Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26.258
Filtrar
1.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 129, 2020 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hand sanitisers are urgently needed in the time of COVID-19, and as a result of shortages, some people have resorted to making their own formulations, including the repurposing of distilleries. We wish to highlight the importance of those producing hand sanitisers to avoid methylated spirits containing methanol and to follow WHO recommended formulations. METHODS: We explore and discuss reports of methanol toxicity through ingestion and transdermal absorption. We discuss the WHO formulations and explain the rationale behind the chosen ingredients. SHORT CONCLUSION: We advise those producing hand sanitisers to follow WHO recommended formulations, and advise those producing hand sanitisers using methylated spirits, to avoid formulations which contain methanol.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Metanol/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Composição de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Desinfecção das Mãos/instrumentação , Humanos , Metanol/química , Metanol/toxicidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012787, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is consumed by over 2 billion people worldwide. It is a common substance of abuse and its use can lead to more than 200 disorders including hypertension. Alcohol has both acute and chronic effects on blood pressure. This review aimed to quantify the acute effects of different doses of alcohol over time on blood pressure and heart rate in an adult population. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective To determine short-term dose-related effects of alcohol versus placebo on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in healthy and hypertensive adults over 18 years of age. Secondary objective To determine short-term dose-related effects of alcohol versus placebo on heart rate in healthy and hypertensive adults over 18 years of age. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomised controlled trials up to March 2019: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 2), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (from 1946); Embase (from 1974); the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also contacted authors of relevant articles regarding further published and unpublished work. These searches had no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing effects of a single dose of alcohol versus placebo on blood pressure (BP) or heart rate (HR) in adults (≥ 18 years of age). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors (ST and CT) independently extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies. We also contacted trial authors for missing or unclear information. Mean difference (MD) from placebo with 95% confidence interval (CI) was the outcome measure, and a fixed-effect model was used to combine effect sizes across studies.  MAIN RESULTS: We included 32 RCTs involving 767 participants. Most of the study participants were male (N = 642) and were healthy. The mean age of participants was 33 years, and mean body weight was 78 kilograms. Low-dose alcohol (< 14 g) within six hours (2 RCTs, N = 28) did not affect BP but did increase HR by 5.1 bpm (95% CI 1.9 to 8.2) (moderate-certainty evidence). Medium-dose alcohol (14 to 28 g) within six hours (10 RCTs, N = 149) decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 5.6 mmHg (95% CI -8.3 to -3.0) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 4.0 mmHg (95% CI -6.0 to -2.0) and increased HR by 4.6 bpm (95% CI 3.1 to 6.1) (moderate-certainty evidence for all).  Medium-dose alcohol within 7 to 12 hours (4 RCTs, N = 54) did not affect BP or HR. Medium-dose alcohol > 13 hours after consumption (4 RCTs, N = 66) did not affect BP or HR. High-dose alcohol (> 30 g) within six hours (16 RCTs, N = 418) decreased SBP by 3.5 mmHg (95% CI -6.0 to -1.0), decreased DBP by 1.9 mmHg (95% CI-3.9 to 0.04), and increased HR by 5.8 bpm (95% CI 4.0 to 7.5). The certainty of evidence was moderate for SBP and HR, and was low for DBP. High-dose alcohol within 7 to 12 hours of consumption (3 RCTs, N = 54) decreased SBP by 3.7 mmHg (95% CI -7.0 to -0.5) and DBP by 1.7 mmHg (95% CI -4.6 to 1.8) and increased HR by 6.2 bpm (95% CI 3.0 to 9.3). The certainty of evidence was moderate for SBP and HR, and low for DBP. High-dose alcohol ≥ 13 hours after consumption (4 RCTs, N = 154) increased SBP by 3.7 mmHg (95% CI 2.3 to 5.1), DBP by 2.4 mmHg (95% CI 0.2 to 4.5), and HR by 2.7 bpm (95% CI 0.8 to 4.6) (moderate-certainty evidence for all).  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: High-dose alcohol has a biphasic effect on BP; it decreases BP up to 12 hours after consumption and increases BP > 13 hours after consumption. High-dose alcohol increases HR at all times up to 24 hours. Findings of this review are relevant mainly to healthy males, as only small numbers of women were included in the included trials.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Viés , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730348

