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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211194, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253930

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol-conditioned dentin on endodontic sealer penetration into dentinal tubules by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Methods: Forty human maxillary anterior teeth were instrumented and divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the drying methods: 1) wet: vacuum only, 2) paper points: vacuum + absorbent paper points, (3) 70% ethanol: 70% ethanol (1 min) + vacuum + absorbent paper points, and (4) 100% ethanol: 100% ethanol (1 min) + vacuum + absorbent paper points. All root canals were filled with resin-based endodontic sealer. Four sections from each third (cervical, middle, and apical) were examined by CLSM. Root canal wall perimeter infiltrated by sealer, maximum depth of sealer penetration, percentage of penetrated area, and fluorescence intensity of rhodamine B were measured. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Results: No statistical difference was found when percentage of root canal wall coverage infiltrated by sealer were compared. The groups in which ethanol solutions were used presented greater depth of sealer penetration, higher percentage of penetrated area, and higher fluorescence intensity of rhodamine B (p< 0.05) when compared with the wet and paper point groups. Overall, 100% ethanol produced better results than 70% ethanol, except for rhodamine B intensity (cervical third). In addition, the absorbent paper points drying method behaved better than did vacuum only group, except for rhodamine B intensity (apical third). Conclusion: Ethanol-conditioned dentin improved the penetration of resin-based sealer into dentinal tubules, especially at the concentration of 100%


Assuntos
Humanos , Molhabilidade , Microscopia Confocal , Cimentos de Resina , Dentina , Etanol , Endodontia
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3900-3906, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472266

RESUMO

As a common disease worldwide, alcoholic liver injury is caused by long-term or excessive intake of alcohol and triggers cell death due to alcohol metabolism and reactive oxygen species(ROS)-mediated cytotoxicity. Wangshi Baochi(WSBC) Pills have been widely adopted in clinical practice for evacuating stasis, resolving turbidity, clearing heat, tranquilizing mind, invigorating sto-mach, promoting digestion, purging fire and removing toxin. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of WSBC Pills in dispelling the effect of alcohol and protecting against acute alcoholic liver/stomach injury in mice, and preliminarily investigate its possible mole-cular mechanism. The results found that the preventive treatment with WSBC Pills contributed to elevating the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH) and its expression in liver and shortening the time required for sobering up of mice with acute alcoholic liver injury. The staining of liver pathological sections as well as the detection of serum aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and liver ROS levels revealed that WSBC Pills protected the liver by reducing serum AST and ALT. It suppressed oxidative stress-induced liver injury by lowering liver ROS and elevating superoxide dismutase(SOD), and the liver-protecting effect was superior to that of silibinin. Western blot assay confirmed that WSBC Pills inhibited the oxidative stress by up-regulating SOD1 and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO-1). In addition, WSBC Pills lowered the ROS level to protect against the acute alcoholic stomach injury in mice. The findings have suggested that WSBC Pills alleviated the acute alcoholic liver/stomach injury in mice by increasing ADH and resisting oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Animais , Etanol , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Estômago
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e253009, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495170

