Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.148
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4877, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849342

RESUMO

In flowering plants, the predominant sexual morph is hermaphroditism, and the emergence of unisexuality is poorly understood. Using Cucumis melo (melon) as a model system, we explore the mechanisms driving sexual forms. We identify a spontaneous mutant exhibiting a transition from bisexual to unisexual male flower, and identify the causal mutation as a Harbinger transposon impairing the expression of Ethylene Insensitive 2 (CmEIN2) gene. Genetics and transcriptomic analysis reveal a dual role of CmEIN2 in both sex determination and fruit shape formation. Upon expression of CmACS11, EIN2 is recruited to repress the expression of the carpel inhibitor, CmWIP1. Subsequently, EIN2 is recruited to mediate stamina inhibition. Following the sex determination phase, EIN2 promotes fruit shape elongation. Genome-wide analysis reveals that Harbinger transposon mobilization is triggered by environmental cues, and integrates preferentially in active chromatin, particularly within promoter regions. Characterization of a large collection of melon germplasm points to active transpositions in the wild, compared to cultivated accessions. Our study underscores the association between chromatin dynamics and the temporal aspects of mobile genetic element insertions, providing valuable insights into plant adaptation and crop genome evolution.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Etilenos , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Cucumis melo/genética , Cucumis melo/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação
2.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14371, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837414

RESUMO

The WRKY transcription factor (TF) genes form a large family in higher plants, with 72 members in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The gaseous phytohormone ethylene (ET) regulates multiple physiological processes in plants. It is known that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthases (ACSs, EC 4.4.1.14) limit the enzymatic reaction rate of ethylene synthesis. However, whether WRKY TFs regulate the expression of ACSs and/or ACC oxidases (ACOs, EC 1.14.17.4) remains largely elusive. Here, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis WRKY22 positively regulated the expression of a few ACS and ACO genes, thus promoting ethylene production. Inducible overexpression of WRKY22 caused shorter hypocotyls without ACC treatment. A qRT-PCR screening demonstrated that overexpression of WRKY22 activates the expression of several ACS and ACO genes. The promoter regions of ACS5, ACS11, and ACO5 were also activated by WRKY22, which was revealed by a dual luciferase reporter assay. A follow-up chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that the promoter regions of ACS5 and ACO5 could be bound by WRKY22 directly. Moreover, wrky22 mutants had longer primary roots and more lateral roots than wild type, while WRKY22-overexpressing lines showed the opposite phenotype. In conclusion, this study revealed that WRKY22 acts as a novel TF activating, at least, the expression of ACS5 and ACO5 to increase ethylene synthesis and modulate root development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Etilenos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Liases , Raízes de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Etilenos/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Liases/genética , Liases/metabolismo , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/genética , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Carbono-Carbono Liases/metabolismo , Carbono-Carbono Liases/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 522, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several WRKY transcription factors (TFs), including CaWRKY6, CaWRKY22, CaWRKY27, and CaWRKY40 are known to govern the resistance of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants to Ralstonia solanacearum infestation (RSI) and other abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes remain elusive. METHODS: This study functionally described CaWRKY3 for its role in pepper immunity against RSI. The roles of phytohormones in mediating the expression levels of CaWRKY3 were investigated by subjecting pepper plants to 1 mM salicylic acid (SA), 100 µM methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and 100 µM ethylene (ETH) at 4-leaf stage. A virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach based on the Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV) was used to silence CaWRKY3 in pepper, and transiently over-expressed to infer its role against RSI. RESULTS: Phytohormones and RSI increased CaWRKY3 transcription. The transcriptions of defense-associated marker genes, including CaNPR1, CaPR1, CaDEF1, and CaHIR1 were decreased in VIGS experiment, which made pepper less resistant to RSI. Significant hypersensitive (HR)-like cell death, H2O2 buildup, and transcriptional up-regulation of immunological marker genes were noticed in pepper when CaWRKY3 was transiently overexpressed. Transcriptional activity of CaWRKY3 was increased with overexpression of CaWRKY6, CaWRKY22, CaWRKY27, and CaWRKY40, and vice versa. In contrast, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) was easily repelled by the innate immune system of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana that overexpressed CaWRKY3. The transcriptions of defense-related marker genes like AtPR1, AtPR2, and AtNPR1 were increased in CaWRKY3-overexpressing transgenic A. thaliana plants. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that CaWRKY3 favorably regulates phytohormone-mediated synergistic signaling, which controls cell death in plant and immunity of pepper plant against bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas , Ralstonia solanacearum , Fatores de Transcrição , Ralstonia solanacearum/fisiologia , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/imunologia , Capsicum/microbiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Acetatos/farmacologia
4.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114340, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729695