RESUMO

Red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a non-aggressive pine bark beetle native to North America, and more aggressive invader in China. Dispersing pioneer beetles are attracted to potential host trees by oleoresin monoterpene kairomones, but respond more strongly to those combined with ethanol, a mixture often released from stressed, dying, or recently dead trees. (+)-3-Carene, usually the dominant or co-dominant monoterpene in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa, is a stronger attractant than α-pinene or ß-pinene where tested over a large portion of the D. valens range, while (+)-3-carene+ethanol was shown previously to attract twice the beetles of (+)-3-carene. A field test comparing D. valens attraction among the three monoterpenes when all are released with ethanol has never been reported, and was our objective. In three US Pacific Northwestern pine forests, (-)-ß-pinene+ethanol lures attracted 1.4 to 1.9 times more beetles than (+)-3-carene+ethanol. (+)- or (±)-α-pinene+ethanol lures were least attractive. A 1:1:1 monoterpene mixture+ethanol lure attracted more beetles than the 1:1:1 lure, but it was not statistically higher. Monoterpenes were dispensed from low density polyethylene bottles and their release rates monitored in laboratory and field tests. Under laboratory conditions (+)-3-carene was released much more rapidly than (+)-α-pinene or (-)-ß-pinene when dispensed separately, or in a 1:1:1 mixture. (+)-3-Carene in the 1:1:1 mixture increased the release of both pinenes over their rates when dispensed separately. (-)-ß-Pinene+ethanol is currently the strongest kairomone lure for D. valens attraction in US northwest pine forests, and has value for beetle detection, monitoring, research, and management.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/farmacologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Florestas , Terebintina/farmacologia , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Geografia , Laboratórios , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Polietileno/química , Temperatura , Volatilização
6.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 277(10): 2783-2792, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 patients may present mild symptoms. The identification of paucisymptomatic patients is paramount in order to interrupt the transmission chain of the virus. Olfactory loss could be one of those early symptoms which might help in the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. In this study, we aim to develop and validate a fast, inexpensive, reliable and easy-to-perform olfactory test for the screening of suspected COVID-19 patients. STUDY DESIGN: Phase I was a case-control study and Phase II a transversal descriptive study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Olfaction was assessed with the ethyl alcohol threshold test and symptoms with visual analogue scales. The study was designed in two phases: In Phase I, we compared confirmed COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. In Phase II, patients with suspected COVID-19 infection referred for testing were studied. RESULTS: 275 participants were included in Phase I, 135 in Phase II. The ROC curve showed an AUC of 0.749 in Phase I, 0.737 in Phase II. The cutoff value which offered the highest amount of correctly classified patients was ≥ 2 (10% alcohol) for all age intervals. The odds ratio was 8.19 in Phase I, 6.56 in Phase II with a 75% sensitivity. When cases report normal sense of smell (VAS < 4), it misdiagnoses 57.89% of patients detected by the alcohol threshold test. CONCLUSION: The olfactory loss assessed with the alcohol threshold test has shown high sensitivity and odds ratio in both patients with confirmed COVID-19 illness and participants with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Etanol/farmacologia , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Olfato , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233619, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492025

RESUMO

A moderate alcohol consumption is demonstrated to exert a protective action in terms of cardiovascular risk. Although this property seems not to be beverage-specific, the various composition of alcoholic compounds could mediate peculiar effects in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential beer-mediated effects on the cardiovascular health in humans, using a meta-analytic approach (trial registration number: CRD42018118387). The literature search, comprising all English articles published until November, 30th 2019 in EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane database included all controlled clinical trials evaluating the cardiovascular effects of beer assumption compared to alcohol-free beer, water, abstinence or placebo. Both sexes and all beer preparations were considered eligible. Outcome parameters were those entering in the cardiovascular risk charts and those related to endothelial dysfunction. Twenty-six trials were included in the analysis. Total cholesterol was significantly higher in beer drinkers compared to controls (14 studies, 3.52 mg/dL, 1.71-5.32 mg/dL). Similar increased levels were observed in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (18 studies, 3.63 mg/dL, 2.00-5.26 mg/dL) and in apolipoprotein A1 (5 studies, 0.16 mg/dL, 0.11-0.21 mg/dL), while no differences were detected in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (12 studies, -2.85 mg/dL, -5.96-0.26 mg/dL) and triglycerides (14 studies, 0.40 mg/dL, -5.00-5.80 mg/dL) levels. Flow mediated dilation (FMD) resulted significantly higher in beer-consumers compared to controls (4 studies, 0.65%, 0.07-1.23%), while blood pressure and other biochemical markers of inflammation did not differ. In conclusion, the specific beer effect on human cardiovascular health was meta-analysed for the first time, highlighting an improvement of the vascular elasticity, detected by the increase of FMD (after acute intake), and of the lipid profile with a significant increase of HDL and apolipoprotein A1 serum levels. Although the long-term effects of beer consumption are not still understood, a beneficial effect of beer on endothelial function should be supposed.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Cerveja , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Elasticidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(6): e8694, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401928

