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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371928

RESUMO

The "drunken monkey" hypothesis posits that attraction to ethanol derives from an evolutionary linkage among the sugars of ripe fruit, associated alcoholic fermentation by yeast, and ensuing consumption by human ancestors. First proposed in 2000, this concept has received increasing attention from the fields of animal sensory biology, primate foraging behavior, and molecular evolution. We undertook a review of English language citations subsequent to publication of the original paper and assessed research trends and future directions relative to natural dietary ethanol exposure in primates and other animals. Two major empirical themes emerge: attraction to and consumption of fermenting fruits (and nectar) by numerous vertebrates and invertebrates (e.g., Drosophila flies), and genomic evidence for natural selection consistent with sustained exposure to dietary ethanol in diverse taxa (including hominids and the genus Homo) over tens of millions of years. We also describe our current field studies in Uganda of ethanol content within fruits consumed by free-ranging chimpanzees, which suggest chronic low-level exposure to this psychoactive molecule in our closest living relatives.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Evolução Biológica , Exposição Dietética , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Frutas/microbiologia , Leveduras/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Animais , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Pan troglodytes
2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 1758-1769, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the joint associations of amounts of alcohol consumed and drinking habits with the risks of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 316,627 healthy current drinkers, with baseline measurements between March 13, 2006, and October 1, 2010, were included in this study. We newly created a drinking habit score (DHS) according to regular drinking (frequency of alcohol intake ≥3 times/wk) and whether consuming alcohol with meals (yes). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, we documented 8652 incident cases of all-cause death, including 1702 cases of cardiovascular disease death, 4960 cases of cancer death, and 1990 cases of other-cause death. After adjustment confounders and amount of alcohol consumed, higher DHS was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, cancer mortality, or other-cause mortality (Ptrend<.001, Ptrend=.03, Ptrend<.001, and Ptrend<.001, respectively). We observed that the amount of alcohol consumed have different relationships with the risks of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality among participants with distinct drinking habits, grouped by DHS. For example, in the joint analyses, a J-shaped association between the amount of alcohol consumed and all-cause mortality was observed in participants with unfavorable DHS (Pquadratictrend=.02) while the association appeared to be U-shaped in participants with favorable DHS (Pquadratictrend=.003), with lower risks in those consuming greater than or equal to 50 g/wk and less than 300 g/wk. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that alcohol consumption levels have different relationships with the risk of mortality among current drinkers, depending on their drinking habits.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Etanol , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Causas de Morte , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Correlação de Dados , Etanol/metabolismo , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hormese , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(6): 510-514, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225425

RESUMO

The key factors driving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease are still not fully understood. At present, it is believed that the direct toxic effects of ethanol and its intermediate metabolite acetaldehyde can cause oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, adipogenesis, malnutrition, intestinal endotoxin leakage, etc., thereby participating in the occurrence and progression of alcoholic liver disease. Among the many pathogenic factors that have been revealed, the immunological mechanism plays an important role. Therefore, the role of immune cells and inflammatory mediators has attracted much attention. This article reviews and summarizes the new progress of specific immune cell mechanisms involved in innate and adaptive immune response during the formation and development of alcoholic liver disease, and proposes potential therapeutic targets and clinical trials of related new drugs, which may improve the re-recognition of molecular mechanism and treatment expectation in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Acetaldeído , Imunidade Adaptativa , Etanol/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299371

RESUMO

Wine can be defined as a complex microbial ecosystem, where different microorganisms interact in the function of different biotic and abiotic factors. During natural fermentation, the effect of unpredictable interactions between microorganisms and environmental factors leads to the establishment of a complex and stable microbiota that will define the kinetics of the process and the final product. Controlled multistarter fermentation represents a microbial approach to achieve the dual purpose of having a less risky process and a distinctive final product. Indeed, the interactions evolved between microbial consortium members strongly modulate the final sensorial properties of the wine. Therefore, in well-managed mixed fermentations, the knowledge of molecular mechanisms on the basis of yeast interactions, in a well-defined ecological niche, becomes fundamental to control the winemaking process, representing a tool to achieve such objectives. In the present work, the recent development on the molecular and metabolic interactions between non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts in wine fermentation was reviewed. A particular focus will be reserved on molecular studies regarding the role of nutrients, the production of the main byproducts and volatile compounds, ethanol reduction, and antagonistic actions for biological control in mixed fermentations.


