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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 94, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308259

RESUMO

Compared to men inmates, women display decreased prevalence of severe mental disorder but increased occurrence of substance use disorders (SUD) and higher rates of previous contacts with mental health services. The group of women in detention is highly heterogeneous according to the status of incarceration (pre-trial detention (PTD), sentence execution (SE) and court ordered treatments (COT)). Studies focusing on the comparison of sociodemographic patterns, detention-related and clinical variables between these groups are still lacking. We explored these parameters in 136 women admitted for acute psychiatric care in the sole Geneva forensic unit during a nine year period (2014-2023). Sociodemographic and detention-related data included age, nationality, marital status, presence of children, education attainment, most frequently speaking language, social support, employment before conviction and type of offenses. Clinical variables included the main ICD-10 diagnosis, presence of concomitant SUD, type of personality disorders, presence of suicidal thoughts and attempts at admission, as well as number and mean duration of stays. PTD and SE women had at least 9 years of formal education in 38.9% and 30.3% of cases. Most women in PTD (77.7%), SE (56.6%) and COT (56.2%) groups were Swiss or European citizens. The level of French knowledge was excellent in most of the cases. 43.8% of COT women had at least one child and this percentage is even higher for PTD and SE cases. The employment rate before conviction was also quite high, mainly for PTD and SE (61.1% and 60.6%) and, in a lesser degree, for COT (43.8%) women. Significant social support was present in the vast majority of women without any significant group difference. The distribution of type of offenses did not differ between the three types of detention with a predominance of physical violence, and drug trafficking. The number of stays during the period of reference was significantly higher in COT compared to both SE and PTD women. History of previous inpatient care was also significantly more frequent in COT that SE and PTD women. Adjustment and affective disorders were more often found in SE and PTD cases, these diagnoses were absent in the COT group. In contrast, a main diagnosis of psychotic disorders was found in 62.5% of COT cases compared to only 21.2% in SE and 24.1% in PTD cases. The number of stays, history of inpatient care and diagnosis of psychosis were independent predictors of COT status. In conclusion, the present data reveal the good social integration and emotional support of women needing acute psychiatric care in prison independently of the type of detention. Clinically, women in PTD and SE display more often emotional distress whereas those in COT suffer from acute psychotic symptoms with previous history of psychiatric care and multiple inpatient stays.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Prisioneiros , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Feminino , Humanos , Etnicidade , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Prisioneiros/psicologia
2.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(2): 2, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300558