RESUMO

Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Etanol , Biotransformação , Fermentação , Estudos Prospectivos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Água
4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 688, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic organisms, like the model yeast S. cerevisiae, have linear chromosomes that facilitate organization and protection of nuclear DNA. A recent work described a stepwise break/repair method that enabled fusion of the 16 chromosomes of S. cerevisiae into a single large chromosome. Construction of this strain resulted in the removal of 30 of 32 telomeres, over 300 kb of subtelomeric DNA, and 107 subtelomeric ORFs. Despite these changes, characterization of the single chromosome strain uncovered modest phenotypes compared to a reference strain. RESULTS: This study further characterized the single chromosome strain and found that it exhibited a longer lag phase, increased doubling time, and lower final biomass concentration compared with a reference strain when grown on YPD. These phenotypes were amplified when ethanol was added to the medium or used as the sole carbon source. RNAseq analysis showed poor induction of genes involved in diauxic shift, ethanol metabolism, and fatty-acid ß-oxidation during growth on ethanol compared to the reference strain. Enzyme-constrained metabolic modeling identified decreased flux through the enzymes that are encoded by these poorly induced genes as a likely cause of diminished biomass accumulation. The diminished growth on ethanol for the single chromosome strain was rescued by nicotinamide, an inhibitor of sirtuin family deacetylases, which have been shown to silence gene expression in heterochromatic regions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that sirtuin-mediated silencing in the single chromosome strain interferes with growth on non-fermentable carbon sources. We propose that the removal of subtelomeric DNA that would otherwise be bound by sirtuins leads to silencing at other loci in the single chromosome strain. Further, we hypothesize that the poorly induced genes in the single chromosome strain during ethanol growth could be silenced by sirtuins in wildtype S. cerevisiae during growth on glucose.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Etanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Telômero/genética
5.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to compare the efficacy of 80% (w/v) alcohol, rubbed for 30 and 60 seconds, in the manual processing of stainless-steel wash bowls, after cleaning with running water and neutral detergent. METHOD: experimental study conducted in a hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, on 50 bowls randomly divided into two groups of 25 bowls each for interventions of 30 and 60 seconds of rubbing with 80% (w/v) alcohol. RESULTS: based on the microbiological analyses collected, before and after the interventions for both groups, partial efficacy of the disinfectant was observed even when extending rubbing time. In both groups, there was a higher prevalence of survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with 14 strains that were resistant to carbapenems, being, specifically, 11 to imipenem and three to meropenem. CONCLUSION: stainless-steel bed wash bowls decontaminated for reuse by 80% (w/v) alcohol, after cleaning with running water and neutral detergent, showed to be reservoirs of hospital pathogens. The use of bed wash bowls for patients with intact skin would not have worrying consequences, but considering those with non-intact skin and the contamination of professionals' hands, the results in this study justify the search for other decontamination methods or the adoption of disposable bed baths.


Assuntos
Descontaminação , Aço Inoxidável , Brasil , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Etanol , Humanos
6.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 31(3): 673-682, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483625

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol consumption can cause hepatitis and long-term cirrhosis of the liver. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of curcumin (CUR) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) alone and together in the prevention and treatment of liver damage caused by overuse of ethanol. Methods: Adult Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 5, including the control group and various combinations of ethanol, CUR and UDCA groups. Twenty-eight days after the oral treatment, serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and Arginase I (ArgI) as well as serum levels of Albumin (Alb), total protein (TP) and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) were measured, and liver tissue was evaluated histopathologically. Results: The solo administration of CUR, UDCA and CUR+UDCA had no effect on the blood parameters and liver tissue compared to the control group (p>0.05). The solo administration of CUR and UDCA in ethanol-treated rats significantly reduced ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, ArgI and BUN levels (p<0.05), while the solo administration increased Alb and TP levels compared to the ethanol group (p<0.05). In these groups, a significant decrease in cell necrosis and local inflammation of hepatocytes was observed, and the liver damage was mild. However, co-administration of ethanol, CUR and UDCA made significantly greater decrease in ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, ArgI and BUN levels (p>0.05), while the co-administration greatly increased Alb and TP levels compared to the ethanol group (p<0.05). Histopathologically, a decrease in structural changes in liver tissue and inflammation was observed, resulting in the improvement of liver tissue. Conclusion: The solo administration of CUR and UDCA could reduce ethanol-induced liver damage in rats and improve liver's serum and blood parameters. However, the coadministration of CUR and UDCA has a greater efficacy.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Curcumina , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Curcumina/farmacologia , Etanol/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico
7.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131278, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467945

RESUMO

Production of MCFAs (Medium-chain fatty acids) from simple substrate (i.e., ethanol and acetate) and WAS with chain elongation microbiome was investigated in this study. The results showed that rapid production of MCFAs was observed when simple substrate was utilized. 1889 mg/L of caproate and 3434 mg/L of butyrate were achieved after 10 d's reaction. H2 proportion in the headspace could reach as high as 10.1% on day 8 and then declined quickly. However, when WAS was used, the bacterial consortia was not able to hydrolyze WAS efficiently, which resulted in poor MCFAs production performance. Presence of ethanol could improve the hydrolysis process to a limited degree, which resulted in solubilization of a small fraction of protein and carbohydrate. Around 33.8% and 36.9% of the total detected electrons on day 6 in the 50 mM and 100 mM tests were extracted from WAS respectively. Those results indicate that the chain elongation microbial consortia tended to receive electrons form ethanol directly other than the complex WAS.