Assuntos
Fermentação/fisiologia , Vinho/microbiologia , Leveduras/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Humanos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces/metabolismo
6.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 321(2): G123-G133, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077272

RESUMO

Vitamin B7 (biotin) is essential for normal health and its deficiency/suboptimal levels occur in a variety of conditions including chronic alcoholism. Mammals, including humans, obtain biotin from diet and gut-microbiota via absorption along the intestinal tract. The absorption process is carrier mediated and involves the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; SLC5A6). We have previously shown that chronic alcohol exposure significantly inhibits intestinal/colonic biotin uptake via suppression of Slc5a6 transcription in animal and cell line models. However, little is known about the transcriptional/epigenetic factors that mediate this suppression. In addition, the effect of alcohol metabolites (generated via alcohol metabolism by gut microbiota and host tissues) on biotin uptake is still unknown. To address these questions, we first demonstrated that chronic alcohol exposure inhibits small intestinal and colonic biotin uptake and SMVT expression in human differentiated enteroid and colonoid monolayers. We then showed that chronic alcohol exposures of both, Caco-2 cells and mice, are associated with a significant suppression in expression of the nuclear factor KLF-4 (needed for Slc5a6 promoter activity), as well as with epigenetic alterations (histone modifications). We also found that chronic exposure of NCM460 human colonic epithelial cells as well as human differentiated colonoid monolayers, to alcohol metabolites (acetaldehyde, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate) significantly inhibited biotin uptake and SMVT expression. These findings shed light onto the molecular/epigenetic mechanisms that mediate the inhibitory effect of chronic alcohol exposure on intestinal biotin uptake. They further show that alcohol metabolites are also capable of inhibiting biotin uptake in the gut.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using complementary models, including human differentiated enteroid and colonoid monolayers, this study shows the involvement of molecular and epigenetic mechanisms in mediating the inhibitory effect of chronic alcohol exposure on biotin uptake along the intestinal tract. The study also shows that alcohol metabolites (generated by gut microbiota and host tissues) cause inhibition in gut biotin uptake.


Assuntos
Biotina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Etanol/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetaldeído/farmacologia , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Células Cultivadas , Etanol/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácidos Oleicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Palmíticos/farmacologia , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo
7.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 76: 105624, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126524

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of sonication on the fermentation process of a single-celled fungus was examined. During the experiment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) was used as the starting strain for ethanol fermentation (batch fermentation) in a 7.5 L automated fermentation tank. The fermentation tank connected with a six-frequency ultrasonic equipment. Non-sonication treatment was set up as the control. Sonication treatment with power density of 280 W/L and 48 h of treatment time were set up as trial groups for investigating the influence of different ultrasound frequency including 20, 23, 25, 28, 33 and 40 kHz on the changes in dry cell-weight, glucose consumption rate, and ethanol yield. The results showed that the dry cell-weight, glucose consumption rate, and ethanol content reached the best results under the ultrasonic condition of 28 kHz ultrasound frequency in comparison with other ultrasound frequency. The dry cell-weight and ethanol content of the 28 kHz ultrasonic treatment group increased by 17.30% and 30.79%, respectively in comparison with the control group The residual sugar content dropped to a lower level within 24 h, which was consistent with the change in ethanol production. Besides, the results found that the glucose consumption rate increased compared to the control. It indicated that ultrasound accelerated glucose consumption contributed to increase the rate of ethanol output. In order to explore the mechanism of sonication enhanced the content of ethanol output by S. cerevisiae, the morphology, permeability of S. cerevisiae and key enzyme activities of ethanol synthesis were investigated before and after sonication treatment. The results showed that after sonication treatment, the extracellular nucleic acid protein content and intracellular Ca2+ concentration increased significantly. The morphology of S. cerevisiae was observed by SEM and found that the surface of the strain had wrinkles and depressions after ultrasonic treatment. furthermore after sonication treatment, the activities of three key enzymes which catalyze three irreversible reactions in glycolysis metabolism, namely, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase increased by 59.02%, 109.05% and 87.27%, respectively. In a word, low-intensity ultrasound enhance the rate of ethanol output by S. cerevisiae might due to enhancing the growth and cell permeability of strains, and increasing the activities of three key enzymes of ethanol biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sonicação , Glicólise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia
8.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103806, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119099

RESUMO

The increasing interest in novel beer productions focused on non-Saccharomyces yeasts in order to pursue their potential in generating groundbreaking sensory profiles. Traditional fermented beverages represent an important source of yeast strains which could express interesting features during brewing. A total of 404 yeasts were isolated from fermented honey by-products and identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Hanseniaspora uvarum. Five H. uvarum strains were screened for their brewing capability. Interestingly, Hanseniaspora uvarum strains showed growth in presence of ethanol and hop and a more rapid growth than the control strain S. cerevisiae US-05. Even though all strains showed a very low fermentation power, their concentrations ranged between 7 and 8 Log cycles during fermentation. The statistical analyses showed significant differences among the strains and underlined the ability of YGA2 and YGA34 to grow rapidly in presence of ethanol and hop. The strain YGA34 showed the best technological properties and was selected for beer production. Its presence in mixed- and sequential-culture fermentations with US-05 did not influence attenuation and ethanol concentration but had a significant impact on glycerol and acetic acid concentrations, with a higher sensory complexity and intensity, representing promising co-starters during craft beer production.


Assuntos
Cerveja/microbiologia , Hanseniaspora/metabolismo , Mel/microbiologia , Ácido Acético/análise , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Cerveja/análise , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Hanseniaspora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leveduras/metabolismo
9.
Toxicol Lett ; 350: 10-21, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte senescence is a core event that mediates the occurrence and development of alcoholic liver disease. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells 4 (NFATc4) is a key driver of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, little was known about the implication of NFATc4 for alcoholic liver disease. This study was aimed to investigate the role of NFATc4 in hepatocyte senescence and further elucidate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Real-time PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to explore the role of NFATc4 in hepatocyte senescence. RESULTS: NFATc4 was induced in ethanol-incubated hepatocytes. NFATc4 knockdown recovered cell viability and reduced the release of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase from ethanol-incubated hepatocytes. NFATc4 knockdown protected mice from alcoholic liver injury and inflammation. NFATc4 knockdown counteracted ethanol-induced hepatocyte senescence, evidenced by decreased senescence-associated ß-galactosidase positivity and reduced p16, p21, HMGA1, and γH2AX, which was validated in in vivo studies. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ was inhibited by NFATc4 in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. PPARγ deficiency abrogated the inhibitory effects of NFATc4 knockdown on hepatocyte senescence, oxidative stress, and hepatic steatosis in mice with alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: This work discovered that ethanol enhanced NFATc4 expression, which further triggered hepatocyte senescence via repression of PPARγ.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Etanol/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Animais
10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(16): e0058821, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105981