RESUMO

Purpose: Diagnosing AMD early optimizes clinical management. However, current diagnostic accuracy is limited by the subjectivity of qualitative diagnostic measures used in clinical practice. This study tests if RPE curvature could be an accurate, quantitative measure for AMD diagnosis. Methods: Consecutive patients without AMD or normal aging changes (n = 111), with normal aging changes (n = 107), early AMD (n = 102) and intermediate AMD (n = 114) were recruited. RPE curvature was calculated based on the sinuosity method of measuring river curvature in environmental science. RPE and Bruch's membrane were manually segmented from optical coherence tomography B-scans and then their lengths automatically extracted using customized MATLAB code. RPE sinuosity was calculated as a ratio of RPE to Bruch's membrane length. Diagnostic accuracy was determined from area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (aROC). Results: RPE sinuosity of foveal B-scans could distinguish any eyes with AMD (early or intermediate) from those without AMD (non-AMD or eyes with normal aging changes) with acceptable diagnostic accuracy (aROC = 0.775). Similarly, RPE sinuosity could identify intermediate AMD from all other groups (aROC = 0.871) and distinguish between early and intermediate AMD (aROC = 0.737). RPE sinuosity was significantly associated with known AMD lesions: reticular pseudodrusen (P < 0.0001) and drusen volume (P < 0.0001), but not physiological variables such as age, sex, and ethnicity. Conclusions: RPE sinuosity is a simple, robust, quantitative biomarker that is amenable to automation and could enhance screening of AMD.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Lâmina Basilar da Corioide , Humanos , Área Sob a Curva , Etnicidade , Fóvea Central , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Transversais
3.
Pediatr Transplant ; 28(1): e14686, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) is an emergency, necessitating prompt referral and management at an experienced liver transplant center. Social determinants of health (SDOH) drive healthcare disparities and can affect many aspects of disease presentation, access to care, and ultimately clinical outcomes. Potential associations between SDOH and PALF outcomes, including spontaneous recovery (SR), liver transplant (LT) or death, are unknown. This study aims to investigate how SDOH may affect PALF and therefore identify areas for intervention to mitigate unrecognized disparities. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center cohort was analyzed and then compared and validated with data from the multicenter National Institutes of Health PALF Study Group. The single-center review included 145 patients admitted with PALF using diagnostic codes. Medical records were reviewed to extract patient demographics, family structure, inpatient social worker assessments, and clinical outcomes. Data were stratified by outcome. RESULTS: This analysis determined that level of family support (p = .02), caretaker employment (p = .02), patient age, race, and language (p = .01) may impact clinical outcomes. Specifically, the cohort of children that died had the largest proportion of non-English speaking patients with limited support systems and parents who worked full-time. Conversely, patients who underwent LT more often belonged to English-speaking families with a homemaker and extensive support systems. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that SDOH impact PALF outcomes and highlights patient populations facing additional challenges during an already complex healthcare emergency. These associations may indicate unconscious biases held by transplant teams when evaluating waitlist candidacy, as well as barriers to healthcare access. Strategies to better understand the broader applicability of our findings and, if confirmed, efforts to mitigate social disparities, may improve clinical outcomes in PALF.


Assuntos
Falência Hepática Aguda , Transplante de Fígado , Criança , Humanos , Etnicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Falência Hepática Aguda/cirurgia , Idioma
4.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 54, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The appropriateness of hypertension thresholds for triggering action to prevent cardiovascular and renal complications among non-White populations in the UK is subject to question. Our objective was to establish ethnicity-specific systolic blood pressure (SBP) cutoffs for ethnic minority populations and assess the efficacy of these ethnicity-specific cutoffs in predicting adverse outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed data from UK Biobank, which included 444,418 participants from White, South Asian, Black Caribbean, and Black African populations with no history of cardiorenal complications. We fitted Poisson regression models with continuous SBP and ethnic groups, using Whites as the referent category, for the composite outcome of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. We determined ethnicity-specific thresholds equivalent to the risks observed in Whites at SBP levels of 120, 130, and 140 mm Hg. We adjusted models for clinical characteristics, sociodemographic factors, and behavioral factors. The performance of ethnicity-specific thresholds for predicting adverse outcomes and associated population-attributable fraction (PAF) was assessed in ethnic minority groups. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 12.5 years (interquartile range, 11.7-13.2), 32,662 (7.4%) participants had incident composite outcomes. At any given SBP, the predicted incidence rate of the composite outcome was the highest for South Asians, followed by White, Black Caribbean, and Black African. For an equivalent risk of outcomes observed in the White population at an SBP level of 140 mm Hg, the SBP threshold was lower for South Asians (123 mm Hg) and higher for Black Caribbean (156 mm Hg) and Black African (165 mm Hg). Furthermore, hypertension defined by ethnicity-specific thresholds was a stronger predictor and resulted in a larger PAF for composite outcomes in South Asians (21.5% [95% CI, 2.4,36.9] vs. 11.3% [95% CI, 2.6,19.1]) and Black Africans (7.1% [95% CI, 0.2,14.0] vs. 5.7 [95% CI, -16.2,23.5]) compared to hypertension defined by guideline-recommended thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: Guideline-recommended blood pressure thresholds may overestimate risks for the Black population and underestimate risks for South Asians. Using ethnicity-specific SBP thresholds may improve risk estimation and optimize hypertension management toward the goal of eliminating ethnic disparities in cardiorenal complications.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Hipertensão , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Pressão Sanguínea , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Grupos Minoritários , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 33(2): 186-195, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study was designed to elucidate the morbidity trends of prostate cancer in low-incidence countries. METHODS: Data on prostate cancer were extracted from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease study. A cluster analysis of growth rates stratified by age was conducted, and correlation analyses were performed between age-standardized incidence rates (ASIR), estimated annual percent change (EAPC), and socio-demographic index (SDI). RESULTS: Among 35 low-incidence countries for prostate cancer, predominantly located in Asia and North Africa, the SDI ranged from low to high-middle levels. Higher SDI regions exhibited considerably higher ASIR. With the exception of Kyrgyzstan, Kiribati, and Samoa that experienced a decrease in ASIR, the remaining 32 countries displayed an upward morbidity trend since 1990, with all their EAPCs exceeding the global average. In addition, men ages 90 years and above consistently exhibited the highest ASIR for prostate cancer. The most notable growth rate of ASIR was observed in individuals ages 20 to 44 years. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, low-incidence countries generally witnessed an increase in prostate cancer morbidity, albeit at levels lower than those seen in Western countries. Individuals ages 90 years and above consistently maintained the highest ASIR since 1990. Notably, more substantial increase of ASIR in younger age was also observed in low-incidence countries. IMPACT: This study offers a comprehensive overview of prostate cancer morbidity in low-incidence countries worldwide from 1990 to 2019. Future research should delve into the associations between incidence, clinical stages, PSA screening, environmental factors, lifestyle, and genetic risk in these low-incidence countries.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Incidência , Morbidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Ásia , Etnicidade , Saúde Global
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(2): e2352927, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324315

