enterobacter aerogenes. Furthermore, a promising alternative to non-biodegradable petrochemical-based polymers, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), was produced. The OF-MSW was first pretreated by an acetic acid catalyzed ethanol organosolv pretreatment at 120 and 160 °C followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual solids. The residual unhydrolyzed solids resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis were further anaerobically digested for methane production. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the solids prepared at 120 °C for 60 min led to the production of hydrolysate with the highest glucose production yield of 498.5 g/kg dry untreated OF-MSW, which was fermented to 139.1 g 2,3-butanediol, 98.3 g ethanol, 28.6 g acetic acid, 71.4 L biohydrogen, and 40 g PHAs. Moreover, 23.1 L biomethane was produced through the anaerobic digestion of the enzymatic hydrolysis residue solids. Thus, appreciable amounts of energy (8236.9 kJ) and an eco-friendly bioplastic were produced by the valorization of carbon sources available in OF-MSW.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Resíduos Sólidos , Anaerobiose , Etanol , Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Metano
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110935, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800218

RESUMO

This study investigated the ability of dual crosslinked interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) blend beads (DIN:SA/PVA-beads), composed of sodium alginate (SA) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), as a base-triggered carrier for the controlled release of dinotefuran (DIN) in Spodoptera litera midgut. The blend beads were characterized for morphology, encapsulation efficiency, swelling degree, and in vitro release of the blend beads were characterized. The results revealed that the double-crosslinked gel beads had a tightly interpenetrating network structure and exhibited a satisfactory embedding effect for DIN. The maximum of the DIN loading capacity was approximately 1.01%, with a high encapsulation efficiency of 83.19%. The triggered release of DIN from the blend beads was studied in deionized water (pH 3.0-11.0) via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); it was found that the release rate was higher in alkaline pH conditions than in acidic and neutral conditions. An in vivo dynamics and degradation study also demonstrated that the excellent release characteristics of DIN:SA/PVA-beads in the midgut of S. litera. This study provides a promising controlled-release form of dinotefuran that is more effective and can be used for the targeted control of pests with alkaline midgut.


Assuntos
Guanidinas/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Nitrocompostos/metabolismo , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Alginatos/química , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Etanol , Ácido Glucurônico/química , Ácidos Hexurônicos/química , Hidrogéis/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Polímeros , Álcool de Polivinil/química
15.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111122, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738745

RESUMO

The optimal concentrations of ethanol, Fe3+ and rice husk (RH) to enhance sludge dewaterability were determined by response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed the optimal concentrations of ethanol, Fe3+ and RH were 22.2 g/g DS, 239.9 mg/g DS and 348.9 mg/g DS, respectively, and the CST reduction efficiency reached 72.3%. The transformation behavior and mechanism of the heavy metals (HMs) during conditioning process were determined in terms of total HMs content, leaching tests, and fraction distribution. The environmental risk of HMs was quantitatively evaluated after conditioning in terms of bioavailability and ecotoxicity, potential ecological risks, and pollution levels. Results showed that the high ecological risk of HMs in raw sludge cake is primarily dominated by Cd and the use of Fe3+ alone negatively affected the immobilization of HMs and reduction of leaching toxicity. However, after repeated conditioning with Fe3+ and ethanol, the total HMs content reduction values in sludge cake were 75%, 93%, 100%, 91%, and 74% for Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, and Cu, respectively. The potential ecological risk index (PERI) and geoaccumulation indicated low or no overall environmental risk after repeated conditioning. Particularly, the risk of Cd was reduced from high risk to low risk after repeated conditioning according to the PERI. Ethanol/Fe3+-RH can effectively reduce HMs risk from the sludge cake in the dewatering tests.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oryza , Etanol , Compostos Férricos , Medição de Risco , Esgotos
16.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 929-939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759551

RESUMO

Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a major sphingolipid in plants and fungi, is known to have food functions, such as preventing intestinal impairment and enhancing the moisture content of skin. This study investigated the influence of fermentation on the composition and function of lipophilic components containing GlcCer in plant-based foods; we compared the effects of ethanol extracts from sake rice (SR) and sake lees (SL) on colon impairment in mice. GlcCer and ceramide (Cer) levels in SL were much higher than those in SR, and GlcCer in SL contained 9-methyl-trans-4,trans-8-sphingadienine as a fungi-specific sphingoid base. 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treatment markedly increased the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and the levels of TNF-α and lipid oxidation in mice colons. However, dietary SR or SL significantly suppressed these DMH-induced changes, and SR demonstrated stronger effects than SL. In addition, dietary SR or SL suppressed the expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins induced by DMH treatment. This study suggests that SR or SL intake could reduce colon ACF formation via the suppression of inflammation and oxidation-induced cell cycle disturbances. When compared to SR, the weaked effects of SL rich in GlcCer may be the result of the changes in sphingolipid composition (sphingoid base and Cer) and differences in the concentration of other bioactive compounds produced or digested during fermentation.