RESUMO

High ethanol levels can severely inhibit the growth of yeast cells and fermentation productivity. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates several well-defined cellular mechanisms of ethanol stress response (ESR); however, the involved regulatory control remains to be characterized. Here, we report a new transcription factor of ethanol stress adaptation called Znf1. It plays a central role in ESR by activating genes for glycerol and fatty acid production (GUP1, GPP1, GPP2, GPD1, GAT1, and OLE1) to preserve plasma membrane integrity. Importantly, Znf1 also activates genes implicated in cell wall biosynthesis (FKS1, SED1, and SMI1) and in the unfolded protein response (HSP30, HSP104, KAR1, and LHS1) to protect cells from proteotoxic stress. The znf1Δ strain displays increased sensitivity to ethanol, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressor ß-mercaptoethanol, and the cell wall-perturbing agent calcofluor white. To compensate for a defective cell wall, the strain lacking ZNF1 or its target SMI1 displays increased glycerol levels of 19.6% and 27.7%, respectively. Znf1 collectively regulates an intricate network of target genes essential for growth, protein refolding, and production of key metabolites. Overexpression of ZNF1 not only confers tolerance to high ethanol levels but also increases ethanol production by 4.6% (8.43 g/liter) or 2.8% (75.78 g/liter) when 2% or 20% (wt/vol) glucose, respectively, is used as a substrate, compared to that of the wild-type strain. The mutually stress-responsive transcription factors Msn2/4, Hsf1, and Yap1 are associated with some promoters of Znf1's target genes to promote ethanol stress tolerance. In conclusion, this work implicates the novel regulator Znf1 in coordinating expression of ESR genes and illuminates the unifying transcriptional reprogramming during alcoholic fermentation. IMPORTANCE The yeast S. cerevisiae is a major microbe that is widely used in food and nonfood industries. However, accumulation of ethanol has a negative effect on its growth and limits ethanol production. The Znf1 transcription factor has been implicated as a key regulator of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in the utilization of different carbon sources, including glucose, the most abundant sugar on earth, and nonfermentable substrates. Here, the role of Znf1 in ethanol stress response is defined. Znf1 actively reprograms expression of genes linked to the unfolded protein response (UPR), heat shock response, glycerol and carbohydrate metabolism, and biosynthesis of cell membrane and cell wall components. A complex interplay among transcription factors of ESR indicates transcriptional fine-tuning as the main mechanism of stress adaptation, and Znf1 plays a major regulatory role in the coordination. Understanding the adaptive ethanol stress mechanism is crucial to engineering robust yeast strains for enhanced stress tolerance or increased ethanol production.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fermentação , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071962

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a globally prevalent chronic liver disease caused by chronic or binge consumption of alcohol. The liver is the major organ that metabolizes alcohol; therefore, it is particularly sensitive to alcohol intake. Metabolites and byproducts generated during alcohol metabolism cause liver damage, leading to ALD via several mechanisms, such as impairing lipid metabolism, intensifying inflammatory reactions, and inducing fibrosis. Despite the severity of ALD, the development of novel treatments has been hampered by the lack of animal models that fully mimic human ALD. To overcome the current limitations of ALD studies and therapy development, it is necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced liver injury. Hence, to provide insights into the progression of ALD, this review examines previous studies conducted on alcohol metabolism in the liver. There is a particular focus on the occurrence of ALD caused by hepatotoxicity originating from alcohol metabolism.


Assuntos
Etanol/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Imunomodulação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/etiologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073173

RESUMO

Autoinducer 2 (or AI-2) is one of the molecules used by bacteria to trigger the Quorum Sensing (QS) response, which activates expression of genes involved in a series of alternative mechanisms, when cells reach high population densities (including bioluminescence, motility, biofilm formation, stress resistance, and production of public goods, or pathogenicity factors, among others). Contrary to most autoinducers, AI-2 can induce QS responses in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and has been suggested to constitute a trans-specific system of bacterial communication, capable of affecting even bacteria that cannot produce this autoinducer. In this work, we demonstrate that the ethanologenic Gram-negative bacterium Zymomonas mobilis (a non-AI-2 producer) responds to exogenous AI-2 by modulating expression of genes involved in mechanisms typically associated with QS in other bacteria, such as motility, DNA repair, and nitrogen fixation. Interestingly, the metabolism of AI-2-induced Z. mobilis cells seems to favor ethanol production over biomass accumulation, probably as an adaptation to the high-energy demand of N2 fixation. This opens the possibility of employing AI-2 during the industrial production of second-generation ethanol, as a way to boost N2 fixation by these bacteria, which could reduce costs associated with the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers, without compromising ethanol production in industrial plants.


Assuntos
Etanol/metabolismo , Homosserina/análogos & derivados , Lactonas/farmacologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Zymomonas/metabolismo , Homosserina/farmacologia
13.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064981

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one type of liver disease, causing a global healthcare problem and mortality. The liver undergoes tissue damage by chronic alcohol consumption because it is the main site for metabolism of ethanol. Chronic alcohol exposure progresses from alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) to alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), which further lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular cancer. Therapeutic interventions to combat ALD are very limited such as use of corticosteroids. However, these therapeutic drugs are not effective for long-term usage. Therefore, additional effective and safe therapies to cope with ALD are urgently needed. Previous studies confirmed that edible food plants and their bioactive compounds exert a protective effect against ALD. In this review article, we summarized the hepatoprotective potential of edible food plants and their bioactive compounds. The underlying mechanism for the prevention of ALD by edible food plants was as follows: anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, lipid regulation, inhibition of apoptosis, gut microbiota composition modulation, and anti-fibrosis.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/terapia , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Animais , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Etanol/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/química
15.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 88(2): 307-312, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33944970