RESUMO

Fruits are essential sources of nutrients in our daily diet; however, their spoilage is often intensified by mechanical damage and the ethylene phytohormone, resulting in significant economic losses and exacerbating hunger issues. To address these challenges, this study presented a straightforward in situ synthesis protocol for producing Z/SOPPU foam, a 3D porous-structured fruit packaging. This innovative packaging material offered advanced ethylene-adsorbing and cushioning capabilities achieved through stirring, heating, and standing treatments. The results demonstrated that the Z/SOPPU foam, with its porous structure, served as an excellent packaging material for fruits, maintaining the intact appearance of tomatoes even after being thrown 72 times from a height of 1.5 m. Additionally, it exhibited desirable hydrophobicity (contact angle of 114.31 ± 0.82°), degradability (2.73 ± 0.88 % per 4 weeks), and efficient ethylene adsorption (adsorption rate of 13.2 ± 1.7 mg/m3/h). These remarkable characteristics could be attributed to the unique 3D micron-porous configuration, consisting of soybean oil polyol polyurethane foam for mechanical strain cushioning and zein for enhanced ethylene adsorption efficiency. Overall, this research offers an effective and original approach to the rational design and fabrication of advanced bio-based fruit packaging.


Assuntos
Etilenos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Frutas , Poliuretanos , Óleo de Soja , Zeína , Etilenos/química , Poliuretanos/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Porosidade , Frutas/química , Óleo de Soja/química , Zeína/química , Adsorção , Polímeros/química , Solanum lycopersicum/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 937: 173422, 2024 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796019

RESUMO

Tamarix hispida is highly tolerant to salt, drought and heavy metal stress and is a potential material for the remediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil under harsh conditions. In this study, T. hispida growth and chlorophyll content decreased, whereas flavonoid and carotenoid contents increased under long-term Cd stress (25 d). The aboveground components of T. hispida were collected for RNA-seq to investigate the mechanism of Cd accumulation. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in plant hormone-related pathways. Exogenous hormone treatment and determination of Cd2+ levels showed that ethylene (ETH) and abscisic acid (ABA) antagonists regulate Cd accumulation in T. hispida. Twenty-five transcription factors were identified as upstream regulators of hormone-related pathways. ThDRE1A, which was previously identified as an important regulatory factor, was selected for further analysis. The results indicated that ThABAH2.5 and ThACCO3.1 were direct target genes of ThDRE1A. The determination of Cd2+, ABA, and ETH levels indicated that ThDRE1A plays an important role in Cd accumulation through the antagonistic regulation of ABA and ETH. In conclusion, these results reveal the molecular mechanism underlying Cd accumulation in plants and identify candidate genes for further research.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Cádmio , Etilenos , Poluentes do Solo , Tamaricaceae , Cádmio/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Tamaricaceae/metabolismo , Tamaricaceae/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 935: 173093, 2024 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768723

