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1.
Food Chem ; 303: 125346, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446364

RESUMO

The effect of a respiratory quotient dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA - RQ), which induces ethanol production through low oxygen storage, and ethanol application on softening of Braeburn apples stored at different temperatures was investigated. DCA - RQ storage was associated with the activation of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and greater anaerobic metabolism in comparison with DCA - CF (chlorophyll fluorescence) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. Greater anaerobic metabolism resulted in lower ethylene production, ACC oxidase activity, membrane permeability, -galactosidase activity and, therefore, less softening after long-term storage. Ethanol application after CA storage decreased ethylene biosynthesis, respiration rate and membrane permeability. Storage at 3 °C resulted in the lowest soluble solids and acidity, but not softening. In conclusion, Braeburn apples could be stored at 3 °C under DCA - RQ1.5. Additionally, ethanol produced by the fruit, or applied externally, had a significant effect on inhibiting softening during and after storage.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Etanol/farmacologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Anaerobiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 302: 125335, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416001

RESUMO

Cocoa bean fermentation still remains a rather empirical process. The research presented here employed an artificial system of fermentation, using controlled incubations, in order to achieve greater control over the external influences that cocoa beans are exposed to, with the aim of experimentally modelling changes to bean components (responses). Experimental design was used, in a first-ever attempt, to study the effects of five factors and their interactions on the profiles of pH, peptides, and flavanols in the bean during the incubations. Temperature, incubation time and the concentration of acetic acid were the main factors influencing the three responses. Moreover, there was a significant amount of factor interaction, revealing the process to be more complex than initially thought, especially with respect to the role of ethanol. Using the model, one was also able to accurately predict the response of the bean to the exposure to specific factors.


Assuntos
Cacau/metabolismo , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Cacau/química , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122222, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683453

RESUMO

Amylolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae derivatives of Ethanol Red™ Version 1 (ER T12) and M2n (M2n T1) were assessed through enzyme assays, hydrolysis trials, electron microscopy and fermentation studies using broken rice. The heterologous enzymes hydrolysed broken rice at a similar rate compared to commercial granular starch-hydrolysing enzyme cocktail. During the fermentation of 20% dw/v broken rice, the amylolytic strains converted rice starch to ethanol in a single step and yielded high ethanol titers. The best-performing strain (ER T12) produced 93% of the theoretical ethanol yield after 96 h of consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) fermentation at 32 °C. Furthermore, the addition of commercial enzyme cocktail (10% of the recommended dosage) in combination with ER T12 did not significantly improve the maximum ethanol concentration, confirming the superior ability of ER T12 to hydrolyse raw starch. The ER T12 strain was therefore identified as an ideal candidate for the CBP of starch-rich waste streams.


Assuntos
Oryza , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Etanol , Fermentação , Amido
4.
Biomed Khim ; 65(5): 380-384, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666409

RESUMO

The effects of acute (single) and chronic ethanol administration on the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and TNF-α), as well as on the level of mRNA NF-κB, TLR4 and its endogenous agonist, HMGB1 protein, were investigated in rats. It was shown that the level of TLR4, HMGB1 and cytokines was significantly higher than in control group. The ethanol withdrawal after prolonged administration resulted in dysregulation of cytokine levels, TLR4 and HMGB1. Changes in the level of TLR4 and HMGB1 mRNA demonstrated a similar pattern. The obtained data confirm that prolonged alcoholization leads to the activation of TLR4-dependent signaling in the prefrontal cortex of rats, and this can lead to a prolonged neuro-inflammatory process in the brain.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/imunologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/patologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Etanol , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/imunologia
5.
Biomed Khim ; 65(5): 385-387, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666410

RESUMO

The neurotransmitter systems of the brain are exposed to dysregulation during alcohol withdrawal. This contributes to the development of the pathological craving for alcohol in which corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors are may be involved. During the period of alcohol withdrawal, the level of CRFR2 mRNA in the ventral tegmental area of the brain on the seventh day of abstinence was significantly increased in comparison with the control group. This supports existing concepts on possible participation in the modulation of dopaminergic and GABA-neural neurons in the ventral tegmental area the brain.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1164: 73-87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576541

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the roles of alcohol (ethanol) and related compounds in promoting cancer and inflammatory injury in many tissues. Long-term chronic heavy alcohol exposure is known to increase the chances of inflammation, oxidative DNA damage, and cancer development in many organs. The rates of alcohol-mediated organ damage and cancer risks are significantly elevated in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as poor nutrition, unhealthy diets, smoking, infection with bacteria or viruses, and exposure to pro-carcinogens. Chronic ingestion of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may initiate and/or promote the development of cancer in the liver, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, prostate, and female breast. In this chapter, we summarize the important roles of ethanol/acetaldehyde in promoting inflammatory injury and carcinogenesis in several tissues. We also review the updated roles of the ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) and other cytochrome P450 isozymes in the metabolism of various potentially toxic substrates, and consequent toxicities, including carcinogenesis in different tissues. We also briefly describe the potential implications of endogenous ethanol produced by gut bacteria, as frequently observed in the experimental models and patients of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, in promoting DNA mutation and cancer development in the liver and other tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Carcinogênese , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1 , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Etanol , Acetaldeído/toxicidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/fisiopatologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/patologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Etanol/toxicidade , Humanos , Isoformas de Proteínas
9.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(5): 43-46, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626194