Assuntos
Etanol , Esgotos , Elétrons , Ácidos Graxos , Fermentação
8.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(5): 5094-5113, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517479

RESUMO

A stoichiometric model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reconstructed to analyze the continuous fermentation process of agave juice in Tequila production. The metabolic model contains 94 metabolites and 117 biochemical reactions. From the above set of reactions, 93 of them are linked to internal biochemical reactions and 24 are related to transport fluxes between the medium and the cell. The central metabolism of S. cerevisiae includes the synthesis for 20 amino-acids, carbohydrates, lipids, DNA and RNA. Using flux balance analysis (FBA), different physiological states of S. cerevisiae are shown during the fermentative process; these states are compared with experimental data under different dilution rates (0.04-0.12 h$ ^{-1} $). Moreover, the model performs anabolic and catabolic biochemical reactions for the production of higher alcohols. The importance of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic model in the area of alcoholic beverage fermentation is due to the fact that it allows to estimate the metabolic fluxes during the beverage fermentation process and a physiology state of the microorganism.


Assuntos
Agave , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Etanol , Fermentação
9.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 174: 249-263, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390780

RESUMO

Alcohol metabolism in the liver simultaneously generates toxic metabolites and disrupts redox balance, but the regulatory mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The study aimed to characterize the role of PPARα in alcohol detoxification. Hepatic PPARα and catalase levels were examined in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. Mouse studies were conducted to determine the effect of PPARα reactivation by Wy14,643 on alcoholic hepatotoxicity and how catalase is involved in mediating such effects. Cell culture study was conducted to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide on cellular NAD levels. We found that the protein levels of PPARα and catalase were significantly reduced in the livers of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. PPARα reactivation by Wy14,643 effectively reversed alcohol-induced liver damage in mice. Global and targeted metabolites analysis revealed a fundamental role of PPARα in regulating the tryptophan-NAD pathway. Notably, PPARα activation completely switched alcohol metabolism from the CYP2E1 pathway to the catalase pathway along with accelerated alcohol clearance. Catalase knockout mice were incompetent in alcohol metabolism and hydrogen peroxide clearance and were more susceptible to alcohol-induced liver injury. Hydrogen peroxide-treated hepatocytes had a reduced size of cellular NAD pool. These data demonstrate a key role of PPARα in regulating hepatic alcohol detoxification. Catalase-mediated hydrogen peroxide removal represents an underlying mechanism of how PPARα preserves the NAD pool. The study provides a new angle of view about the PPARα-catalase pathway in combating alcohol toxicity.


Assuntos
NAD , PPAR alfa , Animais , Catalase/genética , Etanol/toxicidade , Humanos , Fígado , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , PPAR alfa/genética
10.
Anal Chem ; 93(33): 11388-11397, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375077