RESUMO

A multi-layered aquifer in an industrial area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula is severely contaminated with the chlorinated ethenes (CEs) tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. Both shallow and deep aquifers are polluted, with two differentiated north and south CEs plumes. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic data (δ13C of CEs) evidenced natural attenuation of CEs. To select the optimal remediation strategy to clean-up the contamination plumes, laboratory treatability studies were performed, which confirmed the intrinsic biodegradation potential of the north and south shallow aquifers to fully dechlorinate CEs to ethene after injection of lactate, but also the combination of lactate and sulfidized mZVI as an alternative treatment for the north deep aquifer. In the lactate-amended microcosms, full dechlorination of CEs was accompanied by an increase in 16S rRNA gene copies of Dehalococcoides and Dehalogenimonas, and the tceA, vcrA and bvcA reductive dehalogenases. Three in situ pilot tests were implemented, which consisted in injections of lactate in the north and south shallow aquifers, and injections of lactate and sulfidized mZVI in the north deep aquifer. The hydrogeochemical, isotopic and molecular analyses used to monitor the pilot tests evidenced that results obtained mimicked the laboratory observations, albeit at different dechlorination rates. It is likely that the efficiency of the injections was affected by the amendment distribution. In addition, monitoring of the pilot tests in the shallow aquifers showed the release of CEs due to back diffusion from secondary sources, which limited the use of isotopic data for assessing treatment efficiency. In the pilot test that combined the injection of lactate and sulfidized mZVI, both biotic and abiotic pathways contributed to the production of ethene. This study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating different chemical, isotopic and biomolecular approaches for a more robust selection and implementation of optimal remediation strategies in CEs polluted sites.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Projetos Piloto , Etilenos/metabolismo , Espanha , Tetracloroetileno
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(23): 13205-13216, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809782

RESUMO

Calcium (Ca2+) is a second messenger in various physiological processes within plants. The significance of the Ca2+/H+ exchanger (CAX) has been established in facilitating Ca2+ transport in plants; however, disease resistance functions of the CAX gene remain elusive. In this study, we conducted sequence characterization and expression analysis for a sugarcane CAX gene, ScCAX4 (GenBank Accession Number: MW206380). In order to further investigate the disease resistance functions, this gene was then transiently overexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which were subsequently inoculated with Fusarium solani var. coeruleum. Results showed that ScCAX4 overexpression increased the susceptibility of N. benthamiana to pathogen infection by regulating the expression of genes related to salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) pathways, suggesting its negative role in disease resistance. Furthermore, we genetically transformed the ScCAX4 gene into N. benthamiana and obtained three positive T2 generation lines. Interestingly, the symptomatology of transgenic plants was consistent with that of transient overexpression after pathogen inoculation. Notably, the JA content in transgenic overexpression lines was significantly higher than that in the wild-type. RNA-seq revealed that ScCAX4 could mediate multiple signaling pathways, and the JA signaling pathway played a key role in modulating disease resistance. Finally, a regulatory model was depicted for the increased susceptibility to pathogen infection conferred by the ScCAX4 gene. This study provides genetic resources for sugarcane molecular breeding and the research direction for plant CAX genes.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos , Resistência à Doença , Fusarium , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Saccharum , Ácido Salicílico , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Saccharum/genética , Saccharum/microbiologia , Saccharum/metabolismo , Saccharum/imunologia , Fusarium/fisiologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/imunologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Nicotiana/genética , Nicotiana/microbiologia , Nicotiana/metabolismo , Nicotiana/imunologia , Etilenos/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732059

RESUMO

Anthocyanin accumulation is regulated by specific genes during fruit ripening. Currently, peel coloration of mango fruit in response to exogenous ethylene and the underlying molecular mechanism remain largely unknown. The role of MiMYB8 on suppressing peel coloration in postharvest 'Guifei' mango was investigated by physiology detection, RNA-seq, qRT-PCR, bioinformatics analysis, yeast one-hybrid, dual-luciferase reporter assay, and transient overexpression. Results showed that compared with the control, low concentration of exogenous ethylene (ETH, 500 mg·L-1) significantly promoted peel coloration of mango fruit (cv. Guifei). However, a higher concentration of ETH (1000 mg·L-1) suppressed color transformation, which is associated with higher chlorophyll content, lower a* value, anthocyanin content, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity of mango fruit. M. indica myeloblastosis8 MiMYB8 and MiPAL1 were differentially expressed during storage. MiMYB8 was highly similar to those found in other plant species related to anthocyanin biosynthesis and was located in the nucleus. MiMYB8 suppressed the transcription of MiPAL1 by binding directly to its promoter. Transient overexpression of MiMYB8 in tobacco leaves and mango fruit inhibited anthocyanin accumulation by decreasing PAL activity and down-regulating the gene expression. Our observations suggest that MiMYB8 may act as repressor of anthocyanin synthesis by negatively modulating the MiPAL gene during ripening of mango fruit, which provides us with a theoretical basis for the scientific use of exogenous ethylene in practice.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Etilenos , Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mangifera , Proteínas de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Mangifera/metabolismo , Mangifera/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 418, 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blueberry fruit exhibit atypical climacteric ripening with a non-auto-catalytic increase in ethylene coincident with initiation of ripening. Further, application of ethephon, an ethylene-releasing plant growth regulator, accelerates ripening by increasing the proportion of ripe (blue) fruit as compared to the control treatment. To investigate the mechanistic role of ethylene in regulating blueberry ripening, we performed transcriptome analysis on fruit treated with ethephon, an ethylene-releasing plant growth regulator. RESULTS: RNA-Sequencing was performed on two sets of rabbiteye blueberry ('Powderblue') fruit: (1) fruit from divergent developmental stages; and (2) fruit treated with ethephon, an ethylene-releasing compound. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from divergent developmental stages clustered into nine groups, among which cluster 1 displayed reduction in expression during ripening initiation and was enriched with photosynthesis related genes, while cluster 7 displayed increased expression during ripening and was enriched with aromatic-amino acid family catabolism genes, suggesting stimulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. More DEGs were apparent at 1 day after ethephon treatment suggesting its early influence during ripening initiation. Overall, a higher number of genes were downregulated in response to ethylene. Many of these overlapped with cluster 1 genes, indicating that ethylene-mediated downregulation of photosynthesis is an important developmental event during the ripening transition. Analyses of DEGs in response to ethylene also indicated interplay among phytohormones. Ethylene positively regulated abscisic acid (ABA), negatively regulated jasmonates (JAs), and influenced auxin (IAA) metabolism and signaling genes. Phytohormone quantification supported these effects of ethylene, indicating coordination of blueberry fruit ripening by ethylene. CONCLUSION: This study provides insights into the role of ethylene in blueberry fruit ripening. Ethylene initiates blueberry ripening by downregulating photosynthesis-related genes. Also, ethylene regulates phytohormone-metabolism and signaling related genes, increases ABA, and decreases JA concentrations. Together, these results indicate that interplay among multiple phytohormones regulates the progression of ripening, and that ethylene is an important coordinator of such interactions during blueberry fruit ripening.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Ciclopentanos , Etilenos , Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas , Fotossíntese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Etilenos/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/genética , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/fisiologia , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 212: 108727, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761548

RESUMO

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an important lipid signaling required for plant growth regulation and salt stress adaptation. However, how PS positively regulate plant salt tolerance is still largely unknown. In this study, IbPSS1-overexpressed sweetpotato plants that exhibited overproduction of PS was employed to explore the mechanisms underlying the PS stimulation of plant salt tolerance. The results revealed that the IbPSS1-overexpressed sweetpotato accumulated less Na+ in the stem and leaf tissues compared with the wild type plants. Proteomic profile of roots showed that lignin synthesis-related proteins over-accumulated in IbPSS1-overexpressed sweetpotato. Correspondingly, the lignin content was enhanced but the influx of Na + into the stele was significantly blocked in IbPSS1-overexpressed sweetpotato. The results further revealed that ethylene synthesis and signaling related genes were upregulated in IbPSS1-overexpressed sweetpotato. Ethylene imaging experiment revealed the enhancement of ethylene mainly localized in the root stele. Inhibition of ethylene synthesis completely reversed the PS-overproduction induced lignin synthesis and Na+ influx pattern in stele tissues. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a mechanism by which PS regulates ethylene signaling and lignin synthesis in the root stele, thus helping sweetpotato plants to block the loading of Na+ into the xylem and to minimize the accumulation of Na+ in the shoots.


Assuntos
Etilenos , Ipomoea batatas , Lignina , Proteínas de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Tolerância ao Sal , Transdução de Sinais , Etilenos/metabolismo , Etilenos/biossíntese , Lignina/metabolismo , Lignina/biossíntese , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 212: 108773, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820912

RESUMO

The mulberry fruit is prized for its superior nutrition value and abundant color due to its high flavone content. To enhance comprehension of flavone biogenesis induced by external hormones, we sprayed exogenous ethylene (ETH), indoleacetic acid (IAA) and spermine (SPM) on mulberry fruit (Hongguo 2) during its color-changed period. The levels of anthocyanin, titratable acid, soluble sugar and endogenous hormones were determined after hormone treatment, integrated transcriptome and metabolome analysis were performed for mechanism exploration. Our results indicated that exogenous ETH, SPM, and IAA play important roles in mulberry ripening, including acid reduction, sugar increase and flavonoid synthesis.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Frutas , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Morus , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Morus/metabolismo , Morus/genética , Morus/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Etilenos/metabolismo , Etilenos/farmacologia , Espermina/metabolismo , Espermina/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica
12.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(3): 63, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805152

RESUMO

Senescence is a multifaceted and dynamic developmental phase pivotal in the plant's lifecycle, exerting significant influence and involving intricate regulatory mechanisms marked by a variety of structural, biochemical and molecular alterations. Biochemical changes, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, membrane deterioration, nucleic acid degradation and protein degradation, characterize flower senescence. The progression of senescence entails a meticulously orchestrated network of interconnected molecular mechanisms and signalling pathways, ensuring its synchronized and efficient execution. Within flowering plants, petal senescence emerges as a crucial aspect significantly impacting flower longevity and postharvest quality, emphasizing the pressing necessity of unravelling the underlying signalling cascades orchestrating this process. Understanding the complex signalling pathways regulating petal senescence holds paramount importance, not only shedding light on the broader phenomenon of plant senescence but also paving the way for the development of targeted strategies to enhance the postharvest longevity of cut flowers. Various signalling pathways participate in petal senescence, encompassing hormone signalling, calcium signalling, protein kinase signalling and ROS signalling. Among these, the ethylene signalling pathway is extensively studied, and the manipulation of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis or signal transduction has demonstrated the potential to enhance flower longevity. A thorough understanding of these complex pathways is critical for effectively delaying flower senescence, thereby enhancing postharvest quality and ornamental value. Therefore, this review adopts a viewpoint that combines fundamental research into the molecular intricacies of senescence with a practical orientation towards developing strategies for improving the postharvest quality of cut flowers. The innovation of this review is to shed light on the pivotal signalling cascades underpinning flower senescence and offer insights into potential approaches for modulating these pathways to postpone petal senescence in ornamental plants.


Assuntos
Morte Celular , Flores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Senescência Vegetal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 418: 110729, 2024 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696986