RESUMO

The purpose of the work is the development of mathematical models in the forensic diagnosis of poisonings by the main groups of toxicologically important substances, on the basis of biochemical characteristics of blood. The most informative forensic and biochemical indicators of cadaveric blood used to detect lethal poisoning are the urea content, total protein content, and the ratio of urea to creatinine. Mathematical models of poisoning can be used to diagnose poisoning with narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and substitutes of ethyl alcohol.


Assuntos
Etanol/sangue , Medicina Legal/métodos , Entorpecentes/sangue , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Psicotrópicos/sangue , Cadáver , Etanol/envenenamento , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Entorpecentes/envenenamento , Envenenamento/sangue , Psicotrópicos/envenenamento
10.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(5): 54-57, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626196

RESUMO

An analysis of fatal drug overdoses in the population of the Crimean Republic between 1993-2017 was conducted. The epidemiological characteristics of these drug overdoses were determined. Deaths from drug overdoses occurs mainly in male population during the most active years of drug use (21-30 years). The most frequent cause of death is opioid drug overdose and combined alcohol-opioid intoxication.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Psicotrópicos/envenenamento , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Etanol/envenenamento , Humanos , Masculino , Entorpecentes/envenenamento , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(86): 12912-12915, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593207

RESUMO

Alcohol-induced liver injury has been a terrible threat to human health and life. The relationship between HClO and the process is unclear. Thus, a ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe for HClO was deliberately constructed and revealed the generation of HClO in the alcohol-induced liver injury process for the first time.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico por imagem , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Ácido Hipocloroso/análise , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Etanol/toxicidade , Células HeLa , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Imagem Óptica , Peixe-Zebra
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(4): 767-772, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599239

RESUMO

Evaluation of the in vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract isolated from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark against two food borne pathogens, Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. This experimental study was carried out in the department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics in collaboration with the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2017 to July 2018. The antibacterial activity was tested at different concentrations of extracts of spice by using disc diffusion method. The extracts were prepared by using a solvent ethanol. The test microorganisms were also tested for their activity against a standard antibiotic Amikacin (500mg) by disc diffusion method and the result was compared with that of ethanolic extracts. Cinnamon had inhibitory activity against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ethanolic extracts were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus than E. coli. Staphylococcus aureus showed activity from 60% conc. (zone of inhibition 17mm) where E. coli from 80% conc. (ZOI 18mm). Maximum zone of inhibition was 26mm for both the test organisms. This result was also compared to those obtained against a standard antibiotic Amikacin where extract produced wider zone of inhibition of 26mm as compared to Amikacin for both test organisms. The present study showed that ethanolic extract of cinnamon demonstrated stronger antimicrobial effect against food borne pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bangladesh , Etanol , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos
13.
Orv Hetil ; 160(43): 1698-1705, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630553

RESUMO

Introduction: According to WHO data, more than 2 million people die because of alcohol consumption during one year. One part of these people are displayed in the emergency departments. There are those who are just about to be detoxicated, those who suffered alcohol-related accidents or alcohol-related internal illness. Aim: To find out how many alcohol-influencing patients are being in the emergency care system and how much of the financing are used for these patients. Method: Our research was conducted at the Department of Emergency Medicine, Clinical Centre, University of Pécs. The research period was between January 1 and December 31, 2016. Our sample was made up of patients who were exposed due to alcohol in the emergency room (n = 1326). We made document analysis. We analysed data using statistical software SPSS 22.0. Results: 78% of the patients were male. The mean age of the sample was 49.78 ± 14.215 years. 71.1% of patients had a home, but 28.9% were homeless. According to the Triage scale, 608 patients were in category T5 because they needed only detoxification. In terms of the level of consciousness, 93.7% of patients had 14 or 15 points according to the Glasgow Coma Scale. 14.6% of patients did not expect a medical examination. Within the framework of incoming and outpatient care, the provision of these patients is profitable. Conclusion: The diagnosis and care of the injuries is done in accordance with the domestic guidelines. Contrary to expectations, the care of these patients is profitable for the emergency department, although only fixed costs were included. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(43): 1698-1705.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Intoxicação Alcoólica/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Etanol , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122219, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610487

RESUMO

Scenedesmus raciborskii WZKMT was subjected to fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation to facilitate the saccharification of high-solid-loading substrate for high-concentration ethanol. In this work, process factors affecting enzymatic hydrolysis, including enzyme loading, temperature, pH, and solid loading, were optimized. Results showed that 58.03 g L-1 glucose, 12.57 g L-1 xylose, and 1.45 g L-1 cellobiose were obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of 330 g L-1 substrates under the optimal conditions of 30 FPU g-1 enzyme loading, 50 °C, and pH 5.5. Meanwhile, 89.60% yield and 30.43 g L-1 content of ethanol were obtained after the fermentation of 330 g L-1 hydrolysate. The maximum ethanol concentration of 79.38 g L-1 could be achieved through repeated fed-batch process, indicating that S. raciborskii WZKMT is a promising feedstock for ethanol production.


Assuntos
Etanol , Scenedesmus , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
15.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 38(7): 481-483, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526558
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122036, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479857

RESUMO

To improve the neutral DES (choline chloride/glycerol) pretreatment performance, three environmentally friendly heteropoly acids (phosphotungstic, phosphomolybdic and silicotungstic acids) were used as catalysts. Pretreatment with silicotungstic acid at 120 °C for 3 h resulted in 97.3% of enzymatic digestibility at an enzyme loading of 15FPU/g substrate, which was approximately eight times more than that of raw samples. More importantly, 80% of glucose yield was obtained within 12 h. Simultaneously, 81.8% of ethanol yield was achieved in the SSSF process. The efficient conversion was ascribed to the significant delignification (89.5%), which resulted in the exposure of more accessible specific surface area. This was attributed to that the proton (H+) from heteropoly acids could significantly contribute to the lignin degradation. Intriguingly, trace acetic acid (0.39 g/L) and HMF (0.21-0.95 g/L) in the pretreatment liquor were produced without any significant deleterious effects. These discoveries provide new insights for efficient biomass conversion under mild conditions.


Assuntos
Etanol , Lignina , Biomassa , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Solventes
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122049, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484103

RESUMO

This work was the first time to establish a green pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) process to extract microalgal lipids from Isochrysis biomass. PLE with ethanol exhibited superior lipid extraction performance in comparison to Soxhlet and Folch methods and PLE with n-hexane. To reduce the cost in ethanol utilization, ethanol concentration was optimized and found that PLE with 90% ethanol concentration obtained the highest lipid extraction efficiency (41.5 wt%) and total fatty acids (TFAs) recovery value (92.17 wt%) using Isochrysis sp. biomass. Results about lipid class detected by TLC-FID technique showed that ethanol concentration distinctly affected the content of lipidic class during lipid extraction by PLE. Similarly, the process with 90% ethanol concentration achieved over 90 wt% of TFAs recovery values with three different Isochrysis species. Overall, PLE process mediated with ethanol was a promising approach to extract Isochrysis-derived lipids from sustainable microalgal biomass for food application.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Microalgas , Biomassa , Etanol , Lipídeos
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122060, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514122

RESUMO

In the present study, Kluyveromyces marxianus was utilized to study the batch fermentation kinetics of biomass production, substrate utilization and bioethanol production from woody stem Prosopis juliflora. The pre-treated substrate was subjected to Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) under optimised conditions of pH (4.9), temperature (41 °C), substrate concentration 5% (w/v), inoculum concentration 3% (v/v) and the maximum concentration of bioethanol was found to be 21.45 g/l. The experimental data thus obtained from cell growth, substrate utilization and product formation are employed in the determination of kinetic parameters. Biological models such as Logistic model, Hinshelwood model were used for microbial growth and substrate utilization kinetics respectively. In case of product kinetics, Leudking-Piret plot, Gompertz model and Modified Gompertz model were utilised. Based on these models, kinetic parameters like maximum specific growth rate (µm), saturation constant (Ks), growth associated (α), non-growth associated (ß) and yield coefficients (YX/S, YP/S) were estimated.


Assuntos
Kluyveromyces , Prosopis , Etanol , Fermentação , Cinética
19.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 316-321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507198

RESUMO

The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks and rapid spread in tropical Latin America since introduction to Brazil in 2014, and now appearing cases in the USA, are alarming. World Health Organization (WHO) has considered transmission of ZIKV, a serious public health problem because of the increasing number of outbreaks. There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of ZIKV infection. Discovery of safe and effective drugs are hampered by the risk in treating pregnant woman and toxicity to the fetus. Sweet basil, known as Ocimum basilicum in the scientific community, is a very well-known medicinal herb. Numerous studies have documented its beneficial activity against a great variety of human pathogens ranging from bacteria and virus to fungus and protozoans. Although, basil extracts and oils have been tested successfully against other viruses, its application to tackle ZIKV infection has not been exploited at all. In this study, we report for the first time that highly diluted ethanol extracts prepared from basil leaves can effectively inhibit ZIKV replication in Vero E6 cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 1:134. The diluted extract as well as the amount of ethanol that goes into its preparation have been found to be completely non-toxic to the above mentioned cell line. The extract seems to inhibit the virus at the step of attachment and entry into the host cell. The specific inhibition of ZIKV observed using the basil leaf extract suggests a new alternative mode of treatment against flavivirus. Keywords: Zika virus; basil extract; antiviral.


Assuntos
Ocimum basilicum , Extratos Vegetais , Internalização do Vírus , Infecção por Zika virus , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cercopithecus aethiops , Etanol/química , Ocimum basilicum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/fisiologia
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