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding is needed of racial and ethnic-specific trends in care quality and outcomes associated with the US nationwide quality initiative Target: Stroke (TS) in targeting thrombolysis treatment for acute ischemic stroke. Objective: To examine whether the TS quality initiative was associated with improvement in thrombolysis metrics and outcomes across racial and ethnic groups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included patients who presented within 4.5 hours of ischemic stroke onset at hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke initiative from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2021. The data analysis was performed between December 15, 2022, and November 27, 2023. Exposures: TS phases I (2010-2013), II (2014-2018), and III (2019-2021). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were thrombolysis rates and time metrics. Patient function and mortality were secondary outcomes. Results: Analyses included 1 189 234 patients, of whom 1 053 539 arrived to the hospital within 4.5 hours. The cohort included 50.4% female and 49.6% male patients and 2.8% Asian [median (IQR) age, 72 (61-82) years], 15.2% Black [median (IQR) age, 64 (54-75) years], 7.3% Hispanic [median (IQR) age, 68 (56-79) years], and 74.1% White [median (IQR) age, 75 (63-84) years] patients). Unadjusted thrombolysis rates increased in both the pre-TS (2003-2009) and TS periods in all racial and ethnic groups from 10% to 15% in 2003 to 43% to 46% in 2021, but disparities were observed in adjusted analyses and persisted in TS phase III, with Asian, Black, and Hispanic patients having significantly lower odds of receiving thrombolysis than White patients (adjusted odds ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.81-0.90], 0.76 [95% CI, 0.74-0.78], and 0.86 [95% CI, 0.83-0.89], respectively). Door-to-needle (DTN) times improved in all racial and ethnic groups during TS, with DTN times of 60 minutes or less increasing from 26% to 28% in 2009 to 66% to 72% in 2021. However, in adjusted analyses, racial and ethnic disparities emerged. During TS phase III, compared with White patients, Asian, Black, and Hispanic patients had significantly lower odds of receiving thrombolysis with a DTN time of 60 minutes or less compared with White patients (risk-adjusted odds ratios, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.84-0.98], 0.78 [95% CI, 0.75-0.81], and 0.87 [95% CI, 0.83-0.92], respectively). During TS, clinical outcomes improved for all racial and ethnic groups from pre-TS, with TS phase III showing higher odds of ambulation at discharge among Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White patients. Asian, Black, and Hispanic patients were less likely to present within 4.5 hours. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with ischemic stroke, the TS quality initiative was associated with improvement in thrombolysis frequency, timeliness, and outcomes for all racial and ethnic groups. However, disparities persisted, indicating a need for further interventions.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Terapia Trombolítica , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Coortes , Etnicidade , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos Raciais
7.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1339334, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327580