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Ethanol extract of Antrodia cinnamomea (EEA) has been widely studied for its health benefits including anticancer effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of EEA on HNSCC. Cell proliferation, transwell, and wound healing assays were performed. The impact of EEA on tumor growth was investigated using a xenograft model. Expressions of migration-related proteins (MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) and apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP) were determined using western blot analysis. The results indicated that EEA significantly inhibited the capacities of proliferation, invasion, and migration of HNSCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP expressions were increased in cells treated with an increasing concentration of EEA, which suggested that EEA induced apoptosis of HNSCC. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were downregulated when cells were administered EEA, while TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were not affected, which uncovered the mechanisms mediating the EEA-induced inhibition on cell invasion and migration. The animal experiment also suggested that EEA inhibited tumor growth. Our study confirmed the inhibitive effects of EEA on cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of HNSCC in vitro and in vivo, providing the basis for further study of the application of EEA as an effective candidate for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(5): 299-302, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although indwelling catheters are increasingly used in modern medicine, they can be a source of microbial contamination and hard-to-treat biofilms, which jeopardize patient lives. At times 70% ethanol is used as a catheter-lock solution due to its bactericidal properties. However, high concentrations of ethanol can result in adverse effects and in malfunction of the catheters. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether low concentrations of ethanol can prevent and treat biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. METHODS: Ethanol was tested at a concentration range of 0.625-80% against laboratory and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa for various time periods (2-48 hours). The following parameters were evaluated following ethanol exposure: prevention of biofilm formation, reduction of biofilm metabolic activity, and inhibition of biofilm regrowth. RESULTS: Exposing P. aeruginosa to twofold ethanol gradients demonstrated a significant biofilm inhibition at concentrations as low as 2.5%. Treating pre-formed biofilms of P. aeruginosa with 20% ethanol for 4 hours caused a sharp decay in the metabolic activity of both the laboratory and clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. In addition, treating mature biofilms with 20% ethanol prevented the regrowth of bacteria encased within it. CONCLUSIONS: Low ethanol concentrations (2.5%) can prevent in vitro biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Treatment of previously formed biofilms can be achieved using 20% ethanol, thereby keeping the catheters intact and avoiding complications that can result from high ethanol concentrations.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Etanol/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pseudomonas/prevenção & controle
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 325: 109129, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418914

RESUMO

Alcohol has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Studies have demonstrated that alcohol intake increases the risk of breast cancer, and alcohol also stimulates breast cancer cell growth. Deregulation of Pol III genes is tightly associated with tumour development. Transcription factor II-B (TFIIB)-related factor 1 (Brf1) is a transcription factor that specifically regulates Pol III gene transcription. Our in vivo and in vitro studies have indicated that alcohol enhances the transcription of Pol III genes to cause an alteration of cellular phenotypes, which is closely related with human breast cancer. Betaine is a vegetable alkaloid and has antitumor functions. Most reports about betaine show that the consumption level of betaine is inversely associated with a risk of breast cancer. Although different mechanisms of betaine against tumour have been investigated, nothing has been reported on the effect of betaine on the deregulation of Brf1 and Pol III genes. In this study, we determine the role of betaine in breast cancer cell growth and colony formation and explore its mechanism. Our results indicate that alcohol increases the rates of growth and colony formation of breast cancer cells, whereas betaine is able to significantly inhibit the effects of alcohol on these cell phenotypes. Betaine decreases the induction of Brf1 expression and Pol III gene transcription caused by ethanol to reduce the rates of cell growth and colony formation. Together, these studies provide novel insights into the role of betaine in alcohol-caused breast cancer cell growth and deregulation of Brf1 and Pol III genes. These results suggest that betaine consumption is able to prevent alcohol-associated human cancer development.