RESUMO

The construction of a dispersive optical spectrometer using three-dimensional (3D) design software and printing, without applying any optical adjustments, its validation, and application to quantification of ethanol in multiproduct liquids, is the objective of this work. A 3D design software was used to design a near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer in the region from 800 to 1600 nm from the dimensions of commercially available optical components. The project was printed on a polymer filament 3D printer, and the components were fitted to the printed part. Software calculations using the model design parameters were applied to attribute the wavelength values to the abscissa axis in the spectra and estimate errors due to 3D printing limitations. The alignment of the spectrum was proven using the chloroform absorbance spectrum, which presented a maximum mispositioning of 4.1 nm concerning the literature data and effective bandwidths equivalent to commercial instruments. The 3D-printed instrument was applied to quantify ethanol in samples of cachaça, rum, beer, brandy, whiskey, vodka, mouth wash, alcohol gel, and commercial alcohol solutions. Partial least-squares regression models were built for the 3D-printed instrument and two commercial NIR instruments, the MPA II (Bruker) and the NIR DLP NIRscan (Texas Instruments), using a group of 180 standards. The three instruments reached excellent predictive capability with similar root mean square error of cross-validation (2.36-2.68) and prediction (2.31-2.87). The correlation coefficient of cross-validation and prediction for all models were between 0.97 and 0.98. The results show the feasibility of building a 3D-printed dispersive spectrometer ready for application with the simple docking of the optics, presenting acceptable accuracy to the project design concerning the printing limitations.


Assuntos
Etanol , Polímeros , Calibragem , Impressão Tridimensional , Software
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 636231, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336709

RESUMO

Long-term and excessive alcohol consumption are risk factors for osteoporosis. Excessive drinking can reduce bone density and also cause imbalance of gut microbiota. And gut microbiota can affect bone metabolism through various mechanisms, and the regulation of gut microbiota is closely related to age. However, the effects of gut microbiota on alcohol-induced osteoporosis at different ages are unclear. In this study, young and old rats were used to induce osteoporosis by long-term alcohol consumption, and alcohol metabolism, bone morphology, bone absorption and immune activity of rats were analyzed to determine the effects of alcohol on rats of different ages. In addition, changes of gut microbiota in rats were analyzed to explore the role of gut microbiota in alcohol-induced osteoporosis in rats of different ages. The results showed the ability of alcohol metabolism was only associated with age, but not with alcohol consumption. Long-term alcohol consumption resulted in the changes of bone metabolism regulating hormones, bone loss, activation of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signaling and inflammatory response. And osteoporosis was more severe in old rats than young rats, suggesting that alcohol-induced osteoporosis is age-related. In addition, long-term drinking also affected the composition of gut microbiota in rats, with a significant increase in the proportion of pro-inflammatory microorganisms. Overall, this study found that long-term alcohol consumption induced osteoporosis and affected the composition of gut microbiota. And alcohol can activate T lymphocytes directly or indirectly by regulating the changes of gut microbiota to produce cytokines, and further activate osteoclasts. In addition, the osteoporosis was more severe in the old rats than young rats, which may be due to the higher diversity and stronger regulation ability of gut microbiota in young rats compared with old rats.


Assuntos
Etanol/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Osteoporose , Animais , Densidade Óssea , NF-kappa B , Osteoclastos , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Ratos
12.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 110(10): 561-562, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344195

RESUMO

CME/Answers: Early Recognition and Prevention of a Disulfiram-Ethanol Reaction Abstract. Disulfiram is an alcohol-aversive agent for pharmacological relapse prevention in alcohol dependency. When combined with alcohol, disulfiram induces a disulfiram-ethanol reaction (DER), causing mild to severe symptoms. While the anticipated adverse effects should support abstinence, failed abstinence can be potentially lethal. Since there is no specific antidote, early recognition and supportive treatment are vital. The aim of this article is to illustrate the clinical features of DER, to suggest a reasonable diagnostic pathway and to provide a basis for decision-making as to the treatment with disulfiram.


Assuntos
Dissuasores de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Dissuasores de Álcool/efeitos adversos , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Dissulfiram/efeitos adversos , Etanol , Humanos , Prevenção Secundária
13.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371928