RESUMO

Ethylene produced by plants generally induces ripening and promotes decay, whereas the effect of ethylene produced by pathogens on plant diseases remains unclear. In this study, four ethylene-producing fungi including Alternaria alternata (A. alternata, Aa), Fusarium verticilliodes (F. verticillioides, Fv), Fusarium fujikuroi 1 (F. fujikuroi 1, Ff-1) and Fusarium fujikuroi 2 (F. fujikuroi 2, Ff-2) were severally inoculated in potato dextrose broth (PDB) media and postharvest green peppers, the ethylene production rates, disease indexes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were determined. The results showed that Ff-2 and Fv in the PDB media had the highest and almost the same ethylene production rates. After inoculation with green peppers, Ff-2 treated group still exhibited the highest ethylene production rate, whereas Aa treated group had a weak promotion effect on ethylene production. Moreover, the ethylene production rate of green peppers with mechanical injury was twice that without mechanical injury, and the ethylene production rates of green peppers treated with Aa, Ff-1, Ff-2 and Fv were 1.2, 2.6, 3.8 and 2.8 folds than those of green peppers without treatment, respectively. These results indicated that pathogen infection stimulated the synthesis of ethylene in green peppers. Correlation analysis indicated that the degreening of Fusarium-infected green pepper was significantly positively correlated with the ethylene production rate of green pepper, whereas the disease spot of Aa-infected green pepper had a significant positive correlations with the ethylene production rate of green peppers. Chlorophyll fluorescence results showed that the green peppers already suffered from severe disease after being infected with fungi for 4 days, and Fusarium infection caused early and serious stress, while the harm caused by A. alternata was relatively mild at the early stage. Our results clearly showed that α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyric acid (KMBA)-mediated ethylene synthesis was the major ethylene synthesis pathway in the four postharvest pathogenic fungi. All the results obtained suggested that ethylene might be the main infection factor of Fusarium spp. in green peppers. For pathogenic fungi, stimulating green peppers to produce high level of ethylene played a key role in the degreening of green peppers.


Assuntos
Alternaria , Capsicum , Etilenos , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas , Etilenos/metabolismo , Etilenos/biossíntese , Capsicum/microbiologia , Fusarium/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Alternaria/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila/biossíntese
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791245

RESUMO

The tomato fruit is a complex organ and is composed of various structures from the inside out, such as columella, septum, and placenta. However, our understanding of the development and function of these internal structures remains limited. In this study, we identified a plant-specific YABBY protein, SlYABBY2a, in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SlYABBY2a exhibits relatively high expression levels among the nine YABBY genes in tomatoes and shows specific expression in the septum of the fruit. Through the use of a gene-editing technique performed by CRISPR/Cas9, we noticed defects in septum development in the Slyabby2a mutant fruits, leading to the inward concavity of the fruit pericarp and delayed septum ripening. Notably, the expression levels of key genes involved in auxin (SlFZY4, SlFZY5, and SlFZY6) and ethylene (SlACS2) biosynthesis were significantly downregulated in the septum of the Slalkbh10b mutants. Furthermore, the promoter activity of SlYABBY2a was regulated by the ripening regulator, SlTAGL1, in vivo. In summary, these discoveries provide insights into the positive regulation of SlYABBY2a on septum development and ripening and furnish evidence of the coordinated regulation of the auxin and ethylene signaling pathways in the ripening process, which expands our comprehension of septum development in the internal structure of the fruit.


Assuntos
Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Solanum lycopersicum , Fatores de Transcrição , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Mutação , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Etilenos/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731930

RESUMO

Soluble starch synthases (SSs) play important roles in the synthesis of cassava starch. However, the expression characteristics of the cassava SSs genes have not been elucidated. In this study, the MeSSIII-1 gene and its promoter, from SC8 cassava cultivars, were respectively isolated by PCR amplification. MeSSIII-1 protein was localized to the chloroplasts. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the MeSSIII-1 gene was expressed in almost all tissues tested, and the expression in mature leaves was 18.9 times more than that in tuber roots. MeSSIII-1 expression was induced by methyljasmonate (MeJA), abscisic acid (ABA), and ethylene (ET) hormones in cassava. MeSSIII-1 expression patterns were further confirmed in proMeSSIII-1 transgenic cassava. The promoter deletion analysis showed that the -264 bp to -1 bp MeSSIII-1 promoter has basal activity. The range from -1228 bp to -987 bp and -488 bp to -264 bp significantly enhance promoter activity. The regions from -987 bp to -747 bp and -747 bp to -488 bp have repressive activity. These findings will provide an important reference for research on the potential function and transcriptional regulation mechanisms of the MeSSIII-1 gene and for further in-depth exploration of the regulatory network of its internal functional elements.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Manihot , Proteínas de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Manihot/genética , Manihot/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Sintase do Amido/genética , Sintase do Amido/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731994

RESUMO

The mechanism of ethylene (ET)-regulated salinity stress response remains largely unexplained, especially for semi-halophytes and halophytes. Here, we present the results of the multifaceted analysis of the model semi-halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (common ice plant) ET biosynthesis pathway key components' response to prolonged (14 days) salinity stress. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of 3280 ice plant genes was altered during 14-day long salinity (0.4 M NaCl) stress. A thorough analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that the expression of genes involved in ET biosynthesis and perception (ET receptors), the abscisic acid (ABA) catabolic process, and photosynthetic apparatus was significantly modified with prolonged stressor presence. To some point this result was supported with the expression analysis of the transcript amount (qPCR) of key ET biosynthesis pathway genes, namely ACS6 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase) and ACO1 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) orthologs. However, the pronounced circadian rhythm observed in the expression of both genes in unaffected (control) plants was distorted and an evident downregulation of both orthologs' was induced with prolonged salinity stress. The UPLC-MS analysis of the ET biosynthesis pathway rate-limiting semi-product, namely of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, confirmed the results assessed with molecular tools. The circadian rhythm of the ACC production of NaCl-treated semi-halophytes remained largely unaffected by the prolonged salinity stress episode. We speculate that the obtained results represent an image of the steady state established over the past 14 days, while during the first hours of the salinity stress response, the view could be completely different.


Assuntos
Etilenos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Salino , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Etilenos/biossíntese , Etilenos/metabolismo , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Mesembryanthemum/metabolismo , Mesembryanthemum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Salinidade , Transcriptoma
17.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3875, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719800

RESUMO

The genomes of charophyte green algae, close relatives of land plants, typically do not show signs of developmental regulation by phytohormones. However, scattered reports of endogenous phytohormone production in these organisms exist. We performed a comprehensive analysis of multiple phytohormones in Viridiplantae, focusing mainly on charophytes. We show that auxin, salicylic acid, ethylene and tRNA-derived cytokinins including cis-zeatin are found ubiquitously in Viridiplantae. By contrast, land plants but not green algae contain the trans-zeatin type cytokinins as well as auxin and cytokinin conjugates. Charophytes occasionally produce jasmonates and abscisic acid, whereas the latter is detected consistently in land plants. Several phytohormones are excreted into the culture medium, including auxin by charophytes and cytokinins and salicylic acid by Viridiplantae in general. We note that the conservation of phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways known from angiosperms does not match the capacity for phytohormone biosynthesis in Viridiplantae. Our phylogenetically guided analysis of established algal cultures provides an important insight into phytohormone biosynthesis and metabolism across Streptophyta.


Assuntos
Citocininas , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Viridiplantae/metabolismo , Viridiplantae/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Clorófitas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(21): 12057-12071, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753758

RESUMO

Plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) can effectively regulate plant growth and metabolism. The regulation is modulated by metabolic signals, and the resulting metabolites can have considerable effects on the plant yield and quality. Here, tissue culture Houttuynia cordata Thunb., was inoculated with Rhizobium sp. (BH46) to determine the effect of BH46 on H. cordata growth and metabolism, and elucidate associated regulatory mechanisms. The results revealed that BH46 metabolized indole-3-acetic acid and induced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase to decrease ethylene metabolism. Host peroxidase synthesis MPK3/MPK6 genes were significantly downregulated, whereas eight genes associated with auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and antioxidant enzymes were significantly upregulated. Eight genes associated with flavonoid biosynthesis were significantly upregulated, with the CPY75B1 gene regulating the production of rutin and quercitrin and the HCT gene directly regulating the production of chlorogenic acid. Therefore, BH46 influences metabolic signals in H. cordata to modulate its growth and metabolism, in turn, enhancing yield and quality of H. cordata.