Assuntos
Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Glucosilceramidas/análise , Glucosilceramidas/farmacologia , Oryza/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vinho/análise , Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/metabolismo , Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/patologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Feminino , Fermentação , Glucosilceramidas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 145: 111702, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860861

RESUMO

Our surrounding environment, especially often-touched contaminated surfaces, plays an important role in the transmission of pathogens in society. The shortage of effective sanitizing fluids, however, became a global challenge quickly after the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak in December 2019. In this study, we present the effect of surfactants on coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) virucidal efficiency in sanitizing fluids. Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), sodium laureth sulfate (SLS), and two commercial dish soap and liquid hand soap were studied with the goal of evaporation rate reduction in sanitizing liquids to maximize surface contact time. Twelve fluids with different recipes composed of ethanol, isopropanol, SDBS, SLS, glycerin, and water of standardized hardness (WSH) were tested for their evaporation time and virucidal efficiency. Evaporation time increased by 17-63% when surfactant agents were added to the liquid. In addition, surfactant incorporation enhanced the virucidal efficiency between 15 and 27% according to the 4-field test in the EN 16615:2015 European Standard method. Most importantly, however, we found that surfactant addition provides a synergistic effect with alcohols to inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study provides a simple, yet effective solution to improve the virucidal efficiency of commonly used sanitizers.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higienizadores de Mão/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sabões/farmacologia , Tensoativos/farmacologia , 2-Propanol/farmacologia , Células A549 , Benzenossulfonatos/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Etanol/farmacologia , Glicerol/farmacologia , Humanos , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/análogos & derivados , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/farmacologia , Volatilização/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232731, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817640

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of the chronic consumption of different concentrations of alcohol on the experimental periodontitis (EP). 160 rats were divided into 4 groups: (EP-NT) rats with EP and no alcohol exposure; (EP-A14) rats with EP exposed to 14% alcohol; (EP-A25) rats with EP exposed to 25% alcohol; (EP-A36) rats with EP exposed to 36% alcohol. The animals from the EP-A14, EP-A25 and EP-A36 groups were subjected to different concentrations of alcohol 30 days before EP induction. The histological characteristics, percentage of bone in the furcation (PBF) and bone metabolism in the furcation region were evaluated. The PBF and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) data were subjected to statistical analysis. The EP-A14, EP-A25 and EP-A36 groups had lower PBFs compared with the EP-NT group. A more severe inflammatory process and a greater number of TRAP+ cells were also observed. In the EP-A14, EP-A25 and EP-A36 groups, the inflammatory process became more severe as the ingested alcoholic concentration increased. An increase in RANKL immunolabeling and a significantly higher number of TRAP+ cells were also observed. We conclude that chronic alcohol consumption increases the severity of experimental periodontitis in a dose-dependent manner by increasing the magnitude of local inflammatory responses and stimulating alveolar bone resorption.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/patologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Periodontite/patologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/metabolismo
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 316: 123882, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739576

RESUMO

Lignocellulosic biomass fractionaion into its three major components is critically important for efficient feedstock utilization. The hydrothermal-ethanol method has broad application as its first step, hydrothermal treatment, provides high hemicellulose separation efficiency. However, it severely inhibits the delignification on the subsequent ethanol extraction. In this study, the second step, ethanol extraction, was facilitated by the addition of 3% NaOH and 3% H2O2, resulting in a significant improvement of lignin separation (by 48.2%). SEM, AFM, XPS, and XRD were used to characterize the surface composition of the remaining solids (crude cellulose) while the structure of isolated lignin was characterized by FT-IR, CP/MAS 13C NMR, GPC and TGA. The lignin samples isolated with both facilitated and non-facilitated ethanol extraction were compared to elucidate the lignin removal mechanism. The results showed that lignin degradation and crosslinking/polymerization occur in parallel during both the hydrothermal treatment and ethanol extraction.


Assuntos
Etanol , Triticum , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Lignina , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 316: 123899, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739577

RESUMO

In this study, puerariae slag (PS) was evaluated as a renewable raw material for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. To accelerate the hydrolysis of PS, the method of ultrasound-assisted dilute acid hydrolysis (UAAH) was used. With this effort, 0.69 g reducing sugar was obtained from 1 g raw material under the optimal pretreatment condition. Subsequently, the butanol and total solvent production of 8.79 ± 0.16 g/L and 12.32 ± 0.26 g/L were obtained from the non-detoxified diluted hydrolysate, and the yield and productivity of butanol were 0.19 g/g and 0.12 g/L/h, respectively. Additionally, the changes in the structure of PS after different pretreatment methods were observed using SEM and FT-IR. UAAH resulted in more severe and distinct damage to the dense structure of PS. This study suggests that the UAAH is an attainable but effective pretreatment method, thereby is a promising technique for lignocellulose hydrolysis and improve butanol production.


Assuntos
Clostridium beijerinckii , Pueraria , 1-Butanol , Acetona , Butanóis , Etanol , Fermentação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
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