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to provide a better understanding of the impact of paclitaxel chemotherapy on breath alcohol in an Irish population. METHODS: Patients attending the Oncology Day Unit at Beaumont Hospital were invited to participate on the day of their treatment. The brand of paclitaxel used was Actavis Pharma Inc and contained 6 mg/mL paclitaxel in 50% Ethanol/ 50% Cremophor EL. Breath alcohol concentration was measured using the AlcoSense ™ Breathalyser on three separate visits. The primary end-point was the number of patients who were above the legal threshold for drink driving in Ireland. RESULTS: In total, 50 patients were recruited. 36 (68%) were female. The most common diagnosis was breast cancer (56%). Ten (20%) patients had metastatic disease and 4 (8%) had liver metastases. The mean paclitaxel dose administered was 118 mg. The mean amount of ethanol infused was 7.7 g. 27 patients had a detectable breath alcohol level on at least one visit. The mean breath alcohol concentration was 2 mcg/100 mL or 0.02 mg/L of breath. The maximum concentration of ethanol in exhaled breath was 11 mcg/100 mL or 0.11 mg/L which is 50% of the statutory limit for drink driving in Ireland. A weak correlation was observed between ethanol concentration in exhaled breath and the total amount of ethanol administered. Although no patient exceeded the general limit for drink driving in Ireland, three (6%) participants had a breath alcohol concentration above the threshold for professional, learner or novice drivers. CONCLUSION: Although definitive conclusions are limited by relatively small numbers, it seems unlikely that weekly paclitaxel infusions pose any significant risk to patients driving.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 265: 118070, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966834

RESUMO

Potato is a major food crop with enormous biomass straw, but lignocellulose recalcitrance causes a costly bioethanol conversion. Here, we selected the cytochimera (Cyt) potato samples showing significantly-modified lignocellulose and much increased soluble sugars and starch by 2-4 folds in mature straws. Under two pretreatments (8 min liquid hot water; 5% CaO) at minimized conditions, the potato Cyt straw showed complete enzymatic saccharification. Further performing yeast fermentation with all hexoses released from soluble sugars, starch and lignocellulose in the Cyt straw, this study achieved a maximum bioethanol yield of 24 % (% dry matter), being higher than those of other bioenergy crops as previously reported. Hence, this study has proposed a novel mechanism model on the reduction of major lignocellulose recalcitrance and regulation of carbon assimilation to achieve cost-effective bioethanol production under optimal pretreatments. This work also provides a sustainable strategy for utilization of potato straws with minimum waste release.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Etanol/metabolismo , Lignina/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Biomassa , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Etanol/química , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Lignina/metabolismo , Poliploidia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Amido/metabolismo
17.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 21(4)2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983370

RESUMO

In this work, we evaluated the fermentative performance and metabolism modifications of a second generation (2G) industrial yeast by comparing an industrial condition during laboratory and industrial scale fermentations. Fermentations were done using industrial lignocellulosic hydrolysate and a synthetic medium containing inhibitors and analyses were carried out through transcriptomics and proteomics of these experimental conditions. We found that fermentation profiles were very similar, but there was an increase in xylose consumption rate during fermentations using synthetic medium when compared to lignocellulosic hydrolysate, likely due to the presence of unknown growth inhibitors contained in the hydrolysate. We also evaluated the bacterial community composition of the industrial fermentation setting and found that the presence of homofermentative and heterofermentative bacteria did not significantly change the performance of yeast fermentation. In parallel, temporal differentially expressed genes (tDEG) showed differences in gene expression profiles between compared conditions, including heat shocks and the presence of up-regulated genes from the TCA cycle during anaerobic xylose fermentation. Thus, we indicate HMF as a possible electron acceptor in this rapid respiratory process performed by yeast, in addition to demonstrating the importance of culture medium for the performance of yeast within industrial fermentation processes, highlighting the uniquenesses according to scales.