RESUMO

The "drunken monkey" hypothesis posits that attraction to ethanol derives from an evolutionary linkage among the sugars of ripe fruit, associated alcoholic fermentation by yeast, and ensuing consumption by human ancestors. First proposed in 2000, this concept has received increasing attention from the fields of animal sensory biology, primate foraging behavior, and molecular evolution. We undertook a review of English language citations subsequent to publication of the original paper and assessed research trends and future directions relative to natural dietary ethanol exposure in primates and other animals. Two major empirical themes emerge: attraction to and consumption of fermenting fruits (and nectar) by numerous vertebrates and invertebrates (e.g., Drosophila flies), and genomic evidence for natural selection consistent with sustained exposure to dietary ethanol in diverse taxa (including hominids and the genus Homo) over tens of millions of years. We also describe our current field studies in Uganda of ethanol content within fruits consumed by free-ranging chimpanzees, which suggest chronic low-level exposure to this psychoactive molecule in our closest living relatives.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Evolução Biológica , Exposição Dietética , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Frutas/microbiologia , Leveduras/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Animais , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Pan troglodytes
14.
Behav Processes ; 191: 104474, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371127

RESUMO

In this report, we investigate whether the acute effects of different ethanol (EtOH) concentrations are sex-dependent in zebrafish subjected to the open field test (OFT) with the influence of a non-familiar object. Male and female zebrafish were separated into four groups and exposed to EtOH (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, or 1.0% v/v) for 1 h. Fish were tested individually in the OFT and the tank was divided into three areas: periphery, intermediate, and center area. An object (black sphere; diameter: 1 cm) was placed in the center of the tank and behaviors were recorded for 5 min. At the baseline, females had a distinct exploratory activity and interaction pattern with the object, reflecting a more anxious and shyer behavior in relation to males. Females exposed to 0.5% EtOH performed more rapid investigation to the object than males, while 1.0% EtOH reduced locomotion in both sexes and increased immobility only in males. Principal component analyses revealed that anxiety-like behaviors, exploratory activity, and locomotion were the components that most accounted for total variances. Collectively, our novel findings show the existence of a sex-dependent effect in the zebrafish models acutely exposed to EtOH tested in the OFT with a non-familiar object.


Assuntos
Etanol , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Animal , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Masculino , Teste de Campo Aberto
15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(32): 17536-17544, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369530

RESUMO

Water, being an active participant in most of the biophysical processes, is important to trace how protein solvation changes as its conformation evolves in the presence of solutes or co-solvents. In this study, we investigate how the secondary structures of two diverse proteins - lysozyme and ß-lactoglobulin - change in the aqueous mixtures of two alcohols - ethanol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) using circular dichroism measurements. We observe that these alcohols change the secondary structures of these proteins and the changes are protein-specific. Subsequently, we measure the collective solvation dynamics of these two proteins both in the absence and in the presence of alcohols by measuring the frequency-dependent absorption coefficient (α(ν)) in the THz (0.1-1.2 THz) frequency domain. The alcohol-water mixtures exhibit a non-ideal behaviour with the highest absorption difference (Δα) obtained at Xalcohol = 0.2. The protein solvation in the presence of the alcohols shows an oscillating behaviour in which Δαprotein changes with Xalcohol. Such an oscillatory behaviour of protein solvation results from a delicate interplay between the protein-water, protein-alcohol and water-alcohol associations. We attempt to correlate the various structural conformations of the proteins with the associated solvation.


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Lactoglobulinas/química , Muramidase/química , Trifluoretanol/química , Água/química , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Conformação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia Terahertz
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445488

RESUMO

Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can have immediate and long-lasting toxic and teratogenic effects on an individual's development and health. As a toxicant, alcohol can lead to a variety of physical and neurological anomalies in the fetus that can lead to behavioral and other impairments which may last a lifetime. Recent studies have focused on identifying mechanisms that mediate the immediate teratogenic effects of alcohol on fetal development and mechanisms that facilitate the persistent toxic effects of alcohol on health and predisposition to disease later in life. This review focuses on the contribution of epigenetic modifications and intercellular transporters like extracellular vesicles to the toxicity of PAE and to immediate and long-term consequences on an individual's health and risk of disease.