RESUMO

Introduction: Firearm injury is the leading cause of death in children. This study uses geospatial mapping to illustrate the burden of pediatric firearm injury in Philadelphia and assesses the relationship between Child Opportunity Index (COI) and injury, hypothesizing that lower COI zip codes would have higher injury and mortality rates. Methods: Pediatric firearm injury data for children aged 0-19 years in Philadelphia, from 2015 to February 2023, was visualized by race/ethnicity, fatal versus non-fatal status, and COI for zip code. COI was then dichotomized as "High" or "Low" based on nationally normed scores and used to compare incidence and odds of mortality. Injury incidence rates by COI were calculated using weighted Poisson regression, to adjust for the total number of children in each COI category. Odds of mortality by COI, adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity, were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of 2,339 total pediatric firearm injuries, 366 (16%) were fatal. Males (89%), adolescents (95%) and Black children (88%) were predominately affected. Geospatial mapping showed highest burden in North and West Philadelphia, which corresponded with areas of low COI. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of injury in low COI zip codes was 2.5 times greater than high COI (IRR 2.5 [1.93-3.22]; p < 0.01). After adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, odds of mortality in low COI zip codes was nearly twice that of high COI zip codes (aOR 1.95 [0.77-4.92]), though did not demonstrate statistical significance (p = 0.16). Conclusion: Child opportunity index is associated with pediatric firearm injury in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Adolescente , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Etnicidade , Modelos Logísticos
8.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 89, 2024 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311740

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) face confusion and uncertainty about treatment options. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in decisional conflict about treatment by age and race/ethnicity. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of women (age ≥ 18) diagnosed with DCIS enrolled at Kaiser Permanente of Southern California. The Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) measured personal perceptions of decision uncertainty, values clarity, and effective decision-making. We used a multivariable regression to study whether age, race, and ethnicity were associated with patient-reported DCS. RESULTS: 45% (N = 1395) of women who received the online survey, participated. The mean age was 56 (± 9.6) years, the majority were white. Compared to women younger than 50, women aged 60-69 reported lower overall DCS scores (-5.4; 95% CI -1.5 to -9.3). Women > 70 had lower values clarity scores (-9.0; 95% CI -2.8 to -15.2) about their treatment compared to women aged 50-59 and 60-69 (-7.1; 95% CI -2.9 to -11.3 and - 7.2; 95% CI -2.9 to -11.5) and likewise, lower effective decision-making scores (-5.4; 95% CI -1.7 to -9.2 and - 5.2; 95% CI -1.4 to -9.0) compared to women < 50. Compared to whites, blacks reported lower decision conflict (-4.4; 95% CI 0.04 to -8.8) and lower informed decision (-5.2; 95% CI -0.18 to -10.3) about DCIS treatment. CONCLUSION: Younger women reported higher decisional conflict about DCIS treatment, compared to older women (> 70). Age based tailored discussions about treatment options, health education, and supportive decision-making interventions/tools may reduce decision conflict in future DCIS patients. TRADE REGISTRATION: The IRB number is 10678.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/terapia , Etnicidade , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e50780, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in developing scalable interventions, including internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT), to meet the increasing demand for mental health services. Given the growth in diversity worldwide, it is essential that the clinical trials of iCBT for depression include diverse samples or, at least, report information on the race, ethnicity, or other background indicators of their samples. Unfortunately, the field lacks data on how well diversity is currently reported and represented in the iCBT literature. OBJECTIVE: Thus, the main objective of this systematic review was to examine the overall reporting of racial and ethnic identities in published clinical trials of iCBT for depression. We also aimed to review the representation of specific racial and ethnic minoritized groups and the inclusion of alternative background indicators such as migration status or country of residence. METHODS: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials in which iCBT was compared to a waiting list, care-as-usual, active control, or another iCBT. The included papers also had to have a focus on acute treatment (eg, 4 weeks to 6 months) of depression, be delivered via the internet on a website or a smartphone app and use guided or unguided self-help. Studies were initially identified from the METAPSY database (n=59) and then extended to include papers up to 2022, with papers retrieved from Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane (n=3). Risk of bias assessment suggested that reported studies had at least some risk of bias due to use of self-report outcome measures. RESULTS: A total of 62 iCBT randomized controlled trials representing 17,210 participants are summarized in this study. Out of those 62 papers, only 17 (27%) of the trials reported race, and only 12 (19%) reported ethnicity. Reporting outside of the United States was very poor, with the United States accounting for 15 (88%) out of 17 of studies that reported race and 9 (75%) out of 12 for ethnicity. Out of 3,623 participants whose race was reported in the systematic review, the racial category reported the most was White (n=2716, 74.9%), followed by Asian (n=209, 5.8%) and Black (n=274, 7.6%). Furthermore, only 25 (54%) out of the 46 papers conducted outside of the United States reported other background demographics. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to note that the underreporting observed in this study does not necessarily indicate an underrepresentation in the actual study population. However, these findings highlight the poor reporting of race and ethnicity in iCBT trials for depression found in the literature. This lack of diversity reporting may have significant implications for the scalability of these interventions.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão , Etnicidade , Grupos Raciais , Humanos , Cultura , Depressão/terapia , Internet , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297579, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315664