Assuntos
Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Xilose/metabolismo , Bactérias , Meios de Cultura , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Microbiologia Industrial , Lignina/metabolismo , Proteoma , RNA-Seq , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Transcriptoma
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 324: 110809, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993011

RESUMO

In previous research, we modeled the ethanol production by certain bacteria under controlled experimental conditions in an attempt to quantify the production of microbial postmortem ethanol in cases where other alcohols were co-detected. This contribution on the modeling of postmortem ethanol production by Candida albicans is complementary to these previous studies. Τhis work aimed to study ethanol, higher alcohols (1-propanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol), and 1-butanol production by Candida albicans: (i) in different culture media (Brain Heart Infusion, BHI and, Sabouraud Dextrose Broth, SDB), (ii) under mixed aerobic/anaerobic or strict anaerobic conditions, and (iii) at different temperatures (37 °C, 25 °C and, 4 °C), and develop simple mathematical models, resulted from fungal cultures at 25 °C, to predict the microbially produced ethanol in correlation with the other alcohols. The applicability of the models was tested in the C. albicans cultures in BHI and SDB media at 37 °C, in denatured human blood at 25 °C, acidic and neutral with different concentrations of additional glucose, in acidic denatured blood diluted with dextrose solution and in blood from autopsy cases. The received results indicated that the C. albicans models could apply in cases where yeasts have been activated in blood with elevated glucose levels. Overall, the in vitro ethanol production by C. albicans in blood depended on temperature, time, glucose (or carbohydrate) content, pH of the medium and endogenous changes in the medium composition through time. Our results showed that methyl-butanol is the most significant indicator of fungal ethanol production, followed by the equally important isobutanol and 1-propanol in qualitative and quantitative terms.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , 1-Butanol/metabolismo , 1-Propanol/metabolismo , Glicemia , Butanóis/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura , Humanos , Pentanóis/metabolismo , Manejo de Espécimes , Temperatura
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2290: 31-51, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009581

RESUMO

Worldwide demand for ethanol alternative fuel has been emerging day by day owing to the rapid population growth and industrialization. Culturing microalgae as an alternative feedstock is anticipated to be a potentially significant approach for sustainable bioethanol biofuel production. Microalgae are abundant in nature, which grow at faster rates with a capability of storing high lipid and starch/cellulose contents inside their cells. This process offers several environmental advantages, including the effective utilization of land, good CO2 sequestration without entering into "food against fuel" dispute. This chapter focuses on the methods and processes used for the production of bioethanol biofuels from algae. Thus, it also covers significant achievements in the research and developments on algae bioethanol production, mainly including pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation of algae biomass. The processes of producing biodiesel, biogas, and hydrogen have also been discussed.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Biotecnologia/métodos , Etanol/metabolismo , Microalgas , Biomassa , Fermentação , Raios gama , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Micro-Ondas , Feófitas/classificação , Feófitas/metabolismo , Fitoplâncton , Rodófitas/classificação , Rodófitas/metabolismo , Ultrassom
20.
Food Chem ; 361: 130025, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029908

RESUMO

The relative concentration of available inorganic elements is critical for yeast growth and metabolism and has potential to be a tool leading to directed yeast flavour formation during fermentation. This study investigates the influence of essential inorganic elements during alcoholic fermentation of brewers wort, fermented using three independent yeast strains, Saccharomyces pastorianus W34/70, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains M2 and NCYC2592 under a range of conditions replicated for each yeast strain. 10 treatments were applied: 1 control and 9 inorganic supplementations: standard brewers wort, ammonia-nitrogen, inorganic phosphate, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and a composite mixture, Twenty-five chemical markers were evaluated by HPLC (ethanol, glycerol), and GC-MS (aroma). There was a significant change in volatile aroma compounds during fermentation, which was more prominent when supplemented with ammonia nitrogen, inorganic phosphate, potassium or magnesium (P < 0.05). Heavy metal ions mostly had a negative effect on the flavour formation.


Assuntos
Cerveja/microbiologia , Metais/farmacologia , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Cerveja/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glicerol/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Odorantes , Potássio/metabolismo , Potássio/farmacologia , Saccharomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
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