Assuntos
Betaína/farmacologia , Etanol/antagonistas & inibidores , Etanol/farmacologia , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Cinética , Células MCF-7 , Risco
11.
Am J Cardiol ; 127: 128-134, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402483

RESUMO

Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) and septal myectomy (SM) are therapeutic interventions for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) who remain symptomatic despite medical treatment. Outcomes for both interventions in age groups ≤65 versus >65 years are scarce. We queried the National Readmission Database for adult patients undergoing either SM or ASA between 2010 and 2015 for HC. Patients were divided into 2 age-groups (≤65-years and >65-years). We aimed to compare the in-hospital mortality, complication rates, and resource utilization for each procedure between the 2 age-groups. We identified 4,358 patients with HC who underwent intervention, of which 2,113 were treated with SM and 2,245 with ASA. In-hospital mortality was 6-times higher in patients ≤65 years old who underwent SM compared with ASA (1.5% vs 0.3% odds ratio 6.2; p = 0.04); and 4-times higher in patients >65 years treated with SM compared with ASA (6.7% vs 1.7% odds ratio 4.29; p = 0.04). Blood transfusion rates and stroke were higher in patients undergoing SM, regardless of their age-group. Length of hospital stay was lower in the ASA group (3 days vs 6 days for both age groups, p <0.001) as well as median hospital costs (≤65 years old: $15,474 vs $31.531; and >65 years old: $16,672 vs $36,042, p <0.001). In conclusion, patients with HC treated with ASA had significantly lower in-hospital mortality, complications rates, length of hospital stay, and hospital costs compared with patients undergoing SM at any age.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/cirurgia , Etanol/farmacologia , Septos Cardíacos/cirurgia , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(4): 558-565, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238200

RESUMO

Plant-derived compounds can be an environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic pesticide use for pest management. Essential oils (EOs) in several plant families have been found to be toxic to various pest species of insects through topical application, ingestion, and as fumigants. Previous studies revealed that, among various environmentally friendly insecticides, the EOs of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Pinus elliottii and an ethanol extract of Solanum granulosoleprosum plus Ricinus communis, were toxic to Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) when applied topically to pupae or when ingested by adults. Here, we aimed to examine the potentially toxic effects of these plant-derived compounds when these two pestiferous fruit fly species were exposed to their vapors. We also examined their fumigant effect on female fecundity and fertility and compared it with water and ethanol controls. Exposure of C. capitata and A. fraterculus sexually mature adults to volatiles and vapors of both B. dracunculifolia and P. elliottii EOs resulted in lower longevity (half-life), survivorship, and female fecundity than the water vapor control. Toxicity of C. capitata was greater for P. elliottii than for B. dracunculifolia while the reverse was true for A. fraterculus. Exposure to vapors of S. granulosoleprosum + R. communis (S + R) had no effect on longevity but reduced survivorship of adults of both species. Interestingly, exposure to vapors of S + R, 50% (v/v) and pure ethanol resulted in greater fecundity of females of both frugivorous fly species than the water control. By contrast, fertility (% egg hatch) was in all cases high (>85%) and not different than the water control. Exposure to ethanol vapors appears to have similar effects on frugivorous tephritids as those reported on saprophagous and frugivorous species of Drosophila, a novel finding that may have important practical implications.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tephritidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Baccharis/química , Ceratitis capitata/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/farmacologia , Fumigação , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Pinus/química , Ricinus/química , Solanum/química
18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 324: 109091, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283069

RESUMO

Folate and alcohol are dietary factors affecting the risk of cancer development in humans. The interaction between folate status and alcohol consumption in carcinogenesis involves multiple mechanisms. Alcoholism is typically associated with folate deficiency due to reduced dietary folate intake. Heavy alcohol consumption also decreases folate absorption, enhances urinary folate excretion and inhibits enzymes pivotal for one-carbon metabolism. While folate metabolism is involved in several key biochemical pathways, aberrant DNA methylation, due to the deficiency of methyl donors, is considered as a common downstream target of the folate-mediated effects of ethanol. The negative effects of low intakes of nutrients that provide dietary methyl groups, with high intakes of alcohol are additive in general. For example, low methionine, low-folate diets coupled with alcohol consumption could increase the risk for colorectal cancer in men. To counteract the negative effects of alcohol consumption, increased intake of nutrients, such as folate, providing dietary methyl groups is generally recommended. Here mechanisms involving dietary folate and folate metabolism in cancer disease, as well as links between these mechanisms and alcohol effects, are discussed. These mechanisms include direct effects on folate pathways and indirect mediation by oxidative stress, hypoxia, and microRNAs.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/farmacologia , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Neoplasias/etiologia , Animais , Dieta , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 305-308, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056439