RESUMO

Cervical cancer, primarily caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) transmission through sexual contact, necessitates comprehensive strategies to combat its impact on women's health. Yet, certain underserved populations, such as low socioeconomic and ethnic minority groups, encounter barriers in accessing timely interventions and early diagnosis. This cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim of assessing HPV prevalence, genotype distribution, and co-infections among 280 adult women residing in a Colombian Indigenous Reserve within the Amazon region. The research adhered to a community-centric approach that respected cultural norms, native languages, and Indigenous authorities' permission. The study revealed an overall HPV infection prevalence of 31.1% (n = 87, 95% CI 25.7-36.8), with 22.5% (n = 63, 95% CI 17.7-27.8) of women infected by at least one high-risk HPV genotype and 15.0% (n = 42, 95% CI 11-19.7) infected by at least one LR genotype. These results align with the findings of other Colombian studies. Notable high-frequency genotypes included 16, 52, 66, 56, and 68, with the most common combinations being [66-52] and [66-58]. The study also assessed the prevalence of HPV vaccination, revealing a rate of 22.9%, lower than the national average. In vaccinated women, the prevalence of genotypes 16 and 18 was significantly reduced, as anticipated. Importantly, it was observed that 57.1% of all high-risk HPV infections could have been prevented with the use of the nonavalent vaccine. These findings underscore the critical need to enhance adherence to early cervical cancer detection and monitor positive cases to evaluate high-risk HPV persistence. Efforts should be directed toward continuing vaccination coverage against high-risk HPV 16 and 18 with the quadrivalent vaccine, while also striving to make the nonavalent vaccine accessible for inclusion in large-scale public health programs. Additionally, the study did not identify a specific pattern of co-infection. The study emphasizes the significance of adopting a locally tailored epidemiological approach to guide and promote cervical cancer prevention efforts in Indigenous communities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal , Estudos Transversais , Etnicidade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Grupos Minoritários , Genótipo , Vacinação , Vacinas Combinadas , Papillomaviridae/genética
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(8): e2307656121, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315821