Assuntos
Etanol/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Teratogênese/genética , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Gravidez
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125733, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426234

RESUMO

This study deals with the multiproduct valorization of the invasive macroalgae Sargassum muticum within a green biorefinery concept using microwave hydrothermal treatment. Temperatures of 160 and 180 °C for 0-60 min (severities 1.62-3.54) were evaluated, allowing a recovery of a liquid phase rich in fucoidan-derived compounds (up to 4.81 g/L), oligomers and phenolics with antioxidant capacity (up to 2.85 g TE/L by ABTS assay), and a high-enzymatically susceptible solid (glucan to glucose conversion 76-100% in 9 h) suitable for bioethanol production (20.5 g/L in 18 h, corresponding to 96% ethanol yield). Moreover, energy consumption of the pretreatments' temperature-time binomial was evaluated showing significant differences, demonstrating the advantages of microwave as alternative heating pretreatment.


Assuntos
Sargassum , Alga Marinha , Etanol , Glucose , Micro-Ondas
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125650, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426236

RESUMO

The study evaluates the potential of different vegetable wastes namely, composite vegetable waste (CVW), potato waste (PW), sweet potato waste (SPW) and yam waste (YW) as an alternative feedstock for the production of renewable sugars. Thermal assisted chemical pretreatment followed by enzymatic saccharification yielded maximum sugars (0.515 g/g CVW, 0.56 g/g PW, 0.57 g/g SPW and 0.56 g/g YW) with total carbohydrate depolymerization of 95.01%, 88.30%, 90.32% and 88.59% respectively. Obtained sugars were valorized into bioethanol through fermentation using S. cerevisiae by optimizing the pH and temperature. The highest ethanol yield of 251.85 mg/g was obtained from SPW at 35°C followed by YW (240.98 mg/g), PW (235.4 mg/g) and CVW (125.6 mg/g) at pH 5.0. Utilizing the abundantly available vegetable wastes as a renewable feedstock for reducing sugars and subsequent bioethanol production will influence the economics and sustainability of the process positively in circular biorefinery format.


Assuntos
Etanol , Açúcares , Biocombustíveis , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Verduras
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444950

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to investigate the prophylactic effects of glutamine on muscle protein synthesis and degradation in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury. For the first 2 weeks, Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed a control (n = 16) or glutamine-containing diet (n = 24). For the following 6 weeks, rats fed the control diet were further divided into two groups (n = 8 per group) according to whether their diet contained no ethanol (CC) or did contain ethanol (CE). Rats fed the glutamine-containing diet were also further divided into three groups (n = 8 per group), including a GG group (glutamine-containing diet without ethanol), GE group (control diet with ethanol), and GEG group (glutamine-containing diet with ethanol). After 6 weeks, results showed that hepatic fatty change, inflammation, altered liver function, and hyperammonemia had occurred in the CE group, but these were attenuated in the GE and GEG groups. Elevated intestinal permeability and a higher plasma endotoxin level were observed in the CE group, but both were lower in the GE and GEG groups. The level of a protein synthesis marker (p70S6K) was reduced in the CE group but was higher in both the GE and GEG groups. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation might elevate muscle protein synthesis by improving intestinal health and ameliorating liver damage in rats with chronic ethanol intake.


Assuntos
Glutamina/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125711, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385124

RESUMO

In this study, the anti-pollutant macrophyte Typha domingensis is exploited for the production of highly concentrated second-generation glucose. A two-stage starch and cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis process is compared for the first time with a single-stage simultaneous starch and cellulose hydrolysis approach, with the former achieving enhanced glucose production, making it more promising for large-scale deployment. The proposed two-stage process is optimized via the Box-Behnken response surface methodology achieving glucose yield values of 74.4% and 71.7% with respect to the starch and cellulose fraction, respectively. Elevated shaking rates are shown to exert a positive effect on both starch and cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis only under high initial substrate concentrations and high initial enzyme to substrate ratios, indicating the importance of accounting for the synergies between key process variables when aiming to increase glucose production. The findings of the presented experimental framework aspire to support future scale-up studies and techno-economic assessments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Glucose , Biomassa , Celulose , Etanol , Hidrólise
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