Assuntos
Endófitos , Houttuynia , Proteínas de Plantas , Houttuynia/microbiologia , Houttuynia/metabolismo , Houttuynia/genética , Endófitos/metabolismo , Endófitos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Rhizobium/genética , Rhizobium/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Carbono-Carbono Liases/metabolismo , Carbono-Carbono Liases/genética
19.
Chem Asian J ; 19(11): e202400238, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578057

RESUMO

Photoswitching materials have emerged as a promising class of compounds that possess manifold interesting properties rendering their widespread use from photoswitches, regulators to optoelectronic devices, security technologies and biochemical assays. Diarylethenes (DAE) constitute one such category of photoswitchable compounds, where the key features of stability, photoisomerization wavelengths, quantum yield and variability in the photoisomers significantly depend on their derivatization. The last decade has witnessed a surge in the engagement of DAEs in different areas of chemical and biological sciences, like biomarkers, controlled generation of singlet oxygen, photo-dynamic therapy, chemosensing, catalysis, etc. In all the cases, the photoswitchability of DAE is the principal regulating factor along with its emission properties according to the appended groups. Previous reviews on applications of DAE-based systems did not predominantly cover all the aspects of biological and industrial implementations. They have covered only one field of application either in the biological science or in the synthetic aspect or photochromic aspects only. This review is a coalition of all those aspects in last six years. Here the variation of properties of the DAE systems with respect to structural diversifications have been discussed in detail along with their potential applications in bioimaging of cells, regulating singlet oxygen generation for photodynamic therapy and catalysis of organic reactions, and their future prospects. A tabular presentation of the photophysical properties of DAE derivatives adds to the basic understanding of this subject at a glance. We hope that this cumulative collection of contemporary research on DAE, as presented in this review, will enhance the knowledge of the readers about synthetic design anticipating their properties well in advance, and will certainly motivate researchers to generate new DAE architectures with superior chemical and biological properties in future.


Assuntos
Etilenos , Fotoquimioterapia , Oxigênio Singlete , Oxigênio Singlete/química , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Catálise , Humanos , Etilenos/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Processos Fotoquímicos , Imagem Óptica
20.
Plant Sci ; 344: 112084, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614360

RESUMO

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit. Ethylene has been considered to be an important trigger of fruit ripening process. However, the role of ethylene in the mulberry fruit ripening process remains unclear. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of metabolomic and transcriptomic data of mulberry fruit and the physiological changes accompanying the fruit ripening process. Our study revealed that changes in the accumulation of specific metabolites at different stages of fruit development and ripening were closely correlated to transcriptional changes as well as underlying physiological changes and the development of taste biomolecules. The ripening of mulberry fruits was highly associated with the production of endogenous ethylene, and further application of exogenous ethylene assisted the ripening process. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that differential expression of diverse ripening-related genes was involved in sugar metabolism, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and cell wall modification pathways. Network analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics data revealed that many transcription factors and ripening-related genes were involved, among which ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3 (MaERF3) plays a crucial role in the ripening process. The role of MaERF3 in ripening was experimentally proven in a transient overexpression assay in apples. Our study indicates that ethylene plays a vital role in modulating mulberry fruit ripening. The results provide a basis for guiding the genetic manipulation of mulberry fruits towards sustainable agricultural practices and improve post-harvest management, potentially enhancing the quality and shelf life of mulberry fruits for sustainable agriculture and forestry.


Assuntos
Etilenos , Frutas , Morus , Transcriptoma , Etilenos/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Morus/genética , Morus/metabolismo , Morus/fisiologia , Morus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metabolômica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Metaboloma
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...