RESUMO

Despite the significant scientific advancement in deciphering the "deaths of despair" narrative, most relevant studies have focused on drug-, alcohol-, and suicide-related (DAS) deaths. This study directly investigated despair as a determinant of death and the temporal variation and racial heterogeneity among individuals. We used psychological distress (PD) as a proxy for despair and drew data from the US National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files 1997 to 2014, CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Multiple Cause of Death database 1997 to 2014, CDC bridged-race population files 1997 to 2014, Current Population Survey 1997 to 1999, and the American Community Survey 2000 to 2014. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate mortality hazard ratios of PD and compared age-standardized PD- and DAS-related mortality rates by race/ethnicity and over time. We found that while Whites had a lower prevalence of PD than Blacks and Hispanics throughout the whole period, they underwent distinctive increases in PD-related death and have had a higher PD-related mortality rate than Blacks and Hispanics since the early 2000s. This was predominantly due to Whites' relatively high and increasing vulnerability to PD less the prevalence of PD. Furthermore, PD induced a more pervasive mortality consequence than DAS combined for Whites and Blacks. In addition, PD- and DAS-related deaths displayed a concordant trend among Whites but divergent patterns for Blacks and Hispanics. These findings suggest that 1) DAS-related deaths underestimated the mortality consequence of despair for Whites and Blacks but overestimated it for Hispanics; and 2) despair partially contributed to the DAS trend among Whites but probably not for Blacks and Hispanics.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Registros , Narração , Brancos
14.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(2): 172-180, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315921

RESUMO

This article examines racial and ethnic disparities in the relationship between gentrification and exposure to contextual determinants of health. In our study, we focused on changes in selected contextual determinants of health (health care access, social deprivation, air pollution, and walkability) and life expectancy during the period 2006-21 among residents of gentrifying census tracts in six large US cities that have experienced different gentrification patterns and have different levels of segregation: Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles, California; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; San Francisco, California; and Seattle, Washington. We found that gentrification was associated with overall improvements in the likelihood of living in Medically Underserved Areas across racial and ethnic groups, but it was also associated with increased social deprivation and reduced life expectancy among Black people, Hispanic people, and people of another or undetermined race or ethnicity. In contrast, we found that gentrification was related to better (or unchanged) contextual determinants of health for Asian people and White people. Our findings can inform policies that target communities identified to be particularly at risk for worsening contextual determinants of health as a result of gentrification.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Segregação Residencial , Humanos , Hispânico ou Latino , Philadelphia , Brancos
15.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1682024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319298

RESUMO

Elder abuse is a worldwide problem with serious consequences for individuals and society. The recognition of elder abuse is complex due to a lack of awareness and knowledge. We present a case of a patient with signs of elder abuse. This case concerns a patient who showed signs of neglect and physical abuse as a result of possible derailed informal care provision. The mandatory reporting code on domestic violence of The Royal Dutch Medical Association was followed and measures were taken by the general practitioner. In the discussion, information on signs and types of elder abuse were provided, together with the description of risk factors.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Clínicos Gerais , Idoso , Humanos , Abuso de Idosos/diagnóstico , Etnicidade , Fatores de Risco
16.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1682024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319311

RESUMO

It regularly occurs that a physicians is abused by a patient. For physicians this may be a reason to consider to end the relationship with such patients, particularly if patients become violent. But is this permitted? The Dutch law and professional standards restrict physicians from doing so, unless there are 'serious reasons' to do so and only after having investigated all possibilities to restore the treatment relationship, including a discussion with the patient. We argue that these restrictions are too strict. Physicians should be able the end the relationship with patients that fail to respect the physical or mental integrity of physicians or their colleagues.


Assuntos
Pacientes , Médicos , Humanos , Etnicidade , Responsabilidade Legal , Exame Físico
17.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1682024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319312

RESUMO

Due to the rising demand for transgender healthcare, almost every general practitioner (GP) encounters this issue. GPs role in Dutch transgender healthcare often revolves around referring patients to specialized care. However, this field faces challenges, including extended waiting times. Not all patients require referral; some can be supported by their GP. Referral need not always be to a gender clinic; other options exist. This highlights the importance of understanding individual needs to deliver personalized care, which goes beyond the need for specialized treatments like hormonal or surgical interventions. In this collaborative article with Transvisie, the Dutch patient organization for and by transgender and gender-diverse individuals, we present an overview to assist GPs in guiding these patients. Our focus is on addressing their diverse healthcare needs through primary care and providing a comprehensive list of resources for GPs.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Pessoas Transgênero , Humanos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Etnicidade , Atenção Primária à Saúde
18.
N Z Med J ; 137(1589): 20-38, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301198

RESUMO

AIMS: Little is known about the exposure of young people in Aotearoa New Zealand to marketing of vape products on social media. This study investigated vaping behaviour and the extent of vape marketing exposure and engagement that young people (14-20 years) report on social media and examined differences across socio-demographic groups. METHODS: An online survey was conducted with 3,698 participants aged between 14-20 years (M=17.1; SD=1.8). A range of genders (55.7% females, 38.3% males and 6% another gender), ethnicities (25.6% Maori, 46.7% Pakeha or NZ European, 6.5% Pasifika and 21.2% another ethnicity) and social classes took part. RESULTS: Half (50.8%; n=1,110) of the respondents (N=2,185) reported that they had vaped at least once; vaping history was positively related to exposure to and engagement with digital vape marketing. Half (50.3%; n=1,119) of the respondents (N=2,224) reported seeing vape marketing on at least one social media platform. Binary logistic regressions showed that younger respondents were more likely to report seeing vape marketing than older respondents, and Maori and Pasifika more likely than other ethnicities. Over a quarter (26%; n=563) of respondents (N=2,148) reported engaging with vape marketing online, with Maori and Pasifika respondents more likely to engage than other ethnicity groups, and similarly for respondents of lower compared to higher socio-economic status. No interaction effects were found. CONCLUSIONS: Many young people, including a subset under the legal age for purchase, reported seeing vape product marketing on social media platforms. Patterns of exposure to vape product marketing on social media mirror the inequitable marketing exposure of harmful commodities in physical environments. Improved transparency and regulation of social media marketing is required.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Marketing , Vaping , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Etnicidade , Nova Zelândia
19.
BMJ Ment Health ; 27(1)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with psychosis often spend less time than others engaged in exercise and more time sitting down, which likely contributes to poorer physical and mental health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive framework from the perspective of patients, carers, and staff for understanding what promotes movement and physical activity. METHODS: A critical realist approach was taken to design the study. Interviews (n=23) and focus groups (n=12) were conducted with (1) outpatients aged 16 years or older diagnosed with psychosis, and under the care of a mental health team, (2) carers and (3) mental health staff working in the community. Purposive sampling was used to maximise variation in participant characteristics. Data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. FINDINGS: 19 patients (9 women and 10 men, mean age=45·0 (SD=12·2) years, 15 White British, 2 Black African, 1 Pakistani and 1 other ethnic group), 14 carers (11 women and 3 men, mean age=59·9 (SD=12·7) years, 13 White British and 1 Asian) and 18 staff (14 women and 4 men, mean age=38·7 (SD=12·3) years, 15 White British, 1 White other, 1 Asian Bangladeshi and 1 other Asian) participated in the study. Five factors were found to promote movement and physical activity. Patients must be able to find a purpose to moving which is meaningful to them (Factor 1: Purpose). Patients need to have an expectation of the positive consequences of movement and physical activity, which can be influenced by others' expectations (Factor 2: Predictions). A patient's current physical (eg, pain) and emotional state (eg, distress about voices) needs to be addressed to allow movement and physical activity (Factor 3: Present state). Movement and physical activity can also be encouraged by the availability of effective and tailored support, provided by engaged and supported people (Factor 4: Provision). Finally, through the identification and interruption of vicious cycles (eg, between inactivity and mood states) more positive cycles can be put in place (Factor 5: Process). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The 5 P (Purpose, Predictions, Present state, Provision and Process Physical Activity Framework) for understanding movement and physical activity for people diagnosed with psychosis has the potential to inform future research and guide interventions. A checklist is provided for clinicians to help foster change in activity levels.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Etnicidade , Saúde Mental , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Idoso
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