RESUMO

Fixation is one of the processes in preparing histology and pathology. The common material for fixation is buffered formalin including paraformaldehyde. However, the effect of the damaged cells, which is fixed for a long time, causes the research for other fixation materials to become necessary. In addition, paraformaldehyde is also harmful to human body and natural environment. Ethanol is one of the alternative fixation materials, which has been used for two hundred years. It has been used for many purposes, both in routine staining and immunohistochemistry. Nonetheless, no research confirms its effect on the electron microscope. The authors studied the effect of 50 % of ethanol on the cell membrane, organelles, and nucleus of Purkinje cells (Neuron purkinjense) observed on a light microscope and Transmitted Electron Microscope (TEM). Then it was compared to buffered formalin. In the light microscope, it shows that both of fixations have no different effects of the morphology of the cell membrane, cytoplasm, the nucleus of Purkinje cells and the neutrophils. We assume that our 50 % of ethanol concentration is almost the same as BF 10 % in the ability of hardening tissue and color absorption based on the previous study. In TEM, the structure of the cell membrane, organelles, and cytoplasm of Purkinje cell look broken in the cerebellum of 50 % of ethanol except for the nucleus. There was no significant difference diameter of the nucleus. It happened in general because of the shrinkage effect of ethanol. However, the authors recommend using 50 % of ethanol for routine staining.


La fijación es uno de los procesos en la preparación de muestras para histología y patología. El material más común para la fijación es la formalina tamponada. Sin embargo, el daño a las células que se mantienen en formalina durante mucho tiempo, hace necesario buscar otros materiales de fijación. Además, el paraformaldehido también es perjudicial para el cuerpo humano y el medio ambiente natural. El etanol es uno de los materiales de fijación alternativos que se ha utilizado durante muchos años, con diversos objetivos, tanto en la tinción de rutina como en la inmunohistoquímica. Sin embargo no se ha confirmdo su efecto con microscopio electrónico. Los autores estudiaron el efecto del 50 % de etanol sobre la membrana celular, los orgánulos y el núcleo de las células de Purkinje observados en un microscopio óptico y un microscopio de transmisión electrónico (TEM). Luego se comparó con la formalina tamponada. En el microscopio óptico se observó que ambas fijaciones no tienen efectos diferentes a la morfología de la membrana celular, el citoplasma, el núcleo de las células de Purkinje y los neutrófilos. Suponemos que nuestra concentración de 50 % de etanol es casi la misma que BF 10 % en la capacidad de endurecer el tejido y la absorción de color según el estudio anterior. En TEM, la estructura de la membrana celular, los orgánulos y el citoplasma de la célula de Purkinje presentaban daño en el cerebelo con un 50 % de etanol, a excepción del núcleo. No hubo diferencia significativa en el diámetro del núcleo. En general lo anterior se debió al efecto de contracción del etanol. En conclusión los autores recomiendan usar 50% de etanol para la tinción de rutina.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos , Etanol/farmacologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Organelas/efeitos dos fármacos , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
20.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236317

RESUMO

This in vitro study aimed to assess the effects of different pretreatments used to adapt glass-fiber posts cemented to root canals with different resin cements, regarding porosity percentage and bond strength. Twelve bovine incisor roots were prepared with Largo drills. After post space preparation, the specimens were randomized into two types of pretreatment groups (n = 3): water-wet bonding and ethanol-wet bonding. After the post were cemented, the roots were stored in 100% humidity at room temperature for 7 days. The samples were scanned by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Images were reconstructed by NRecon software, and CTAn software was used to analyze the porosity percentage (%) at the luting interface. Evaluation of the push-out bond strength was performed by serially cutting the roots, and submitting the slices to testing. Additionally, the resin cement post-gel shrinkage values (%) were measured using the strain-gauge method (n = 10). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, Tukey's test and Student's t test (a = 0.05). The roots prepared with ethanol-wet bonding using RelyX™ U200 had significantly lower porosity in the coronal and apical thirds (p < 0.05). The group prepared with ethanol-wet bonding using RelyX™ ARC presented better bond strength results in the coronal and apical thirds (p < 0.05). RelyX™ ARC (0.97%) produced a higher post-gel shrinkage value than RelyX™ U200 (0.77%). Canals pretreated with ethanol-wet bonding presented better outcomes in regard to porosity percentage and push-out bond strength.


Assuntos
Adesivos Dentinários/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Técnica para Retentor Intrarradicular , Cimentos de Resina/química , Raiz Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Colagem Dentária , Materiais Dentários/química , Cavidade Pulpar , Vidro , Teste de Materiais , Porosidade , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Microtomografia por Raio-X
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA